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From academic to political rigour: Insights from the 'Tarot' of transgressive research

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Abstract and Figures

The role of science and knowledge production is at a crossroads, as societal transformation calls for challenging dominant forms of knowledge production that have contributed to marginalizing other ways of knowing. This presents a challenge to mainstream science and invites a deeper reflection on our roles as scientists and exploration of alternative engaged, post-normal and activist approaches to research. This paper examines the diverse ways researchers are meeting this challenge. Employing the device of the Tarot deck we describe seven "char-acters" to illustrate the variety of roles and approaches that trans-disciplinary, transformative, transgressive and activist researchers are engaging in. These characters are used to introduce and develop the concept of political rigour as a means of expanded academic rigour in new emancipatory scientific paradigms. We demonstrate how these Tarot characters can be used as an activity for collective and personal reflexivity and propose ten principles that frequently emerge in a 'political' peer review process. We argue that the insights emerging from these strands of radical, critical, engaged and applied forms of scholarship, can significantly improve the understanding of what a "transformative knowledge paradigm" may look like in practice and how it can be mobilized for social change and environmental justice.
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6Environmental Learning Research Centre, Rhodes University, Rhodes University Campus, Environmental Education Dept. ELRC building, Lucas Avenue, 6140, South Africa
7Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain
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1.1. Positioning ourselves
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L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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2. Literature review: juggling academic and political rigour
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L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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CF9H=75@@M A9H<C8C@C;M 5B8 9AD=F=75@@M !H ;I5F8G 5;5=BGH F97?@9GGB9GG
7<9FFM D=7?=B; @57? C: 5HH9BH=CB 5B8 ;FCIB8@9GG 7CB7@IG=CBG !H 5@GC 89
A5B8G CD9BB9GG HC :5@@=6=@=HM – “H<9 89GHFI7H=CB C: 695IH=:I@ =895G 6M
/<=@9 @5I856@9 =H =G =ADCFH5BH :CF G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF BCH HC 697CA9
F=;=8=HM @CB; K=H< F=;CIF J=;CIF =G 5@GC ?9M B8 G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF
5@CB9 =G C:H9B BCH 9BCI;< !B <=G %5B=:9GHC C: ,F5BG8=G7=D@=B5F=HM
&=7C@9G7I  DCG=HG H<5H H<9 H<F99 7<5F57H9F=GH=7G C: 5 HF5BG8=G7=D@=
B5FM D9FGD97H=J9 5F9 F=;CIF CD9B=B; 5B8 HC@9F5B79 77CF8=B; HC <=A
H<9 F=;CIF C: HF5BG8=G7=D@=B5F=HM ;C9G 9J9B 899D9F H<5B G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF
HC H<9 9LH9BH H<5H =H H5?9G =BHC 577CIBH BCH CB@M H<=B;G 6IH 5@GC 69=B;G
5B8 H<9=F F9@5H=CBG HC CH<9F 69=B;G 5B8 H<=B;G ,5?=B; 577CIBH C: 5@@ H<9
;=J9BG DF9G9BH =B 5 D5FH=7I@5F G=HI5H=CB =G 5 7<5F57H9F=GH=7 C: H<=G F=;CIF
!H =G CB@M =B H<=G K5M H<5H F=;CIF =G HFI@M 5 G5:9;I5F8 5;5=BGH 5@@ DCGG=6@9
HIFBG 'D9B=B; 6F=B;G 5B 5779DH5B79 C: H<9 IB?BCKB H<9 IB9LD97H98
5B8 H<9 IBDF98=7H56@9D 
@CB; H<9 G5A9 @=B9G CFF5G  5F;I9G H<5H DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF
A95BG 69=B; DC@=H=75@@M =B:CFA98 5B8 H<CFCI;< G9BG=H=J9 5B8
BI5B798 5B8 H=A9@M 5B8 F9@9J5BH !H G<CI@8 69 H<9 CDDCG=H9 C: 5
DCGHACFH9A K5M C: H<=B?=B; 5B8 8C=B; H<=B;G !H A95BG H5?=B;
5 DCG=H=CB CB DC@=H=75@ DFC79GG9G H<5H 5F9 69=B; F9G95F7<98 K<=7<
=B HIFB FIBG H<9 F=G? C: 7CADFCA=G=B; H<9 F=;CF C: H<9 57589A=7
8=A9BG=CB C: H<9 F9G95F7<
!B H<=G D5D9F K9 9LH9B8 H<9 7CB79DH C: DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF 5G CB9
H<5H 75B 69 DCH9BH=5@@M :FI=H:I@ HC ;I=89 =BHF9D=8 HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 57
H=J=GHG7<C@5FG H<FCI;< H<9 HCI;< 7<C=79G H<9M AIGH A5?9 56CIH K<9F9
K=H< K<CA 5B8 <CK H<9M 9B;5;9 =B H<9=F EI9GHG HC HF5BG:CFA H<9 KCF@8
(C@=H=75@ F=;CIF IG9G 5G =HG 89D5FHIF9 DC=BH H<9 57?BCK@98;9A9BH C: H<9
=B<9F9BH@M DC@=H=75@ 5B8 7I@HIF5@@M 5B8 <=GHCF=75@@M G=HI5H98 B5HIF9 C:
?BCK@98;9 DFC8I7H=CB  5F5K5M  5B8 H<9 C6G9FJ5H=CB H<5H 5@@ F9
G95F7< G7=9B79 5B8 :CFAG C: ?BCK@98;9 DFC8I7H=CB 5F9 =B<9F9BH@M DC
@=H=75@ 9BH9FDF=G9G =AD57H98 6M IB9EI5@ DCK9F F9@5H=CBG /9 8C BCH =B
H<=G D5D9F G<IB DCG=H=J=GH=7 G7=9B79 F5H<9F K9 8F5K =BGD=F5H=CB :FCA H<9
7F95H=J9 9LD5BG=CB C: G7=9B79 H<FCI;< 7F=H=EI9G C: BCFA5@ G7=9B79 5B8
7F=H=75@ GC7=5@ H<9CF=9G 5B8 A9H<C8C@C;=9G =B DCGHBCFA5@ GC7=5@ G7=9B79
95B 9H 5@ 
/9 H5?9 =BGD=F5H=CB :FCA <5G?5FG  7F=H=75@ F95@=GH H<9CFM C:
CBHC@C;M H<5H F97C;B=N9G H<5H CIF D9F79DH=CBG C: F95@=HM 5F9 =B<9F9BH@M
CBHC@C;=75@ 5B8 =BVI9B798 6M AI@H=D@9 F9B89F=B;G CF D9F79DH=CBG C:
