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From academic to political rigour: Insights from the 'Tarot' of transgressive research

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The role of science and knowledge production is at a crossroads, as societal transformation calls for challenging dominant forms of knowledge production that have contributed to marginalizing other ways of knowing. This presents a challenge to mainstream science and invites a deeper reflection on our roles as scientists and exploration of alternative engaged, post-normal and activist approaches to research. This paper examines the diverse ways researchers are meeting this challenge. Employing the device of the Tarot deck we describe seven "char-acters" to illustrate the variety of roles and approaches that trans-disciplinary, transformative, transgressive and activist researchers are engaging in. These characters are used to introduce and develop the concept of political rigour as a means of expanded academic rigour in new emancipatory scientific paradigms. We demonstrate how these Tarot characters can be used as an activity for collective and personal reflexivity and propose ten principles that frequently emerge in a 'political' peer review process. We argue that the insights emerging from these strands of radical, critical, engaged and applied forms of scholarship, can significantly improve the understanding of what a "transformative knowledge paradigm" may look like in practice and how it can be mobilized for social change and environmental justice.
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5McGill University, Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Canada
6Environmental Learning Research Centre, Rhodes University, Rhodes University Campus, Environmental Education Dept. ELRC building, Lucas Avenue, 6140, South Africa
7Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain
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1.1. Positioning ourselves
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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2. Literature review: juggling academic and political rigour
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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H<9 5DDFC57<9G 5F9 $CHN+=G=H?5 5 6 %75FFM  HC
ACF9 DF57H=75@ EI9GH=CBG GI7< 5G <CK HC 895@ K=H< F=G?G C: 57H=J=GA GI7<
5G H<F95HG 5B8 G=@9B7=B; H57H=7G @CC8 9H 5@  HC <CK G7=9B79 75B
69 AC6=@=N98 5B8 @98 6M 57H=J=GHG HC G9FJ9 H<9=F B998G 5B8 7CBH9GH DC@@I
H=CB CB89 
$=H9F5HIF9 CB G7<C@5F57H=J=GA <5G 5@GC 9L5A=B98 H<9 7<5@@9B;9 C: H<9
8I5@ @CM5@H=9G 5@9  H<5H G7<C@5F57H=J=GHG AIGH >I;;@9 K<=@9 HFM
=B; HC 9BGIF9 6CH< 57589A=7 5B8 DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF
+7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF 75B 69 89UB98 6FC58@M 5G H<9 89J9@CDA9BH C: B9K
?BCK@98;9 5B8 =BBCJ5H=CB IG=B; 5 A9H<C8C@C;M H<5H 9BGIF9G H<9 F9@=5
6=@=HM 5B8 F9@9J5B79 C: F9GI@HGX !H 8=::9FG 5ACB;GH 8=G7=D@=B9G 6IH A5M
9BH5=@ 5DD@=75H=CB C: H<9 G7=9BH=U7 A9H<C8 GI6GH5BH=5H=B; 5GG9FH=CBG F9
:9FF=B; HC GCIF79G 5B8 H<9 6FC589F @=H9F5HIF9 8=GH=B;I=G<=B; 69HK99B
:57HG 5B8 =BH9FDF9H5H=CBG 5B8 7@95F@M DF9G9BH=B; <CK MCI 5FF=J98 5H MCIF
F9GI@HG *=;CIF 89A5B8G FC6IGHB9GG A9H=7I@CIGB9GG 5B8 75F9:I@B9GG H<9
CF9H=75@@M A9H<C8C@C;M 5B8 9AD=F=75@@M !H ;I5F8G 5;5=BGH F97?@9GGB9GG
7<9FFM D=7?=B; @57? C: 5HH9BH=CB 5B8 ;FCIB8@9GG 7CB7@IG=CBG !H 5@GC 89
A5B8G CD9BB9GG HC :5@@=6=@=HM – “H<9 89GHFI7H=CB C: 695IH=:I@ =895G 6M
:57HG
/<=@9 @5I856@9 =H =G =ADCFH5BH :CF G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF BCH HC 697CA9
F=;=8=HM @CB; K=H< F=;CIF J=;CIF =G 5@GC ?9M B8 G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF
5@CB9 =G C:H9B BCH 9BCI;< !B <=G %5B=:9GHC C: ,F5BG8=G7=D@=B5F=HM
&=7C@9G7I  DCG=HG H<5H H<9 H<F99 7<5F57H9F=GH=7G C: 5 HF5BG8=G7=D@=
B5FM D9FGD97H=J9 5F9 F=;CIF CD9B=B; 5B8 HC@9F5B79 77CF8=B; HC <=A
H<9 F=;CIF C: HF5BG8=G7=D@=B5F=HM ;C9G 9J9B 899D9F H<5B G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF
HC H<9 9LH9BH H<5H =H H5?9G =BHC 577CIBH BCH CB@M H<=B;G 6IH 5@GC 69=B;G
5B8 H<9=F F9@5H=CBG HC CH<9F 69=B;G 5B8 H<=B;G ,5?=B; 577CIBH C: 5@@ H<9
;=J9BG DF9G9BH =B 5 D5FH=7I@5F G=HI5H=CB =G 5 7<5F57H9F=GH=7 C: H<=G F=;CIF
!H =G CB@M =B H<=G K5M H<5H F=;CIF =G HFI@M 5 G5:9;I5F8 5;5=BGH 5@@ DCGG=6@9
HIFBG 'D9B=B; 6F=B;G 5B 5779DH5B79 C: H<9 IB?BCKB H<9 IB9LD97H98
5B8 H<9 IBDF98=7H56@9D 
@CB; H<9 G5A9 @=B9G CFF5G  5F;I9G H<5H DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF
A95BG 69=B; DC@=H=75@@M =B:CFA98 5B8 H<CFCI;< G9BG=H=J9 5B8
BI5B798 5B8 H=A9@M 5B8 F9@9J5BH !H G<CI@8 69 H<9 CDDCG=H9 C: 5
DCGHACFH9A K5M C: H<=B?=B; 5B8 8C=B; H<=B;G !H A95BG H5?=B;
5 DCG=H=CB CB DC@=H=75@ DFC79GG9G H<5H 5F9 69=B; F9G95F7<98 K<=7<
=B HIFB FIBG H<9 F=G? C: 7CADFCA=G=B; H<9 F=;CF C: H<9 57589A=7
8=A9BG=CB C: H<9 F9G95F7<
!B H<=G D5D9F K9 9LH9B8 H<9 7CB79DH C: DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF 5G CB9
H<5H 75B 69 DCH9BH=5@@M :FI=H:I@ HC ;I=89 =BHF9D=8 HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 57
H=J=GHG7<C@5FG H<FCI;< H<9 HCI;< 7<C=79G H<9M AIGH A5?9 56CIH K<9F9
K=H< K<CA 5B8 <CK H<9M 9B;5;9 =B H<9=F EI9GHG HC HF5BG:CFA H<9 KCF@8
(C@=H=75@ F=;CIF IG9G 5G =HG 89D5FHIF9 DC=BH H<9 57?BCK@98;9A9BH C: H<9
=B<9F9BH@M DC@=H=75@ 5B8 7I@HIF5@@M 5B8 <=GHCF=75@@M G=HI5H98 B5HIF9 C:
?BCK@98;9 DFC8I7H=CB  5F5K5M  5B8 H<9 C6G9FJ5H=CB H<5H 5@@ F9
G95F7< G7=9B79 5B8 :CFAG C: ?BCK@98;9 DFC8I7H=CB 5F9 =B<9F9BH@M DC
@=H=75@ 9BH9FDF=G9G =AD57H98 6M IB9EI5@ DCK9F F9@5H=CBG /9 8C BCH =B
