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Abstract

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) film, obtained through Kombucha tea fermentation. Design/methodology/approach Kombucha fungus was used to produce BC film under static cultivation conditions. Physical and mechanical properties under the influence of drying temperature and durability of BC material were investigated. Tensile properties were estimated by TINIUS OLSEN H10 KT test machine according to ISO 3376:2011, thickness was measured by DPT 60. BC structure was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy Quanta 200 FEG. Findings BC material with excellent deformation properties in wet state were obtained by fermenting Kombucha tea. Due to the presence of fermentation residues, Kombucha film is sensitive to drying temperature. The best deformation properties retain when BC material is dried at low temperature (about 25°C). BC material becomes stiffer and ruptures at lower deformations due to rapid water evaporation at higher drying temperature. It is confirmed that during time, the properties of BC film changes significantly and there may be problems with the durability of products from this material. BC film has an interesting set of properties, therefore its application to fashion industry without further preparation is limited. Originality/value A new approach is based on the evaluation of Kombucha material properties and investigation of BC as new type of material for fashion industry. Some recommendations for Kombucha BC film production are provided, basing on gained experience, experimental results and analysed literature. The advantages and disadvantages of material are discussed in the paper, in order to search for the ways to adapt the new type of material to fashion business.
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ARTICLE NO: 629051
ARTICLE TITLE: Kombucha bacterial cellulose for sustainable fashion
AUTHORS: Jurgita Domskiene, Florentina Sederaviciute and Judita
Simonaityte
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Q4 Please check and confirm the change made in authorsnames in reference: Frankie and Wang (2016).
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Q8 Please provide the issue number in references: Mohammadkazemi et al. (2015), Ng and Wang (2015),
Yim et al. (2017).
QUERY FORM
JOURNAL: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
VOL/ISSUE NO: 00/00
ARTICLE NO: 629051
ARTICLE TITLE: Kombucha bacterial cellulose for sustainable fashion
AUTHORS: Jurgita Domskiene, Florentina Sederaviciute and Judita
Simonaityte
Note to Editors: The queries listed in the table below are for the Author. Please ignore
these queries.
Note to Authors: During the production of your article we came across the following
queries listed in the table below. Please review the queries and insert
your reply or correction at the corresponding line in the PDF proof of
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Q9 Please provide the date and page number in reference: Tyrrell (2015).
Q10 Please provide the remaining author names and page range in reference: Ul-Islam et al. (2015).
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Kombucha bacterial cellulose for
sustainable fashion
Jurgita Domskiene, Florentina Sederaviciute and Judita Simonaityte
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Design,
Kauno Technologijos Universitetas, Kaunas, Lithuania
Abstract
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) film, obtained
through Kombucha tea fermentation.
Design/methodology/approach Kombucha fungus was used to produce BC film under static cultivation
conditions. Physical and mechanical properties under the influence of drying temperature and durability of
BC material were investigated. Tensile properties were estimated by TINIUS OLSEN H10 KT test machine
according to ISO 3376:2011, thickness was measured by DPT 60. BC structure was analysed by Scanning
Electron Microscopy Quanta 200 FEG.
Findings BC material with excellent deformation properties in wet state were obtained by fermenting
Kombucha tea. Due to the presence of fermentation residues, Kombucha film is sensitive to drying temperature.
The best deformation properties retain when BC material is dried at low temperature (about 25°C). BC material
becomes stiffer and ruptures at lower deformations due to rapid water evaporation at higher drying
temperature. It is confirmed that during time, the properties of BC film changes significantly and there may be
problems with the durability of products from this material. BC film has an interesting set of properties,
therefore its application to fashion industry without further preparation is limited.
Originality/value A new approach is based on the evaluation of Kombucha material properties and
investigation of BC as new type of material for fashion industry. Some recommendations for Kombucha
BC film production are provided, basing on gained experience, experimental results and analysed literature.
The advantages and disadvantages of material are discussed in the paper, in order to search for the ways to
adapt the new type of material to fashion business.