HFIH< (C@=H=75@ F=;CIF 7CI@8 H<9F9:CF9 69 G99B 5G 5 7F=H=75@ F95@=GH A97<
5B=GA H<5H =G F9V9L=J9 5B8 7F=H=75@ C: CIF GH5B79 C: HFIH<5B8 CD9BG ID
+99 :CF 9L5AD@9 <HHDGKKK?H<G9GC7=5@;FCID9L5A9BG5F69H9J=87GD5;9
H<9 DCGG=6=@=HM :CF AI@H=D@9 HFIH<G C: K<=7< <5G?5F =89BH=U9G :CIF 8=G
H=B7H :CFAG 9F9 AI@H=D@9 D5H<K5MG HC HFIH< 75B 69 7F=H=75@@M 5B8
C;M 5B8 F5H=CB5@=HM 5B8 H<9 7CBH9LH H<5H H<9G9 ?BCK@98;9G 9A9F;9
5B8 F9GDCB8 HC (C@=H=75@ F=;CIF H<9F9:CF9 IB89FA=B9G CIF 8C;A5H=7
DCG=H=J=GH=7 5GGIADH=CB H<5H H<9F9 =G CB9 CJ9F5F7<=B; HFIH< 5HH5=B98
H<FCI;< DIF9 G7=9BH=U7C6>97H=J=HM <5G?5F  *56=BCK 
$CHN+=G=H?5 6
/<=@9 57589A=7 F=;CIF =G 9BGIF98 H<FCI;< H<9 G7=9BH=U7 A9H<C8
5B8 J9F=U98 H<FCI;< 5 DFC79GG C: D99F F9J=9K H<9F9 =G BC DF97CB
79=J98 GMGH9A C: 9BGIF=B; DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF BCF :CF B5J=;5H=B; H<9 DC
H9BH=5@ HF589CWG 5B8 7CAD@9A9BH5F=H=9G 69HK99B 57589A=7 5B8 DC@=H=
75@ F=;CIF 5G H<9 :CFAG C: ?BCK@98;9 B99898 6M 8=J9FG9 7CBGH=HI9B7=9G
K=@@ BCH B979GG5F=@M 5@=;B CFF5G  /9 H<IG 5F;I9 H<5H :IFH<9F 89
J9@CDA9BH C: 5 F9V97H=J9 5B8 =H9F5H=J9 :F5A9KCF? :CF 5GG9GG=B; DC@=H=
75@ F=;CIF75B 69 DIH HC IG9 HC 588F9GG H<9 H9BG=CBG 5B8 GMB9F;=9G 5B8
7<5@@9B;9G C: 57H=J=GH 5B8 HF5BG:CFA5H=CBG F9G95F7< ,<=G =B7@I89G A97<
5B=GAG ACF9 56@9 HC =89BH=:M <CK :IHIF9 F9G95F7< A5M ;9B9F5H9 UB8=B;G
H<5H 75B =B:CFA DC@=H=7G 5B8 DF57H=79
9MCB8 H<=G H<9 89J9@CDA9BH C: 5 DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF :F5A9KCF? 75B 58
8F9GG K5MG HC 6F=8;9 8=G7CIFG9G 69HK99B H<9 =BH9F9GHG 5B8 B998G C: GC7=5@
ACJ9A9BHG 5B8 57589A=5 K<=@9 6I=@8=B; HFIGH 89@A5B  75B 9L
DCG9 DCH9BH=5@ 7CBHF58=7H=CBG =B9::97H=J9B9GG 5B8 <MDC7F=G=9G K<=@9 GID
DCFH=B; 5 DC@=H=75@ GHFI;;@9 .=BH<5;9B  5B8 75B DFCJ=89 5 7F=H=75@
D9FGD97H=J9 CB D5FH=7=D5H=CB 5B8 =HG 7CBGHF5=BHG 5B8 CB H<9 @=A=HG 5B8
7<5@@9B;9G C: 89J9@CD=B; 5B 9A5B7=D5HCFM F9G95F7< DFC;F5A K=H<=B B9
C@=69F5@ 57589A=7 =BGH=HIH=CBG 5B8 8=G7=D@=B9G H<5H 7CBH=BI9 HC 69 GHFI7
HIF98 6M DCK9F =BH9F9GHG 5B8 <=9F5F7<=9G ,9AD9F 5B8 9@ 9B9 
<5HH9FHCB 9H 5@  =B5@@M =H 75B 588F9GG <CK CJ9F6IF89B98 575
89A=7G 75B UB8 GD579 :CF >CM =B F9V9L=J=HM GIDDCFH=B; C: GHFI;;@9G 5B8
7C@@97H=J9 57H=CB 5A=8GH DF975F=HM 5B8 H<9 DF9GGIF9G C: H<9 57589A=7
DI6@=G< CF D9F=G< F5HF579
!B H<9 B9LH G97H=CB K9 C::9F H5B;=6@9 9L5AD@9G C: K<5H DC@=H=75@
F=;CIF @CC?G @=?9 =B DF57H=79 H<FCI;< 5B 9LD@CF5H=CB C: H<9 8=J9FG9 FC@9G
H<5H F9G95F7<9FG 5F9 58CDH=B; IB89F H<9 B9K D5F58=;A 5B8 <CK H<9M
5F9 B5J=;5H=B; H<9G9 IB7<5FH98 K5H9FG !B H<9 8=G7IGG=CB K9 CD9B 5 8=
5@C;I9 H<FCI;< 5 F9V97H=CB CB H<9G9 FC@9G 5B8 <CK H<9M 75B =B:CFA
H<9 89J9@CDA9BH C: 5 DC@=H=75@@M F=;CFCIG DF5L=G :CF HF5BG:CFA5H=CBG F9
3. Method: the Tarot deck of transgressive research
!B H<=G D5D9F K9 DFCDCG9 H<9 ,5FCH 5G 5 89J=79 :CF 9LD@CF=B; 8=J9FG9
5DDFC57<9G HC F9G95F7< ,<9 ,5FCH =G 5 G9H C: D@5M=B; 75F8G IGI5@@M 7CB
G=GH=B; C: 5 D57? C:  U;IF9G CF GMA6C@G K<=7< =G HF58=H=CB5@@M IG98 5G 5
K5M HC 5K5?9B H<9 =BHI=H=CB C: H<9 F9589F 5B8 H<9 EI9F9BH5G 5 A95BG
EI9GH=CB ,<9 75F8G 8=J=898 =BHC H<9 A=BCF 5B8 A5>CF 5F75B5 F9DF9G9BH
5 J5F=9HM C: 8=::9F9BH G=HI5H=CBG 5F7<9HMD5@ 7CB79DHG 5B8CF D9FGCB5@=HM
HF5=HG GI7< 5G H<9 $CJ9FGH<9 9FA=H95H<5B8 H<9 CC@ H<5H
75B 69 F958 5G 5 @5B;I5;9 7CADCG98 C: GMA6C@=7 F9DF9G9BH5H=CBG @=?9
BCH9G =B 5 AIG=75@ G75@9 957< CB9 <5J=B; 5 8=::9F9BH 9::97H CB H<9 F9589F
C: H<9 75F8G =@9G 
,<9 ,5FCH 75F8G 75B H<IG 69 G99B 5G ?9MG K<=7< 5=A HC IB@C7? =BHI
=H=CB 6M 7<5@@9B;=B; H<9 F9589F HC 7CB:FCBH GMA6C@G H<9M KCI@8 BCH BCF
A5@@M 7CBG=89F !B H<=G K5M H<9 ,5FCH 75B @958 HC B9K =BG=;<HG CIHC:H<9
6CL H<=B?=B; 5B8 5 B9K D9FGD97H=J9 57< 75F8 CF 7<5F57H9F K=@@ DFCADH
=B H<9 F9589F 5 8=::9F9BH =BH9FDF9H5H=CB 5B8 5GGC7=5H=CB =B:CFA98 6M <9F
@=:9 9LD9F=9B79G GHCF=9G 5B8 D9FGCB5@ B5FF5H=J9
!BGD=F98 6M H<9 IG9 C: H<9 ,5FCH 5G 5 B5FF5H=J9 89J=79 5 89G7F=D
H=J9 HCC@ 5B8 5 K5M :CF H<9 F9G95F7<9F HC 7CBB97H K=H< H<9=F =BHI=H=CB
K9 GI;;9GH H<5H H<9 ,5FCH 5B8 =HG 7<5F57H9FG 75B 69 IG98 6M F9G95F7<9FG
GHFI;;@=B; 5G 8C K9 K=H< 89UB=B; H<9=F FC@9 5G G7<C@5FG 5B8 57H=J=GHG
=B 5 HF5BG:CFA=B; KCF@8 =B G9J9F5@ K5MG ,<=G =B7@I89G GIF:57=B; 5B8 9L
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
D@CF=B; H<9=F CKB DCG=H=CB5@=HM 5B8 FC@9G 5G F9G95F7<9FG 7CBHF=6IH=B; HC
5 89:=B=H=CB C: H<9 8=J9FG9 7CBG=89F5H=CBG =B<9F9BH =B DC@=H=75@@M F=;CFCIG
F9G95F7< 5B8 <9@D=B; HC 89UB9 H<9 J5@I9G H<5H =B:CFA 5B8 ;I=89 H<9=F
CKB F9G95F7<
,C H<=G 9B8 K9 7F95H98 5B 9L9F7=G9 9AD@CM=B; 5FHG65G98 A9H<
C8G H<5H =BJ=H9G F9G95F7<9FG HC 89UB9 5B8 9LD@CF9 H<9=F CKB FC@9G 5B8
F9GDCBG=6=@=H=9G 5B8 =89BH=H=9G 5G G7<C@5FG IF=B; KCF?G<CDG <9@8 =B
9=FIH 5F79@CB5 +CIH< :F=75 5B8 $IB8 +K989BX K9 =BJ=H98 F9
G95F7<9FG HC F9V97H CB H<9 :C@@CK=B; ?9M EI9GH=CBG 5B8 HC 7F95H9 H<9=F
CKB ,5FCH 75F8 IG=B; 5 DFC79GG C: 7C@@5;9 H<5H =BJC@J9G G9@97H=B; :FCA
GMA6C@=7 =A5;9G DFCJ=898 CF CB9G H<9M <58 ;5H<9F98 H<5H GD95? HC H<9
F9G95F7< =89BH=H=9G H9BG=CBG EI9GH=CBG 5B8 7CB79FBG =B H<9=F KCF?
/<5H 7<5F57H9F CF FC@9 8C MCI =89BH=:M K=H< =B MCIF F9G95F7<57H=J=GA
/<5H =A5;9G GIF:579 :CF MCI K<9B MCI H<=B? C: MCIF KCF?
