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From academic to political rigour: Insights from the 'Tarot' of transgressive research

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Abstract and Figures

The role of science and knowledge production is at a crossroads, as societal transformation calls for challenging dominant forms of knowledge production that have contributed to marginalizing other ways of knowing. This presents a challenge to mainstream science and invites a deeper reflection on our roles as scientists and exploration of alternative engaged, post-normal and activist approaches to research. This paper examines the diverse ways researchers are meeting this challenge. Employing the device of the Tarot deck we describe seven "char-acters" to illustrate the variety of roles and approaches that trans-disciplinary, transformative, transgressive and activist researchers are engaging in. These characters are used to introduce and develop the concept of political rigour as a means of expanded academic rigour in new emancipatory scientific paradigms. We demonstrate how these Tarot characters can be used as an activity for collective and personal reflexivity and propose ten principles that frequently emerge in a 'political' peer review process. We argue that the insights emerging from these strands of radical, critical, engaged and applied forms of scholarship, can significantly improve the understanding of what a "transformative knowledge paradigm" may look like in practice and how it can be mobilized for social change and environmental justice.
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6Environmental Learning Research Centre, Rhodes University, Rhodes University Campus, Environmental Education Dept. ELRC building, Lucas Avenue, 6140, South Africa
7Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain
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1.1. Positioning ourselves
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L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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2. Literature review: juggling academic and political rigour
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L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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CF9H=75@@M A9H<C8C@C;M 5B8 9AD=F=75@@M !H ;I5F8G 5;5=BGH F97?@9GGB9GG
7<9FFM D=7?=B; @57? C: 5HH9BH=CB 5B8 ;FCIB8@9GG 7CB7@IG=CBG !H 5@GC 89
A5B8G CD9BB9GG HC :5@@=6=@=HM – “H<9 89GHFI7H=CB C: 695IH=:I@ =895G 6M