Keywords Strength, Sustainability, Fashion, Durability, Kombucha, Bacterial cellulose
Paper type Research paper
Introduction
Cellulose fibres are used for production of such widely known textiles, as cotton and rayon
(including viscose, modal and lyocell). Most buyers believe that use of natural cotton textile
protects the environment. Therefore, different sources provide the opposite facts and prove
that cotton manufacturing is extremely pollutant. In order to get 1 kg of cotton fibre, 729
tons of water is consumed. In total, 25 per cent of all insecticides and more than 11 per cent
of pesticides globally used in agriculture are consumed for cotton plants (Conca, 2015).
Textile production technologies are even more polluting. For example, about 50200 l of
water and 0.51 kg of chemicals are used for single operation of traditional finishing
technology to produce 1 kg of cotton material. According to analysis, the consumption of
textile is constantly growing trash amounts are real challenge for the fashion industry. More
than 15m tons of used textile waste (LeBlanc, 2018) is generated each year in the USA, and
according to the US EPA the amount has increased particularly over the last 50 years.
Responding to nowadays realities and seeking to make fashion business more
sustainable designers and scientists increasingly draw attention to biomaterials and their
biocompatible properties. Cellulose, obtained through bacterial fermentation process, is
eco-friendly, safe to the human body, and renewable raw material. Bacterial cellulose (BC)
material is produced by specified classes of bacteria (Römling and Galperin, 2015; Ul-Islam
et al., 2015) by utilising various sources containing glucose or fructose as a carbon source
without environmental impact and resource-intensive processing (Ul-Islam et al., 2015;
Mohammadkazemi et al., 2015). Unique material production and appearance have paid
attention and inspired many fashion design projects. As alternative to textile material,
International Journal of Clothing
Science and Technology
© Emerald Publishing Limited
0955-6222
DOI 10.1108/IJCST-02-2019-0010
Received 1 February 2019
Revised 10 April 2019
Accepted 6 May 2019
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
www.emeraldinsight.com/0955-6222.htm
Kombucha BC
for sustainable
fashion
BC film produced from red-wine (Eryilmaz et al., 2013), beer (Tyrrell, 2015), milk, juice and
tea (Schipper, 2015; Frankie and Wang, 2016; Wang, 2015) fermentation was chosen to
design clothing samples.
The use of biomaterials in fashion business could be promising, as the material can be
grown to the extent necessary, using food waste and worn clothes can be composed and
easily biodegrade. Investigating the unique features of BC film, the researchers provided
innovative idea to grow seamless garments as direct 3D formation of BC sheet (Frankie and
Wang, 2016; Ng and Wang, 2015). Scientists, working in the textile field, recently got
interested in BC material, so only a few studies are investigating this material as a new type
of textile fabric for fashion industry. Textile materials for clothes production have a certain
set of properties. Strength, drape and comfort properties are the most important. The
po
Q1 ssibilities of BC film finishing by applying textile processing technologies were
investigated. Potential of reducing the hydrophilicity of the BC film surface by applying
chemical finishing has been studied (Araújo et al., 2015). Different conditions of material
production to obtain white BC for further dyeing and finishing were analysed by Korean
scientists (Yim et al., 2017; Han et al., 2018).
The presented research analysis properties of BC film that was obtained by fermentation
of sugared tea with Kombucha fungus. During fermentation, bacteria synthesise a cellulose
network floating on growing medium surface. Kombucha drink is considered healthy and
therapeutic agent, therefore, the newly grown fungus membrane usually is thrown as waste
( Jayabalan et al., 2010). The aim of the work was to analyse possibilities of BC film use
without additional treatment for clothes design from the perspectives of material structural
and mechanical properties. Strength and deformability properties of BC film were estimated
for wet and dried material, and the durability of BC material as the change of properties
under different storage conditions were determined.
Experimental
Object
Kombucha fungus was used to produce BC film. Culture medium was prepared from 1 l of
water, 4 g of green tea, 100 g of sucrose and 100 ml of 6 per cent yeast extract. It was
incubated with Kombucha fungus and fermentation was carried out under room conditions
(20÷24 °C temperature and 45÷50 per cent of relative air humidity) for seven days in static
cultivation conditions. BC film was obtained by floating on medium surface gel-like
material. Removed film was washed for several times with distilled water and squeezed to
reduce its water content.
The amplification of the BC film forming microorganisms DNA was performed at Marine
Research Institute of Klaipeda University and outsourced to Baseclare Netherlands for
sequencing. The sequence was analysed using BLAST.