/<5H 7<5@@9B;9G 5B8 H9BG=CBG 7CA9 =BHC D@5M K<9B MCI 58CDH H<=G
,<9 9L9F7=G9 @98 HC H<9 7F95H=CB C: 5 GD579 :CF F9V9L=J9 9LD@CF5H=CB
=BHC 957< F9G95F7<9F57H=J=GHG IB=EI9 5B8 D@IF5@ 9LDF9GG=CBG C: H<9=F
FC@9G 5B8 57H=CBG 6CH< =895@ 5B8 57HI5@ H<5H K9F9 ;9B9F5H=J9@M GIF:5798
=B H<=G G=AD@9 DFC79GG =; 
!B H<=G D5D9F K9 <=;<@=;<H G9J9B 7<5F57H9FGH<5H K9 <5J9 G99B 6CH<
K=H<=B CIF CKB F9G95F7< 7CAAIB=H=9G 5B8 =B 7F=H=75@ @=H9F5HIF9 957< C:
K<=7< 9A6C8=9G 8=J9FG9 5GD97HG C: 57589A=7 5B8 DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF =B H<9=F
CKB K5M ,<9F9 5F9 C6J=CIG@M A5BM ACF9 5B8 =H G<CI@8 69 BCH98 H<5H
H<9G9 7<5F57H9FG G<CI@8 69 7CBG=89F98 5G 9A9F;9BH V9L=6@9 5B8 C:H9B
7CBH9LHI5@@M GD97=U7 /9 8C BCH GI;;9GH F9G95F7<9FG @=A=H H<9AG9@J9G HC
=89BH=:M=B; K=H< CB9 75F8CF H<9 CH<9F =BGH958 K9 DFCDCG9 H<5H F9
G95F7<9FG IG9 H<9 7<5F57H9FG DF9G9BH98 HC C6G9FJ9 5B8 F9V97H CB H<9 J5
F=9HM 5B8 8=J9FG=HM C: 5DDFC57<9G 5B8 FC@9G H<5H 75B 9L=GH =B 8=::9F9BH
ACA9BHG H<FCI;<CIH H<9 F9G95F7< DFC79GG =; 
4. Results: our Tarot deck
4.1. The post-normal scientist
$=?9 H<9 :CC@ =B H<9 UFGH 75F8 C: H<9 ,5FCH H<9 DCGHBCFA5@ G7=9BH=GH
=G CB9 K<C =G J9BHIF=B; =BHC H<9 IB?BCKB CF K<5H +5F85F  75@@G
H<9 DCGHBCFA5@ H=A9G 7<5F57H9F=N98 6M 7CAD@9L=HM 7<5CG 5B8 7CBHF5
8=7H=CBG +<9 697CA9G K<5H IBHCK=7N 5B8 *5J9HN  75@@ ,<9 (CGH
&CFA5@ *9G95F7<9FK<C =G 5K5F9 H<5H H<9 D5F58=;A C: BCFA5@ G7=9B79
5B8 =HG DFC6@9AGC@J=B; 5DDFC57< =G C6GC@9H9 ,<=G 7<5F57H9F 9A9F;9G
CIH C: 7F=H=75@ F95@=GA @=H9F5HIF9 <5G?5F    
5B8 CIH C: H<9 DCGHBCFA5@ G7=9B79 75BCB *5J9HN 5B8 IBHCK=7N =6=8
95B 9H 5@  +5F85F 
,<=G F9G95F7<9F B5J=;5H=B; H<9G9 7CB8=H=CBG C: HF5BG=H=CB IB79F
H5=BHM G<=:H=B; DCK9F 8MB5A=7G <=;< GH5?9G M9H IF;9BH B998 :CF 897=
G=CBG F9@=9G CB HF9A9B8CIG 7F95H=J=HM =A5;=B5H=CB 5B8 57?BCK@98;9
A9BH C: <9F CKB =;BCF5B79
*9;5F8=B; 57589A=7 F=;CIF H<9 DCGHBCFA5@ G7=9BH=GH F97C;B=N9G H<5H
DFC6@9A 89:=B=H=CB H<9 7<C=79 C: K<5H ;9HG A95GIF98 5B8 <CK <CK J5@
I9G 5F9 89UB98 5B8 <CK 897=G=CBG F9;5F8=B; H<=G =B7CAA9BGIF56=@=HM
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F9EI=F9 5 G<5FD 7F=H=75@ G9BG=H=J=HM HC H<9G9 BCFAG
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G99G H<9 KCF@8 6IH 9LD5B8=B; CIF K5M C: 69=B; 6M CD9B=B; CIFG9@J9G ID
HC 5@H9FB5H=J9G 5B8 6F=B;=B; H<9G9 5@H9FB5H=J9G HC @=:9 H<FCI;< CIF KF=H
=B; CIF 5FH A5?=B; 5B8 CIF D9F:CFA5B79
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
Fig. 6. ,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F
!B D5FH=7I@5F H<9 7C7CBGD=F9F F5=G9G 7CB79FBG CJ9F H<9 8=G75F8=B;
C: <IA5B 9A6C8=A9BH C: H<9 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ =A5;=B5FM 5B8 G<9 9B
7CIF5;9G 5B 9A6C8=98 97C@C;=75@ 7=H=N9BG<=D H<5H 5HH9B8G GI:U7=9BH@M
HC 6C8M D@579 5B8 DC@=H=7G 9GD97=5@@M 5G H<9G9 5F9 IB89FGHCC8 5G 8=:
:9F9BH AC89G C: 9B;5;9A9BH K=H< H<9 KCF@8 K=H<=B <=GHCFM *9=8 5B8
,5M@CF   $=?9 H<9 HF=7?GH9F D9FGCB=U98 5G H<9 >57?5@ =B A5BM
:F=75B GHCF=9G G<9 =G 56@9 HC ACJ9 69HK99B KCF@8G K=H< 95G9 =B H<=G
75G9 H<9 9L=GH=B; <5F89B98 GC7=C97CBCA=7 5B8 DC@=H=75@ <=GHCF=9G H<5H
K9 F9GDCB8 HC 85=@M K<=@9 A5=BH5=B=B; 5 899D@M 7CBB97H98 5B8 G9BGCF
=5@ F9@5H=CBG<=D K=H< H<9 K=89F B5HIF5@ 97C@C;M +<9 F9GDCB8G HC H<9 7I@
HIF5@ 5B8 DC@=H=75@ 6C8M6@=B8B9GGK9 G99 =B H97<BC7F5H=7 9BJ=FCBA9B
H5@ F9GDCBG9G 7CBB97H98 K=H< H<9 8=GD5F5;9A9BH C: @C75@ ?BCK@98;9 5B8
D9FGCB5@ :CFAG C: ?BCK=B; 5B8 75D57=H=9G BCH CB@M =B H<9 DC@=7M GMGH9A
6IH 5@GC =B 98I75H=CB 5B8 9J9B =B H<9 @5F;9F 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ ACJ9A9BH
%75FFM  ,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F 7<5@@9B;9G 6C8M6@=B8 BCB8I5@=G
H=7 IB89FGH5B8=B;G C: H<9 =B8=J=8I5@ K=H<=B 5 A5HF=L 5B8 GI6>97HC6>97H
8I5@=GAG 5B8 7CBB97HG H<=G HC 89AC7F5H=7 :F998CA *9=8 5B8 ,5M@CF
+<9 =G G9BG=H=J9 5B8 C6G9FJ5BH HC GIF:579 B5H=J9 A95B=B;G :FCA
K<5H K9 A=;<H H<=B? =G FCIH=B9 5B8 AIB85B9 5B8 F9J95@G H<9 =BB5H9
?BCK@98;9 H<5H 7C@CIFG =H F=7?9F  +<9 IB89FGH5B8G H<5H 9FCH=7
?BCK@98;9 =9 9A6C8=98 =BHI=H=J9 5B8 =BGH=B7H=J9 K5MG C: ?BCK=B;
$CF89  C: H<=G B5HIF9 =G 5 J=H5@ F9GCIF79 =H =G 7I@HIF5@ 75D=H5@ H<5H
<C@8G DCK9F H<5H ;FCKG 5G =H =G 7CBG=GH9BH@M GIF:5798 5B8 57?BCK@98;98
5G ?BCK@98;9 5B8 G99G H<=G ?BCK@98;9 5G 5 <9FA9B9IH=75@ F9GCIF79
F=7?9F   ,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F CD9BG ID K<5H CA= <56<5
75@@G H<9 ;9B9F5H=J9 H<=F8 GD579GH<5H ;C 69MCB8 8CA=B5BH 8=G7CIFG9G
5B8 6=B5F=9G =B 98I75H=CB5@ F9G95F7< 5B8 8F5KG :FCA D<9BCA9BC@C;
=75@ 5B8 G9BGI5@ F9B89F=B;G C: H<9 KCF@8 %9F@95I(CBHM  C66
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;9B9F5H9G B9K DCGG=6=@=H=9G 6M EI9GH=CB=B; 9BHF9B7<98 75H9;CF=G5H=CBG
C: ?BCK@98;9 GMGH9AG 5B8 7I@HIF9G 5B8 CD9BG ID B9K 5J9BI9G K=H< 5
7CIBH9F <9;9ACB=7 GHF5H9;M F9=8@=8  
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HC A5=BH5=B 5 <95@H<M 7CBB97H=CB HC <9F CKB =89BH=HM 5B8 5IHCBCAM
,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F 5@GC A=;<H UB8 H<5H G<9 75B ;9H @CGH =B H<9 ;9B9F5
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HK99B @=:H=B; CIH 9FCH=7 ?BCK@98;9 GMGH9AG $CF89   5B8 D9F
GCB5@ 5;9B7M K=H< H<9 B998 HC HF5BG:9F H<9G9 ?BCK@98;9G =BHC 7C@@97
H=J9 57H=CBG 5B8 5;9B7M #I@IB8I  ,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F A=;<H 69
CJ9FK<9@A98 K=H< 9ACH=CB5@ HF5IA5H=7 CF 8=:U7I@H :CFAG C: ?BCK@
98;9 H<5H A=;<H 9A9F;9 :FCA <9F HF5BG;F9GG=J9 DF57H=79 5B8 G<9 AIGH 69
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H<9G9 9ACH=CB5@@M 7CAD@9L ?BCK@98;9G =; 
4.5. The Responsible Participant
,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH GHF=J9G HC D5FH=7=D5H9 =B 5B8 <C@8 5 HF5BG
:CFA5H=J9 5B8 7CBB97H=J9 GC7=5@ GD579 H<5H =G 7C;B=N5BH C: D5F=HM =B
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:CFAG C: 9B;5;=B; ,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH  CF=;=B5@@M 7C=B98 6M
+<9@@9M +57?G   F9:9FG HC H<9 F9G95F7<9F 5G F9V9L=J9 DF57H=H=CB9F
=BH9FJ9B9F:57=@=H5HCF =B 5B 9A9F;9BH F9G95F7< DFC79GG F5H<9F H<5B H<9
8CA=B5BH :CF79 7CBHFC@@=B; H<9 G<5D9 C: H<9 DFC79GG
,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH 5=AG HC F9A5=B DF9G9BH 6M 69=B; DF9
G9BH K=H< <9F CKB G9BG9G 5B8 G9BG=6=@=H=9G G99 +7<5FA9F  =B KCF?
