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Design and Neuroscience - for an evolution of the Product Design tools, from UCD to UX

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Abstract

Research starts with retracing the steps that have brought Ergonomics and Human Factors to evolve beyond usability. It addresses issues related to the emotional relationship that can be established between the user and the product, in the User-Centered Design paradigm. Therefore, the Research reviews the literature of the Design Research for Emotional Design, collecting the main tools and methods through which the user's emotional experience is measured in relation to a design product. The emotional response is today also measured with tools and methods of Cognitive Neurosciences, therefore the Research try to get the designer closer to some of the relevant aspect of this emerging field of research, looking at the touching points between Neurosciences and Design. Recent case-studies about Neuroaesthetics, Neuromarketing, and Neurodesign will be reviewed. With the Research Questions, it's stated that the purpose of this study is to explore if Cognitive Neurosciences can represent a shift in the approaches of Emotional Design; therefore, the Research investigates if the designers can interpret emotional responses analyzed by means of Cognitive Neurosciences’ tools. Finally, the study examines if it's possible to create a tool to support the design activity including data obtained from Cognitive Neurosciences. We participated in an interdisciplinary research group composed of neuroscientists, psychologists, communication experts, and bioengineers to explore the Research Questions. With the desk-research and the on-field validation, we found Cognitive Neurosciences to have potentials to represent a shift in the approaches of Emotional Design. To facilitate the dialogue between these two disciplines we defined the tool and method named AlPha Matrix and Cards, with which designers can integrate their specific knowledge and skills with new tools suggested by Cognitive Neurosciences, to understand even better the user's response
Doorato di Ricerca PIANIFICAZIONE, DESIGN, TECNOLOGIA DELL’ARCHITETTURA
PhD PLANNING, DESIGN, TECHNOLOGY OF ARCHITECTURE
Coordinatore | Director
Prof. Fabrizio Tucci
Sapienza Università di Roma | S U  R | ciclo  XXXI | nov. 2015 - oct. 2018
Scuola di Doorato in Ingegneria Civile e Architeura | Doctoral School in Civil Engineering and Architecture
Diparmento di ‘Pianificazione, Design, Tecnologia dell’Architeura’ | ‘Planning, Design, Technology of Architecture’ Department
-Curriculum DESIGN DEL PRODOTTO
Curriculum PRODUCT DESIGN
Coordinatore Curriculum | Curriculum Chair
Prof. Lorenzo Imbesi
Ciclo | Cycle XXXI
Novembre 2015 - Oobre 2018
Doorando
Alessio Paole
Doorato di Ricerca
Pianificazione, Design, Tecnologia dell’Architeura
Design and Neuroscience:
For an Evoluon of Product Design Tools, from UCD to UX
For an Evoluon of Product Design Tools,
from UCD to UX
Design and Neuroscience:
Supervisore | Supervisor Prof. Loredana Di Lucchio
Doorando| PhD Candidate Alessio Paole
Co-supervisore | Co-supervisor Prof. Fabio Babiloni
Dept. Molecular Medicine, University of Rome Sapienza
Consulente esterno | External advisor Prof. Krystyna Gielo-Perczak
Dept. Biomedical Engineering, University of Conneccut
ABSTRACT THESIS: Research starts with retracing the steps that have brought Ergonomics
and Human Factors to evolve beyond the usability. It addresses issues related to the
emotional relationship that can be established between the user and the product, in the User-
Centered Design paradigm. Therefore, the Research reviews the literature of the Design
Research for Emotional Design, collecting the main tools and methods through which the
user's emotional experience is measured in relation to a design product. Emotional response
is today also measured with tools and methods of Cognitive Neurosciences, therefore the
Research try to get the designer closer to some of the relevant aspect of this emerging ield of
research, looking at the touching points between Neurosciences and Design. Recent case-
studies about Neuroaesthetics, Neuromarketing, and Neurodesign will be reviewed. With
the Research Questions, it's stated that the purpose of this study is to explore if Cognitive
Neurosciences can represent a shift in the approaches of Emotional Design; therefore, the
Research investigates if the designers can interpret emotional responses analyzed by means
of Cognitive Neurosciences’ tools. Finally, the study examines if it's possible to create a tool to
support the design activity including data obtained from Cognitive Neurosciences. We
participated in an interdisciplinary research group composed of neuroscientists,
psychologists, communication experts and bioengineers to explore the Research Questions.
