Conference Paper

BHMUS: Blockchain Based Secure Outdoor Health Monitoring Scheme Using UAV in Smart City

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Abstract

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an emerging technology that becomes popular not only in military operation but also in civil applications. Internet of things (IoT) is another popular technology which brings automation in our daily life. Like other areas, IoT also exposes its potential in healthcare. Using IoT sensors, it becomes easy to monitor the health of a user remotely. UAV consolidated with mobile edge computing (MEC) can provide real-time services in outdoor health monitoring. However, communication among them surrounds with cyber threats and data integrity issue. Blockchain is a data structure in which data are shared among peers. In this paper, a blockchain based secure outdoor health monitoring scheme using UAV is proposed for a smart city. In the proposed scheme, health data (HD) are accumulated from users wearable sensors and these HD are transmitted to the nearest MEC server via UAV. Prior to transmitting to MEC, HD experience encryption in order to provide protection against cyber threats. Moreover, after arriving at MEC, HD are diagnosed and if any abnormalities are found in the user’s health, MEC server notifies the user and the nearest hospitals. When the processing is completed, HD are stored in blockchain with the consent of validators. Finally, simulation results and experimental set up are discussed in order to manifest the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

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... The communication between MEC and UAVs can face some sort of security as well as data integrity issues. So, Islam et al. [87] proposed a BCbased secure real-time outdoor health monitoring. The users in the network can have wearable sensors with them which are connected to UAVs. ...
... Similarly, Islam et al. [88] proposed the same idea as [87] of implementing the UAV with MEC. Although the idea is the same, the way of implementation is quite different. ...
... If the hospital is nearby to the car it can alert the hospital and can drive the person to the hospital itself. The implementation of 5G is required here to establish low latency Fig. 9 Structure of healthcare model and data collection [87] Cluster Computing communication because even a slight delay can risk a person's life. Their system cannot just make human life more secure yet in addition is a key to deal with significant health emergency issues. ...
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... A blockchain with a healthiness monitoring system (BHMUS) presented by Islam et al. in [130], in which data of health (HD) gathered from patients' wearable sensors by the assist of a UAV. Before transmitting HD, a patient encodes HD using UAVs public-key. ...
... MEC decodes and identifies HD for discovering irregularities in that patient's body conditions. If the servers of MEC discover any problem in HD, then it transmits a notice to the patient and nearest hospital for the crisis [130]. At last, the authors are finishing the analysis, server of MEC records HD in the blockchain. ...
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... Authors of [109] suggested to blockchain as a solution for resolving security issues existing among UAV and MEC server. This is the first attempt when outdoor health monitoring system is proposed using blockchain. ...
... Authors of [109] suggested to blockchain as a solution for resolving security issues existing among UAV and MEC server. This is the first attempt when outdoor health monitoring system is proposed using blockchain. ...
... According to Fig. 1, when a participant intends to add a block to the chain, the peer nodes are responsible for validating the block. After the verification, if the majority agrees to add the block, then the block is added to the blockchain [7]. If the majority denies, then block is discarded. ...
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... It has also been proposed for conducting secure and distributed auctioning to address the economic challenges of resource allocation in both heterogeneous and co-operative wireless networks [50], [21]. Moreover, blockchain has been applied for the security of UAV assisted health monitoring in [51]. However, none of these works have considered selection criterion of UAV operator and the monitoring process of its 2 VOLUME *, 20** service provisioning. ...
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... More interesting, blockchain has been considered and incorporated with cloud/edge computing for enabling emerging UAV-based applications. The authors in [282], [283] analyse a blockchain-enabled secure data acquisition scheme for UAV swarm networks in which data are collected from IoT devices employing UAV swarms. Each of the UAVs maintains its own shared key to expedite communication with IoT devices when implementing the security mechanism (i.e., sign, verify, encrypt, and decrypt). ...