Test methods
Washed film samples were dried on horizontal surface in the laboratory oven SNOL 60/300
LFN at 25±1 °C, 50±1 °C and 75±1 °C temperature until BC specimen has gained a constant
weight. Thickness and tensile properties of dry BC film were estimated.
Durability properties of dry cellulose film were investigated by changing storage
conditions and storage duration. The scheme of experiment:
BC0 control sample was dried at 25±1 °C temperature in the laboratory oven SNOL
60/300 LFN. Properties were estimated immediately after drying.
BC1 sample was dried at 25±1 °C temperature and stored under room conditions
(20÷24 °C temperature and 45÷50 per cent humidity). Properties were estimated after
10 days, 20 days and 30 days or after 240 h, 480 h and 720 h.
IJCST
BC2 sample was dried at 25±1 °C temperature and stored in a controlled cool
environment (+4 °C, 80 per cent humidity). Properties were estimated after 10 days,
20 days and 30 days or after 240 h, 480 h and 720 .
Thickness of each BC specimen was measured by a digital indicator DPT 60 with accuracy
of 0.01 mm. Thickness h(mm) was estimated as average value of five measurements. The
change of thickness parameter was calculated for each sample group.
Tensile properties of BC material were investigated by TINIUS OLSEN H10 KT tensile
test machine according to ISO 3376:2011 (XXX) standard. Samples were cut with a standard
pick form: overall length was 110 mm, initial distance between grips was 50 mm, width of
narrow parallel-sided portion was 10 mm. The crosshead rate of 100 mm/min was set.
The load-extension curve was recorded to determine tensile strength (σ, MPa), tensile
modulus (E, MPa) and extension at break (ε, %). The change of parameters was calculated
for each sample group.
The structure of dried BC material samples was analysed by Scanning Electron
Microscope (SEM) Quanta 200 FEG at 30 kV.
Results and discussion
BC film
The bacterial component of Kombucha fungus was identified as Komagataeibacter
xylinus ( formerly known as Gluconacetobacter xylinus) and the yeast component as
Zygosaccharomyces bailii.
BC material obtained by tea fermentation had light brown colour (sample images
presented in Table I) due to attached cells and some impurities from growing medium. Soft
gel-like BC material was obtained by water molecules of growing medium surrounding the
polyglucosan chains of native cellulose (Seves et al., 2001). Gel material was converted into a
film, after BC material was dried and new hydrogen bonds between cellulose hydroxyl
groups were formed (Seves et al., 2001).
BC film is formed at the surface of growing medium in static cultivation process. BC film
grows until the liquid surface is fully covered after beginning of fermentation, then the film
starts to put on weight and grows in thickness direction. The bottom surface of BC film is
always considered as the newest. Visual investigations of Kombucha non-dried film
confirmed the findings of two different surfaces of BC material. As it was described in the
research (Seves et al., 2001), top surface has contact with air and it is denser than bottom
surface, which is immersed in growing medium and has no contact with air, BC films
Note: CV, coefficient of variation
Table I.
Tensile properties
of BC film
Kombucha BC
for sustainable
fashion
bottom surface is less dense and has more pores. Peculiarities of BC material production
indicate that material has specific properties and should be assessed to ensure the quality of
end use product.
The structure of dried BC samples was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.
Due to the presence of binding agents (mostly it is sucrose from the growing medium), the
structure of BC sample was bulky and it was difficult to determine cellulose fibres
(Figure 1(a)). Kombucha film is described as cellulose network, covered by a homogeneous
melanoidins (Dima et al., 2017). Brown, high molecular weight polymers are formed when
sugars and amino acids combine by Kombucha fermentation. A large number of fine
cellulose fibres around 100 nm diameter become visible in SEM image when purification of
low concentration alkaline solution is applied for BC film and fermentation residues are
removed. The structure of coherent three-dimensional fibres network is commit for treated
BC film sample (Figure 1(b)).
The influence of drying temperature on deformation properties of BC film
As it was illustrated by some design projects the wet BC material can be used to obtain
spatial shape. 3D shape of material retains after drying. Tensile experiment (Table I)
demonstrated good deformation properties of wet BC film. The elongation of BCwet
specimen reached 35 per cent and low tensile modulus (E¼0.02 MPa) was recorded,
therefore, material was sensitive to tension force and breaking was estimated at 0.4 MPa
tensile stress. The behaviour of BC film during tension proves that wet material handling
should be done with care, as it easily breaks if stretched at higher force.