With the desk-research and the on-ield validation, we found Cognitive Neurosciences to
have potentials to represent a shift in the approaches of Emotional Design. To facilitate the
dialogue between these two disciplines we deined the tool and method named AlPha Matrix
and Cards, with which designers can integrate their speciic knowledge and skills with new
tools suggested by Cognitive Neurosciences, to understand even better the user's response.
ABSTRACT TESI: La Ricerca inizia ripercorrendo i passaggi che hanno portato Ergonomia e
Human Factors ad evolversi oltre l'usabilità . Affronta le problematiche relative alla relazione
emotiva che può essere stabilita tra l'utente e il prodotto, nel paradigma User-Centered
Design. Pertanto la ricerca rivede la letteratura della Design Research sull'Emotional Design,
raccogliendo i principali strumenti e metodi attraverso i quali l'esperienza emotiva
dell'utente viene misurata in relazione ad un artefatto. La risposta emotiva è oggigiorno
misurata anche con strumenti e metodi delle Neuroscienze Cognitive, per cui la Ricerca mira
ad avvicinare il designer agli aspetti rilevanti di questo campo emergente di ricerca,
guardando ai punti in comune tra Neuroscienze e Design. Si citeranno quindi i recenti casi
studio su Neuroestetica, Neuromarketing e Neurodesign. Con le Domande di Ricerca si
afferma che lo scopo di questo studio è di esplorare se le Neuroscienze Cognitive possano
rappresentare un avanzamento negli approcci di Emotional Design; pertanto la Ricerca
indaga se i designer possono interpretare le risposte emotive analizzate attraverso gli
strumenti delle Neuroscienze Cognitive; inine, lo studio esamina se è possibile creare uno
strumento per supportare l'attività di design che includa dati provenienti dalle Neuroscienze
Cognitive. Pertanto abbiamo partecipato a un gruppo di ricerca interdisciplinare composto
da neuroscienziati, psicologi, esperti di comunicazione e bioingegneri, per esplorare le
Domande di Ricerca. Con la ricerca-desk e la convalida sul campo, abbiamo trovato che le
Neuroscienze Cognitive hanno potenzialità di rappresentare un avanzamento negli approcci
di Emotional Design. Per facilitare il dialogo tra queste due discipline abbiamo deinito lo
strumento e il metodo denominato AlPha Matrix e Cards; con quest’ultimi i designer possono
integrare le personali conoscenze e capacità speciiche con i nuovi strumenti proposti dalle
Neuroscienze Cognitive, per comprendere sempre meglio la risposta dell'utente.
Doorato di Ricerca PIANIFICAZIONE, DESIGN, TECNOLOGIA DELL’ARCHITETTURA
PhD PLANNING, DESIGN, TECHNOLOGY OF ARCHITECTURE
Coordinatore | Director
Prof. Fabrizio Tucci
Sapienza Università di Roma | S U  R | ciclo  XXXI | nov. 2015 - oct. 2018
Scuola di Doorato in Ingegneria Civile e Architeura | Doctoral School in Civil Engineering and Architecture
Diparmento di ‘Pianificazione, Design, Tecnologia dell’Architeura’ | ‘Planning, Design, Technology of Architecture’ Department
-Curriculum DESIGN DEL PRODOTTO
Curriculum PRODUCT DESIGN
Coordinatore Curriculum | Curriculum Chair
Prof. Lorenzo Imbesi
Ciclo | Cycle XXXI
Novembre 2015 - Oobre 2018
Doorando
Alessio Paole
Doorato di Ricerca
Pianificazione, Design, Tecnologia dell’Architeura
Design and Neuroscience:
For an Evoluon of Product Design Tools, from UCD to UX
For an Evoluon of Product Design Tools,
from UCD to UX
Design and Neuroscience:
Supervisore | Supervisor Prof. Loredana Di Lucchio
Doorando| PhD Candidate Alessio Paole
Co-supervisore | Co-supervisor Prof. Fabio Babiloni
Dept. Molecular Medicine, University of Rome Sapienza
Consulente esterno | External advisor Prof. Krystyna Gielo-Perczak
Dept. Biomedical Engineering, University of Conneccut
ABSTRACT THESIS: Research starts with retracing the steps that have brought Ergonomics
and Human Factors to evolve beyond the usability. It addresses issues related to the