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... This would fix many security vulnerabilities. Islam and Shin [37] revealed that the UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is an evolving technology that is not only common in the military but also civil applications. Another common technology, the internet of things (IoT), brings automation to everyday lives. ...
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... VAHAK also ensures the trust between all stakeholders via the immutability and transparency of records. Ethereum SCs are self-executable, self-verifiable, self-enforceable, and self-validated the transactions between system entities [20]. In VAHAK, some important information, such as timestamp, location, delivery status, and package transported, is stored into the BC and make it visible to all peers [21]. ...
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... UAVs get popularity for its diverse functionalities like easy to deploy, low-cost maintenance, easy to replace, etc. [2]. UAVs also very beneficial for missions where deploying human resource is not possible [3]. Moreover, UAV brought a new dimension in the search and rescue (SAR) missions [4]. ...
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... More interesting, blockchain has been considered and incorporated with cloud/edge computing for enabling emerging UAV-based applications. The authors in [282], [283] analyse a blockchain-enabled secure data acquisition scheme for UAV swarm networks in which data are collected from IoT devices employing UAV swarms. Each of the UAVs maintains its own shared key in order to expedite communication with IoT devices when performing the security mechanism (i.e., sign, verify, encrypt, and decrypt). ...
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... Later, it was exposed to civil applications [8]. The major advantages of UAV are easy to deploy, low maintenance cost, and move to any place [9]. UAV has contributed in a lot of areas like product delivery, search and rescue, border surveillance, etc. [10]. ...
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... According to Fig. 1, when a participant intends to add a block to the chain, the peer nodes are responsible for validating the block. After the verification, if the majority agrees to add the block, then the block is added to the blockchain [7]. If the majority denies, then block is discarded. ...
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or Drones technology has a huge potential for supporting different efficient solutions for the smart applications in our world. The applications include smart things, smart transportation, smart cities, smart healthcare, smart personal care, smart house, smart industries, and so on. Due to the sensitive applications of UAVs, the security has become a major concern, and therefore, efficient techniques are required to protect captured data from hackers and the fictitious activities from illegitimate users. Machine learning (ML) techniques play a vital role in improving UAVs' security intelligently, while blockchain is recent technology for decentralized UAVs and security. Furthermore, watermarking guarantees digital media to be authenticated, protected, and copyright. Therefore, we provide a comprehensive survey of optimal techniques, which are used for securing UAVs applications in terms of blockchain, ML, and watermarking. Furthermore, we introduce each technique with the advantages and suitably used for securing UAVs collaboration applications. This survey contributes to a better understanding of the blockchain, ML, and watermarking techniques for securing UAVs and sheds new light on challenges and opportunities on subject applications.
Chapter
Blockchain technology has received significant popularity, with a growing interest in various domains, including data processing, financial services, information security, and IoT to the healthcare and medical research industries. There has also been a tremendous trend in using blockchain technologies to provide efficient data protection in health care. However, through secure and efficient data storage, blockchain turns traditional healthcare approaches into a more robust means of effective treatment and cure. In this chapter, we examine both current and latest innovations in the healthcare sector through the application of blockchain as a platform. We propose a secure distributed application called Healthify, a wide-range healthcare data protection approach focused on distributed ledger technology where medical data is encoded to provide a safer environment. The objective of this approach is to provide a practical application that offers a permanent database and offers simple accessibility to the gadgets. The application’s basis is specified by the smart contract, which provides rules and regulations for the users. Also, the architecture of the distributed application promotes the delivery of secure healthcare services within the medical system.