InordertodeterminethepropertiesofdryBCfilm,thesampleswerepreparedat
different drying temperatures (25 °C, 50 °C and 75 °C) and their properties were estimated
(Table I).
The properties of dried BC film changes and dry film becomes stiffer, and ruptures at
lower elongation. Even after natural drying, the spatial shape, formed by wet BC becomes
less elastic and may rupture if some shape corrections are applied. The increase of tensile
stress up to 27.9 MPa and the decrease of elongation up to 18.8 per cent for BC sample dried
at 25 °C was estimated. The worst tensile properties were observed for BC samples dried at
75 °C, the lowest values of breaking strength (σ¼12.8 MPa) and elongation (4.5 per cent)
were determined also. Values of tensile modulus Eprove that dried film acquires more stiff
structure. The strong interfibrillar binding of nanofibers are formed when moisture is
removed from BC structure during drying and material experiences higher tensile strength
and higher tensile modulus.
(a) (b) (c)
HV mag spot WD HFW
Quanta 200 FEG
10m
det
3.6 8.6mm LFD 25.6m
spot WD HFW tilt
Quanta 200 FEG
10m
det
4.0 7.9mm LFD 25.6m–0°
10.00kV 10,000×
HV mag
5.00kV 10,000×
spot WD HFW
Quanta 200 FEG
100m
det
3.6 8.8mm LFD 256m
HV mag
10.00kV 1,000×
Notes: (a) Untreated material at 10,000 magnification; (b) material treated with NaOH at 10,000
magnification; (c) uneven surface of BC film at 1,000 magnification
Figure 1.
BC film SEM images
IJCST
Different mechanical behaviour of BC film (when material is wet and when it is dried) shows
that ability to apply direct 3D formation technique by self-grown materials is limited and
needs for further studies.
High scattering of tensile test results was determined and coefficient of variation was
calculated up to 19.9 per cent. It demonstrates that BC film of the non-uniform structure is
obtained during natural fermentation process which strongly depends on many parameters
and it is difficult to get material with even structure and constant mechanical parameters even
for small experimental sample. The problem of material thickness and surface uniformity
becomes even more relevant when designing mass production of fermented material.
The stability of material dimensions is very important for garments of spatial shape
from BC production. The material dimensions change when drying has been evaluated. BC
film is extremely hydrophilic and the change of sample thickness, weight and dimension
parameters was calculated as percentage loss. A weight loss up to 91.8 per cent (Table II)
determines the water content of the obtained BC film. The most significant changes are
recorded for the thickness loss (up to 88.6 per cent), as biomaterial grows in thickness
direction. Therefore, planar dimensions vary insignificantly (up to 0.04 per cent) when
drying. These are important data that allow to predict the appearance of product, shaped
from wet material.
Changes of BC film physical appearance after drying at different temperature were
captured also (Table I). Wrinkling of BC film surface was recorded at micro level by SEM
(Figure 1(c)). The surface of BC sample shrinks more at higher drying temperature and it
might appear due to more rapid water evaporation caused by closer contact between
nanofibers and agglomeration, as it is described by other researchers (Peng et al., 2012; Pae
et al., 2014). In order to ensure the smoothness of dried BC film surface, it is recommended to
use additional fixing of material specimen before drying.
The influence of aging on deformation properties of BC film
It was noticed that BC film loses its elasticity over time and products produced from elastic
and strong BC material are unlikely to be durable. An aging study was conducted for 30
days examining the change of mechanical properties of BC film. Test specimens were stored
under different conditions (in the room and in the refrigerator).
As it is evidenced by the results, presented in Figure 2, the strength of BC film reduced
evenly when the samples were stored for some time at 2024 °C temperature. Tensile
strength of about 57 MPa was estimated after 10 days (240 h) and it decreased up to 50 MPa
after 20 days (480 h) and 46 MPa after 30 days (720 h), that is about 73 per cent decrease in
strength of control sample BC0. The test indicates that strength characteristics of BC film,
stored under room conditions, are evenly reducing. The same strength decrease tendency
was estimated for specimen stored in cool environment (+4 °C), therefore, the change of
tensile properties was lower. The strength of BC2 sample was found to be reduced by
24 per cent after 30 days.