emotional relationship that can be established between the user and the product, in the User-
Centered Design paradigm. Therefore, the Research reviews the literature of the Design
Research for Emotional Design, collecting the main tools and methods through which the
user's emotional experience is measured in relation to a design product. Emotional response
is today also measured with tools and methods of Cognitive Neurosciences, therefore the
Research try to get the designer closer to some of the relevant aspect of this emerging ield of
research, looking at the touching points between Neurosciences and Design. Recent case-
studies about Neuroaesthetics, Neuromarketing, and Neurodesign will be reviewed. With
the Research Questions, it's stated that the purpose of this study is to explore if Cognitive
Neurosciences can represent a shift in the approaches of Emotional Design; therefore, the
Research investigates if the designers can interpret emotional responses analyzed by means
of Cognitive Neurosciences’ tools. Finally, the study examines if it's possible to create a tool to
support the design activity including data obtained from Cognitive Neurosciences. We
participated in an interdisciplinary research group composed of neuroscientists,
psychologists, communication experts and bioengineers to explore the Research Questions.
With the desk-research and the on-ield validation, we found Cognitive Neurosciences to
have potentials to represent a shift in the approaches of Emotional Design. To facilitate the
dialogue between these two disciplines we deined the tool and method named AlPha Matrix
and Cards, with which designers can integrate their speciic knowledge and skills with new
tools suggested by Cognitive Neurosciences, to understand even better the user's response.
ABSTRACT TESI: La Ricerca inizia ripercorrendo i passaggi che hanno portato Ergonomia e
Human Factors ad evolversi oltre l'usabilità . Affronta le problematiche relative alla relazione
emotiva che può essere stabilita tra l'utente e il prodotto, nel paradigma User-Centered
Design. Pertanto la ricerca rivede la letteratura della Design Research sull'Emotional Design,
raccogliendo i principali strumenti e metodi attraverso i quali l'esperienza emotiva
dell'utente viene misurata in relazione ad un artefatto. La risposta emotiva è oggigiorno
misurata anche con strumenti e metodi delle Neuroscienze Cognitive, per cui la Ricerca mira
ad avvicinare il designer agli aspetti rilevanti di questo campo emergente di ricerca,
guardando ai punti in comune tra Neuroscienze e Design. Si citeranno quindi i recenti casi
studio su Neuroestetica, Neuromarketing e Neurodesign. Con le Domande di Ricerca si
afferma che lo scopo di questo studio è di esplorare se le Neuroscienze Cognitive possano
rappresentare un avanzamento negli approcci di Emotional Design; pertanto la Ricerca
indaga se i designer possono interpretare le risposte emotive analizzate attraverso gli
strumenti delle Neuroscienze Cognitive; inine, lo studio esamina se è possibile creare uno
strumento per supportare l'attività di design che includa dati provenienti dalle Neuroscienze
Cognitive. Pertanto abbiamo partecipato a un gruppo di ricerca interdisciplinare composto
da neuroscienziati, psicologi, esperti di comunicazione e bioingegneri, per esplorare le
Domande di Ricerca. Con la ricerca-desk e la convalida sul campo, abbiamo trovato che le
Neuroscienze Cognitive hanno potenzialità di rappresentare un avanzamento negli approcci
di Emotional Design. Per facilitare il dialogo tra queste due discipline abbiamo deinito lo
strumento e il metodo denominato AlPha Matrix e Cards; con quest’ultimi i designer possono
integrare le personali conoscenze e capacità speciiche con i nuovi strumenti proposti dalle
Neuroscienze Cognitive, per comprendere sempre meglio la risposta dell'utente.