=B; K=H< H<9 7CB79DH C: DF9G9B7=B;5G D5FH C: <=G -H<9CFM !B H<=G
Fig. 7. ,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
K5M G<9 697CA9G 5B 5DDF9BH=79 HC <9F CKB =BHI=H=CB =A5;=B5H=CB 5B8
9AD5H<=7 75D56=@=H=9G 5G K9@@ 5G 5B 5DDF9BH=79 HC H<9 D5FH=7=D5BHG CB
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F5H<9F <9F D9FGCB5@ 56=@=HM HC 57H =B 5B =BHI=H=J9 F9V9L=J9 5B8 75F
=B; K5M K<=7< ;I=89 <9F D5FH=7=D5H=CB 69MCB8 5 65G=7 7CAA=HA9BH HC
8CBC<5FA %75FFM 9H 5@  G +C7=5@ 9J9@CDA9BH DF57H=H=CB
9FG 5B8 5IH<CFG C: 5FH=GHG C: H<9 =BJ=G=6@9 #5D@5B 5B8 5J=8CW 
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H<5H 9BGIF9G H<9M 5F9 J=;=@5BH =B 5JC=8=B; GHF9B;H<9B=B; H<9 J9FM D5H
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 DF=A5FM 5=A =G HC F98I79 H<9 DCK9F C: H<9 F9G95F7<9F 5G :57=@=H5
HCF 5B8 HC 5JC=8 H<9 :57=@=H5HCFG DCH9BH=5@ 75D57=HM HC A5B=DI@5H9  CF
K<5H <5A69FG  75@@G facipulation A5B=DI@5H98 :57=@=H5H=CB ,<=G
7<5F57H9F 75@@G :CF G9BG=H=J=HM HC H<9 HMF5BBM C: D5FH=7=D5H=CB  =7?9M
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H=J9 :CFAG GI7< 5G 7CBB97H=J9 59GH<9H=7G 56@=?  5B8CF GC
7=5@ G7I@DHIF9 A9H<C8C@C;M 9IMG  +57?G  %75FFM 
,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH G99G H<9 59GH<9H=7 5G H<9 CDDCG=H9 C: 5B9G
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5H9 GD579G C: 9LHF5GC7=5@ 5IH<CF=HM H<5H 9L=GH CIHG=89 C: 5 <IA5B 69=B;
5B8 K=H<=B 5 7C@@97H=J9@M 5;F998 IDCB 7I@HIF9 C: 9B;5;9A9BH 5FCIB8 5
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,<FCI;< 5 7CA6=B5H=CB C: =BH9FB5@ 5B8 GC7=5@ F9V9L=J=HM H<9 *9
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H<9 F9G95F7< HC D5FH=7=D5H9 =B 5 ACF9 9EI=H56@9 @9GG8CA=B5BH :CFA =B
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:CF H<=G 5DDFC57< =B 7C@@56CF5H=J9 DF57H=7965G98 F9G95F7< :CF 89J9@CD
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*9=8 5B8 ,5M@CF 
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5 ;FCID CF 5 7CAAIB=HM  G=AD@9 9L5AD@9 =G F9ACJ=B; H<9 K5GH9 6=B
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5G H97<B=EI9G H<5H AIGH 5@K5MG F9GC@J9 6CH< CIF GC7=5@ 5B8 97C@C;=75@
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4.6. The critical comrade/the dialectic activist scholar
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Fig. 8. ,<9 7F=H=75@ 7CAF589
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L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
EIC GI77IA6=B; HC V5HH9F=9G ;5=B98 6M G9FJ=B; DCK9F CB8 9@56CF5H9G
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GC7=5@ ACJ9A9BH 5;9BHG H<9G9 =B7@I89 <=>57?=B; =B K<=7< 5 F9G95F7<9F
H5?9G CKB9FG<=D C: 5 ACJ9A9BH 5B8 =HG =BH9FDF9H5H=CB substitutionism
K<9F96M H<9 F9G95F7<9F F9D@579G @C75@ IB89FGH5B8=B; K=H< <=G CKB J=
G=CB Ventriloquism F9D<F5G=B; C: ACJ9A9BH H9LHG =B <=G CKB 5758
9A=7 KCF8G careerism through parasitism H97<B=7=GA <I7?GH9F=GA
8=J=G=J9B9GG 5B8 69HF5M5@ /=H<=B H<=G H<9 75F8=B5@ G=B =G D9F<5DG Fail-
ure of analytical nerve =B56=@=HM C:H9B 8I9 HC :95F HC 8F5K CIH H<9
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4.7. The Queer Enquirer
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Fig. 9. ,<9 )I99F BEI=F9F
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4.8. The slow and care-full scholar
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L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
Fig. 10. ,<9 G@CK 5B8 75F9:I@@ G7<C@5F
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5. Discussion: political rigour
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9B79 !B H<=G K5M DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF IG9G G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF GHF5H9;=75@@M 5G
5 7CIBH9F<9;9ACB=7 HCC@ !B H<=G K5M G7=9BH=U7 5B8 DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF 75B
69 GMB9F;=GH=7 /<=@9 H9BG=CBG GIF9@M 9L=GH H<9G9 5F9 5DDFC57<98 H<FCI;<
69=B; 9LD@=7=H 5B8 =BH9BH=CB5@ K=H< CIF 6=5G9G 5B8 5=AG 5B8 7@95F@M DCG=
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F=;CIF =G VI=8 5B8 <95J=@M 89D9B89BH CB 7CBH9LH
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G95F7< 5ACB;GH 5B 9LH9B898 D99F 7CAAIB=HM !H =G DFC79GGCF=9BH98 BCH
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5B8 =B7@I89G 7CBG=89F5H=CB C: 9D=GH9A=7 >IGH=79 F=7?9F  ,9AD9F
5B8 9@ 9B9  H<5H A5M 69 89UB98 5G H<9 J5@CF=N5H=CB 5B8 F97C;
B=H=CB C: CH<9F :CFAG C: ?BCK=B; 5B8 CH<9F @=:9KCF@8G =B7@I8=B; ?BCK@
98;9G FCA 69@CK HC H<9 $9:H K=H< H<9 5FH<G7C65F 
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I5H=B; DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF 5B8 :CF ;I=8=B; F9V9L=J=HM GC 5G HC 5GG9GG H<9
7CBG9EI9B79G C: H<9 F9G95F7< 5B8 <CK H<9G9 UH =BHC CIF J5@I9G C6
>97H=J9G 5B8 6FC589F HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 J=G=CBG /9 A5M 5G? C: F9G95F7<
=BH9B898 :CF GC7=5@ HF5BG:CFA5H=CB *9G95F7< :CF K<5H /=H< K<CA
CK /<5H ?=B8 C: 7<5B;9 CK =B DF57H=79 K=@@ H<=G DFC8I7H=CB C:
?BCK@98;9 HF5BG:CFA DCK9F F9@5H=CBG<=DG+I7< 5 7F=H=75@ DC@=H=75@@M
F=;CFCIG F9V97H=CB KCI@8 =B7@I89 7CBG=89F5H=CB C: H<9 CBHC@C;=9G K<5H
=G HFIH< 9D=GH9AC@C;=9G K<5H =G H<9 7CBB97H=CB 69HK99B H<9 ?BCK9F
5B8 K<5H =G CF 7CI@8 69 ?BCKB A9H<C8C@C;=9G <CK 8C K9 G9H CIH HC
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
7F95H9 5B8 8=G7CJ9F ?BCK@98;9 5B8 5L=C@C;=9G K<5H =G 9GG9BH=5@@M J5@I
56@9 5B8 =ADCFH5BH H<5H =B:CFA H<9 F9G95F7< DFC79GG I65 5B8 $=B7C@B
 .5F;5G 9H 5@  !H =B7@I89G 5 7CBGH5BH =BH9FD@5M 5B8 8=5@97H=7
69HK99B 57H=CB 5B8 F9V97H=CB C:H9B F9:9FF98 HC 5G H<9 DF5L=G C: F9G95F7<
F9=F9 
)I9GH=CBG HC 69 9L5A=B98 =B7@I89 H<CG9 CB H<9 HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 5=AG
5B8 89G=F98 DC@=H=75@ =AD57HG 9A9F;=B; :FCA H<9 DFC>97H A9H<C8C@C;=9G
9LD@CF5H=CBG =BHC H<9 A95B=B; 5B8 :CFAG C: D5FH=7=D5H=CB GC@=85F=HM 5B8
F97=DFC7=HM =B H<9 F9G95F7< EI9GH=CBG C: F9@5H=CBG K=H< 7CF9G95F7<9FG
5IH<CFG<=D 5B8 57?BCK@98;A9BH 5B8 9BEI=F=9G =BHC H<9 GCIF79G C:
?BCK@98;9 5B8 5HH9BH=CB HC K<C =G 7CBG=89F98 5B 9LD9FH K<5H :CFAG C:
?BCK@98;9 5F9 J5@I98 5B8 K<=7< 5F9 A5F;=B5@=N98X /<5H 5F9 CIF F9
G95F7< DI6@=7G 5B8 CIHDIHG  K<C 5F9 K9 GD95?=B; HC 5B8 <CK =B K<5H