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is used to improve traditional healthcare systems in different aspects, including monitoring patients’ behaviors. Information gathered by sensors in the IoT plays an essential role in healthcare systems. Because of privacy and security issues, the data must be protected against unauthorized changes. On the other hand, Blockchain technology provides a wide range of mechanisms to protect data against changes. Therefore, IoT-based healthcare monitoring using Blockchain constitutes an exciting technological innovation, which may help mitigate security and privacy concerns related to the gathering of information during patient monitoring. In this chapter, the potential applications of IoT–Blockchain systems are studied, and then monitoring mechanisms in healthcare systems are analyzed. To this end, a novel architecture based on recently reported solutions is proposed. The proposed architecture, with the aid of computational power obtained from the IoT, Blockchain, and artificial intelligence, can be used in a wide range of solutions aimed at managing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In order to show the potential of the proposed architecture, three case studies are presented. At the end of this chapter, other applications of the proposed architecture are summarized, which can be used in pandemic situations.
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Controlling greenhouse effect especially reducing carbon-di-oxide (CO2) gas emission rate is one of the biggest difficulties of the 21st Century. This paper comprehensively described the issues regarding the greenhouse effect and possible controlling mechanism of the Green House Effect to save the world. As excessive CO2 gas emission in the atmosphere is the main reason for the Green House Effect (GHE), a simple and secure system can restrain the CO2 gas emission rate in the Universe. Blockchain Technology is introduced to protect the data from third-party alteration and to make the system more robust against the threats (i.e., cyber threats and data integrity). This paper endeavors to introduce a new dimension of research about controlling the GHE by collecting data with sensors and transmit these data to the blockchain with the assistance of the internet of things.
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Chapter
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Book
This book discusses applications of blockchain in healthcare sector. The security of confidential and sensitive data is of utmost importance in healthcare industry. The introduction of blockchain methods in an effective manner will bring secure transactions in a peer-to-peer network. The book also covers gaps of the current available books/literature available for use cases of Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) in healthcare. The information and applications discussed in the book are immensely helpful for researchers, database professionals, and practitioners. The book also discusses protocols, standards, and government regulations which are very useful for policymakers.
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is poised to transform human life and unleash enormous economic benefit. However, inadequate data security and trust of current IoT are seriously limiting its adoption. Blockchain, a distributed and tamper-resistant ledger, maintains consistent records of data at different locations, and has the potential to address the data security concern in IoT networks. While providing data security to the IoT, Blockchain also encounters a number of critical challenges inherent in the IoT, such as a huge number of IoT devices, non-homogeneous network structure, limited computing power, low communication bandwidth, and error-prone radio links. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on existing Blockchain technologies with an emphasis on the IoT applications. The Blockchain technologies which can potentially address the critical challenges arising from the IoT and hence suit the IoT applications are identified with potential adaptations and enhancements elaborated on the Blockchain consensus protocols and data structures. Future research directions are collated for effective integration of Blockchain into the IoT networks.
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In this paper we proposed a UAV-based wireless network for bridging communication between nodes on the ground. The proposed method provides on the fly communication facilities in order to connect two machines through a wireless access point mounted on a UAV through IEEE 802.11n. We conducted our experiments in an outdoor environment to investigate the performance of 802.11n at both 2.4 and 5 GHz band. Our evaluations showed that 802.11n at 5 GHz performs slightly better than 802.11n at 2.4 GHz with respect to data rate. We also concluded that 802.11n at both 2.4 and 5 GHz are practicable in rescue operations and disaster management scenarios.
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Internet of Things (IoT) offers a seamless platform to connect people and objects to one another for enriching and making our lives easier. This vision carries us from compute-based centralized schemes to a more distributed environment offering a vast amount of applications such as smart wearables, smart home, smart mobility, and smart cities. In this paper we discuss applicability of IoT in healthcare and medicine by presenting a holistic architecture of IoT eHealth ecosystem. Healthcare is becoming increasingly difficult to manage due to insufficient and less effective healthcare services to meet the increasing demands of rising aging population with chronic diseases. We propose that this requires a transition from the clinic-centric treatment to patient-centric healthcare where each agent such as hospital, patient, and services are seamlessly connected to each other. This patient-centric IoT eHealth ecosystem needs a multi-layer architecture: (1) device, (2) fog computing and (3) cloud to empower handling of complex data in terms of its variety, speed, and latency. This fog-driven IoT architecture is followed by various case examples of services and applications that are implemented on those layers. Those examples range from mobile health, assisted living, e-medicine, implants, early warning systems, to population monitoring in smart cities. We then finally address the challenges of IoT eHealth such as data management, scalability, regulations, interoperability, device-network-human interfaces, security, and privacy.