/<=@9 @5I856@9 =H =G =ADCFH5BH :CF G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF BCH HC 697CA9
F=;=8=HM @CB; K=H< F=;CIF J=;CIF =G 5@GC ?9M B8 G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF
5@CB9 =G C:H9B BCH 9BCI;< !B <=G %5B=:9GHC C: ,F5BG8=G7=D@=B5F=HM
&=7C@9G7I  DCG=HG H<5H H<9 H<F99 7<5F57H9F=GH=7G C: 5 HF5BG8=G7=D@=
B5FM D9FGD97H=J9 5F9 F=;CIF CD9B=B; 5B8 HC@9F5B79 77CF8=B; HC <=A
H<9 F=;CIF C: HF5BG8=G7=D@=B5F=HM ;C9G 9J9B 899D9F H<5B G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF
HC H<9 9LH9BH H<5H =H H5?9G =BHC 577CIBH BCH CB@M H<=B;G 6IH 5@GC 69=B;G
5B8 H<9=F F9@5H=CBG HC CH<9F 69=B;G 5B8 H<=B;G ,5?=B; 577CIBH C: 5@@ H<9
;=J9BG DF9G9BH =B 5 D5FH=7I@5F G=HI5H=CB =G 5 7<5F57H9F=GH=7 C: H<=G F=;CIF
!H =G CB@M =B H<=G K5M H<5H F=;CIF =G HFI@M 5 G5:9;I5F8 5;5=BGH 5@@ DCGG=6@9
HIFBG 'D9B=B; 6F=B;G 5B 5779DH5B79 C: H<9 IB?BCKB H<9 IB9LD97H98
5B8 H<9 IBDF98=7H56@9D 
@CB; H<9 G5A9 @=B9G CFF5G  5F;I9G H<5H DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF
A95BG 69=B; DC@=H=75@@M =B:CFA98 5B8 H<CFCI;< G9BG=H=J9 5B8
BI5B798 5B8 H=A9@M 5B8 F9@9J5BH !H G<CI@8 69 H<9 CDDCG=H9 C: 5
DCGHACFH9A K5M C: H<=B?=B; 5B8 8C=B; H<=B;G !H A95BG H5?=B;
5 DCG=H=CB CB DC@=H=75@ DFC79GG9G H<5H 5F9 69=B; F9G95F7<98 K<=7<
=B HIFB FIBG H<9 F=G? C: 7CADFCA=G=B; H<9 F=;CF C: H<9 57589A=7
8=A9BG=CB C: H<9 F9G95F7<
!B H<=G D5D9F K9 9LH9B8 H<9 7CB79DH C: DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF 5G CB9
H<5H 75B 69 DCH9BH=5@@M :FI=H:I@ HC ;I=89 =BHF9D=8 HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 57
H=J=GHG7<C@5FG H<FCI;< H<9 HCI;< 7<C=79G H<9M AIGH A5?9 56CIH K<9F9
K=H< K<CA 5B8 <CK H<9M 9B;5;9 =B H<9=F EI9GHG HC HF5BG:CFA H<9 KCF@8
(C@=H=75@ F=;CIF IG9G 5G =HG 89D5FHIF9 DC=BH H<9 57?BCK@98;9A9BH C: H<9
=B<9F9BH@M DC@=H=75@ 5B8 7I@HIF5@@M 5B8 <=GHCF=75@@M G=HI5H98 B5HIF9 C:
?BCK@98;9 DFC8I7H=CB  5F5K5M  5B8 H<9 C6G9FJ5H=CB H<5H 5@@ F9
G95F7< G7=9B79 5B8 :CFAG C: ?BCK@98;9 DFC8I7H=CB 5F9 =B<9F9BH@M DC
@=H=75@ 9BH9FDF=G9G =AD57H98 6M IB9EI5@ DCK9F F9@5H=CBG /9 8C BCH =B
H<=G D5D9F G<IB DCG=H=J=GH=7 G7=9B79 F5H<9F K9 8F5K =BGD=F5H=CB :FCA H<9
7F95H=J9 9LD5BG=CB C: G7=9B79 H<FCI;< 7F=H=EI9G C: BCFA5@ G7=9B79 5B8
7F=H=75@ GC7=5@ H<9CF=9G 5B8 A9H<C8C@C;=9G =B DCGHBCFA5@ GC7=5@ G7=9B79
95B 9H 5@ 
/9 H5?9 =BGD=F5H=CB :FCA <5G?5FG  7F=H=75@ F95@=GH H<9CFM C:
CBHC@C;M H<5H F97C;B=N9G H<5H CIF D9F79DH=CBG C: F95@=HM 5F9 =B<9F9BH@M
CBHC@C;=75@ 5B8 =BVI9B798 6M AI@H=D@9 F9B89F=B;G CF D9F79DH=CBG C:
HFIH< (C@=H=75@ F=;CIF 7CI@8 H<9F9:CF9 69 G99B 5G 5 7F=H=75@ F95@=GH A97<
5B=GA H<5H =G F9V9L=J9 5B8 7F=H=75@ C: CIF GH5B79 C: HFIH<5B8 CD9BG ID
+99 :CF 9L5AD@9 <HHDGKKK?H<G9GC7=5@;FCID9L5A9BG5F69H9J=87GD5;9
H<9 DCGG=6=@=HM :CF AI@H=D@9 HFIH<G C: K<=7< <5G?5F =89BH=U9G :CIF 8=G
H=B7H :CFAG 9F9 AI@H=D@9 D5H<K5MG HC HFIH< 75B 69 7F=H=75@@M 5B8
C;M 5B8 F5H=CB5@=HM 5B8 H<9 7CBH9LH H<5H H<9G9 ?BCK@98;9G 9A9F;9
5B8 F9GDCB8 HC (C@=H=75@ F=;CIF H<9F9:CF9 IB89FA=B9G CIF 8C;A5H=7
DCG=H=J=GH=7 5GGIADH=CB H<5H H<9F9 =G CB9 CJ9F5F7<=B; HFIH< 5HH5=B98
H<FCI;< DIF9 G7=9BH=U7C6>97H=J=HM <5G?5F  *56=BCK 
$CHN+=G=H?5 6
/<=@9 57589A=7 F=;CIF =G 9BGIF98 H<FCI;< H<9 G7=9BH=U7 A9H<C8
5B8 J9F=U98 H<FCI;< 5 DFC79GG C: D99F F9J=9K H<9F9 =G BC DF97CB
79=J98 GMGH9A C: 9BGIF=B; DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF BCF :CF B5J=;5H=B; H<9 DC
H9BH=5@ HF589CWG 5B8 7CAD@9A9BH5F=H=9G 69HK99B 57589A=7 5B8 DC@=H=
75@ F=;CIF 5G H<9 :CFAG C: ?BCK@98;9 B99898 6M 8=J9FG9 7CBGH=HI9B7=9G
K=@@ BCH B979GG5F=@M 5@=;B CFF5G  /9 H<IG 5F;I9 H<5H :IFH<9F 89
J9@CDA9BH C: 5 F9V97H=J9 5B8 =H9F5H=J9 :F5A9KCF? :CF 5GG9GG=B; DC@=H=
75@ F=;CIF75B 69 DIH HC IG9 HC 588F9GG H<9 H9BG=CBG 5B8 GMB9F;=9G 5B8
7<5@@9B;9G C: 57H=J=GH 5B8 HF5BG:CFA5H=CBG F9G95F7< ,<=G =B7@I89G A97<
5B=GAG ACF9 56@9 HC =89BH=:M <CK :IHIF9 F9G95F7< A5M ;9B9F5H9 UB8=B;G
H<5H 75B =B:CFA DC@=H=7G 5B8 DF57H=79
9MCB8 H<=G H<9 89J9@CDA9BH C: 5 DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF :F5A9KCF? 75B 58
8F9GG K5MG HC 6F=8;9 8=G7CIFG9G 69HK99B H<9 =BH9F9GHG 5B8 B998G C: GC7=5@
ACJ9A9BHG 5B8 57589A=5 K<=@9 6I=@8=B; HFIGH 89@A5B  75B 9L
DCG9 DCH9BH=5@ 7CBHF58=7H=CBG =B9::97H=J9B9GG 5B8 <MDC7F=G=9G K<=@9 GID
DCFH=B; 5 DC@=H=75@ GHFI;;@9 .=BH<5;9B  5B8 75B DFCJ=89 5 7F=H=75@
D9FGD97H=J9 CB D5FH=7=D5H=CB 5B8 =HG 7CBGHF5=BHG 5B8 CB H<9 @=A=HG 5B8
7<5@@9B;9G C: 89J9@CD=B; 5B 9A5B7=D5HCFM F9G95F7< DFC;F5A K=H<=B B9
C@=69F5@ 57589A=7 =BGH=HIH=CBG 5B8 8=G7=D@=B9G H<5H 7CBH=BI9 HC 69 GHFI7
HIF98 6M DCK9F =BH9F9GHG 5B8 <=9F5F7<=9G ,9AD9F 5B8 9@ 9B9 
<5HH9FHCB 9H 5@  =B5@@M =H 75B 588F9GG <CK CJ9F6IF89B98 575
89A=7G 75B UB8 GD579 :CF >CM =B F9V9L=J=HM GIDDCFH=B; C: GHFI;;@9G 5B8
7C@@97H=J9 57H=CB 5A=8GH DF975F=HM 5B8 H<9 DF9GGIF9G C: H<9 57589A=7
DI6@=G< CF D9F=G< F5HF579
!B H<9 B9LH G97H=CB K9 C::9F H5B;=6@9 9L5AD@9G C: K<5H DC@=H=75@
F=;CIF @CC?G @=?9 =B DF57H=79 H<FCI;< 5B 9LD@CF5H=CB C: H<9 8=J9FG9 FC@9G
H<5H F9G95F7<9FG 5F9 58CDH=B; IB89F H<9 B9K D5F58=;A 5B8 <CK H<9M
5F9 B5J=;5H=B; H<9G9 IB7<5FH98 K5H9FG !B H<9 8=G7IGG=CB K9 CD9B 5 8=