Figure 3 shows the dependence of BC film storage conditions (temperature and duration on
tensile elongation). Results revealed that specimens, stored at constant temperature of +C,
retained better deformation properties. Elongation at break of BC1 stored in a room
Drying temperature (°C)
25 ±150±175±1
Weight loss (%) 85.5 91.8 88.3
Thickness loss (%) 83.9 88.6 79.6
Diameter loss (%) 0.04 0.005 0.003
Table II.
Change of BC
properties
Kombucha BC
for sustainable
fashion
environment declined from five times in 10 days (240 h) to seven times in 20 days (480 h),
while elongation value of the sample BC2, stored in cool environment, dropped two times
in 30 days (720 h).
Results of tensile test confirmed that cellulose material, stored in a cool environment,
retained better tensile properties, therefore, BC film was transforming from flexible to brittle
in both cases. BC film lost strength during time and became fragile.
Table III shows thickness measurements of BC film from different sample group. The
increase of thickness parameter is estimated during BC storage time. The thickness of the
sample BC1, stored in room conditions, increased by 50 per cent in 10 days (240 h) and by
75 per cent in 30 days (720 h). The change in thickness was slower for sample BC2, kept in
cool conditions. The thickness increased by 25 per cent after 10 days, therefore, the
thickness, compared to the control sample BC0, increased up to 75 per cent after 20 days
(480 h) as much as for samples, kept in room temperature. The change of BC film colour and
transparency was visually evaluated and it confirmed that changes in thickness are
associated with of BC film surface wrinkling after certain time of storage.
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 240 480 720
Elongation at break , %
Time, hours
BC0 BC1 BC2
Figure 3.
Dependences between
elongation at break of
BC film, storage
conditions and
storage duration
Thickness h(mm)
BC1 BC2
Control sample BC0 240 h 480 h 720 h 240 h 480 h 720 h
0.08 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.10 0.14 0.14
Thickness increase (%) 50 62 75 25 75 75
Table III.
Measurements of
BC thickness
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 240 480 720
Tensile strength ,%
Time, hours
BC0 BC1 BC2
Figure 2.
Dependences between
tensile strength
of BC film, storage
conditions and
storage duration
IJCST
Comfort properties of BC film
Preliminary studies showed that some comfort properties of BC film are similar to clothing
materials. Water vapour permeability and moisture absorption are essential factors for
garment comfort. Water vapour transmission was investigated according ISO 11092 and
value of 2,7753,050 g/m
2
/24 h was defined for BC film. Results can be compared with textile
and leather, research of coated and laminated fabric confirmed values of water vapour
transmission from 2,972 to 7,265.6 g/m
2
/24 h [22]; and value of 440÷4,680 g/m
2
/24 h for
leather [23]. BC film shows highly hydrophilic nature. 64° water contact angle was set for
untreated BC indicating the high wettability of BC film. This material has interesting
properties, therefore, the use for clothing without further treatment (such as hydrophobic
finishing) is limited.
Conclusions and recommendations
(1) BC film can be obtained as a gel-like material or a secondary product of Kombucha
beverage. This material has an interesting set of properties, therefore, its application
in the fashion industry is just beginning to be explored. Experiments confirmed that
BC film has attractive deformation properties, therefore material is not durable.
(2) It is appropriate to use a wet BC film for the best shaping as it has high elasticity.
Tensile test results proved that BC film is sensitive to drying temperature. Lower
drying temperatures help to preserve the porous structure, strength and
deformation properties of BC material. The best deformation properties retain
when BC material is dried at low temperatures (about 25 °C).
(3) The aging experiment has confirmed that the products made of untreated BC film
are of short-term use and the properties of film can change significantly during
time. Tensile strength and elongation results confirmed less variable properties
for material stored at +4 °C comparing with material stored at room temperature
(20÷24 °C temperature and 45÷50 per cent of humidity). It is recommended to store
BC material at controlled environment with low temperature in order to extend the
use of BC film and to keep tensile and thickness properties less changed.