:CFAG B8 <CK 8C K9 9J5@I5H9 CIFG9@J9G 5B8 G99? 9J5@I5H=CB :FCA CH<
9B95H< 5@@ H<=G =G H<9 EI9GH=CB C: H<9 J5@I9G 5B8 H<9 7F=H9F=5 H<5H =B
:CFA H<9 F9G95F7< 9F9 65G98 CB CIF CKB 9LD9F=9B79G 5B8 H<CG9 C: CH<
9FG =B CIF F9G95F7< 7CAAIB=H=9G K9 DFCDCG9 GCA9 DF=B7=D@9G H<5H :F9
EI9BH@M 9A9F;9 =B 5 politicalD99F F9J=9K DFC79GG ,<9G9 5F9 DF=B7=D@9G
H<5H <5J9 699B F9V97H98 H<FCI;< H<9 ,5FCH 7<5F57H9FG H<5H K9 <5J9 >IGH
89G7F=698 K<=7< K9 GI;;9GH 75B 57H 5G ;I=89G =B <CK GCA9 F9G95F7<9FG
5DD@M H<9G9 J5@I9G =B H<9=F CKB KCF? ,<IG H<9 G@CK 5B8 75F9:I@ G7<C@5F
F9A=B8G IG <CK HC 75F9 5B8 <CK HC 895@ K=H< H<9 6@IFF=B; C: CIF D9F
GCB5@ 5B8 DFC:9GG=CB5@ @=J9G 5B8 H<9 =B8=;9BCIG 5@@M A5M H957< IG K<5H
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HC >C=BH@M 89UB9 H<9 J5@I9G 5B8 7F=H9F=5 H<5H =B:CFA H<9=F CKB 7C@@97H=J9
5B8 =B8=J=8I5@ DFC79GG9G
(C@=H=75@ D99F F9J=9K 9BH5=@G H<9 >C=BH 89:=B=H=CB C: G<5F98 J5@I9G 5G
H<CG9 56CJ9 H<9 7C89J9@CDA9BH C: A95BG HC J9F=:M H<9=F 5DD@=75H=CB
5B8 =BH9;F=HM 5B8 H<9 CIH@=B=B; C: 5B =H9F5H=J9 75@@ 5B8 F9GDCBG9 DFC79GG
:CF 58>IGH=B; H<9 F9G95F7< 89G=;B DFC79GG 5B8 CIH7CA9G HC 9BGIF9 H<9A
 Accessibility F9G95F7< 75B 69 IB89FGHCC8 6FC58@M 5B8 5 A95BG :CF
GC7=5@ @95FB=B;
 Reexivity 7F=H=75@@M 9L5A=B5H=CB C: CIF CKB DF57H=79G DF9GIAD
 Relevance code>ning Matter of Concern K=H< 5@@ =BJC@J98 *9G95F7<
 Transparency 7@5F=HM C: GHFI7HIF9 DFC79GG9G 5B8 CIH7CA9
 Carefull ness F9@5H=CBG C: 75F9 K=H< CB9G9@: @CJ98 CB9G 7CAAI
B=H=9G C: G7<C@5F 5B8 D5FH=7=D5BHG
 Respectfulness <CK 5F9 CH<9F :CFAG C: ?BCK@98;9 5B8 KCF@8J=9KG
J5@CF=N98 F97C;B=N98 5B8 =BH9;F5H98 =BHC H<9 F9G95F7< DFC79GG
 Relationality F9G95F7< G<CI@8 69 ;FCIB898 5B8 7CBH9LH 89D9B89BH
 Reciprocity 7C89G=;B C: F9G95F7< EI9GH=CB A9H<C8G 5B5@MG=G 5B8
 Fallibility DCGG=6=@=HM HC :5=@ 5B8 @95FB :FCA :5=@IF9
 TransformativityTransgression <CK =G H<9 F9G95F7< HF5BG:CFA=B;
9A5B7=D5HCFM DCGG=6=@=H=9G
8<9F9B79 HC GI7< J5@I9G 75B <9@D =B:CFA G7<C@5F57H=J=GHG =B 5 7C@
@97H=J9 DFC79GG C: 7F95H=B; HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 ?BCK@98;9 H<5H =G G9BG=H=J9
!B H<=G @=B9 5B =BH9F9GH=B; =B=H=5H=J9 =G H<9 7=H5H=CB DF57H=79G 7<5@@9B;9 <HHDKKK
7F=H=75@9H<B=7GHI8=9G>CIFB5@CF;7=H5H=CBDF57H=79G K<=7< F9A=B8G IG HC 69 =BH9BH=CB5@ =B
CIF 7=H5H=CB DF57H=79G
HC H<9 DC@=H=7G C: 7CDFC8I7H=CB 5B8 <CK DC@=H=7G =BH9F9GHG =AD9F5H=J9G
5B8 ?BCK@98;9 C: 8=::9F9BH 57HCFG 5B8 GH5?9<C@89FG 5F9 F9V97H98 =B H<9
UB5@ F9G95F7< ,<9 B9K HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 ?BCK@98;9 D5F58=;A 89A5B8G
GI7< 5 B9K9F 899D9F :CFA C: F58=75@ F9V9L=J=HM H<5H =G =B H<9 A5?=B;
6. Conclusion
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57H=J=GH F9G95F7<9FG 5F9 9B;5;=B; =B 8=F97H=B; H<9 F9589F HC F9:9F9B79G
5B8 @=H9F5HIF9 CB 957< 5B8 <5G :CF79:I@@M 5F;I98 :CF H<9 B998 :CF DC
@=H=75@ F=;CIF =B:CFA98 6M 9LD@=7=H J5@I9G 5G 5 7CAD@9A9BH HC 57589
A=7 5B8 G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF K=H<=B 5 B9K D5F58=;A C: G7=9BH=U7 EI5@=HM
:CF HF5BG;F9GG=J9 5B8 HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 ?BCK@98;9 DFC8I7H=CB 5B8 G7=9B79
M =89BH=:M=B; 7CAACB5@=H=9G 57FCGG 8=J9FG9 7F=H=75@ 5B8 9A9F;9BH 5D
DFC57<9G HC G7=9B79 H<=G D5F58=;A <9@DG IG ACJ9 HCK5F8G ACF9 7C<9F
9BH A9H<C8C@C;=75@ 5DDFC57<9G =B HF5BG8=G7=D@=B5FM G7=9B79G @=?9 97C@C;
=75@ 97CBCA=7G H<5H <5J9 GHFI;;@98 K=H< IB7F=H=75@ D@IF5@=HM 5B8 A9H<C8
C@C;=75@ 7CB:IG=CB CK  +D5G< 
'IF :IHIF9 F9G95F7< 5;9B85 =B H<=G @=B9 =B7@I89G H<9 9@56CF5H=CB C:
CH<9F HCC@G 8=GFIDH=J9 DF57H=79GD985;C;=9G ;5A9G 5B8 9L9F7=G9G H<5H
75B <9@D ;I=89 5 F9V97H=J9 DFC79GG C: DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF ,<=G DFC79GG =B
7@I89G CB;C=B; =B8=J=8I5@ F9V9L=J=HM 6IH 5@GC 5 7C@@97H=J9 9LD@CF5H=CB
=BHC H<9 DC@=H=7G C: ?BCK@98;9 5B8 H<9 H<CFBM KCF? K9 AIGH 8C C: 7CA
D@=75H=B; GH5B85F8 57589A=7 DFCHC7C@G 5B8 H<9 HF5BG:CFA5H=CB C: H<9 =B
GH=HIH=CBG K9 KCF? =B 5B8 C: <CK K9 DFC8I79 5B8 J5@I9 ?BCK@98;9 DFC
8I7H=CB !B H<=G J9=B K9 AIGH 7CBGH5BH@M 5G? CIFG9@J9G 5B8 CH<9FG <CK
=G H<=G KCF? HF5BG;F9GG=J9$CHN+=G=H?5  CK 5F9 K9 ID9B8=B;
7<5@@9B;=B; 5B8 EI9GH=CB=B; H<9 5GGIADH=CBG H<9 8I5@=GAG H<9 5BH<FC
DC79BHF=GA 5B8 C6>97H=U75H=CB C: HF58=H=CB5@ 57589A=7 ?BCK@98;9 =
B5@@M <CK 8C K9 G99 CIF F9G95F7< 5G 5 DFC79GG C: 697CA=B; 5B8 HF5BG
:CFA5H=CB F5H<9F H<5B 5B IB7CJ9F=B; C: 9L=GH=B; HFIH< /9 <CD9 H<=G D5
9B79 B998G HC HF5BG:CFA =HG9@: 5B8 G9FJ9G 5G 5 J9<=7@9 :CF 7F=H=75@ F9V97
H=CB :CF F9G95F7<9FG F989UB=B; H<9AG9@J9G 5B8 H<9=F KCF?
Funding and acknowledgements
/9 5F9 ;F5H9:I@ HC H<9 !BH9FB5H=CB5@ +C7=5@ +7=9B79 CIB7=@ !++
5B8 H<9 ,F5BG:CFA5H=CBG HC +IGH5=B56=@=HM :CF H<9=F UB5B7=5@ 5B8 575
89A=7 GIDDCFH =B 7F95H=B; H<9 A95BG :CF H<=G 7C@@56CF5H=J9 D5D9F HC
9A9F;9 /9 5F9 =B896H98 HC +IG5BB9 %CG9F :CF <9F ?=B8 7F=H=75@ F9J=9K
C: 95F@=9F 8F5:HG C: H<=G D5D9F 5B8 <9F 7CBGH5BH GIDDCFH =B <9@D=B; ;I=89
5B8 G<5D9 H<9 #&'/$" 5B8 ,$95FB=B; &9HKCF? /9 5F9 ;F5H9:I@
:CF !B>5=FI #I@IB8I :CF DFCJ=8=B; IG UFGH <5B8 =BG=;<HG :CF H<9 7C7CB
GD=F9F,5FCH 5F8 5B8 <9F 7CIF5;9CIG 7C7CBGD=F=B; 57H=CB =B +CIH<
:F=75 +D97=5@ H<5B?G HC 9=@5 $CHN+=G=H?5 :CF <9F ;I=8=B; @=;<H =B 5@@
Uncited references
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L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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#5D@5B  5J=8CW +   9@=75H9 7H=J=GA !G ,FI@M *58=75@ 5 *58=75@ DDFC57<
HC <5B;9 (FCH9IG !B=H=5H=J9 <HHDKKKDFCH9IG=B=H=5H=J9CF;779GG98 +9DH9A69F
#@9=B ",  *9DF=BH C: =G7CIFG9G C: HF5BG8=G7=D@=B5F=HM @CC?=B; 657? HC H<9 :IHIF9
IHIF9G  
#TB=; & TFG9B , AA97<9   ,<9 9H<CG C: DCGHBCFA5@ G7=9B79 IHIF9G=B
DF9GG <HHDG8C=CF;>:IHIF9G
#FCB@=8   +=;HIB5 H<=B? D=979  7@=A5H9 75D56=@=H=9G 5B8 7@=A5H9 7<5B;9 98I75H=CB
F9G95F7< +CIH<9FB :F=75B "CIFB5@ C: BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 8I75H=CB  
#I@IB8I !  *9;9B9F5H=B; 5B8 *9=A5;=B=B; :F=75B $=69F5HCFM (985;C;M =B H<9
<5B;9 F=J9FG (< (FCDCG5@ GI6A=HH98 HC *<C89G -B=J9FG=HM =;<9F 89;F99G CA
#I@IB8I !  ,<=B? D=979 =BH9FG97H=CB5@ F9GCB5B79 5B8 H<9 AI@H=D@=7=HM C: 69=B; =B 5
DC@5F=G98 KCF@8 +CIH<9FB :F=75B "CIFB5@ C: BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 8I75H=CB 
$CF89   +=GH9F 'IHG=89F ,<9 FCGG=B; (F9GG ,FIA5BG69F; 5B8 &9K 0CF?