H<=G D5D9F G<IB DCG=H=J=GH=7 G7=9B79 F5H<9F K9 8F5K =BGD=F5H=CB :FCA H<9
7F95H=J9 9LD5BG=CB C: G7=9B79 H<FCI;< 7F=H=EI9G C: BCFA5@ G7=9B79 5B8
7F=H=75@ GC7=5@ H<9CF=9G 5B8 A9H<C8C@C;=9G =B DCGHBCFA5@ GC7=5@ G7=9B79
95B 9H 5@ 
/9 H5?9 =BGD=F5H=CB :FCA <5G?5FG  7F=H=75@ F95@=GH H<9CFM C:
CBHC@C;M H<5H F97C;B=N9G H<5H CIF D9F79DH=CBG C: F95@=HM 5F9 =B<9F9BH@M
CBHC@C;=75@ 5B8 =BVI9B798 6M AI@H=D@9 F9B89F=B;G CF D9F79DH=CBG C:
HFIH< (C@=H=75@ F=;CIF 7CI@8 H<9F9:CF9 69 G99B 5G 5 7F=H=75@ F95@=GH A97<
5B=GA H<5H =G F9V9L=J9 5B8 7F=H=75@ C: CIF GH5B79 C: HFIH<5B8 CD9BG ID
+99 :CF 9L5AD@9 <HHDGKKK?H<G9GC7=5@;FCID9L5A9BG5F69H9J=87GD5;9
F9EI=F9A9BHGC:G7=9BH=U7F=;CIF
H<9 DCGG=6=@=HM :CF AI@H=D@9 HFIH<G C: K<=7< <5G?5F =89BH=U9G :CIF 8=G
H=B7H :CFAG 9F9 AI@H=D@9 D5H<K5MG HC HFIH< 75B 69 7F=H=75@@M 5B8
F=;CFCIG@M C6G9FJ98 H<FCI;< IB89FGH5B8=B; H<9=F CBHC@C;M 9D=GH9AC@
C;M 5B8 F5H=CB5@=HM 5B8 H<9 7CBH9LH H<5H H<9G9 ?BCK@98;9G 9A9F;9
5B8 F9GDCB8 HC (C@=H=75@ F=;CIF H<9F9:CF9 IB89FA=B9G CIF 8C;A5H=7
DCG=H=J=GH=7 5GGIADH=CB H<5H H<9F9 =G CB9 CJ9F5F7<=B; HFIH< 5HH5=B98
H<FCI;< DIF9 G7=9BH=U7C6>97H=J=HM <5G?5F  *56=BCK 
$CHN+=G=H?5 6
/<=@9 57589A=7 F=;CIF =G 9BGIF98 H<FCI;< H<9 G7=9BH=U7 A9H<C8
5B8 J9F=U98 H<FCI;< 5 DFC79GG C: D99F F9J=9K H<9F9 =G BC DF97CB
79=J98 GMGH9A C: 9BGIF=B; DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF BCF :CF B5J=;5H=B; H<9 DC
H9BH=5@ HF589CWG 5B8 7CAD@9A9BH5F=H=9G 69HK99B 57589A=7 5B8 DC@=H=
75@ F=;CIF 5G H<9 :CFAG C: ?BCK@98;9 B99898 6M 8=J9FG9 7CBGH=HI9B7=9G
K=@@ BCH B979GG5F=@M 5@=;B CFF5G  /9 H<IG 5F;I9 H<5H :IFH<9F 89
J9@CDA9BH C: 5 F9V97H=J9 5B8 =H9F5H=J9 :F5A9KCF? :CF 5GG9GG=B; DC@=H=
75@ F=;CIF75B 69 DIH HC IG9 HC 588F9GG H<9 H9BG=CBG 5B8 GMB9F;=9G 5B8
7<5@@9B;9G C: 57H=J=GH 5B8 HF5BG:CFA5H=CBG F9G95F7< ,<=G =B7@I89G A97<
5B=GAG ACF9 56@9 HC =89BH=:M <CK :IHIF9 F9G95F7< A5M ;9B9F5H9 UB8=B;G
H<5H 75B =B:CFA DC@=H=7G 5B8 DF57H=79
9MCB8 H<=G H<9 89J9@CDA9BH C: 5 DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF :F5A9KCF? 75B 58
8F9GG K5MG HC 6F=8;9 8=G7CIFG9G 69HK99B H<9 =BH9F9GHG 5B8 B998G C: GC7=5@
ACJ9A9BHG 5B8 57589A=5 K<=@9 6I=@8=B; HFIGH 89@A5B  75B 9L
DCG9 DCH9BH=5@ 7CBHF58=7H=CBG =B9::97H=J9B9GG 5B8 <MDC7F=G=9G K<=@9 GID
DCFH=B; 5 DC@=H=75@ GHFI;;@9 .=BH<5;9B  5B8 75B DFCJ=89 5 7F=H=75@
D9FGD97H=J9 CB D5FH=7=D5H=CB 5B8 =HG 7CBGHF5=BHG 5B8 CB H<9 @=A=HG 5B8
7<5@@9B;9G C: 89J9@CD=B; 5B 9A5B7=D5HCFM F9G95F7< DFC;F5A K=H<=B B9
C@=69F5@ 57589A=7 =BGH=HIH=CBG 5B8 8=G7=D@=B9G H<5H 7CBH=BI9 HC 69 GHFI7
HIF98 6M DCK9F =BH9F9GHG 5B8 <=9F5F7<=9G ,9AD9F 5B8 9@ 9B9 
<5HH9FHCB 9H 5@  =B5@@M =H 75B 588F9GG <CK CJ9F6IF89B98 575
89A=7G 75B UB8 GD579 :CF >CM =B F9V9L=J=HM GIDDCFH=B; C: GHFI;;@9G 5B8
7C@@97H=J9 57H=CB 5A=8GH DF975F=HM 5B8 H<9 DF9GGIF9G C: H<9 57589A=7
DI6@=G< CF D9F=G< F5HF579
!B H<9 B9LH G97H=CB K9 C::9F H5B;=6@9 9L5AD@9G C: K<5H DC@=H=75@
F=;CIF @CC?G @=?9 =B DF57H=79 H<FCI;< 5B 9LD@CF5H=CB C: H<9 8=J9FG9 FC@9G
H<5H F9G95F7<9FG 5F9 58CDH=B; IB89F H<9 B9K D5F58=;A 5B8 <CK H<9M
5F9 B5J=;5H=B; H<9G9 IB7<5FH98 K5H9FG !B H<9 8=G7IGG=CB K9 CD9B 5 8=
5@C;I9 H<FCI;< 5 F9V97H=CB CB H<9G9 FC@9G 5B8 <CK H<9M 75B =B:CFA
H<9 89J9@CDA9BH C: 5 DC@=H=75@@M F=;CFCIG DF5L=G :CF HF5BG:CFA5H=CBG F9
G95F7<
3. Method: the Tarot deck of transgressive research
!B H<=G D5D9F K9 DFCDCG9 H<9 ,5FCH 5G 5 89J=79 :CF 9LD@CF=B; 8=J9FG9
5DDFC57<9G HC F9G95F7< ,<9 ,5FCH =G 5 G9H C: D@5M=B; 75F8G IGI5@@M 7CB
G=GH=B; C: 5 D57? C:  U;IF9G CF GMA6C@G K<=7< =G HF58=H=CB5@@M IG98 5G 5
K5M HC 5K5?9B H<9 =BHI=H=CB C: H<9 F9589F 5B8 H<9 EI9F9BH5G 5 A95BG
HC =ADFCJ9 H<9=F IB89FGH5B8=B; C: 5 G=HI5H=CB CF DFCJ=89 5B 5BGK9F HC 5
EI9GH=CB ,<9 75F8G 8=J=898 =BHC H<9 A=BCF 5B8 A5>CF 5F75B5 F9DF9G9BH
5 J5F=9HM C: 8=::9F9BH G=HI5H=CBG 5F7<9HMD5@ 7CB79DHG 5B8CF D9FGCB5@=HM
HF5=HG GI7< 5G H<9 $CJ9FGH<9 9FA=H95H<5B8 H<9 CC@ H<5H
75B 69 F958 5G 5 @5B;I5;9 7CADCG98 C: GMA6C@=7 F9DF9G9BH5H=CBG @=?9
BCH9G =B 5 AIG=75@ G75@9 957< CB9 <5J=B; 5 8=::9F9BH 9::97H CB H<9 F9589F
C: H<9 75F8G =@9G 
,<9 ,5FCH 75F8G 75B H<IG 69 G99B 5G ?9MG K<=7< 5=A HC IB@C7? =BHI
=H=CB 6M 7<5@@9B;=B; H<9 F9589F HC 7CB:FCBH GMA6C@G H<9M KCI@8 BCH BCF
A5@@M 7CBG=89F !B H<=G K5M H<9 ,5FCH 75B @958 HC B9K =BG=;<HG CIHC:H<9
6CL H<=B?=B; 5B8 5 B9K D9FGD97H=J9 57< 75F8 CF 7<5F57H9F K=@@ DFCADH
=B H<9 F9589F 5 8=::9F9BH =BH9FDF9H5H=CB 5B8 5GGC7=5H=CB =B:CFA98 6M <9F
@=:9 9LD9F=9B79G GHCF=9G 5B8 D9FGCB5@ B5FF5H=J9
!BGD=F98 6M H<9 IG9 C: H<9 ,5FCH 5G 5 B5FF5H=J9 89J=79 5 89G7F=D
H=J9 HCC@ 5B8 5 K5M :CF H<9 F9G95F7<9F HC 7CBB97H K=H< H<9=F =BHI=H=CB
K9 GI;;9GH H<5H H<9 ,5FCH 5B8 =HG 7<5F57H9FG 75B 69 IG98 6M F9G95F7<9FG
GHFI;;@=B; 5G 8C K9 K=H< 89UB=B; H<9=F FC@9 5G G7<C@5FG 5B8 57H=J=GHG
=B 5 HF5BG:CFA=B; KCF@8 =B G9J9F5@ K5MG ,<=G =B7@I89G GIF:57=B; 5B8 9L
UNCORRECTED PROOF
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
D@CF=B; H<9=F CKB DCG=H=CB5@=HM 5B8 FC@9G 5G F9G95F7<9FG 7CBHF=6IH=B; HC
5 89:=B=H=CB C: H<9 8=J9FG9 7CBG=89F5H=CBG =B<9F9BH =B DC@=H=75@@M F=;CFCIG
F9G95F7< 5B8 <9@D=B; HC 89UB9 H<9 J5@I9G H<5H =B:CFA 5B8 ;I=89 H<9=F
CKB F9G95F7<
,C H<=G 9B8 K9 7F95H98 5B 9L9F7=G9 9AD@CM=B; 5FHG65G98 A9H<
C8G H<5H =BJ=H9G F9G95F7<9FG HC 89UB9 5B8 9LD@CF9 H<9=F CKB FC@9G 5B8
F9GDCBG=6=@=H=9G 5B8 =89BH=H=9G 5G G7<C@5FG IF=B; KCF?G<CDG <9@8 =B
9=FIH 5F79@CB5 +CIH< :F=75 5B8 $IB8 +K989BX K9 =BJ=H98 F9
G95F7<9FG HC F9V97H CB H<9 :C@@CK=B; ?9M EI9GH=CBG 5B8 HC 7F95H9 H<9=F
CKB ,5FCH 75F8 IG=B; 5 DFC79GG C: 7C@@5;9 H<5H =BJC@J9G G9@97H=B; :FCA
GMA6C@=7 =A5;9G DFCJ=898 CF CB9G H<9M <58 ;5H<9F98 H<5H GD95? HC H<9
F9G95F7< =89BH=H=9G H9BG=CBG EI9GH=CBG 5B8 7CB79FBG =B H<9=F KCF?