(4) It is possible to obtain BC film properties similar to clothing material, therefore,
production by natural fermentation process strongly depends on many parameters
and it is difficult to ensure even structure, constant thickness, porosity and
mechanical parameters. Further investigations should be carried out to analyse the
possibilities of BC film, as the structure of cellulose nanofibers, modification,
forming controlled properties and a durable material with good deformation and
comfort properties. The aesthetic appearance of the material is especially
important for fashion products, so it is important to get materials with interesting
surface and colour.
Based on experience and obtained knowledge, several recommendations can be provided for
BC film production. Major problem associated with cellulose production by fermentation is
irregular film thickness, leading to BC material quality and properties. According to Frank
(2018), addition of acetic acid at the beginning of fermentation process prevents the
formation of moulds and protects against undesirable microorganisms (Goh et al., 2012).
Carbon source is important for effective fermentation as it determines general growth and
metabolism. Since white sugar is expensive, some alternative carbon sources and waste
sugars have been investigated to obtain experimental BC samples. It is proved that the
highest yield of cellulose is produced at 90 g/l sucrose concentration (Goh et al., 2012).
Oxygen is necessary for the metabolic processes of Kombucha fermentation, therefore, room
Kombucha BC
for sustainable
fashion
for cultivation must have good ventilation and supply of fresh air. As process needs no light,
the fermentation can be carried on in the dark place. The open surface of growing medium is
important for BC film formation, therefore, the dish of glass with wide opening is the most
suitable for Kombucha fermentation in order to get BC film for further use.
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IJCST
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McCullough, E.A., et al. (2003), A comparison of standard
Q11 methods for measuring water vapour
permeability of fabrics,Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 14, pp. 1402-1408.
Smiechowski, K., Zarlok, J. and Kowalska, M. (2014), The relationship between water vapour
permeability and softness for leathers produced in Poland,Journal Society of Leather
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Jurgita Domskiene can be contacted at: jurgita.domskiene@ktu.lt
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Kombucha BC
for sustainable
fashion
... However, as a production process that occurs by natural fermentation, some challenges need to be overcome to apply biocellulose as a textile material. It is necessary to ensure a uniform structure with a constant thickness, attractive textures, adequate strength, fit, comfort, water resistance, and durability, along with the maintenance of attractive aesthetics to create novel products [17]. ...
... As already recognized by researchers, BC is naturally an exclusive combination of properties such as high polymerization degree, high surface area, high flexibility, high tensile strength, and high water-holding capacity [40]. Based on the results, it is safe to assume that the materials proposed have similar or better tensile strength and deformation properties compared to data described in the literature [17,20]. Thus, the findings indicate the successful development of a waterproof textile material made from reconstituted biocellulose. ...
... However, as a production process that occurs by natural fermentation, some challenges need to be overcome to apply biocellulose as a textile material. It is necessary to ensure a uniform structure with a constant thickness, attractive textures, adequate strength, fit, comfort, water resistance, and durability, along with the maintenance of attractive aesthetics to create novel products [17]. ...
... As already recognized by researchers, BC is naturally an exclusive combination of properties such as high polymerization degree, high surface area, high flexibility, high tensile strength, and high water-holding capacity [40]. Based on the results, it is safe to assume that the materials proposed have similar or better tensile strength and deformation properties compared to data described in the literature [17,20]. Thus, the findings indicate the successful development of a waterproof textile material made from reconstituted biocellulose. ...
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Consumerism in fashion involves the excessive consumption of garments in modern capitalist societies due to the expansion of globalisation, especially at the beginning of the 21st Century. The involvement of new designers in the garment industry has assisted in creating a desire for new trends. However, the fast pace of transitions between collections has made fashion increasingly frivolous and capable of generating considerable interest in new products, accompanied by an increase in the discarding of fabrics. Thus, studies have been conducted on developing sustainable textile materials for use in the fashion industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of a vegan leather produced with a dyed, waterproof biopolymer made of reconstituted bacterial cellulose (BC). The dying process involved using plant-based natural dyes extracted from Allium cepa L., Punica granatum, and Eucalyptus globulus L. The BC films were then shredded and reconstituted to produce uniform surfaces with a constant thickness of 0.10 cm throughout the entire area. The films were waterproofed using the essential oil from Melaleuca alternifolia and wax from Copernicia prunifera. The characteristics of the biotechnological vegan leather were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), flexibility and mechanical tests, as well as the determination of the water contact angle (°) and sorption index (s). The results confirmed that the biomaterial has high tensile strength (maximum: 247.21 ± 16.52 N) and high flexibility; it can be folded more than 100 times at the same point without breaking or cracking. The water contact angle was 83.96°, indicating a small water interaction on the biotextile. The results of the present study demonstrate the potential of BC for the development of novel, durable, vegan, waterproof fashion products.
