Conference Paper

Ontology for Logistics Requirements on a 4D BIM for Semi-Automatic Storage Space Planning

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... Even if plant components can be visualized on the construction site with the aid of mobile devices, there is currently no IT-supported assistance for compliance with a previously created assembly sequence. Certain information for the exact planning of the construction sequence is already available on the basis of the digital model or can be supplemented by categorizations based on our previous work [2]. However, the existing information is not sufficient for an assembly sequence and has to be systematically supplemented and properly linked. ...
... As part of our research, we have already developed an approach for linking BIM with logistics information, especially for large-scale plant construction. We created the method of classifying required logistics information for each element and storing it in form of an OWLformatted ontology (OWL: Web Ontology Language) [2]. A created ontology represents a knowledge model with information for planning and controlling logistical processes on the construction site. ...
... After completion, this model is exported in IFC format and finally imported into DESITE MD. Using the software we developed, the elements of the model are then divided into categories of the ontology according to the methodology [2]. This is achieved using the implemented procedure, which matches elements by their names using regular expressions and automatically categorizes them. ...
... At the moment, in the absence of ubiquitous digitalization and the application of conservative methods of cost management, the need for information modeling over the lifecycle of an object is not so tangible in terms of competition, but in the future, with the emergence of modern digital cost management mechanisms, the introduction of technologies such as BIM and DT will be one of the key competitive advantages [73]. Nevertheless, at the moment, an as-designed BIM model that does not meet the requirements of a digital twin should be used in some real estate management tasks at the operational stage, such as for example space planning, provided that these tasks do not need an adequate display of physical objects and processes in numbers [74,75]. The need to use information modeling over the lifecycle of an object so far is not so tangible from the point of view of competition, but in the future, with the advent of modern digital cost management mechanisms, the introduction of technologies such as BIM and DT will be one of the key competitive advantages [73]. ...
... The need to use information modeling over the lifecycle of an object so far is not so tangible from the point of view of competition, but in the future, with the advent of modern digital cost management mechanisms, the introduction of technologies such as BIM and DT will be one of the key competitive advantages [73]. Nevertheless, at the moment, an as-designed BIM model that does not meet the requirements of a digital twin can be used in some real estate management tasks at the operational stage, such as for example space planning, in case these tasks do not need an adequate display of physical objects and processes in digital way [74,75]. ...
... At the moment, in the absence of ubiquitous digitalization and the application of conservative methods of cost management, the need for information modeling over the lifecycle of an object is not so tangible in terms of competition, but in the future, with the emergence of modern digital cost management mechanisms, the introduction of technologies such as BIM and DT will be one of the key competitive advantages [73]. Nevertheless, at the moment, an as-designed BIM model that does not meet the requirements of a digital twin should be used in some real estate management tasks at the operational stage, such as for example space planning, provided that these tasks do not need an adequate display of physical objects and processes in numbers [74,75]. The need to use information modeling over the lifecycle of an object so far is not so tangible from the point of view of competition, but in the future, with the advent of modern digital cost management mechanisms, the introduction of technologies such as BIM and DT will be one of the key competitive advantages [73]. ...
... The need to use information modeling over the lifecycle of an object so far is not so tangible from the point of view of competition, but in the future, with the advent of modern digital cost management mechanisms, the introduction of technologies such as BIM and DT will be one of the key competitive advantages [73]. Nevertheless, at the moment, an as-designed BIM model that does not meet the requirements of a digital twin can be used in some real estate management tasks at the operational stage, such as for example space planning, in case these tasks do not need an adequate display of physical objects and processes in digital way [74,75]. ...
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With the development of information technologies for industrial plants, more and more tools for digital design, creation and operation of industrial facilities are emerged. In particular, significant success in development of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Digital Twin technologies (DT) should be noted, which act as tools for digital transformation and representation for construction and production technologies respectively. In this regard, in this article, the principles and methods of integrating BIM and DT technologies within the framework of the so-called "Factories of the Future" (FoF) are formulated. Wherein the physical twin of FoF includes both production technologies and production infrastructure with buildings, structures and systems included in it, while particular attention is given to Operation and Maintenances (O&M) stage of object lifecycle which is less developed in comparison with design and creation stages. In addition, this paper also considers the role of systems information modeling (SIM) in such objects. Moreover, the concept of "digital asset", closely related to the FoF, is examined and semantically analyzed, especially from information ownership point of view. The features of convergence of BIM and DT technologies are analyzed, and the levels of development of these technologies are compared. Finally, the directions of further research in this interdisciplinary branch of researches and development are formulated.
... d management object.Hamledari et al. (2017) developed a method for automated schedule and progress updating of IFCbased 4D simulation. They considered the IFC data format for the automated updating of standardized 4D simulation. Their classification included schedule hierarchy, updates data such as tasks durations and finish dates, and color codes.Weber et al. (2019) provided an ontology for logistics requirements in 4D simulation for semi-automatic storage space planning. Their ontology ...