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The current paper presents an outdoor monitoring system for elderly people, which can transmit information on physiological signals and falling events to a healthcare center at any time and from any place. To detect simultaneously the occurrence of any falling event, as well as the relative electrocardiogram (ECG) signal of the user, a multi-thread method is proposed with the objective of enhancing the response time and the accuracy of detection. A healthcare box is used to determine the relative position of the patient through a global positioning system for fall detection; moreover, an ECG signal acquisition thread is adopted to increase the precision of the fall detection system. Integrating a precise map into the monitoring system facilitates understanding of a client user of the correct location and surrounding environment using the portable display. According to experimental results based on 4,000 samples, successful detection time with the multi-thread method was reduced by 38%, thereby increasing rescue opportunities for elderly patients who are at risk1.
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have enormous potential in the public and civil domains. These are particularly useful in applications where human lives would otherwise be endangered. Multi-UAV systems can collaboratively complete missions more efficiently and economically as compared to single UAV systems. However, there are many issues to be resolved before effective use of UAVs can be made to provide stable and reliable context-specific networks. Much of the work carried out in the areas of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), and Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) does not address the unique characteristics of the UAV networks. UAV networks may vary from slow dynamic to dynamic; have intermittent links and fluid topology. While it is believed that ad hoc mesh network would be most suitable for UAV networks yet the architecture of multi-UAV networks has been an understudied area. Software Defined Networking (SDN) could facilitate flexible deployment and management of new services and help reduce cost, increase security and availability in networks. Routing demands of UAV networks go beyond the needs of MANETS and VANETS. Protocols are required that would adapt to high mobility, dynamic topology, intermittent links, power constraints and changing link quality. UAVs may fail and the network may get partitioned making delay and disruption tolerance an important design consideration. Limited life of the node and dynamicity of the network leads to the requirement of seamless handovers where researchers are looking at the work done in the areas of MANETs and VANETs, but the jury is still out. As energy supply on UAVs is limited, protocols in various layers should contribute towards greening of the network. This article surveys the work done towards all of these outstanding issues, relating to this new class of networks, so as to spur further research in these areas.
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In order to stay up to date with world issues and cutting-edge technologies, the newspaper plays a crucial role. However, collecting news is not a very easy task. Currently, news publishers are collecting news from their correspondents through social networks, email, phone call, fax etc. and sometimes they buy news from the agencies. However, the existing news sharing networks may not provide security for data integrity and any third party may obstruct the regular flow of news sharing. Moreover, the existing news schemes are very vulnerable in case of disclosing the identity. Therefore, a universal platform is needed in the era of globalization where anyone can share and trade news from anywhere in the world securely, without the interference of third-party, and without disclosing the identity of an individual. Recently, blockchain has gained popularity because of its security mechanism over data, identity, etc. Blockchain enables a distributed way of managing transactions where each participant of the network holds the same copy of the transactions. Therefore, with the help of pseudonymity, fault-tolerance, immutability and the distributed structure of blockchain, a scheme (termed as NEWSTRADCOIN) is presented in this paper in which not only news can be shared securely but also anyone can earn money by selling news. The proposed NEWSTRADCOIN can provide a universal platform where publishers can directly obtain news from news-gatherers in a secure way by maintaining data integrity, without experiencing the interference of a third-party, and without disclosing the identity of the news gatherer and publishers.