/<5H 7<5F57H9F CF FC@9 8C MCI =89BH=:M K=H< =B MCIF F9G95F7<57H=J=GA
ID HC H<=G DC=BH
/<5H =A5;9G GIF:579 :CF MCI K<9B MCI H<=B? C: MCIF KCF?
/<5H 7<5@@9B;9G 5B8 H9BG=CBG 7CA9 =BHC D@5M K<9B MCI 58CDH H<=G
FC@9
,<9 9L9F7=G9 @98 HC H<9 7F95H=CB C: 5 GD579 :CF F9V9L=J9 9LD@CF5H=CB
=BHC 957< F9G95F7<9F57H=J=GHG IB=EI9 5B8 D@IF5@ 9LDF9GG=CBG C: H<9=F
FC@9G 5B8 57H=CBG 6CH< =895@ 5B8 57HI5@ H<5H K9F9 ;9B9F5H=J9@M GIF:5798
=B H<=G G=AD@9 DFC79GG =; 
!B H<=G D5D9F K9 <=;<@=;<H G9J9B 7<5F57H9FGH<5H K9 <5J9 G99B 6CH<
K=H<=B CIF CKB F9G95F7< 7CAAIB=H=9G 5B8 =B 7F=H=75@ @=H9F5HIF9 957< C:
K<=7< 9A6C8=9G 8=J9FG9 5GD97HG C: 57589A=7 5B8 DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF =B H<9=F
CKB K5M ,<9F9 5F9 C6J=CIG@M A5BM ACF9 5B8 =H G<CI@8 69 BCH98 H<5H
H<9G9 7<5F57H9FG G<CI@8 69 7CBG=89F98 5G 9A9F;9BH V9L=6@9 5B8 C:H9B
7CBH9LHI5@@M GD97=U7 /9 8C BCH GI;;9GH F9G95F7<9FG @=A=H H<9AG9@J9G HC
=89BH=:M=B; K=H< CB9 75F8CF H<9 CH<9F =BGH958 K9 DFCDCG9 H<5H F9
G95F7<9FG IG9 H<9 7<5F57H9FG DF9G9BH98 HC C6G9FJ9 5B8 F9V97H CB H<9 J5
F=9HM 5B8 8=J9FG=HM C: 5DDFC57<9G 5B8 FC@9G H<5H 75B 9L=GH =B 8=::9F9BH
ACA9BHG H<FCI;<CIH H<9 F9G95F7< DFC79GG =; 
4. Results: our Tarot deck
4.1. The post-normal scientist
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4.2. The indigenous scholar/ally
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L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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4.3. The anti-oppressive researcher
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EI9GH=CBG 5@@ K<=@9 :C7IG=B; CB F9@5H=CBG<=D6I=@8=B; (CHHG 5B8 FCKB

'B9 DCH9BH=5@ D=H:5@@ C: H<9 5BH=CDDF9GG=J9 F9G95F7<9F =G H<9
CJ9FG=AD@=U75H=CB CF ;9B9F5@=N5H=CB C: 9LD9F=9B79G C: CDDF9GG=CB 5B8
DCK9F 65G98 CB DF9G9H =89BH=HM 75H9;CF=9G 9J9B K<9B IG=B; 5B =BH9FG97
H=CB5@ @9BG 5G DFCDCG98 6M F9BG<5K  ,<9M 5@GC F=G? 697CA=B;
GC :C7IG98 CB 8=GFIDH=B; 5B8 CDDCG=B; H<9 GH5HIG EIC H<5H H<9M :5=@ HC
7F=H=EI9 B9K BCFA5@=N5H=CBG 5B8 DCK9F GHFI7HIF9G 9A9F;=B; K=H<=B H<9=F
CDDCG=H=CB
4.4. The co-conspirer
,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F =G 5B 57H=J=GH H<5H 7CB8I7HG F9G95F7< HC 9BF=7<
H<9 >IGH=79 ACJ9A9BH H<5H H<9M 5F9 GD97=:=75@@M =AA9FG98 5B8 =AD@=
75H98 =B +<9 G99?G HC 5AD@=:M H<9 ?BCK@98;9 <9@8 =B A5F;=B5@ GD579G
H<5H G=HG CIHG=89 C: H<9 <9;9ACB=7 A95B=B;A5?=B; A57<=B9 #I@IB8I
 #I@IB8I  +<9 7C@@56CF5H=J9@M GHFI;;@9G HC IB89FGH5B8 H<9
7CB79FBG 7<5@@9B;9G 5B8 HF5BG;F9GG=J9 DF57H=79G C: H<CG9 H<5H G<9 =G
6CIB8 K=H< =B GC@=85F=HM =B H<9=F EI9GH :CF 9A5B7=D5H=CB +<9 7CBGD=F9G
K=H< H<CG9 =B H<9 :F=B;9G C: GC7=9HM K=H< H<9 =BH9BH=CB C: 6I=@8=B; 5
7CIBH9F<9;9ACB=7 9LDF9GG=CB 5B8 DF57H=79 H<5H 9A9F;9G :FCA H<9=F
9D=GH9A=7 69@=9:G 5B8 CBHC@C;=75@ M95FB=B;G C: H<CG9 H<5H G<9 =G =B GC@=
85F=HM K=H< 5B8 G<9 GHFI;;@9G K=H< CH<9FG HC 6I=@8 CB H<9 9A9F;=B; @5B
;I5;9 5B8 DF57H=79 #I@IB8I  ,<=G K5M C: KCF?=B; 69@=9J9G H<5H
K=H<CIH 5 VCIF=G<=B; IB89FGH5B8=B; C: K<C K9 5F9 K9 @57? H<9B H<9
9D=GH9AC@C;=75@ FCCHG HC ;I=89 CF HF579 CIF K5M :CFK5F8 =; 
,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F KCF?G HC <9@D F9;9B9F5H9 5B8 F9DFC8I79 H<9 7C@@97
H=J9@M =A5;=B98 5B8 89G=F98 9A5B7=D5H=CB C: H<CG9 G<9 =G KCF?=B; K=H<
+<9 H5?9G 75F9:I@ 5B8 =B7F9A9BH5@ CBHC@C;=75@ GH9DG K=H< H<9 7C@@97H=J9
HC 6I=@8 7F95H=J9 5B8 F9JC@IH=CB5FM DF5L=G +<9 G99G =A5;=B5H=CB 5G 5 ?9M
HCC@ =B G<=:H=B; 8CA=B5BH <9;9ACB=7 8=G7CIFG9 +A=H<   5G G<9
IB89FGH5B8G F9=A5;=B=B; DFC79GG9G 5G BCH >IGH 5 F9H<=B?=B; C: <CK CB9
G99G H<9 KCF@8 6IH 9LD5B8=B; CIF K5M C: 69=B; 6M CD9B=B; CIFG9@J9G ID
HC 5@H9FB5H=J9G 5B8 6F=B;=B; H<9G9 5@H9FB5H=J9G HC @=:9 H<FCI;< CIF KF=H
=B; CIF 5FH A5?=B; 5B8 CIF D9F:CFA5B79
UNCORRECTED PROOF
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
Fig. 6. ,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F
!B D5FH=7I@5F H<9 7C7CBGD=F9F F5=G9G 7CB79FBG CJ9F H<9 8=G75F8=B;
C: <IA5B 9A6C8=A9BH C: H<9 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ =A5;=B5FM 5B8 G<9 9B
7CIF5;9G 5B 9A6C8=98 97C@C;=75@ 7=H=N9BG<=D H<5H 5HH9B8G GI:U7=9BH@M
HC 6C8M D@579 5B8 DC@=H=7G 9GD97=5@@M 5G H<9G9 5F9 IB89FGHCC8 5G 8=:
:9F9BH AC89G C: 9B;5;9A9BH K=H< H<9 KCF@8 K=H<=B <=GHCFM *9=8 5B8
,5M@CF   $=?9 H<9 HF=7?GH9F D9FGCB=U98 5G H<9 >57?5@ =B A5BM
:F=75B GHCF=9G G<9 =G 56@9 HC ACJ9 69HK99B KCF@8G K=H< 95G9 =B H<=G
75G9 H<9 9L=GH=B; <5F89B98 GC7=C97CBCA=7 5B8 DC@=H=75@ <=GHCF=9G H<5H
K9 F9GDCB8 HC 85=@M K<=@9 A5=BH5=B=B; 5 899D@M 7CBB97H98 5B8 G9BGCF
=5@ F9@5H=CBG<=D K=H< H<9 K=89F B5HIF5@ 97C@C;M +<9 F9GDCB8G HC H<9 7I@
HIF5@ 5B8 DC@=H=75@ 6C8M6@=B8B9GGK9 G99 =B H97<BC7F5H=7 9BJ=FCBA9B
H5@ F9GDCBG9G 7CBB97H98 K=H< H<9 8=GD5F5;9A9BH C: @C75@ ?BCK@98;9 5B8
D9FGCB5@ :CFAG C: ?BCK=B; 5B8 75D57=H=9G BCH CB@M =B H<9 DC@=7M GMGH9A
6IH 5@GC =B 98I75H=CB 5B8 9J9B =B H<9 @5F;9F 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ ACJ9A9BH
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H=7 IB89FGH5B8=B;G C: H<9 =B8=J=8I5@ K=H<=B 5 A5HF=L 5B8 GI6>97HC6>97H
8I5@=GAG 5B8 7CBB97HG H<=G HC 89AC7F5H=7 :F998CA *9=8 5B8 ,5M@CF

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K<5H K9 A=;<H H<=B? =G FCIH=B9 5B8 AIB85B9 5B8 F9J95@G H<9 =BB5H9