5@C;I9 H<FCI;< 5 F9V97H=CB CB H<9G9 FC@9G 5B8 <CK H<9M 75B =B:CFA
H<9 89J9@CDA9BH C: 5 DC@=H=75@@M F=;CFCIG DF5L=G :CF HF5BG:CFA5H=CBG F9
3. Method: the Tarot deck of transgressive research
!B H<=G D5D9F K9 DFCDCG9 H<9 ,5FCH 5G 5 89J=79 :CF 9LD@CF=B; 8=J9FG9
5DDFC57<9G HC F9G95F7< ,<9 ,5FCH =G 5 G9H C: D@5M=B; 75F8G IGI5@@M 7CB
G=GH=B; C: 5 D57? C:  U;IF9G CF GMA6C@G K<=7< =G HF58=H=CB5@@M IG98 5G 5
K5M HC 5K5?9B H<9 =BHI=H=CB C: H<9 F9589F 5B8 H<9 EI9F9BH5G 5 A95BG
EI9GH=CB ,<9 75F8G 8=J=898 =BHC H<9 A=BCF 5B8 A5>CF 5F75B5 F9DF9G9BH
5 J5F=9HM C: 8=::9F9BH G=HI5H=CBG 5F7<9HMD5@ 7CB79DHG 5B8CF D9FGCB5@=HM
HF5=HG GI7< 5G H<9 $CJ9FGH<9 9FA=H95H<5B8 H<9 CC@ H<5H
75B 69 F958 5G 5 @5B;I5;9 7CADCG98 C: GMA6C@=7 F9DF9G9BH5H=CBG @=?9
BCH9G =B 5 AIG=75@ G75@9 957< CB9 <5J=B; 5 8=::9F9BH 9::97H CB H<9 F9589F
C: H<9 75F8G =@9G 
,<9 ,5FCH 75F8G 75B H<IG 69 G99B 5G ?9MG K<=7< 5=A HC IB@C7? =BHI
=H=CB 6M 7<5@@9B;=B; H<9 F9589F HC 7CB:FCBH GMA6C@G H<9M KCI@8 BCH BCF
A5@@M 7CBG=89F !B H<=G K5M H<9 ,5FCH 75B @958 HC B9K =BG=;<HG CIHC:H<9
6CL H<=B?=B; 5B8 5 B9K D9FGD97H=J9 57< 75F8 CF 7<5F57H9F K=@@ DFCADH
=B H<9 F9589F 5 8=::9F9BH =BH9FDF9H5H=CB 5B8 5GGC7=5H=CB =B:CFA98 6M <9F
@=:9 9LD9F=9B79G GHCF=9G 5B8 D9FGCB5@ B5FF5H=J9
!BGD=F98 6M H<9 IG9 C: H<9 ,5FCH 5G 5 B5FF5H=J9 89J=79 5 89G7F=D
H=J9 HCC@ 5B8 5 K5M :CF H<9 F9G95F7<9F HC 7CBB97H K=H< H<9=F =BHI=H=CB
K9 GI;;9GH H<5H H<9 ,5FCH 5B8 =HG 7<5F57H9FG 75B 69 IG98 6M F9G95F7<9FG
GHFI;;@=B; 5G 8C K9 K=H< 89UB=B; H<9=F FC@9 5G G7<C@5FG 5B8 57H=J=GHG
=B 5 HF5BG:CFA=B; KCF@8 =B G9J9F5@ K5MG ,<=G =B7@I89G GIF:57=B; 5B8 9L
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
D@CF=B; H<9=F CKB DCG=H=CB5@=HM 5B8 FC@9G 5G F9G95F7<9FG 7CBHF=6IH=B; HC
5 89:=B=H=CB C: H<9 8=J9FG9 7CBG=89F5H=CBG =B<9F9BH =B DC@=H=75@@M F=;CFCIG
F9G95F7< 5B8 <9@D=B; HC 89UB9 H<9 J5@I9G H<5H =B:CFA 5B8 ;I=89 H<9=F
CKB F9G95F7<
,C H<=G 9B8 K9 7F95H98 5B 9L9F7=G9 9AD@CM=B; 5FHG65G98 A9H<
C8G H<5H =BJ=H9G F9G95F7<9FG HC 89UB9 5B8 9LD@CF9 H<9=F CKB FC@9G 5B8
F9GDCBG=6=@=H=9G 5B8 =89BH=H=9G 5G G7<C@5FG IF=B; KCF?G<CDG <9@8 =B
9=FIH 5F79@CB5 +CIH< :F=75 5B8 $IB8 +K989BX K9 =BJ=H98 F9
G95F7<9FG HC F9V97H CB H<9 :C@@CK=B; ?9M EI9GH=CBG 5B8 HC 7F95H9 H<9=F
CKB ,5FCH 75F8 IG=B; 5 DFC79GG C: 7C@@5;9 H<5H =BJC@J9G G9@97H=B; :FCA
GMA6C@=7 =A5;9G DFCJ=898 CF CB9G H<9M <58 ;5H<9F98 H<5H GD95? HC H<9
F9G95F7< =89BH=H=9G H9BG=CBG EI9GH=CBG 5B8 7CB79FBG =B H<9=F KCF?
/<5H 7<5F57H9F CF FC@9 8C MCI =89BH=:M K=H< =B MCIF F9G95F7<57H=J=GA
/<5H =A5;9G GIF:579 :CF MCI K<9B MCI H<=B? C: MCIF KCF?