Chapter
The blockchain has had to grow up rather quickly as financial firms, consultants, healthcare providers, and others have all sought ways to implement the technology into their stack. However, for many, the blockchain is still a nebulous concept. And even if they understand the "what", understanding why it should be used and what problems it can solve remains unclear.This chapter answers these questions and more. What is a blockchain? How does it work? How does a blockchain handle trust in a distributed fashion? And when should a blockchain actually be used for a project?Ultimately, there are nine factors that comprise a blockchain that include: shifting trust from a middleman to the system; cryptography & public-key infrastructure; an immutable nature so the ledger can be completely trusted; and decentralization, so even if one node goes down, the data remains secure.Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize many industries and use cases, and we've only touched on the tip of this iceberg. The information in this chapter will provide the necessary introduction to guide you on your path to using the blockchain.
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Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) with successive interference cancellation receiver is considered as one of the most potent multiple access techniques to be adopted in future wireless communication networks. Data security in the NOMA transmission scheme is on much attention drawing issue. Blockchain is a distributed peer-to-peer network enables a way of protecting information from unauthorized access, tempering etc. By utilizing encryption techniques of blockchain, a secured data communication scheme using blockchain in NOMA is proposed in this paper. A two-phase encryption technique with key generation using different parameter is proposed. In the first-phase data is encrypted by imposing users’ public key and in the second phase, a private key of the base station (BS) is engaged for encryption. Finally, the superiority of the proposed scheme over existing scheme is proven through a comparative study based on the different features.
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Management and mission planning over a swarm of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remains to date as a challenging research trend in what regards to this particular type of aircrafts. These vehicles are controlled by a number of ground control station (GCS), from which they are commanded to cooperatively perform different tasks in specific geographic areas of interest. Mathematically the problem of coordinating and assigning tasks to a swarm of UAV can be modeled as a constraint satisfaction problem, whose complexity and multiple conflicting criteria has hitherto motivated the adoption of multi-objective solvers such as multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA). The encoding approach consists of different alleles representing the decision variables, whereas the fitness function checks that all constraints are fulfilled, minimizing the optimization criteria of the problem. In problems of high complexity involving several tasks, UAV and GCS, where the space of search is huge compared to the space of valid solutions, the convergence rate of the algorithm increases significantly. To overcome this issue, this work proposes a weighted random generator for the creation and mutation of new individuals. The main objective of this work is to reduce the convergence rate of the MOEA solver for multi-UAV mission planning using weighted random strategies that focus the search on potentially better regions of the solution space. Extensive experimental results over a diverse range of scenarios evince the benefits of the proposed approach, which notably improves this convergence rate with respect to a naïve MOEA approach.
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Blockchain is a new technology, based on hashing, which is at the foundation of the platforms for trading cryptocurrencies and executing smart contracts. This article reviews the basic ideas of this technology and provides a sample minimalist implementation in Python.
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Healthcare applications in IoT systems have been receiving increasing attention because they help facilitate remote monitoring of patients. In this paper, we propose a reliable oneM2M-based IoT system for Personal Healthcare Devices. In order to use a Personal Healthcare Device as an Application Dedicated Node in the proposed system, a protocol conversion between ISO/IEEE 11073 protocol messages and oneM2M protocol messages is performed in gateways located between Personal Healthcare Devices and the PHD management server. The proposed oneM2M-based IoT system for Personal Healthcare Device is constructed, and evaluated in various experiments. The experiments show that the protocol conversion performs effectively, and that the conversion process does not cause the system to suffer serious performance degradation, even when the number of Application Dedicated Node is quite large. Some Personal Healthcare Device data is too precious to lose due to system failures under u-healthcare environments. However, until now, few studies have focused on fault-tolerant health data services. Therefore, we also propose a fault-tolerant algorithm for the reliable IoT system in which gateways on the same layer in the system are linked to form a daisy chain for fault tolerance at the level, and a gateway stores the backup copy of the previous gateway positioned immediately ahead of the gateway in the daisy chain. The upper-layered gateway stores the parity data of the daisy chain as well. In this manner, as many as two gateway faults occurred at the same time can be recovered. For experiments, the resource trees of the oneM2M-based IoT system were expanded to store information on daisy chains, backup copies, and parity. Our experiments reveal that the proposed algorithm can recover from faults on gateways in the oneM2M-based IoT system.