?BCK@98;9 H<5H 7C@CIFG =H F=7?9F  +<9 IB89FGH5B8G H<5H 9FCH=7
?BCK@98;9 =9 9A6C8=98 =BHI=H=J9 5B8 =BGH=B7H=J9 K5MG C: ?BCK=B;
$CF89  C: H<=G B5HIF9 =G 5 J=H5@ F9GCIF79 =H =G 7I@HIF5@ 75D=H5@ H<5H
<C@8G DCK9F H<5H ;FCKG 5G =H =G 7CBG=GH9BH@M GIF:5798 5B8 57?BCK@98;98
5G ?BCK@98;9 5B8 G99G H<=G ?BCK@98;9 5G 5 <9FA9B9IH=75@ F9GCIF79
F=7?9F   ,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F CD9BG ID K<5H CA= <56<5
75@@G H<9 ;9B9F5H=J9 H<=F8 GD579GH<5H ;C 69MCB8 8CA=B5BH 8=G7CIFG9G
5B8 6=B5F=9G =B 98I75H=CB5@ F9G95F7< 5B8 8F5KG :FCA D<9BCA9BC@C;
=75@ 5B8 G9BGI5@ F9B89F=B;G C: H<9 KCF@8 %9F@95I(CBHM  C66
 6F5A   ,<=G D<9BCA9BC@C;=75@@M G<5D98 H<=F8 GD579
;9B9F5H9G B9K DCGG=6=@=H=9G 6M EI9GH=CB=B; 9BHF9B7<98 75H9;CF=G5H=CBG
C: ?BCK@98;9 GMGH9AG 5B8 7I@HIF9G 5B8 CD9BG ID B9K 5J9BI9G K=H< 5
7CIBH9F <9;9ACB=7 GHF5H9;M F9=8@=8  
,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F =G =AD@=75H98 =B H<9 ACJ9A9BH57H=CB 5B8 GC B998G
HC A5=BH5=B 5 <95@H<M 7CBB97H=CB HC <9F CKB =89BH=HM 5B8 5IHCBCAM
,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F 5@GC A=;<H UB8 H<5H G<9 75B ;9H @CGH =B H<9 ;9B9F5
H=J9 9A9F;9BH DFC79GG9G C: H<9 ;FCID 5B8 G<CI@8 GHF=?9 5 65@5B79 69
HK99B @=:H=B; CIH 9FCH=7 ?BCK@98;9 GMGH9AG $CF89   5B8 D9F
GCB5@ 5;9B7M K=H< H<9 B998 HC HF5BG:9F H<9G9 ?BCK@98;9G =BHC 7C@@97
H=J9 57H=CBG 5B8 5;9B7M #I@IB8I  ,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F A=;<H 69
CJ9FK<9@A98 K=H< 9ACH=CB5@ HF5IA5H=7 CF 8=:U7I@H :CFAG C: ?BCK@
98;9 H<5H A=;<H 9A9F;9 :FCA <9F HF5BG;F9GG=J9 DF57H=79 5B8 G<9 AIGH 69
56@9 HC UB8 DGM7<CGC7=5@ GIDDCFH K<9B B979GG5FM HC <C@8 5B8 F97C;B=N9
H<9G9 9ACH=CB5@@M 7CAD@9L ?BCK@98;9G =; 
4.5. The Responsible Participant
,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH GHF=J9G HC D5FH=7=D5H9 =B 5B8 <C@8 5 HF5BG
:CFA5H=J9 5B8 7CBB97H=J9 GC7=5@ GD579 H<5H =G 7C;B=N5BH C: D5F=HM =B
7@IG=CB F9V9L=J=HM 9AD5H<M 5B8 =BHI=H=J9 =A5;=B5@ H<CI;<H %75FFM
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:CFAG C: 9B;5;=B; ,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH  CF=;=B5@@M 7C=B98 6M
+<9@@9M +57?G   F9:9FG HC H<9 F9G95F7<9F 5G F9V9L=J9 DF57H=H=CB9F
=BH9FJ9B9F:57=@=H5HCF =B 5B 9A9F;9BH F9G95F7< DFC79GG F5H<9F H<5B H<9
8CA=B5BH :CF79 7CBHFC@@=B; H<9 G<5D9 C: H<9 DFC79GG
,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH 5=AG HC F9A5=B DF9G9BH 6M 69=B; DF9
G9BH K=H< <9F CKB G9BG9G 5B8 G9BG=6=@=H=9G G99 +7<5FA9F  =B KCF?
=B; K=H< H<9 7CB79DH C: DF9G9B7=B;5G D5FH C: <=G -H<9CFM !B H<=G
Fig. 7. ,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH
UNCORRECTED PROOF
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
K5M G<9 697CA9G 5B 5DDF9BH=79 HC <9F CKB =BHI=H=CB =A5;=B5H=CB 5B8
9AD5H<=7 75D56=@=H=9G 5G K9@@ 5G 5B 5DDF9BH=79 HC H<9 D5FH=7=D5BHG CB
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7<5F57H9F 75@@G :CF G9BG=H=J=HM HC H<9 HMF5BBM C: D5FH=7=D5H=CB  =7?9M
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5H9 GD579G C: 9LHF5GC7=5@ 5IH<CF=HM H<5H 9L=GH CIHG=89 C: 5 <IA5B 69=B;
5B8 K=H<=B 5 7C@@97H=J9@M 5;F998 IDCB 7I@HIF9 C: 9B;5;9A9BH 5FCIB8 5
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,<FCI;< 5 7CA6=B5H=CB C: =BH9FB5@ 5B8 GC7=5@ F9V9L=J=HM H<9 *9
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H<9 @95FB=B;HF5BG;F9GG=J9 GD579 CB H<9 69<5@: C: H<9 K<C@9 5@@CK=B;
H<9 F9G95F7< HC D5FH=7=D5H9 =B 5 ACF9 9EI=H56@9 @9GG8CA=B5BH :CFA =B
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4.6. The critical comrade/the dialectic activist scholar
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Fig. 8. ,<9 7F=H=75@ 7CAF589
75B 9L=GH G=;B=:=75BH 8=::9F9B79G =B C6>97H=J9G CIHDIHG 5B8 H=A9 :F5A9G
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CF <CK =H A5M 69 K=9@898 DC@=H=75@@M H<=G =G K<5H K9 H9FA H<9 DC@=H=75@
=AD57H 5B8 F=;CIF C: F9G95F7< G 89@A5B   DC=BHG CIH H<=G
@958G HC H<9 B998 HC 5JC=8 CB H<9 CB9 <5B8 5B 5DDFC57< K<=7< =B =HG
ACF9 9LHF9A9 A5B=:9GH5H=CBG 7F=H=7G GCA9H=A9G 7<5F57H9F=G9 5G G9@:79B
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HC A5?9 GIF9 H<5H H<9 F9G95F7< 8C9G BCH IBK=HH=B;@M GHF9B;H<9B H<9 5B
5@MH=75@ 75D56=@=H=9G C: F9DF9GG=J9 :CF79G GH5H9 GIFJ9=@@5B79 9@=H9 =BH9F
9GHG CF CH<9F <CGH=@9 CDDCB9BHG DFCJ=8=B; :I9@ 5;5=BGH H<9 ACJ9A9BH
5B8 @958=B; HC 8=J=G=J9B9GG (9F<5DG H<9 ACGH 7<5@@9B;=B; :CF H<9 9B
;5;98 F9G95F7<9F =G HC UB8 H<9 K5M HC 69 7F=H=75@@M 7CBGHFI7H=J9 5B8 HC
C::9F 5B5@MH=75@ 5B8 H<9CF9H=75@ =BG=;<HG H<5H 75B 9BF=7< H<9 ACJ9A9BH
!B H<=G H<9 7F=H=75@ 7CAF589 AIGH F9@M CB <=G CKB >I8;9A9BH 5G K9@@ 5G
CB 5 :CFA C: D99F F9J=9K H<5H H5?9G D@579 H<FCI;< 5 8=5@97H=75@ DFC79GG
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6M GC A5BM C: CIF 7C@@95;I9G K<C KF=H9 IB7F=H=75@@M 56CIH H<9 GH5HIG
UNCORRECTED PROOF
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
EIC GI77IA6=B; HC V5HH9F=9G ;5=B98 6M G9FJ=B; DCK9F CB8 9@56CF5H9G
 G=BG H<5H GMAD5H<9H=7 57589A=7G AIGH 5JC=8 K<9B KCF?=B; 5@CB;G=89
GC7=5@ ACJ9A9BH 5;9BHG H<9G9 =B7@I89 <=>57?=B; =B K<=7< 5 F9G95F7<9F
H5?9G CKB9FG<=D C: 5 ACJ9A9BH 5B8 =HG =BH9FDF9H5H=CB substitutionism