Antonio Damasio
"What I've felt, What I've known, Never shined through in what I've shown"
James Hetield, Lars Ulrich
“We are not thinking machines that feel, we are feeling machines that think”
0.4 Research Objecves
PREMISES
1.1 Ergonomics and Human Factors
0.3 Research Quesons
References Logical Framework
0.1 Topics and Macro-Areas
References Chapter 01
2.2 Types of Emoonal Response
2.2.2 Appraisal
2.2.3 Valence - Arousal
1.2 Human-Centered Design
PLEASURE AND EMOTIONS IN PRODUCTS
0.7 Phases and Methods
1.1.3 Pleasure
LOGICAL FRAMEWORK
1.1.1 Usability
2.1 Definions
0.6 Results
EMOTIONS AND PERCEPTION
1.1.4 Pleasure in Product Use according to Jordan
2.2.1 Basic Emoons
1.1.2 Beyond Usability
Introducon
0.2 Research Problem
0.5 Research Targets
2.3.2 Synesthesia
EMOTIONAL DESIGN
3.1.2 Emoonal Product
2.4 The Effects Produced by an Arfact
3.1.3 Emoonal Branding
3.1.1 Emoonal User
3.2.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Features of a Product
EMOTIONAL DESIGN AND EXPERIENCE
3.3 Emoonal Design according to Norman
2.3.1 Percepon
3.2 Emoonal Design and Product Experience
3.2.1 Design and Markeng as complementary
3.3.1 Gulfs of Interacons
2.3 Percepon, Senses and Mulsensory Integraon
3.1 Fields of Emoonal Design
References Chapter 02
p. 16
p. 000
p. 13
p. 22
p. 19
CHAPTER 1
p. 21
p. 20
p. 23
p. 31
p. 7
PART I
CHAPTER 2
p. 56
p. 93
PART II
p. 53
p.85
p. 47
p. 80
p. 43
CHAPTER 3
p. 98
p. 73
p. 100
INDEX
3.4 Product Experience according to Desmet and Hekkert
3.4.3 Sources of Product Emoon
4.1 Kansei Engineering
3.4.2 Three Appraisals types for Product Design
4.2 Subjecjecve Tools of Self-Report
4.2.1 Verbal Tools
References Chapter 03
3.3.2 Three Levels of Processing
3.5 Product Experience from Cognive and Social Psychology
3.4.1 Three Levels of Product Experience
TOOLS AND METHODS FOR EMOTIONAL DESIGN
3.3.4 Subconscious Levels
3.3.3 Reflecve Level
5.2.3 Interest
References Chapter 05
4.3.1 Expressive Reacons
COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCES
References Chapter 04
5.1.2 Ecological Approach - Gibson
4.2.2 Non-Verbal Tools
5.2 Neurophysiological Indexes
5.1.1 Percepon as a Process - Marr
4.3.2 Physiological Reacons and Neuronal Reacons
5.1.4 Cerebral Cortex
5.2.2 Emoonal Index
COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCES AND DESIGN
6.1 Neuroaesthecs
4.3 Objecve Tools– Unconscious Report
6.1.1 Case Study Tian
6.1.2 Case Study Moses
NEUROSCIENCE AND DESIGN
5.1 Research Field
5.1.3 Sensory-Motor System
6.2 Neuromarkeng
6.3 Neurodesign
5.2.1 Mental Effort
6.3.1 Case Studies Product Design's Extrinsic features
6.3.2 Case Studies Product Design's Intrinsic features
References Chapter 06
EXPERIMENTATIONS
EXPERIMENTATION 1 IN THE LAB
p. 123
p. 137
p. 129
p. 120
PART III
CHAPTER 4
p. 157
p. 149
p. 108
CHAPTER 6
p. 189
p. 198
p. 201
CHAPTER 5
PART IV
p. 183
p. 213
CHAPTER 7
p. 165
p. 176
7.2.1 Parcipants
7.2.4 Phases
References Chapter 07
7.1 Research Group - BrainSigns
7.2 Experimentaon
7.2.2 Instruments – Tools
7.2.3 Smulus
7.2.5 Results
9.1 Cards Applicaon
8.3.1 Morphological Sphere
9.3 Cards Applied for the Smulus 2
9.4 Conclusions of Experimentaon 2
8.4 Interest - Behavioral Level - Non-Physical Interacon
8.5 Cards
CONCLUSIONS
EVALUATION OF RESULTS
8.3.3 M2 Relaonships
8.4.3 S2 Pleasantness
References Chapter 08
8.4.1 Semanc Sphere
EXPERIMENTATION 2 FOR DESIGN
8.5.1 How to Use the Cards
8.3.2 M1 Metaphors
8.2.5 F4 Feedback
9.2 Cards Applied for the Smulus 1
8.2 Mental Effort - Reflecve Level - Instrumental Interacon
8.2.3 F2 Constraints
8.2.1 Funconal Sphere
A MATRIX FOR NEUROSCIENCE AND DESIGN
8.3.5 M4 Consistency of Messages
8.2.4 F3 Mappings