$CHN+=G=H?5   +=;HIB5 H<=B? D=979  D=97=B; HC;9H<9F 7CB79DHI5@ :F5A=B;G :CF 7@=
A5H9 7<5B;9 98I75H=CB F9G95F7< =B +CIH<9FB :F=75B 7CBH9LHG +CIH<9FB :F=75B "CIF
B5@ C: BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 8I75H=CB  
$CHN+=G=H?5   /<M CBHC@C;M A5HH9FG HC F9J=9K=B; 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 98I75H=CB F9
G95F7< BJ=FCB 8I7 *9G   
$CHN+=G=H?5  /5@G  #FCB@=8  %75FFM   ,F5BG:CFA5H=J9 HF5BG;F9GG=J9
GC7=5@ @95FB=B; F9H<=B?=B; <=;<9F 98I75H=CB D985;C;M =B H=A9G C: GMGH9A=7 ;@C65@ 8MG
:IB7H=CB IFF 'D=B BJ=FCB +IGH5=B  
$CHN+=G=H?5  @= % %D<9DC  <5J9G % %57=BHMF9 , (9G5B5M= , /5@G 
%I?IH9 % #FCB@=8  ,F5B , "CCB  %75FFM   C89G=;B=B; F9
G95F7< CB HF5BG;F9GG=J9 @95FB=B; =B H=A9G C: 7@=A5H9 7<5B;9 IFF 'D=B BJ=FCB +IG
H5=B  
%5@A B8F95G CFB6CF; @:  ,<9 ;9C@C;M C: A5B?=B8 7F=H=EI9 C: H<9 B
H<FCDC79B9 B5FF5H=J9 ,<9 BH<FCDC79B9 *9J=9K   <HHDG8C=CF;
%5FL #  ,<9G9G C: 9I9F657< !B %5FLB;9@G +9@97H98 /CF?G =B 'B9 .C@IA9
$5KF9B79 5B8 /=G<5FH $CB8CB
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H=79@98 !BEI=FM !BHC 9J9@CD=B; (985;C;=9G :CF 7C@C;=75@ =H=N9BG<=D 9D5FHA9BH C:
8I75H=CB *<C89G -B=J9FG=HM C7HCF5@ H<9G=G :CF H<9 9;F99 C: C7HCF C: (<=@CGC
D<MGID9FJ=G98 6M (FC: 9=@5 $CHNG=G=H?5
%75FFM   ,<9 9AD5H<9H=7 5DDF9BH=79 D985;C;=75@ 89J9@CDA9BHG =B H<9 59GH<9H=7
98I75H=CB C: H<9 GC7=5@ @95FB=B; DF57H=H=CB9F =B +CIH< :F=75 <5DH9F  =B CF7C
F5B !B @5N9 (9H9F C@@=B;G<958 F5B8CB ( 8G !BH9F;9B9F5H=CB5@ $95FB=B; 5B8
,F5BG:CFA5H=J9 $9589FG<=D :CF +IGH5=B56@9 IHIF9G /5;9B=B;9B 7589A=7 (I6@=G<9FG
/5;9B=B;9B H<9 &9H<9F@5B8G =B DF9GG
%7#9BN=9 % 5FH ( 5=  "=7?@=B;   =9@8G C: F99B 5ADHCB (F9GG !B7
F9GG?=@@ &"
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 
%9F@95I(CBHM %  ,<9 .=G=6@9 5B8 H<9 !BJ=G=6@9  $=B;=G ,F5BG &CFH<K9GH9FB
%9FHCB *#  ,<9 +C7=C@C;M C: +7=9B79 ,<9CF9H=75@ 5B8 AD=F=75@ !BJ9GH=;5H=CBG
-B=J9FG=HM C: <=75;C (F9GG
%=H7<9@@  CF89@@  5A   9;=BB=B; 5H H<9 9B8 H<9 CIH7CA9 GD579G :F5A9
KCF? HC ;I=89 DIFDCG=J9 HF5BG8=G7=D@=B5FM F9G95F7< IHIF9G   <HHDG8C=
%CG9F + 57?A5BB  5=@@C8G   @C65@ 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 7<5B;9 7<5B;9G 9J9FM
H<=B; ?9M A9GG5;9G 5B8 F97CAA9B85H=CBG !B /CF@8 +C7=5@ +7=9B79 *9DCFH  DD
%CIBHN  CB8G  %5BGU9@8  $CM8 " MB8A5B " /5@HCB*C69FHG % 5GI
* /<=HGCB * 5K?=BG * 5A=@HCB , IFF5B /  CF G@CK G7<C@5FG<=D
5 :9A=B=GH DC@=H=7G C: F9G=GH5B79 H<FCI;< 7C@@97H=J9 57H=CB =B H<9 B9C@=69F5@ IB=J9FG=HM
% 5B =BH9FB5H=CB5@ >CIFB5@ :CF 7F=H=75@ ;9C;F5D<=9G   
&CKCHBM  +7CHH ( =66CBG %  ,<9 7C9JC@IH=CB C: GC7=9HM 5B8 G7=9B79 !B
*9H<=B?=B; +7=9B79 #BCK@98;9 5B8 H<9 (I6@=7 =B 5B ;9 C: -B79FH5=BHM DD 
(9BB=B;HCB  +=ADGCB $ %7CBB9@@ %+ 5=F "% 5?9F *"  ,F5BG8=G
7=D@=B5FM F9G95F7< HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 @95FB=B; 5B8 HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 G7=9B79 =C+7=9B79 
 
(9F9=F5  +5@H9@@=   (CGHBCFA5@ =BGH=HIH=CB5@ =89BH=H=9G EI5@=HM 5GGIF5B79 F9
V9L=J=HM 5B8 9H<CG C: 75F9 IHIF9G <HHDG8C=CF;>:IHIF9G =B
DF9GG !++& 
(@IAKCC8 .  BJ=FCBA9BH5@ I@HIF9 ,<9 7C@C;=75@ F=G=G C: *95GCB *CIH@98;9
(CHHG # FCKB $  97CA=B; 5B 5BH=CDDF9GG=J9 F9G95F7<9F !B +HF9;5 + FCKB
$ 8G *9G95F7< 5G *9G=GH5B79 F=H=75@ !B8=;9BCIG 5B8 BH=CDDF9GG=J9 DDFC57<9G
5B58=5B +7<C@5FG (F9GG ,CFCBHC '& DD 
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
*56=BCK (  GG5MG CB H<9 BH<FCDC@C;M C: *95GCB (F=B79HCB -B=J9FG=HM (F9GG
(F=B79HCB &"
*9=8  ,5M@CF   A6C8M=B; 97C@C;=75@ 7=H=N9BG<=D F9H<=B?=B; H<9 DC@=H=7G C:
;F5GGFCCHG ;@C65@=N5H=CB =B H<9 -B=H98 +H5H9G @H9FB5H=J9G @C65@ $C75@ (C@=H=75@ 
*9=8  ,5M@CF   "C<B 9K9MG 59GH<9H=7 97C@C;M C: DI6@=7 =BH9@@=;9B79 5B8 H<9
;FCIB8=B; C: 7=J=7 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@=GA H<=7G 5B8 H<9 BJ=FCBA9BH   
*=HH9@  /9669F %  =@9AA5G =B 5 ;9B9F5@ H<9CFM C: D@5BB=B; (C@=7M +7= 
 AGH9F85A @G9J=9F +7=9BH=U7 (I6@=G<=B; CAD5BM 2*9DF=BH98 =B  =B
& FCGG 8 9J9@CDA9BHG =B 9G=;B %9H<C8C@C;M DD  <=7<9GH9F " /=
@9M 5B8 +CBG3 *9HF=9J98 CB 96FI5FM   :FCA <HHDKKKI7H7B9HAK9669F
*C8FQ;I9N$565>CG  0OB9N ! CB8 ( F9M@ $ %IB;IH= + '>C - 'J9F699? /
 &CH GC B5HIF5@ 5B 5@@=5B79 9;FCKH< 5B8 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ >IGH=79 ACJ9A9BHG =B
H<9 ;@C65@ GCIH< 7C@ 7CB  
+57?G +  +C7=5@ G7I@DHIF9 5B8 B9K CF;5BG C: D9F79DH=CB B9K DF57H=79G 5B8 B9K
D985;C;M :CF 5 <IA5B9 5B8 97C@C;=75@@M J=56@9 :IHIF9 !B $9FB 5M9G % /5@H9FG
. 8G 9IMG=5B $9;57=9G =B !F9@5B8 5B8 9MCB8 FH I@HIF9 5B8 (C@=H=7G $=H .9F
@5; 9F@=B
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B5H=CB5@ 5B86CC? C: (C@=H=75@ 7C@C;M D 
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+5F85F 1  /9@7CA9 HC DCGHBCFA5@ H=A9G IHIF9G   
+7<5FA9F '  88F9GG=B; H<9 @=B8 +DCH C: 'IF ,=A9 B L97IH=J9 +IAA5FM C: H<9
&9K CC? 6M 'HHC +7<5FA9F ,<9CFM - $958=B; FCA H<9 IHIF9 5G !H A9F;9G *9
HF=9J98 +9DH9A69F   :FCA KKKH<9CFM-7CA
+7<B9=89K=B8 - +=B;9FFC8CKG?= % I;9BGH9=B # +H9@N9F   (@98;9 :CF 5
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... For more information about the programme's second phase, see 17 Temper et al. (2019) propose a 'Tarot deck' exercise as a strategy to reflect on the political rigour of our scientific practices. They explore a number of different transgressive researcher profiles as Tarot cards, which represent the results of their collective reflexivity exercise through employing artsbased methods. ...