K<9F96M H<9 F9G95F7<9F F9D@579G @C75@ IB89FGH5B8=B; K=H< <=G CKB J=
G=CB Ventriloquism F9D<F5G=B; C: ACJ9A9BH H9LHG =B <=G CKB 5758
9A=7 KCF8G careerism through parasitism H97<B=7=GA <I7?GH9F=GA
8=J=G=J9B9GG 5B8 69HF5M5@ /=H<=B H<=G H<9 75F8=B5@ G=B =G D9F<5DG Fail-
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:I@@M @=69F5HCFM DCH9BH=5@G C: H<9 ACJ9A9BH 5B8 =HG GHFI;;@9G CF C::9F
7CAF589@M 7F=H=EI9 C: H<CG9 ACJ9A9BHG!B H<=G @=B9 89@A5B 
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4.7. The Queer Enquirer
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Fig. 9. ,<9 )I99F BEI=F9F
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)I99F BEI=F9FG F9>97H 6=B5F=9G 5B8 F97C;B=N9 H<9 J5@I9 C: 9LD9F=9B
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G=HM 5B8 79BH9F H<9 7CB79DH C: 7CBG9BH 5G 57H=J9 5B8 9BH<IG=5GH=7 "IGH 5G
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4.8. The slow and care-full scholar
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C: G7<C@5F@M A5H9F=5@ !BGH958 C: FIG<98 GID9FU7=5@ F958=B;G 5B8 =B
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
UNCORRECTED PROOF
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
Fig. 10. ,<9 G@CK 5B8 75F9:I@@ G7<C@5F
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5B8 57?BCK@98;9 H<9 DCK9F <=9F5F7<=9G G<9 A5M 69 IB56@9 HC 7CB:FCBH
,9AD9F 5B8 9@ 9B9  5B8 HC 5JC=8 57589A=7 7CIBH=B; 7I@HIF9
H<5H 6F998G =BGH=HIH=CB5@ G<5A=B; 5B8 G9@:5I8=H =BGH958 7CIBH=B; :F=9B8
G<=DG 7C@@56CF5H=CBG 5B8 H<5B? MCIG %CIBHN 9H 5@ 
,<9 G@CK 5B8 75F9:I@@ G7<C@5F A=;<H 697CA9 GC :C7IG98 CB 75F9
<CK9J9F H<5H H<9M 697CA9 5J9FG9 HC H<9 7<5@@9B;9G :FIGHF5H=CBG 5B8
F=G?H5?=B; C:H9B B979GG5FM HC ACJ9 H<FCI;< 7CAD@9L F9G95F7<
DFC79GG9G
5. Discussion: political rigour
(9F<5DG CB9 CF G9J9F5@ C: H<9 5F7<9HMD9G =B7@I898 =B H<=G D5D9F F5B;
HFI9 HC MCI CF D9F<5DG MCI KCI@8 =89BH=:M K=H< 5 J9FM 8=::9F9BH 5D
DFC57< 5B8 KCI@8 K5BH HC 588 MCIF CKB 7<5F57H9F HC H<9 ;FCK=B;
,5FCH 897? C: HF5BG;F9GG=J9 F9G95F7< ,<9G9 7<5F57H9FG 5F9 =BH9B898 HC
DFCADH 5B CB;C=B; 7CBJ9FG5H=CB =BJ=H=B; IG HC 7CBG=89F <CK K9 G99 CIF
G7=9BH=U7 DF57H=79 CIF 9B;5;9A9BH K=H< CH<9F 5;9BHG K=H<=B H<9 DFC79GG
C: F9G95F7< <CK J5@I9G 5F9 F9V97H98 =B H<9 KCF? K9 8C 5B8 <CK K9
G9BG9 H<5H F9G95F7< @958G HC GC7=5@ 5B8 DC@=H=75@ 7<5B;9 5B8 HF5BG:CFA5
H=CB
,<9 ,5FCH 9L9F7=G9 =G >IGH CB9 9L5AD@9 C: 5 H5B;=6@9 GHF5H9;M HC CD9B
ID GD579 :CF =B8=J=8I5@ 5B8 7C@@97H=J9 7C@@56CF5H=J9 F9V9L=J=HM =B CIF
F9G95F7< 7CAAIB=H=9G ,<=G 9L9F7=G9 =G 5 K5M HC 9LD@CF9 CIF CKB DCG=
H=CB5@=HM 5B8 75B 69 IG98 5G CB9 D=979 =B 5 ACF9 7CADF9<9BG=J9 9::CFH HC
69 ACF9 =BH9BH=CB5@ =B CIF F9G95F7< 5B8 57H=J=GA DF57H=79G !H 5@GC 5=AG
HC 5K5?9B CIFG9@J9G HC H<9 CH<9F G9BG9G H<5H 7CA9 =BHC D@5M =B CIF F9
G95F7< DF57H=79G =B7@I8=B; CIF 6C8=9G CIF 9ACH=CBG 5B8 CIF =BHI=H=CBG
!B H<=G K5M H<9 ,5FCH G9FJ9G 5G 5 89J=79 5B8 5B 9BHFM DC=BH :CF 9LD@CF
=B; H<9 DC@=H=75@ F=;CIFC: CIF ?BCK@98;9 DF57H=79G M 8F5K=B; CIH
?9M 5GD97HG C: 8=J9FG9 HF5BG;F9GG=J9 F9G95F7< 5DDFC57<9G GCA9 C: K<=7<
K9 =B7@I89 =B H<=G D5D9F K9 75B 69;=B HC ;=J9 G<5D9 HC H<=G 7CB79DH 5B8
<CK =H 75B 69 5DD@=98
+=A=@5F@M HC <CK G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF 75B 69 89UB98 5G H<9 5DD@=75H=CB
C: H<9 G7=9BH=U7 A9H<C8 HC 9BGIF9 FC6IGH 9LD9F=A9BH5@ 89G=;B A9H<C8
C@C;M 5B5@MG=G 5B8 F9DCFH=B; C: F9GI@HG K9 89UB9 DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF 5G
H<9 5DD@=75H=CB C: A9H<C8G C: F9V9L=J=HM =B ?BCK@98;9 7F95H=CB H<FCI;<
K<=7< DCK9F F9@5H=CBG 5B8 9LD@=7=H J5@I9G 5B8 5=AG C: GC7=9H5@ HF5BG:CF
A5H=CB 5F9 =89BH=U98 F9V97H98 CB GC7=5@=N98 5B8 9J5@I5H98 5ACB;GH 5B
9LH9B898 D99F 7CAAIB=HM 5B8 F9V97H98 =B H<9 F9G95F7< 89G=;B A9H<C8
C@C;M 5B8 F9G95F7< CIHDIHG
!: H<9 A9H<C8C@C;M C: H<9 G7=9BH=U7 A9H<C8 9BGIF9G H<9 F9@=56=@
=HM 5B8 FC6IGHB9GG C: F9GI@HG :CF G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF :CF DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF 5
DFC79GG C: F58=75@ =BH9BH=CB5@ 5B8 =B7@IG=J9 F9V9L=J=HM =G K<5H 9BGIF9G
577CIBH56=@=HM :CF H<9 DF57H=75@ 5B8 DC@=H=75@ CIH7CA9G C: H<9 ?BCK@98;9
7F95H=CB DFC79GG /<=@9 G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF IG9G D99F F9J=9K HC 5G 5 A95BG
C: J9F=U75H=CB DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF =G J9F=U98 H<FCI;< 5B =H9F5H=J9 7M7@9 C:
DC@=H=75@ D99F F9J=9K
$=?9 G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF 5@GC 9BH5=@G GI6GH5BH=5H=B; 5G
G9FH=CBG F9:9FF=B; HC GCIF79G 5B8 6FC589F @=H9F5HIF9 5B8 8=G7IGG=CBG 8=G
H=B;I=G<=B; 69HK99B :57HG 5B8 =BH9FDF9H5H=CBG 6IH 8C9G GC H<FCI;< 5
@9BG C: DCK9F 5B5@MG=G F9>97H=B; B9IHF5@=HM 5B8 :5@G9 C6>97H=J=HM 5B8
DIFDCG9:I@@M G99?=B; CIH H<CG9 JC=79G C:H9B 9L7@I898 =B 8CA=B5BH G7=
9B79 !B H<=G K5M DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF IG9G G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF GHF5H9;=75@@M 5G
5 7CIBH9F<9;9ACB=7 HCC@ !B H<=G K5M G7=9BH=U7 5B8 DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF 75B
69 GMB9F;=GH=7 /<=@9 H9BG=CBG GIF9@M 9L=GH H<9G9 5F9 5DDFC57<98 H<FCI;<
69=B; 9LD@=7=H 5B8 =BH9BH=CB5@ K=H< CIF 6=5G9G 5B8 5=AG 5B8 7@95F@M DCG=