8.3 Emoonal Index - Visceral Level - Non-Instrumental Interacon
8.2.2 F1 Signifiers/Affordances
8.3.4 M3 Typicality and Novelty
8.1 AlPha Matrix
8.4.2 S1 Usefulness
8.4.4 S3 Righulness
10.5 Possible Improvements and Conclusions
10.4 Future Direcons to Undertake
10.3 Answering the Research Quesons
10.4.1 Specificaons of the Italian Design
10.2 Objecves Achieved and Further Development
10.1 Expected Results and Final Results
p. 282
CHAPTER 9
p. 306
p. 264
p. 299
p. 301
CHAPTER 10
p. 277
p. 278
p. 271
p. 286
p. 296
PART V
p. 293
p. 221
p. 223
p. 233
p. 246
p. 237
p. 258
p. 240
CHAPTER 8
APPENDIX
p. 326
p. 313 References by Subject Area
THE CARDS
Acknowledgments
Introducon
The user’s response has been the object of research since the early days of
Ergonomics and Human Factors the more research evolved about the user’s
behaviors, the more the scientiic community has tried to understand how the
relationship between the user and the product is built. Nowadays the user’s
response has also been studied from a psychological perspective, overpassing the
initials concerns related only to the physical aspects of the user-product interaction.
Simultaneously research mainly in Neurosciences have deeper analyzed the process
of perception and the way the humans process information gained in the external
environment. What emerged is that perception is not only a cognitive process, but it
involves emotions and feelings. We understand the world surrounding us, also by
means of emotions, that can give a faster response than the mind. Cartesio suggested
a separation of body and mind, however recent indings reveal that they are
constantly linked to determine the best response in the shortest time to the external
stimuli. Based on these new indings, and thanks to new tools that allow researchers
to investigate the user response in its complexity with portable tools, the process of
perception in reference to any stimulus can be deeper observed. The user’s response
has been observed mainly by means of tools of self-report, deined by psychologists.
The new tools and methods of the emerging Cognitive Neurosciences are offering
new potentials to measure the user’s response. Is it possible to apply the tools and
methods of the Cognitive Neurosciences to the User-Centered Design paradigm to
better understand the user’s response? Are there in the scientiic literature of the
Design Research contributions that can help understand the potentials of these new
tools? The Research study the User-Centered Design paradigm in relation to the
emerging Cognitive Neurosciences.
Logical Framework
ABSTRACT
Listed are topics and macro-areas examined, deining the Research Problem, the
Research Questions, the Research Objectives, Targets, showing the obtained Results
and their related Phases and methods in which they were reached.
In Human-Centered Design approach (HCD), when considering all the constraints
and concerns that bring to the deinition of a new product, the designer considers
not only shape and form, cost and eficiency, reliability and effectiveness,
understandability and usability, but also the pleasure of appearance, the pride of
ownership, and the joy of actual use. To investigate the user-product interaction in
this broad spectrum, the design research, speciically the Emotional Design, tries to
investigate on the user’s affective response. The main principles and assumptions
about emotions have been deined by cognitive psychology, on which related tools
and methods have been developed. These tools and methods have some limits that
nowadays could be surpassed with the new indings of Cognitive Neurosciences.