... The mobility in and out of the field, year in, year out, was the result of seeking to create spaces for critical thinking and reflexing (Niewöhner 2016). As I needed time to take in, digest, and communicate what I saw, talked, or read about, I have along the process transformed from 'the post-normal researcher' to 'slow and care-full scholar' (Temper et al. 2019). Perhaps I was just slow, but I would like to believe my caring slowness was a move away from a practitioner's routinised rush to find 'neutral solutions' towards acknowledging that knowledge production is inherently political and unequal (ibid.). ...
... I did a preliminary inductive coding to grasp the data, but I first had to find a language that could overcome and dissolve preceding divides (Harvey and Haraway 1995), between nature/culture, material/ideological, real/discursive, for writing a publication. The process of making sense of my stay in Maidan unfolded in a dialogic relationship (Mansvelt and Berg 2010: 344) between the empirical research and different worldings including my own as I transitioned from a post-normal researcher to a slow and care-full one (Temper et al. 2019). I kept reflecting on my fieldwork in Maidan as I went on to prepare the next fieldwork in Orlovka. ...
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Die Grenzen von Ressourcenabbau reichen tausende Meter über und unter die Erde. Dabei verfestigt und vertieft die Beschleunigung des Extraktivismus ungleiche Entwicklung und Ungerechtigkeiten auf der Welt. In Zentralasien bleiben Konflikte um Sozionatur in der kritischen Forschung zu Ressourcenextraktivismus und Widerstand jedoch weitgehend unterbeleuchtet. Diese Doktorarbeit leistet einen Beitrag zu der Ausweitung des Goldbergbaus in Kirgisistan und trägt zu einem räumlich umgearbeiteten, historisierenden und politisch sensiblen Verständnis des sich global ausweitenden Ressourcenextraktivismus bei. Die Arbeit präsentiert eine situierte Darstellung der multiskalaren Prozesse und Praktiken innerhalb und zwischen drei Standorten, die Kirgisistans Goldrausch ab/schaffen: die Hauptstadt Bischkek, das politische- und Verwaltungszentrum für mineralische Rohstoffe; Orlovka, ein Fall von angeblicher Kooperation; und Maidan, ein Fall von sich lange hinziehenden Auseinandersetzungen. Durch einen interdisziplinären Forschungsprozess entwickelt die Doktorarbeit einen relationalen soziomaterialen Ansatz zur Erforschung von multiskalaren extraktiven Verschränkungen der materiellen Dimensionen von Gold, seinen unterschiedlichen Bewertungen und seiner Governance. Sie mobilisiert die interdisziplinäre soziomateriale Analytik, durch ein multimethoden- Forschungsdesign, welche die miteinander verflochtenen strukturellen und historisch-geographischen Bedingungen offenbart. Dabei werden Konvergenzen im wachsenden geerdeten politischen Aktivismus gegen die globalen Strukturen des Extraktivismus, der die pluriversalen Wege zum Wohlbefinden aufkündigt zu Tage gefördert. Diese Doktorarbeit zeigt konsequent den Wert von disziplinärem und methodischem Pluralismus bei der empirischen Erforschung zum Zusammenspiel gegenseitig konstituierender Strukturen als auch von verorteter mehr-als-menschlicher Autonomie, die dem Schaffen und Abschaffen von Ressourcen und Ressourcengrenzen zugrunde liegen.
... Besides, the different associations and meanings that people tie to the concept tells us that there are many different 'faces' of power and ways in which it is experienced (Lukes 2002). Therefore, there is a need to become more confident when talking about power and to develop a language and capacities to do so (Temper et al. 2019;Goodwill et al. 2021;Hölscher et al. 2021;Strumińska-Kutra and Scholl 2022). ...
... Another issue is how many of the participants came from the network of the organisers of the Transformative Power lab, which arguably caused a bias, as well as a focus on participants who self-identify as working on SIE. Radical reflexivity on these issues could be developed further, particularly since there is a risk of disempowering actors in the TPL when not accounting for potential power asymmetries or oppression dynamics (Cunliffe 2016;Hölscher et al. 2019;Temper et al. 2019). ...
... The roles of researchers during the TPL and the decisions the researchers take through designing, facilitating and framing discussions are opportunities for further study (Wittmayer and Schäpke 2014;Strumińska-Kutra and Scholl 2022). As argued by Strumińska-Kutra and Scholl (2022) amongst others, promoting 'political rigour' through concrete tools, i.e. reflexive methods to deal with power dynamics in an extended peer community, is essential to address inevitable power asymmetries in transdisciplinary research, including how researchers exercise power (Kristiansen and Bloch-Poulsen 2013;Olesen and Nordentoft 2013;Temper et al. 2019). Building on recent work on power dynamics within transdisciplinary research, which provides guiding questions (e.g. ...
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If transdisciplinary sustainability research is to contribute to sustainability transitions, issues of power dynamics need to be understood and accounted for. However, examples of concrete methods that put this into practice are sparse. This paper presents a conceptual and methodological framework that develops a better understanding of the power phenomenon, while providing actionable knowledge. By focussing on the context of social innovation in energy transitions, we demonstrate how different theoretical conceptualisations of power can be translated into a collaborative, transdisciplinary research design. In a facilitated process, researchers, policy workers and practitioners from diverse social innovation fields developed and tested the Transformative Power Lab approach and co-wrote a ‘Power Guide’ as a strategic exploration of power dynamics in sustainability transitions, specifically regarding social innovation in energy transitions. Based on the insights that emerged during this process, we discuss how transdisciplinary and action-oriented approaches in sustainability transition studies might benefit from this approach and, potentially, develop it further.
... While such structural characteristics and macro-power relations are not the focus of this article, they are shaping climate politics in the wider country as well as among climate movement actors. Moreover, the epistemic grounds on which this research relies are shaped by these wider power relations as well (Sultana 2022a, b;Temper et al. 2019). ...
... This reflects a process of gaining trust through previous engagements as both a researcher and movement participant, and an approach in which I clarified my aim to coproduce insights as contributions to movement causes. As such, I took a role as 'self-reflexive researcher' (Wittmayer and Schäpke 2014) and 'co-conspirer' (Temper et al. 2019). Additionally, I guaranteed participants anonymity by using, among other things, code names and leaving out details that could easily lead to identification. ...
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How can societies deal with climate change in more just and sustainable ways? In societal debates, multiple strategic pathways for dealing with climate change compete among each other. A narrative approach has been used both as an analytical tool for studying strategic pathways and the tensions between them, as well as a tool to render such tensions more productive through the suggested development of overarching metanarratives. Despite the recent global wave of climate protests, climate movements and their various narratives have remained understudied among sustainability transition scholars. To address this gap, I aim to contribute to the recentering of movements in transition studies by investigating transformation pathway narratives within the West-European case of the Belgian climate movement. Based on interviews (n = 20) among organizers in Belgian climate movement groups throughout 2019 and 2020, I identify climate justice as an actual existing metanarrative, aimed at bottom-up systemic transformation through interlinking social and ecological struggles. While it has developed in opposition to a ‘mainstream’ metanarrative, I find that in the case studied, climate justice provides an ambiguous but common ground on which more moderate and radical interpretations can engage. Furthermore, I find four more transformation pathway narratives: climate plan, climate emergency, divestment and blockadia and shed light on the discussions within the Belgian climate movement around these narratives. A single unified (meta-)narrative might be impossible as well as undesirable. While spaces for listening and debate can render tensions more productive, creating common ground might still require sharp edges.
... Is the EJAtlas an activist tool corroborated by academic research, or is it a platform for scientific research based on activists' knowledge (Escobar, 2008;Martínez-Alier et al., 2014)? How do we overcome the scientific/ activist dichotomy, avoid academic data extractivism, and establish methods based on academic and 'political rigor' (Temper et al., 2019)? Should aggregated data access be fully open for all kinds of uses or do EJAtlas editors have the responsibility of ensuring data are correctly interpreted and used under acceptable principles? ...
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In this chapter, we revise the trajectory and relevance of the Global Atlas of Environmental Justice (EJAtlas) as one of the main research projects and outcomes of the Barcelona Research Group in Environmental Justice Studies and Political Ecology. We first trace the origins, scope, and methodology of the EJAtlas as a unique participatory mapping project that is both global in scope and informed by the co-production of knowledge between academia and groups seeking environmental justice. We then highlight how the work of the EJAtlas reflects and contributes to a larger trend in the field of Environmental Justice that looks to integrate critical cartography and mapping practices into both research and activist efforts. Looking ahead, we reflect on the limits and unresolved challenges of the platform, as well as on the innovative uses of the tool for advancing a spatial, comparative, and statistical political ecology.
... University partners were encouraged to adhere as closely to the spirit of the process as possible, but to document adaptations that were used to make the process functional for their case. In the case of UNAM, adaptation necessarily included translation to Spanish but also included adaptation of concepts and stages for the Mexican context (see Temper et al. 2019). Keeler et al. ...
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Unlabelled: City governments and urban universities are well-positioned to play critical roles in advancing urban sustainability transformations. However, in partnering, cities and universities often focus efforts on discrete sustainability-related projects, neglecting the development of long-term relationships and deep, inter-organizational ties that can allow for collaboration on lasting and transformational change. Yet, at both cities and universities there are often individuals who are deeply interested in developing better partnerships that contribute to the sustainability and livability of their communities. This research develops and tests an evidence-based and facilitated process to guide sustainability researchers and municipal practitioners in the development of transformational City-university partnerships for sustainability. The Audacious Partnerships Process was tested by four City-university partnerships including Arizona State University and the City of Tempe, Dublin City University and the City of Dublin, King's College London and the City of Westminster and the National Autonomous University of Mexico and Mexico City. The Audacious Partnerships Process as well as results from post-surveys and interviews following implementation are elaborated. We conclude with key lessons for modifying and implementing the process to contribute to transformative partnership development. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s42854-022-00045-5.