... Across all generations, the Kombucha (KSC) pellicles had a consistent pale brown gel-like appearance, as noted from previous studies (Jarrell et al., 2000;Domskiene et al., 2019). However, previous work has not highlighted the visual variations our study found in the K. xylinus pellicles. ...
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The textile industry is in crisis and under pressure to minimize the environmental impact on its practices. Bacterial cellulose (BC), a naturally occurring form of cellulose, displays properties superior to those of its cotton plant counterpart, such as enhanced purity, crystallinity, tensile strength, and water retention and is thus suitable for an array of textile applications. It is synthesized from a variety of microorganisms but is produced in most abundance by Komagataeibacter xylinus. K. xylinus is available as a type strain culture and exists in the microbial consortium commonly known as Kombucha. Whilst existing literature studies have described the effectiveness of both K. xylinus isolates and Kombucha in the production of BC, this study investigated the change in microbial communities across several generations of sub-culturing and the impact of these communities on BC yield. Using Kombucha and the single isolate strain K. xylinus as inocula in Hestrin and Schramm liquid growth media, BC pellicles were propagated. The resulting pellicles and residual liquid media were used to further inoculate fresh liquid media, and this process was repeated over three generations. For each generation, the thickness of the pellicles and their appearance under SEM were recorded. 16S rRNA sequencing was conducted on both pellicles and liquid media samples to assess changes in communities. The results indicated that the genus Komagataeibacter was the most abundant species in all samples. Cultures seeded with Kombucha yielded thicker cellulose pellicles than those seeded with K. xylinus, but all the pellicles had similar nanofibrillar structures, with a mix of liquid and pellicle inocula producing the best yield of BC after three generations of sub-culturing. Therefore, Kombucha starter cultures produce BC pellicles which are more reproducible across generations than those created from pure isolates of K. xylinus and could provide a reproducible sustainable model for generating textile materials.
... Substantial progress has been made in the past concerning research findings on the cultivation of Kombucha biomaterial, but current development is stagnant. In particular, existing research has predominantly explored the production process (Jurgita Domskiene et al., 2019;Torres et al., 2012;C. Zhu et al., 2013). ...
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Alternative renewable materials are a possible solution to the rapid depletion of non-renewable resources. Within the renewable materials category, living organisms have been utilised in sustainable material projects. Although the projects are currently speculative, the possibility of utilising living organisms offers an appealing sustainability advantage for product design. Notably, their ability to 'self-build' enables them to become the co-maker of the output materials or products effectively. One of the promising lab-grown materials developed and utilised in product design is bacterial cellulose. Many researchers and designers have focused on improving the cultivation process and the feasibility of the materials for targeted product applications. However, much research is still needed to fill the void of knowledge in developing biomaterials for product design. This paper presents an early development of novel bacterial cellulose biomaterials and their applications using the Material Design Driven (MDD) framework. In this research, three bacterial cellulose biomaterials with unique experiential qualities have been produced through the approach. Notably, the research highlights the innovative potential of bacterial cellulose as a packaging material by incorporating plant fibres as the reinforcement agent and imprinting artificial texture on the material surface.
... BC addition to pulp paper >79.9 N m/g (tensile index) >5 kPa m 2 /g (burst index) -- [167] Raw BC 5 0.04 [168] Hydrogel BC with glycerol 8 0.28 [168] BC film obtained through Kombucha 0.4~12.8 (different to dry states) 0.02~2.65 [169] Mixture of cotton lint and fragmented BC 1~100 0.1~4.9 - [164] 2.3.1. Special Functional Paper BC has DPs of 2000~8000 and is an extracellular cellulose type with a highly swollen (90~95%) state [176,177]. ...
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