H=CB=B; CIFG9@J9G (C@=H=75@ F=;CIF A5?9G GD579 :CF H<9 9L=GH9B79 C: AI@
H=D@9 HFIH<G 5B8 IB79FH5=BHM 6IH BCH IB7F=H=75@@M 6CJ9 5@@ DC@=H=75@
F=;CIF =G VI=8 5B8 <95J=@M 89D9B89BH CB 7CBH9LH
(C@=H=75@ F=;CIF =BJC@J9G 9A6988=B; 57H=J9 GHF5H9;=7 F9V9L=J=HM =BHC
9J9FM GH9D C: H<9 F9G95F7< DFC79GG 5B8 9BH5=@G GC7=5@ 9J5@I5H=CB C: H<9 F9
G95F7< 5ACB;GH 5B 9LH9B898 D99F 7CAAIB=HM !H =G DFC79GGCF=9BH98 BCH
CIH7CA9 CF=9BH98 !H =G 5 ?9M 7CBG=89F5H=CB =B 5 B9K ?BCK@98;9 DF5L=G
5B8 =B7@I89G 7CBG=89F5H=CB C: 9D=GH9A=7 >IGH=79 F=7?9F  ,9AD9F
5B8 9@ 9B9  H<5H A5M 69 89UB98 5G H<9 J5@CF=N5H=CB 5B8 F97C;
B=H=CB C: CH<9F :CFAG C: ?BCK=B; 5B8 CH<9F @=:9KCF@8G =B7@I8=B; ?BCK@
98;9G FCA 69@CK HC H<9 $9:H K=H< H<9 5FH<G7C65F 
/9 5=A HC 89J9@CD :IFH<9F HCC@G GI7< 5G H<9 ,5FCH DFC79GG :CF 9J5@
I5H=B; DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF 5B8 :CF ;I=8=B; F9V9L=J=HM GC 5G HC 5GG9GG H<9
7CBG9EI9B79G C: H<9 F9G95F7< 5B8 <CK H<9G9 UH =BHC CIF J5@I9G C6
>97H=J9G 5B8 6FC589F HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 J=G=CBG /9 A5M 5G? C: F9G95F7<
=BH9B898 :CF GC7=5@ HF5BG:CFA5H=CB *9G95F7< :CF K<5H /=H< K<CA
CK /<5H ?=B8 C: 7<5B;9 CK =B DF57H=79 K=@@ H<=G DFC8I7H=CB C:
?BCK@98;9 HF5BG:CFA DCK9F F9@5H=CBG<=DG+I7< 5 7F=H=75@ DC@=H=75@@M
F=;CFCIG F9V97H=CB KCI@8 =B7@I89 7CBG=89F5H=CB C: H<9 CBHC@C;=9G K<5H
=G HFIH< 9D=GH9AC@C;=9G K<5H =G H<9 7CBB97H=CB 69HK99B H<9 ?BCK9F
5B8 K<5H =G CF 7CI@8 69 ?BCKB A9H<C8C@C;=9G <CK 8C K9 G9H CIH HC

UNCORRECTED PROOF
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
7F95H9 5B8 8=G7CJ9F ?BCK@98;9 5B8 5L=C@C;=9G K<5H =G 9GG9BH=5@@M J5@I
56@9 5B8 =ADCFH5BH H<5H =B:CFA H<9 F9G95F7< DFC79GG I65 5B8 $=B7C@B
 .5F;5G 9H 5@  !H =B7@I89G 5 7CBGH5BH =BH9FD@5M 5B8 8=5@97H=7
69HK99B 57H=CB 5B8 F9V97H=CB C:H9B F9:9FF98 HC 5G H<9 DF5L=G C: F9G95F7<
F9=F9 
)I9GH=CBG HC 69 9L5A=B98 =B7@I89 H<CG9 CB H<9 HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 5=AG
5B8 89G=F98 DC@=H=75@ =AD57HG 9A9F;=B; :FCA H<9 DFC>97H A9H<C8C@C;=9G
9LD@CF5H=CBG =BHC H<9 A95B=B; 5B8 :CFAG C: D5FH=7=D5H=CB GC@=85F=HM 5B8
F97=DFC7=HM =B H<9 F9G95F7< EI9GH=CBG C: F9@5H=CBG K=H< 7CF9G95F7<9FG
5IH<CFG<=D 5B8 57?BCK@98;A9BH 5B8 9BEI=F=9G =BHC H<9 GCIF79G C:
?BCK@98;9 5B8 5HH9BH=CB HC K<C =G 7CBG=89F98 5B 9LD9FH K<5H :CFAG C:
?BCK@98;9 5F9 J5@I98 5B8 K<=7< 5F9 A5F;=B5@=N98X /<5H 5F9 CIF F9
G95F7< DI6@=7G 5B8 CIHDIHG  K<C 5F9 K9 GD95?=B; HC 5B8 <CK =B K<5H
:CFAG B8 <CK 8C K9 9J5@I5H9 CIFG9@J9G 5B8 G99? 9J5@I5H=CB :FCA CH<
9FG
9B95H< 5@@ H<=G =G H<9 EI9GH=CB C: H<9 J5@I9G 5B8 H<9 7F=H9F=5 H<5H =B
:CFA H<9 F9G95F7< 9F9 65G98 CB CIF CKB 9LD9F=9B79G 5B8 H<CG9 C: CH<
9FG =B CIF F9G95F7< 7CAAIB=H=9G K9 DFCDCG9 GCA9 DF=B7=D@9G H<5H :F9
EI9BH@M 9A9F;9 =B 5 politicalD99F F9J=9K DFC79GG ,<9G9 5F9 DF=B7=D@9G
H<5H <5J9 699B F9V97H98 H<FCI;< H<9 ,5FCH 7<5F57H9FG H<5H K9 <5J9 >IGH
89G7F=698 K<=7< K9 GI;;9GH 75B 57H 5G ;I=89G =B <CK GCA9 F9G95F7<9FG
5DD@M H<9G9 J5@I9G =B H<9=F CKB KCF? ,<IG H<9 G@CK 5B8 75F9:I@ G7<C@5F
F9A=B8G IG <CK HC 75F9 5B8 <CK HC 895@ K=H< H<9 6@IFF=B; C: CIF D9F
GCB5@ 5B8 DFC:9GG=CB5@ @=J9G 5B8 H<9 =B8=;9BCIG 5@@M A5M H957< IG K<5H
F97=DFC7=HM A=;<H @CC? @=?9 9J9B HCK5F8G CIF BCB<IA5B D@5BH 5B8 5B=
A5@ F9G95F7< D5FHB9FG
/<=@9 H<9G9 5F9 J5@I9G K<=7< <5J9 9A9F;98 <9F9 K9 GI;;9GH 957<
F9G95F7<9F HC KCF? HC;9H<9F K=H< H<9=F 7CF9G95F7<9FG 5B8 D5FH=7=D5BHG
HC >C=BH@M 89UB9 H<9 J5@I9G 5B8 7F=H9F=5 H<5H =B:CFA H<9=F CKB 7C@@97H=J9
5B8 =B8=J=8I5@ DFC79GG9G
(C@=H=75@ D99F F9J=9K 9BH5=@G H<9 >C=BH 89:=B=H=CB C: G<5F98 J5@I9G 5G
H<CG9 56CJ9 H<9 7C89J9@CDA9BH C: A95BG HC J9F=:M H<9=F 5DD@=75H=CB
5B8 =BH9;F=HM 5B8 H<9 CIH@=B=B; C: 5B =H9F5H=J9 75@@ 5B8 F9GDCBG9 DFC79GG
:CF 58>IGH=B; H<9 F9G95F7< 89G=;B DFC79GG 5B8 CIH7CA9G HC 9BGIF9 H<9A
 Accessibility F9G95F7< 75B 69 IB89FGHCC8 6FC58@M 5B8 5 A95BG :CF
GC7=5@ @95FB=B;
 Reexivity 7F=H=75@@M 9L5A=B5H=CB C: CIF CKB DF57H=79G DF9GIAD
H=CBG 5B8 5GGIADH=CBG 5B8 H<9 DCK9F F9@5H=CBG<=DG =B CIF KCF?
 Relevance code>ning Matter of Concern K=H< 5@@ =BJC@J98 *9G95F7<
AIGH 69 IG9:I@ HC 9A5B7=D5HCFM 9::CFHG C: ;FCIDG K9 KCF? K=H<
 Transparency 7@5F=HM C: GHFI7HIF9 DFC79GG9G 5B8 CIH7CA9
 Carefull ness F9@5H=CBG C: 75F9 K=H< CB9G9@: @CJ98 CB9G 7CAAI
B=H=9G C: G7<C@5F 5B8 D5FH=7=D5BHG
 Respectfulness <CK 5F9 CH<9F :CFAG C: ?BCK@98;9 5B8 KCF@8J=9KG
J5@CF=N98 F97C;B=N98 5B8 =BH9;F5H98 =BHC H<9 F9G95F7< DFC79GG
 Relationality F9G95F7< G<CI@8 69 ;FCIB898 5B8 7CBH9LH 89D9B89BH
 Reciprocity 7C89G=;B C: F9G95F7< EI9GH=CB A9H<C8G 5B5@MG=G 5B8
CIHDIHG KCF?G 5G CB9 A9H<C8 HC <9@D 9BGIF9 F97=DFC7=HM
 Fallibility DCGG=6=@=HM HC :5=@ 5B8 @95FB :FCA :5=@IF9
 TransformativityTransgression <CK =G H<9 F9G95F7< HF5BG:CFA=B;
DCK9F F9@5H=CBG 5B8 HF5BG;F9GG=B; DF57H=79 5G IGI5@ HC CD9B ID B9K
9A5B7=D5HCFM DCGG=6=@=H=9G
8<9F9B79 HC GI7< J5@I9G 75B <9@D =B:CFA G7<C@5F57H=J=GHG =B 5 7C@
@97H=J9 DFC79GG C: 7F95H=B; HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 ?BCK@98;9 H<5H =G G9BG=H=J9
!B H<=G @=B9 5B =BH9F9GH=B; =B=H=5H=J9 =G H<9 7=H5H=CB DF57H=79G 7<5@@9B;9 <HHDKKK
7F=H=75@9H<B=7GHI8=9G>CIFB5@CF;7=H5H=CBDF57H=79G K<=7< F9A=B8G IG HC 69 =BH9BH=CB5@ =B
CIF 7=H5H=CB DF57H=79G