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Many advancements have been taking place in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology lately. This is leading towards the design and development of UAVs with various sizes that possess increased on-board processing, memory, storage, and communication capabilities. Consequently, UAVs are increasingly being used in a vast amount of commercial, military, civilian, agricultural, and environmental applications. However, to take full advantages of their services, these UAVs must be able to communicate efficiently with each other using UAV-to-UAV (U2U) communication and with existing networking infrastructures using UAV-to-Infrastructure (U2I) communication. In this paper, we identify the functions, services and requirements of UAV-based communication systems. We also present networking architectures, underlying frameworks, and data traffic requirements in these systems as well as outline the various protocols and technologies that can be used at different UAV communication links and networking layers. In addition, the paper discusses middleware layer services that can be provided in order to provide seamless communication and support heterogeneous network interfaces. Furthermore, we discuss a new important area of research, which involves the use of UAVs in collecting data from wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We discuss and evaluate several approaches that can be used to collect data from different types of WSNs including topologies such as linear sensor networks (LSNs), geometric and clustered WSNs. We outline the benefits of using UAVs for this function, which include significantly decreasing sensor node energy consumption, lower interference, and offers considerably increased flexibility in controlling the density of the deployed nodes since the need for the multihop approach for sensor-to-sink communication is either eliminated or significantly reduced. Consequently, UAVs can provide good connectivity to WSN clusters.
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Motivated by the recent explosion of interest around blockchains, we examine whether they make a good fit for the Internet of Things (IoT) sector. Blockchains allow us to have a distributed peer-to-peer network where non-trusting members can interact with each other without a trusted intermediary, in a verifiable manner. We review how this mechanism works and also look into smart contracts-scripts that reside on the blockchain that allow for the automation of multi-step processes. We then move into the IoT domain, and describe how a blockchain-IoT combination: 1) facilitates the sharing of services and resources leading to the creation of a marketplace of services between devices and 2) allows us to automate in a cryptographically verifiable manner several existing, time-consuming workflows. We also point out certain issues that should be considered before the deployment of a blockchain network in an IoT setting: from transactional privacy to the expected value of the digitized assets traded on the network. Wherever applicable, we identify solutions and workarounds. Our conclusion is that the blockchain-IoT combination is powerful and can cause significant transformations across several industries, paving the way for new business models and novel, distributed applications.
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For various reasons, the cloud computing paradigm is unable to meet certain requirements (e.g. low latency and jitter, context awareness, mobility support) that are crucial for several applications (e.g. vehicular networks, augmented reality). To fulfil these requirements, various paradigms, such as mobile edge computing, fog computing, and mobile cloud computing, have emerged in recent years. While these edge paradigms share several features, most of the existing research is compartmentalised; no synergies have been explored. This is especially true in the field of security, where most analyses focus only on one edge paradigm, while ignoring the others. The main goal of this study is to holistically analyse the security threats, challenges, and mechanisms inherent in all edge paradigms, while highlighting potential synergies and venues of collaboration. In our results, we will show that all edge paradigms should consider the advances in other paradigms.
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Wireless communication systems that include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) promise to provide cost-effective wireless connectivity for devices without infrastructure coverage. Compared to terrestrial communications or those based on high-altitude platforms (HAPs), on-demand wireless systems with low-altitude UAVs are in general faster to deploy, more flexibly re-configured, and are likely to have better communication channels due to the presence of short-range line-of-sight (LoS) links. However, the utilization of highly mobile and energy-constrained UAVs for wireless communications also introduces many new challenges. In this article, we provide an overview of UAV-aided wireless communications, by introducing the basic networking architecture and main channel characteristics, highlighting the key design considerations as well as the new opportunities to be exploited.