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Thesis
4D simulation is commonly used in building construction projects as part of Building Information Modeling (BIM) processes. 4D simulation is generated by linking a project 3D model with the Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) schedule. The PDM is an accepted standard in the construction industry and a recognized method in courts in case of delay claims. A construction project progresses through different phases. At each of these phases, the project schedules and 3D models have various levels of development (LOD’s) ranging from summarized to detailed models. The quality and purpose of 4D simulation is dependent on these LOD’s and they impact the development of 4D simulation. The 4D simulation can consider multiple LOD’s to grasp essential concerns of a rehabilitation plan. Distinctively, 4D simulation is becoming more prevalent in the construction industry to, among other benefits, decrease productivity losses and delay claims. It can further be used to help prevent the numerous and severe accidents of the construction industry with the consideration of nine dominant critical risks that have been identified in the construction phase for the hydroelectric industry. In delay claims, it can be used for the visualization of the critical path to identify the cause-effect relationships and the responsible entity in the context of claims avoidance or claims resolution. However, 4D simulation is still not frequently used in courtrooms because it is considered costly, complex and risky. The experience in litigation systems reveals that many expert witnesses at present are not familiar with 4D simulation and are reserved about using technology. Visualizing and analyzing the specifics of delay claims in relation to effects-causes, and assigning responsibility are a challenge for attorneys, jurists and judges. 4D simulation can be considered as a part of a claim management system for representing the responsibility and impact, and can be used as the main scheduling method of claims resolution. Building Information Modeling (BIM), 4D simulation, delay effects and causes (DEC), and claims are knowledge domains with active research in the construction industry, which are individually described in the literature using taxonomies and ontologies. However, there is a gap in integrating these ontologies in a more formal and overarching ontology-based approach to grasp essential concepts such as liability, causality and quantum in a delay claim using 4D simulation. 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In delay claims, conventional methods, tools and 4D simulation concepts were used, (5) to develop a 4D simulation technique to minimize potential accidents at different phases of a project considering different 4D levels of development (4D-LOD). This thesis proposes a new method for using 4D simulation for visual analytics of delay claims based on an integrated ontology (called Claim4D-Onto), which includes a taxonomy of the quantum, causality, and assigned responsibility. This method can provide a promising multidisciplinary tool for quicker and fair settlement of construction delay claims by facilitating hearing procedures and catalyzing pre-trial negotiations. Several case studies are used in this thesis to demonstrate how the proposed guideline and 4D simulation method can provide a handy reference for the project personnel and helps reducing the project cost. 4D simulation has evolved to be a reliable method for delay claim analysis. The case study presented considered the appropriate Level of Development (LOD) for claims: summary for the full scope and detailed for event specific information. One of these case studies was presented to seven lawyers. A survey extended with semi-structured interviews was sent to 14 additional external construction litigation lawyers. The results show the advantages and conditions of using 4D simulation for different contractual dispute resolution situations considered in construction claims for avoidance, resolution and litigation. The 4D simulation is developed based on Building Information Modelling (BIM) that can be binding or non-binding. In the latter case, it can be developed to strengthen the position of one party’s argument and visualize multiple scenarios (as-built, as-planned, claim events). Other results considering the rules of law show a list of influence factors with 4D simulation in delay claims, types of evidence and limitations, such as suitable formats and courts for 4D simulations. Further, 4D simulation is used to visualize construction operations at low and then high 4D-LOD. As a predictive tool, 4D simulation scenarios can be evaluated in relation to the number of risky activities considering their periods and zones, which can be prioritized and visualized. A case study is used to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method for using 4D simulation for visual analytics of delay claims based on Claim4D-Onto. Case studies are presented to support the method involving subprojects of powerhouses.
... Their classification included schedule hierarchy, update data such as task durations and finish dates, and color codes. Weber et al. (2019) provided an ontology for logistics requirements in 4D simulation for semiautomatic storage space planning. Their ontology can provide semiautomated calculations for storage space allocation considering transport equipment and the impact on the assembly process. ...
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Visualizing and analyzing the specifics of delay claims in relation to effects and causes and assigning responsibility are a challenge for attorneys, jurists, and judges. Four-dimensional (4D) simulation can be considered as a part of a claim management system for representing the responsibility and impact, and can be used as the main scheduling method of claims resolution. Building information modeling (BIM), 4D simulation, delay effects and causes (DEC), and claims are knowledge domains with active research in the construction industry, which are individually described in the literature using taxonomies and ontologies. However, there is a gap in integrating these ontologies in a more formal and overarching ontology-based approach to grasp essential concepts such as liability, causality, and quantum in a delay claim using 4D simulation. This article proposes a new method for using 4D simulation for visual analytics of delay claims based on an integrated ontology (called Claim4D-Onto), which includes a taxonomy of the quantum, causality, and assigned responsibility. A case study is used to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method. This method can provide a promising multidisciplinary tool for quicker and fair settlement of construction delay claims by facilitating hearing procedures and catalyzing pretrial negotiations.
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Xiong W., Yang J., Wang Z., Hu H., Xu F. and Zhang J. Improving Supply Chain Communications for Off-Site Construction Using Process Specification Language. In Proceedings of the 35th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC), Taipei, Taiwan, 2018.
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Stanford. The Protégé Ontology Editor and Knowledge Acquisition System. Online: http://protege.stanford.edu/index.html, Accessed: 04/01/2019.