HC H<9 DC@=H=7G C: 7CDFC8I7H=CB 5B8 <CK DC@=H=7G =BH9F9GHG =AD9F5H=J9G
5B8 ?BCK@98;9 C: 8=::9F9BH 57HCFG 5B8 GH5?9<C@89FG 5F9 F9V97H98 =B H<9
UB5@ F9G95F7< ,<9 B9K HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 ?BCK@98;9 D5F58=;A 89A5B8G
GI7< 5 B9K9F 899D9F :CFA C: F58=75@ F9V9L=J=HM H<5H =G =B H<9 A5?=B;
6. Conclusion
,<=G D5D9F <5G DF9G9BH98 5 J5F=9HM C: 5DDFC57<9G H<5H HF5BG;F9GG=J9
57H=J=GH F9G95F7<9FG 5F9 9B;5;=B; =B 8=F97H=B; H<9 F9589F HC F9:9F9B79G
5B8 @=H9F5HIF9 CB 957< 5B8 <5G :CF79:I@@M 5F;I98 :CF H<9 B998 :CF DC
@=H=75@ F=;CIF =B:CFA98 6M 9LD@=7=H J5@I9G 5G 5 7CAD@9A9BH HC 57589
A=7 5B8 G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF K=H<=B 5 B9K D5F58=;A C: G7=9BH=U7 EI5@=HM
:CF HF5BG;F9GG=J9 5B8 HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 ?BCK@98;9 DFC8I7H=CB 5B8 G7=9B79
M =89BH=:M=B; 7CAACB5@=H=9G 57FCGG 8=J9FG9 7F=H=75@ 5B8 9A9F;9BH 5D
DFC57<9G HC G7=9B79 H<=G D5F58=;A <9@DG IG ACJ9 HCK5F8G ACF9 7C<9F
9BH A9H<C8C@C;=75@ 5DDFC57<9G =B HF5BG8=G7=D@=B5FM G7=9B79G @=?9 97C@C;
=75@ 97CBCA=7G H<5H <5J9 GHFI;;@98 K=H< IB7F=H=75@ D@IF5@=HM 5B8 A9H<C8
C@C;=75@ 7CB:IG=CB CK  +D5G< 
'IF :IHIF9 F9G95F7< 5;9B85 =B H<=G @=B9 =B7@I89G H<9 9@56CF5H=CB C:
CH<9F HCC@G 8=GFIDH=J9 DF57H=79GD985;C;=9G ;5A9G 5B8 9L9F7=G9G H<5H
75B <9@D ;I=89 5 F9V97H=J9 DFC79GG C: DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF ,<=G DFC79GG =B
7@I89G CB;C=B; =B8=J=8I5@ F9V9L=J=HM 6IH 5@GC 5 7C@@97H=J9 9LD@CF5H=CB
=BHC H<9 DC@=H=7G C: ?BCK@98;9 5B8 H<9 H<CFBM KCF? K9 AIGH 8C C: 7CA
D@=75H=B; GH5B85F8 57589A=7 DFCHC7C@G 5B8 H<9 HF5BG:CFA5H=CB C: H<9 =B
GH=HIH=CBG K9 KCF? =B 5B8 C: <CK K9 DFC8I79 5B8 J5@I9 ?BCK@98;9 DFC
8I7H=CB !B H<=G J9=B K9 AIGH 7CBGH5BH@M 5G? CIFG9@J9G 5B8 CH<9FG <CK
=G H<=G KCF? HF5BG;F9GG=J9$CHN+=G=H?5  CK 5F9 K9 ID9B8=B;
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D9F 7CBHF=6IH9G HC CD9B=B; ID :IFH<9F GD579 :CF 8=G7IGG=CB CB <CK G7=
9B79 B998G HC HF5BG:CFA =HG9@: 5B8 G9FJ9G 5G 5 J9<=7@9 :CF 7F=H=75@ F9V97
H=CB :CF F9G95F7<9FG F989UB=B; H<9AG9@J9G 5B8 H<9=F KCF?
Funding and acknowledgements
/9 5F9 ;F5H9:I@ HC H<9 !BH9FB5H=CB5@ +C7=5@ +7=9B79 CIB7=@ !++
5B8 H<9 ,F5BG:CFA5H=CBG HC +IGH5=B56=@=HM :CF H<9=F UB5B7=5@ 5B8 575
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Uncited references
<5HH9FHCB 
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References
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56@=? +  CBB97H=J9 59GH<9H=7G A9F=75B FH   
9B=IGN /  'IF #BCK@98;9 !G &CH (F=A=H=J9 97C@CB=N=B; CH5B=75@ B=G<=B5569
,957<=B;G +MF57IG9 -B=J9FG=HM (F9GG
=66CBG %  ,F5BG:9F G7=9B79G A5B5;9A9BH C: 8=GHF=6IH98 ?BCK@98;9 DFC8I7H=CB
AD=F=75   
=6GCBF5<5A "#  =J9FG9 97CBCA=9G D9F:CFA5H=J9 DF57H=79G :CF CH<9F KCF@8G
(FC; IA 9C;F    <HHDG8C=CF;
=@9G   ,<9 ,5FCH =GHCFM %MGH9FM 5B8 $CF9 +=ACB 5B8 +7<IGH9F
F5AG7=   +9@97H=CBG FCA H<9 (F=GCB &CH96CC?G !BH9FB5H=CB5@ (I6@=G<9FG &9K
0CF?
I65  $=B7C@B 0+  CAD9H=B; D5F58=;AG =B EI5@=H5H=J9 F9G95F7< !B 5B8
6CC? C: )I5@=H5H=J9 *9G95F7< JC@  DD  
5@9 *  7H=J=GH F9G95F7< J 7I@HIF5@ 7F=H=EI9 =B8=;9BCIG @5B8 F=;<HG 5B8 H<9 7CB
HF58=7H=CBG C: DC@=H=75@@M 9B;5;98 5BH<FCDC@C;M I@H BH<FCDC@   
5F5K5M   +=HI5H98 ?BCK@98;9G H<9 G7=9B79 EI9GH=CB =B :9A=B=GA 5B8 H<9 DF=J=
@9;9 C: D5FH=5@ D9FGD97H=J9 !B ,IFB=B; (C=BHG =B )I5@=H5H=J9 *9G95F7< ,M=B; #BCHG =B
5 5B8?9F7<=9: DD 
5F=H5KCFB "  +<=:H=B; DCG=H=CB5@=H=9G 9AD=F=75@ F9V97H=CBG CB 5 EI99FHF5BG C:
7C@CIF A9H<C8C@C;M +C7=C@ *9G 'B@=B9   
<9F=G=B;   !BH9FFIDH=B; DCG=H=CBG 7F=H=75@ H<F9G<C@8G 5B8 EI99F DFCDCG=H=CBG !B
+IG5B +HF9;5 5B8 $9G@=9 FCKB 8G *9G95F7< 5G *9G=GH5B79 F=H=75@ !B8=;9BCIG 5B8
BH=CDDF9GG=J9 DDFC57<9G 5B58=5B +7<C@5FG (F9GG ,CFCBHC '& DD 
=7?9M + %C<5B   (5FH=7=D5H=CBFCA ,MF5BBM HC ,F5BG:CFA5H=CB LD@CF=B;
&9K DDFC57<9G HC (5FH=7=D5H=CB =B 9J9@CDA9BH 198 6CC?G
CC?G   ,957<=B; HC HF5BG;F9GG 98I75H=CB 5G H<9 DF57H=79 C: :F998CA " $9=G *9G
  
K5B; $  *9H<=B?=B; H<9 7F95H=J9 97CBCAM IH=@=N=B; D5FH=7=D5HCFM 57H=CB F9G95F7<
HC 89J9@CD H<9 7CAAIB=HM 97CBCAM C: 5FH=GHG 5B8 5FH=G5BG *9H<=B? %5FL  

#5D@5B   9J9@CDA9BH (F57H=CB9FG 5B8 +C7=5@ (FC79GG FH=GHG C: H<9 !BJ=G=6@9
(@IHC (F9GG
#5D@5B  5J=8CW +   9@=75H9 7H=J=GA !G ,FI@M *58=75@ 5 *58=75@ DDFC57<
HC <5B;9 (FCH9IG !B=H=5H=J9 <HHDKKKDFCH9IG=B=H=5H=J9CF;779GG98 +9DH9A69F

#@9=B ",  *9DF=BH C: =G7CIFG9G C: HF5BG8=G7=D@=B5F=HM @CC?=B; 657? HC H<9 :IHIF9
IHIF9G  
#TB=; & TFG9B , AA97<9   ,<9 9H<CG C: DCGHBCFA5@ G7=9B79 IHIF9G=B
DF9GG <HHDG8C=CF;>:IHIF9G
#FCB@=8   +=;HIB5 H<=B? D=979  7@=A5H9 75D56=@=H=9G 5B8 7@=A5H9 7<5B;9 98I75H=CB
F9G95F7< +CIH<9FB :F=75B "CIFB5@ C: BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 8I75H=CB  
#I@IB8I !  *9;9B9F5H=B; 5B8 *9=A5;=B=B; :F=75B $=69F5HCFM (985;C;M =B H<9
GH 9BHIFM ,F5BG;F9GG=J9 $95FB=B; :CF H<9 CAACB CC8 ACB;GH 5 CAAIB=HM C:
<5B;9 F=J9FG (< (FCDCG5@ GI6A=HH98 HC *<C89G -B=J9FG=HM =;<9F 89;F99G CA
A=HH99
#I@IB8I !  ,<=B? D=979 =BH9FG97H=CB5@ F9GCB5B79 5B8 H<9 AI@H=D@=7=HM C: 69=B; =B 5
DC@5F=G98 KCF@8 +CIH<9FB :F=75B "CIFB5@ C: BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 8I75H=CB 
$CF89   +=GH9F 'IHG=89F ,<9 FCGG=B; (F9GG ,FIA5BG69F; 5B8 &9K 0CF?