The research has been developed in an interdisciplinary research group composed
of researchers in the ields of Neuroscience, Psychology, Biomedical Engineering,
and Communication experts.
The research poses the following Research Questions: Q1. The purpose of this study
is to explore if Cognitive Neurosciences can represent a shift in the approaches of
Emotional Design. Q2. The research investigates if designers can interpret the
emotional responses analyzed with the tools of Cognitive Neurosciences. Q3. The
study examines if it's possible to create a tool to support the design activity which
includes data deriving from Cognitive Neurosciences.
0.1
0.2 0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0
0.4 Research Objecves
0.5 Research Targets
0 LOGICAL FRAMEWORK
0.1 Topics and Macro-Areas
0.7 Phases and Methods
0.6 Results
0.2 Research Problem
0.2 Research Quesons
CHAPTER 1 Premises
ABSTRACT
In this chapter we retrace the steps that have brought Ergonomics and Human
Factors to meet, in a concept of Ergonomics that has started on the usability
principle and which has evolved beyond the usability. Including not only functional
requirements in design was a fundamental step towards including emotional issues
among design requirements. Research ields that have met between hard sciences
and social sciences have deined the concept of Pleasure in product use, trying to
listen and observe the user also regarding emotional needs. Hence the deinition of
the Human-Centered Design (HCD) and the new challenges to which the designer is
called, to make sure that the designed product leads to a user experience that is also
positive and enjoyable, while the user accomplish the desired task.
0.1
0.2 0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
1.1
.1
.4
.3
.2
1.2
1
0
1.1.4 Pleasure in Product Use according to Jordan
1.1.2 Beyond Usability
1.1 Ergonomics and Human Factors
1.1.1 Usability
1.1.3 Pleasure
1.2 Human-Centered Design
1 PREMISES
CHAPTER 2 Emoons and Percepon
ABSTRACT
In this chapter, we will briely review the literature about emotions from the
cognitive perspective (see chapter Premises), selecting the indings that have led to
methodologies and tools created for designers and from designers. After an
overview of the different theories of emotions, the types of emotions will be
differentiated, focusing again on which, among the others, have represented the
premises to tools and methods for the Emotional Design approach, discussed later
on. The chapter covers the issues of levels of emotional response, synesthesia, and
multisensory perception, with the goal to facilitate the reading of the next chapter
about Emotional Design. Finally, this chapter addresses issues related to emotional
relationship that can be established between the user and the product, which are the
emotions that have been identiied as descriptive of the human-artifact relationship.
0.1
0.2 0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
1.1
.1
.1
.1
.4
.3
.3
.2 .2
.2
1.2 2.3
2.2
2.4
2.1
1
02
2.3.1 Percepon
2 EMOTIONS AND PERCEPTION
2.4 The Effects Produced by an Arfact
2.2 Types of Emoonal Response
2.1 Definions
2.2.1 Basic Emoons
2.2.2 Appraisal
2.3 Percepon, Senses and Mulsensory Integraon
2.3.2 Synesthesia
2.2.3 Valence - Arousal
CHAPTER 5 Cognive Neurosciences
ABSTRACT
In the following chapter we frame Cognitive Neurosciences, with the aim to bring the
designer closer to these disciplines and facilitate the reading of this research. To
depict a more complete picture of the research ields that may constitute a potential
advancement for Emotional Design, we focus on the process of perception; it’s the
fulcrum around which the main theories have developed and have inevitably also
interested the scientiic community of Design. Gibson's ecological approach, for
example, was crucial for the deinition of Affordances, which for some time were
also at the center of the debate in the Design Research, before Norman differentiated
the Affordances for the Design practice and the ones for the Psychology. To speak
about the process of perception requires at least the introduction of the concepts of
Sensory-motor System and of how the Cerebral cortex is structured. As deined in
the Research Objectives, speciically in RO.4, one of the objectives is to integrate, if
possible and useful, Emotional Design and Cognitive Neuroscience: it is therefore
necessary to provide the reader, that has background in Design but without
background in disciplines related to Medicine, some information allowing the
reading of the entire research. This is obviously not an attempt to retrace the history
of Neuroscience nor to compare the scientiic literature of the discipline, for which
we do not have the necessary knowledge, but it is an attempt to bring other
designers closer to this emerging and potentially useful research area of Design. We
will then focus on how this area of research is measuring what Design calls User
Experience, so we will mention neurophysiological indices that are being adopted
and which we will ind in the inal experiments. For these chapters distant from the
discipline of Design, and therefore from our speciic background, participation in
the interdisciplinary research group has been crucial for the speed in retrieving
information as well as for the quality of the information itself.