... The integration of divergent disciplines, perspectives and knowledge systems can be intimidating and even lead to confrontation (Ives et al. 2020 things and open to collaborations that include new types of disciplinary as well as non-academic knowledge. One example of how to adopt such new, deeply reflexive approaches has been proposed by a team of scientists in the context of transgressive, decolonial and post-normal research: they use seven Tarot 'characters' to challenge dominant forms of knowledge production and to enhance collective and personal reflexivity (Temper et al. 2019). Emerging novel questions and perspectives force researchers to revisit what type of science to do and how (Sellberg et al. 2021). ...
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The Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) was established in 2011, and is now one of the major international social-ecological systems (SES) research networks. During this time, SES research has undergone a phase of rapid growth and has grown into an influential branch of sustainability science. In this Perspective, we argue that SES research has also deepened over the past decade, and helped to shed light on key dimensions of SES dynamics (e.g. system feedbacks, aspects of system design, goals and paradigms) that can lead to tangible action for solving the major sustainability challenges of our time. We suggest four ways in which the growth of place-based SES research, fostered by networks such as PECS, has contributed to these developments, namely by: 1) shedding light on transformational change, 2) revealing the social dynamics shaping SES, 3) bringing together diverse types of knowledge, and 4) encouraging reflexive researchers.
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Verhalen bepalen mee de klimaatstrijd. Tegenover een dominant verhaal van uitstootmanagement ontwikkelde zich een bewegingsverhaal van klimaatrechtvaardigheid dat door sociale strijden te linken gaat voor systeemverandering ‘van onderop’.
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Sixty years have passed since Merton’s famous publication of “a note on science and democracy,” outlining the scientific ethos via four sets of norms, namely communism, universalism, disinterest­edness, and organized skepticism (CUDOS). Merton’s rationale was that the implementation of this ethos was instrumental in realizing science’s institutional goal: “the extension of certified knowledge.” Throughout the ensuing decades, Merton’s conception has been at the center of heated debates in the emerging field of science and technology studies. It has also been addressed by em­pirical studies with a view to determine the scale at which CUDOS was supported by scientists them­selves in explicit terms and/or conformed to in their actual practice. Some of these studies also make room for the possibility that CUDOS might have evolved throughout the past decades, incrementally adapting the norm sets. This article contributes to such empirical endeavors. Building on ethno­graphic work at a technology assessment (TA) institute, I find that a distinct shared ethos is tangible in TA’s post-normal science practices—in collaborations with non-scientists as well as with “pure academics.” A reconstruction of TA’s distinct ethos from my empirical material results in the delin­eation of a post-normal scientific ethos, comprising “extended communism,” “diffracted uni­versal­ism,” “diffracted disinterestedness,” “extended organized skepticism,” “diffracted originality,” and “extended relevance.” These “extensions” and “diffractions” have ramifications for the organiza­tion of post-normal science and its interaction with academia, publics, and polities.
In keeping with the 2021 IACR Conference theme (Re) Envisaging Emancipatory Research, Science and Practice, this paper reviews over fifty instances of critical realist research in Africa which have sought to establish emancipatory research praxis by using critical realism to underlabour a range of applied studies in a diversity of disciplines and countries. The initiators of this research have been drawn to critical realism for several reasons, most notably its return to ontology, its interest in transformed, transformative praxis, and its potential for addressing knowledge and experiences exclusions. The paper ends with a reflection on ‘What's in a Conference Theme', returning to the earlier 2012 IACR conference hosted in Africa, and the 2021 conference’s focus on emancipatory research. It argues both for the deepening of conversations between critical realism and Africana Critical Theory; and for the grounding of these conversations in the voices and power of the people in our communities.
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Higher education in the global North, and exported elsewhere, is complicit in driving the planet's socio-ecological crises by teaching how to most effectively marginalize and plunder Earth and human communities. As students and activists within the academic system, we take a firm stand to arrest this cycle, and to redirect education toward teaching how to create conditions for all life to thrive. In this paper, we articulate a research and education agenda for co-constructing knowledge and wisdom, and propose shifts in the 'ologies from the current, destructive modes to intended regenerative counterparts. We offer to shift from an ontology of separation to that of interconnectedness; from an epistemology of domination to that of egalitarian relationship; and from an axiology of development to that of plural values for world-and meaning-making. Such paradigm shifts reflect the foundational aspirations of the consilient transdiscipline of ecological economics. We analyze several introductory university textbooks in economics, law, and natural sciences, to demonstrate how destructive 'ologies are taught in North American universities, and how such teaching implicitly undermines critical inquiry and effective challenge. Our strategy for change is to provide a new theoretical framework for education: the regenerative 'ologies of the Ecozoic', based on biophysicality, embedded relationality, pluralism, and the sustainable well-being of all members in the community of life.
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A transformation to sustainability calls for radical and systemic societal shifts. Yet what this entails in practice and who the agents of this radical transformation are require further elaboration. This article recenters the role of environmental justice movements in transformations, arguing that the systemic, multi-dimensional and intersectional approach inherent in EJ activism is uniquely placed to contribute to the realization of equitable sustainable futures. Based on a perspective of conflict as productive, and a “conflict transformation” approach that can address the root issues of ecological conflicts and promote the emergence of alternatives, we lay out a conceptual framework for understanding transformations through a power analysis that aims to confront and subvert hegemonic power relations; that is, multi-dimensional and intersectional; balancing ecological concerns with social, economic, cultural and democratic spheres; and is multi-scalar, and mindful of impacts across place and space. Such a framework can help analyze and recognize the contribution of grassroots EJ movements to societal transformations to sustainability and support and aid radical transformation processes. While transitions literature tends to focus on artifacts and technologies, we suggest that a resistance-centred perspective focuses on the creation of new subjectivities, power relations, values and institutions. This recenters the agency of those who are engaged in the creation and recuperation of ecological and new ways of being in the world in the needed transformation.
OPEN ACCESS, Ecological Economics Both environmental justice (EJ) and degrowth movements warn against increasing the physical size of the economy. They both oppose extractivism and debt-fuelled economies, as well as the untrammelled profit motive which fails to incorporate full environmental and social costs. They both rely upon social movements that have led scholarship in its activities and achievements, in part through challenging power structures. Therefore, some argue the existence of an obvious alliance between degrowth and EJ movements in the Global South. Yet, direct observation unveils concerns from EJ activists in the Global South about the plausibility of alliances until some significant divergences have been examined and reconciled. Activists inspire, promote and disseminate transformations that overcome several forms of domination. Their perspectives on degrowth advance informed cooperation. Our aim is thus to systematically evaluate tensions and possible analogies between the scope of action of EJ organisations operating in the Global South and the main propositions of the Degrowth movement. The argument relies on methodical scrutiny of core themes in the degrowth debate by critical thinkers in the Global South. It incorporates insights from EJ struggles in Ecuador, Italy, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Uruguay, with important implications in Brazil, Mozambique, and Indonesia. The paper contributes to an exploration of the implications of the degrowth debate for the Global South, with the purpose of strengthening potential synergies, through an assertive recognition of the barriers to doing so.
The current ascendancy of transdisciplinarity (TD) is marked by an exponential growth of publications, a widening array of contexts, and increased interest across academic, public and private sectors. This investigation traces historical trends, rhetorical claims, and social formations that have shaped three major discourses of TD: transcendence, problem solving, and transgression. In doing so, it also takes account of developments that have emerged or gained traction since the early 21st century when a 2004 issue of Futures on the same topic was being written.The epistemological problem at the heart of the discourse of transcendence is the idea of unity, traced in the West to ancient Greece. The emergence of transdisciplinarity was not a complete departure from this historical quest, but it signalled the need for new syntheses at a time of growing fragmentation of knowledge and culture. New synthetic frameworks emerged, including general systems, post/structuralism, feminist theory, and sustainability. New organizations also formed to advance conceptual frameworks aimed at transcending the narrowness of disciplinary worldviews and interdisciplinary combinations of approaches that did not supplant the status quo of academic structure and classification.The discourse of problem solving is not new. It was fundamental to conceptions of interdisciplinarity in the first half of the 20th century. Heightened pressure to solve problems of society, though, fostered growing alignment of TD with solving complex problems as well as trans-sector participation of stakeholders in society and team-based science. The discourse of transgression was forged in critique of the existing system of knowledge and education. TD became aligned with imperatives of cultural critique, socio-political movements, and conceptions of post-normal science and wicked problems that break free of reductionist and mechanistic approaches. It also became a recognized premise in interdisciplinary fields, including cultural studies, women's and gender studies, urban studies, and environmental studies. And, calls for TD arrived at a moment of wider crisis in the privileging of dominant forms of knowledge, human rights accountability, and democratic participation.Even with distinct patterns of definition, though, discourses are not air-tight categories. Transcendence was initially an epistemological project, but the claim of transcendence overlaps increasingly with problem solving. The imperatives of transgression also cut across the discourses of transcendence and problem solving. Broadly speaking, though, emphasis is shifting from traditional epistemology to problem solving, from the pre-given to the emergent, and from universality to hybridity and contextuality.
Present day reasoning about difficulties in science reproducibility, science governance, and the use of science for policy could benefit from a philosophical and historical perspective. This would show that the present crisis was anticipated by some scholars of these disciplines, and that diagnoses were offered which are not yet mainstream among crisis-conscious disciplines, from statistics to medicine, from bibliometrics to biology. Diagnoses in turn open the path to possible solutions. This discussion is urgent given the joint impact of the crises on public trust in institutions. We ask whether the present crisis may be seminal in terms of drawing attention to alternative visions and governance arrangements for the role between science and society. We finish by offering a number of suggestions in this direction.