$CHN+=G=H?5   +=;HIB5 H<=B? D=979  D=97=B; HC;9H<9F 7CB79DHI5@ :F5A=B;G :CF 7@=
A5H9 7<5B;9 98I75H=CB F9G95F7< =B +CIH<9FB :F=75B 7CBH9LHG +CIH<9FB :F=75B "CIF
B5@ C: BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 8I75H=CB  
$CHN+=G=H?5   /<M CBHC@C;M A5HH9FG HC F9J=9K=B; 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 98I75H=CB F9
G95F7< BJ=FCB 8I7 *9G   
$CHN+=G=H?5  /5@G  #FCB@=8  %75FFM   ,F5BG:CFA5H=J9 HF5BG;F9GG=J9
GC7=5@ @95FB=B; F9H<=B?=B; <=;<9F 98I75H=CB D985;C;M =B H=A9G C: GMGH9A=7 ;@C65@ 8MG
:IB7H=CB IFF 'D=B BJ=FCB +IGH5=B  
$CHN+=G=H?5  @= % %D<9DC  <5J9G % %57=BHMF9 , (9G5B5M= , /5@G 
%I?IH9 % #FCB@=8  ,F5B , "CCB  %75FFM   C89G=;B=B; F9
G95F7< CB HF5BG;F9GG=J9 @95FB=B; =B H=A9G C: 7@=A5H9 7<5B;9 IFF 'D=B BJ=FCB +IG
H5=B  
%5@A B8F95G CFB6CF; @:  ,<9 ;9C@C;M C: A5B?=B8 7F=H=EI9 C: H<9 B
H<FCDC79B9 B5FF5H=J9 ,<9 BH<FCDC79B9 *9J=9K   <HHDG8C=CF;

%5FL #  ,<9G9G C: 9I9F657< !B %5FLB;9@G +9@97H98 /CF?G =B 'B9 .C@IA9
$5KF9B79 5B8 /=G<5FH $CB8CB
%75FFM   AD5H<M =B H<9 ,=A9 C: 7C@C;=75@ D5FH<9=8 5 +C7=5@ +7I@DHIF9 (F57
H=79@98 !BEI=FM !BHC 9J9@CD=B; (985;C;=9G :CF 7C@C;=75@ =H=N9BG<=D 9D5FHA9BH C:
8I75H=CB *<C89G -B=J9FG=HM C7HCF5@ H<9G=G :CF H<9 9;F99 C: C7HCF C: (<=@CGC
D<MGID9FJ=G98 6M (FC: 9=@5 $CHNG=G=H?5
%75FFM   ,<9 9AD5H<9H=7 5DDF9BH=79 D985;C;=75@ 89J9@CDA9BHG =B H<9 59GH<9H=7
98I75H=CB C: H<9 GC7=5@ @95FB=B; DF57H=H=CB9F =B +CIH< :F=75 <5DH9F  =B CF7C
F5B !B @5N9 (9H9F C@@=B;G<958 F5B8CB ( 8G !BH9F;9B9F5H=CB5@ $95FB=B; 5B8
,F5BG:CFA5H=J9 $9589FG<=D :CF +IGH5=B56@9 IHIF9G /5;9B=B;9B 7589A=7 (I6@=G<9FG
/5;9B=B;9B H<9 &9H<9F@5B8G =B DF9GG
%7#9BN=9 % 5FH ( 5=  "=7?@=B;   =9@8G C: F99B 5ADHCB (F9GG !B7
F9GG?=@@ &"
%9@@5B6M # (F=79 , *5J9HN "*  CBV=7HG C: @CM5@HM =B G7=9B79 &5HIF9 
 
%9F@95I(CBHM %  ,<9 .=G=6@9 5B8 H<9 !BJ=G=6@9  $=B;=G ,F5BG &CFH<K9GH9FB
-B=J9FG=HM (F9GG J5BGHCB
%9FHCB *#  ,<9 +C7=C@C;M C: +7=9B79 ,<9CF9H=75@ 5B8 AD=F=75@ !BJ9GH=;5H=CBG
-B=J9FG=HM C: <=75;C (F9GG
%=H7<9@@  CF89@@  5A   9;=BB=B; 5H H<9 9B8 H<9 CIH7CA9 GD579G :F5A9
KCF? HC ;I=89 DIFDCG=J9 HF5BG8=G7=D@=B5FM F9G95F7< IHIF9G   <HHDG8C=
CF;>:IHIF9G
%CG9F + 57?A5BB  5=@@C8G   @C65@ 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 7<5B;9 7<5B;9G 9J9FM
H<=B; ?9M A9GG5;9G 5B8 F97CAA9B85H=CBG !B /CF@8 +C7=5@ +7=9B79 *9DCFH  DD

%CIBHN  CB8G  %5BGU9@8  $CM8 " MB8A5B " /5@HCB*C69FHG % 5GI
* /<=HGCB * 5K?=BG * 5A=@HCB , IFF5B /  CF G@CK G7<C@5FG<=D
5 :9A=B=GH DC@=H=7G C: F9G=GH5B79 H<FCI;< 7C@@97H=J9 57H=CB =B H<9 B9C@=69F5@ IB=J9FG=HM
% 5B =BH9FB5H=CB5@ >CIFB5@ :CF 7F=H=75@ ;9C;F5D<=9G   
&CKCHBM  +7CHH ( =66CBG %  ,<9 7C9JC@IH=CB C: GC7=9HM 5B8 G7=9B79 !B
*9H<=B?=B; +7=9B79 #BCK@98;9 5B8 H<9 (I6@=7 =B 5B ;9 C: -B79FH5=BHM DD 
(9BB=B;HCB  +=ADGCB $ %7CBB9@@ %+ 5=F "% 5?9F *"  ,F5BG8=G
7=D@=B5FM F9G95F7< HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 @95FB=B; 5B8 HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 G7=9B79 =C+7=9B79 
 
(9F9=F5  +5@H9@@=   (CGHBCFA5@ =BGH=HIH=CB5@ =89BH=H=9G EI5@=HM 5GGIF5B79 F9
V9L=J=HM 5B8 9H<CG C: 75F9 IHIF9G <HHDG8C=CF;>:IHIF9G =B
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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... In response to the problem of the practical implications of power asymmetries, ideas of transgressive learning and science emerged focusing specifically on structures of privilege, hegemonies of power, and innovative strategies to arrest systemic dysfunction or systemic violence while foregrounding epistemic, social, and environmental justice (Lotz-Sisitka, Wals, Kronlid, & McGarry, 2015;Temper, McGarry, & Weber, 2019). They explicitly propose introducing the idea of 'political rigour' as a tool for promoting reflexivity and consciousness in every step of the research process. ...
... They further argue that political rigour, similarly as scientific rigour, can be achieved with specific tools. While scientific rigour is secured by the use of scientific methods that ensure the reliability and robustness of results, political rigour can be reached through the design of tools and practices, like games, exercises, etc. that would guide a reflection on political dimensions of research process (Temper et al., 2019). ...
... It is increasingly acknowledged that transdisciplinary action research necessitates new forms of radical reflexivity (Cunliffe, 2003;Temper et al., 2019). This includes the explicit articulation of values, assumptions, and normative orientations, and renewed attention to asymmetries in power among participants engaging in new approaches, methodologies, and processes of co-production (Temper et al., 2019). ...
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... promotes not just telling but talking to and with the public (Leshner, 2021;Temper et al., 2019). ...
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... While reflecting on this case report, the interconnection of various disciplines can lead to the cocreation of knowledge on sustainability in both regions, as exemplified in this report. Reflexive practices are crucial to transdisciplinary research and will involve multiple positions held by the researcher [69,70]. ...
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... When available, we complemented this information with academic and peer-reviewed publications. Our scientific methodology and political positionality aim therefore at abiding to both scientific and political rigor (Temper et al., 2019), as well as to the principles of quality in the scientific process suggested by post-normal science scholars. ...
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... We wish to stress that the picture we have highlighted is one of a collective problem that cannot be addressed through a purely individual struggle. An understanding of the wider context-which we referred to earlier as the "canvas" on which researchers "paint"-and a willingness to creatively transgress established academic structures and protocols (Temper et al., 2019) are of utmost importance if we as academics wish to move towards truly creative academic practice while avoiding the latent risks of forced creativity. In other words, one cannot be truly creative in a transgressive manner if one does not know exactly what they are transgressing. ...
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... Accordingly, contemplations of what (not) to record and tell, how, when, where, and by and with whom are imperative for navigating difficult tensions that arise in applied communication collaborations that refuse academic pressures and messages to "produce" and "engage" more. Ethically collaborating with frontline/coastline communities-home to many residents who resist and refuse their exploitation and expulsion-requires addressing asymmetrical power relations among collaborators, attending carefully to values, and challenging normative practices and assumptions (Hale, 2006;Lotz-Sisitka et al., 2016;Temper et al., 2019;Pellow, 2020). These focus areas are essential for examining race/racism/racialization in "outdoor spaces" to advance critical environmental and energy justice communication studies that support self-determined movement struggles and the local people who energize them (Pellow, 2018). ...
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... Thus, what is at stake here is epistemic power and the politics of knowledge (Skeggs, 2008) making this part of a much broader fight against the dominant mechanisms, protocols and discourses within HE that continue to marginalise other ways of knowing and that contribute to the perpetuation of injustices (i.e. gender, colonial and environmental, among others (see Temper et al., 2019). Without research on 'politically sensitive' topics, we are unable to fully understand or 'solve' social problems. ...
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... Further, research needs to honour multiple forms of knowing if it is genuine in its effort to accurately represent the 'whole' of experience as a basis for social change. Temper, McGarry & Weber (2019) observe, "The role of science and knowledge production is at a crossroads, as societal transformation calls for challenging dominant forms of knowledge production that have contributed to marginalizing other ways of knowing" (para 1). From a social field perspective, a new epistemological framework is needed in order to address the root causes of current disruption, namely, the dynamics and source conditions from which social systems originate and evolve. ...
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... Schneidewind et al., 2016;Fazey at al., 2016). As Temper, McGarry & Weber (2019) observe, "the role of science and knowledge production is (...) at a crossroads" (p. 1). Many of our dominant forms of knowledge production with their embedded and established protocols, methods, and discourses stem from an overt western and colonializing focus on rational thought. ...
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