0.1
0.2 0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
1.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.4
.4
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2 .2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
1.2 2.3
3.4
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.5
4.1
4.2
5.2
5.1
4.3
2.2
2.4
2.1
1
0
4
5
2
3
5 COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCES
5.1 Research Field
5.1.2 Ecological Approach - Gibson
5.1.4 Cerebral Cortex
5.1.1 Percepon as a Process - Marr
5.1.3 Sensory-Motor System
5.2.1 Mental Effort
5.2 Neurophysiological Indexes
5.2.2 Emoonal Index
5.2.3 Interest
CHAPTER 6 Cognive Neurosciences and
Design
ABSTRACT
In this chapter, we investigate the meeting points between the Neurosciences and
Design. As described in the previous chapters, assessing the process of perception
and emotions has not only been at the center of the scientiic debate in the discipline
of Design, but also in other ields of research such as Philosophy, Art and Marketing,
to name a few. Since this debate has been recently addressed by Neurosciences, we
consider useful to also encompass the irst attempts to understand the perception
and to measure emotions elicited by visual stimuli, even if they are not directly from
the discipline of Design. In reality, Neurodesign is an extremely recent ield of
research that is still under development. For this reason below we also retrace the
early days of Neuroaesthetics, Neuromarketing, to inally describe the development
of Neurodesign: an emerging branch of knowledge that is still an open debate about
which potentials it has, what to expect from a neuroscientiic approach to the
investigation of the user, and which limitations it poses.
0.1
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3
6.3 Neurodesign
6.3.1 Case Studies Product Design's Extrinsic features
6.1.2 Case Study Moses
6.1 Neuroaesthecs
6.1.1 Case Study Tian
6.3.2 Case Studies Product Design's Intrinsic features
6.2 Neuromarkeng
6 COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCES AND DESIGN
CHAPTER 7 Experimentaon 1 in the Lab
In the opening chapters we described how the emotional factor is as important as
the rational factor in a user-product interaction. On the emotional factor in the
discipline of Design, there have been various theories and tools, as described in the
chapter Emotional Design. Most of the theories originate from a Psychological
approach to the evaluation of the emotional response. Today there are indings from
Neurosciences, coupled with technological developments, that are allowing the
measurement of emotional response with new tools promising new potentials. So
far Neurosciences have been applied to measure the user response in relation to a
bidimensional work of art used as a stimulus, in relation to the vision of advertising,
in the vision of tridimensional work of art, although less has been done for the
discipline of Design. We then participated to a multidisciplinary research-group.
The group is still conducting measurements on the emotional response of users, by
adopting stimuli that range from two-dimensional objects to manipulable objects.
In some speciic cases, we can consider a manipulable object as a product of Design.
The methods to measure the neurophysiological responses, and the indexes
adopted to transformed these data into quantiiable values, have been described in
chapter 5. We also participated in the experimentations to compare, not only from a
theoretical perspective but also from an on-the-ield experimentation, how
Neuroscience can measure the user-product interaction, in line with the Research
Questions. With the goal to compare the protocol used by the research group to the
indings coming from the Design research, we also observed the experimentation of
measuring the user-product interactions. It's the irst step to explore the Research
Questions Q1 and Q2, in which respectively we asked if Cognitive Neurosciences can
represent a shift in the approaches of Emotional Design, and if the designer can
interpret the emotional response data obtained with the tools and methods of
Cognitive Neurosciences.
ABSTRACT
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0.6
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3.4
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3.3
3.5
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4.2
5.2
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6.2
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7.2
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4.3
2.2
2.4
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1
0
4
5
7
6
2
3
7 EXPERIMENTATION 1 IN THE LAB
7.2.3 Smulus
7.2.5 Results
7.2 Experimentaon
7.2.1 Parcipants
7.2.4 Phases
7.1 Research Group - BrainSigns
7.2.2 Instruments – Tools
CHAPTER 8 A Matrix for Neuroscience and
Design
In the previous chapter we identiied, by participating in a multidisciplinary
research group composed of researchers in the ields of Neuroscience, Psychology,
Biomedical Engineering and Communication Experts, a certain integration of
Cognitive Neurosciences’ toolswith the research of Emotional Design. After
identifying the potentials, in this chapter we analyze how we can achieve this
integration between Neuroscience and Design. We then investigated whether it is
possible to use the same results and the same tools to support the designer's activity,
combining the results in the ield of Emotional Design research with the research of
Cognitive Neuroscience. In response to this question, we have created tools and
methods named, respectively, Cards and AlPha matrix. It is the second step to
explore the research questions, in particular the Q3 in which we asked if it is possible
to create a tool to support the design activity, which includes data obtained from
Cognitive Neurosciences. The application of this tool is subsequently described in
chapter 9.
ABSTRACT
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.2
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3.4
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3.2
3.3
3.5
4.1
4.2
5.2
5.1
6.3
6.2
7.1
7.2
8.1
8.3
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2.4
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1
0
4
5
8
7
6
2
3
8 A MATRIX FOR NEUROSCIENCE AND DESIGN
8.2 Mental Effort - Reflecve Level - Instrumental Interacon
8.2.1 Funconal Sphere
8.1 AlPha Matrix
8.2.2 F1 Signifiers/Affordances
8.2.3 F2 Constraints
8.2.4 F3 Mappings
8.2.5 F4 Feedback
8.3 Emoonal Index - Visceral Level - Non-Instrumental Interacon
8.3.5 M4 Consistency of Messages
8.3.3 M2 Relaonships
8.4.1 Semanc Sphere
8.3.1 Morphological Sphere
8.5.1 How to Use the Cards
8.4.4 S3 Righulness
8.3.4 M3 Typicality and Novelty
8.4.2 S1 Usefulness
8.4.3 S2 Pleasantness
8.4 Interest - Behavioral Level - Non-Physical Interacon
8.3.2 M1 Metaphors
8.5 Cards
CHAPTER 9 Experimentaon 2 for Design
ABSTRACT
Base d on t he observation of to ols and met hods rece ntly adopted by a
multidisciplinary research group, focused on the measurement of the user's
response to a three-dimensional stimulus that can be manipulated, we noted the
potential of overlapping between Cognitive Neuroscience and Emotional Design, as
highlighted in chapter 7. On the basis of these potentials, we have investigated, in
chapter 8, how the scientiic evidences of the two disciplines can validate this
integration, deining the AlPha matrix and the operative tool Cards, to support the
designer's activity. This tool, deined in chapter 8, integrates the evidence resulting
from a neurophysiological measurement of the user’s response with the practice of
Design. In this chapter we apply that to ol to the measurements of the
experimentation 1 that was described in chapter 7. With this chapter, and with the
application of the AlPha matrix and the Cards, we verify the operational potential of
the instrument we created.
0.1
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9
7
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9.1 Cards Applicaon
9.2 Cards Applied for the Smulus 1
9.3 Cards Applied for the Smulus 2
9.4 Conclusions of Experimentaon 2
9 EXPERIMENTATION 2 FOR DESIGN
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3.3
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4.2
5.2
5.1
6.3
6.2
7.1
7.2
8.1
9.4
9.3
9.2
9.1
10.1
10.4 10.5
10.3
10.2
8.3
8.2
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4.3
2.2
2.4
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1
0
4
5
8
9
10
7
6
2
3
10.1 Expected Results and Final Results
10.3 Answering the Research Quesons
10 EVALUATION OF RESULTS
10.4 Future Direcons to Undertake
10.2 Objecves Achieved and Further Development
10.4.1 Specificaons of the Italian Design
10.5 Possible Improvements and Conclusions
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