/<5H 7<5@@9B;9G 5B8 H9BG=CBG 7CA9 =BHC D@5M K<9B MCI 58CDH H<=G
,<9 9L9F7=G9 @98 HC H<9 7F95H=CB C: 5 GD579 :CF F9V9L=J9 9LD@CF5H=CB
=BHC 957< F9G95F7<9F57H=J=GHG IB=EI9 5B8 D@IF5@ 9LDF9GG=CBG C: H<9=F
FC@9G 5B8 57H=CBG 6CH< =895@ 5B8 57HI5@ H<5H K9F9 ;9B9F5H=J9@M GIF:5798
=B H<=G G=AD@9 DFC79GG =; 
!B H<=G D5D9F K9 <=;<@=;<H G9J9B 7<5F57H9FGH<5H K9 <5J9 G99B 6CH<
K=H<=B CIF CKB F9G95F7< 7CAAIB=H=9G 5B8 =B 7F=H=75@ @=H9F5HIF9 957< C:
K<=7< 9A6C8=9G 8=J9FG9 5GD97HG C: 57589A=7 5B8 DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF =B H<9=F
CKB K5M ,<9F9 5F9 C6J=CIG@M A5BM ACF9 5B8 =H G<CI@8 69 BCH98 H<5H
H<9G9 7<5F57H9FG G<CI@8 69 7CBG=89F98 5G 9A9F;9BH V9L=6@9 5B8 C:H9B
7CBH9LHI5@@M GD97=U7 /9 8C BCH GI;;9GH F9G95F7<9FG @=A=H H<9AG9@J9G HC
=89BH=:M=B; K=H< CB9 75F8CF H<9 CH<9F =BGH958 K9 DFCDCG9 H<5H F9
G95F7<9FG IG9 H<9 7<5F57H9FG DF9G9BH98 HC C6G9FJ9 5B8 F9V97H CB H<9 J5
F=9HM 5B8 8=J9FG=HM C: 5DDFC57<9G 5B8 FC@9G H<5H 75B 9L=GH =B 8=::9F9BH
ACA9BHG H<FCI;<CIH H<9 F9G95F7< DFC79GG =; 
4. Results: our Tarot deck
4.1. The post-normal scientist
$=?9 H<9 :CC@ =B H<9 UFGH 75F8 C: H<9 ,5FCH H<9 DCGHBCFA5@ G7=9BH=GH
=G CB9 K<C =G J9BHIF=B; =BHC H<9 IB?BCKB CF K<5H +5F85F  75@@G
H<9 DCGHBCFA5@ H=A9G 7<5F57H9F=N98 6M 7CAD@9L=HM 7<5CG 5B8 7CBHF5
8=7H=CBG +<9 697CA9G K<5H IBHCK=7N 5B8 *5J9HN  75@@ ,<9 (CGH
&CFA5@ *9G95F7<9FK<C =G 5K5F9 H<5H H<9 D5F58=;A C: BCFA5@ G7=9B79
5B8 =HG DFC6@9AGC@J=B; 5DDFC57< =G C6GC@9H9 ,<=G 7<5F57H9F 9A9F;9G
CIH C: 7F=H=75@ F95@=GA @=H9F5HIF9 <5G?5F    
5B8 CIH C: H<9 DCGHBCFA5@ G7=9B79 75BCB *5J9HN 5B8 IBHCK=7N =6=8
95B 9H 5@  +5F85F 
,<=G F9G95F7<9F B5J=;5H=B; H<9G9 7CB8=H=CBG C: HF5BG=H=CB IB79F
H5=BHM G<=:H=B; DCK9F 8MB5A=7G <=;< GH5?9G M9H IF;9BH B998 :CF 897=
G=CBG F9@=9G CB HF9A9B8CIG 7F95H=J=HM =A5;=B5H=CB 5B8 57?BCK@98;9
A9BH C: <9F CKB =;BCF5B79
*9;5F8=B; 57589A=7 F=;CIF H<9 DCGHBCFA5@ G7=9BH=GH F97C;B=N9G H<5H
DFC6@9A 89:=B=H=CB H<9 7<C=79 C: K<5H ;9HG A95GIF98 5B8 <CK <CK J5@
I9G 5F9 89UB98 5B8 <CK 897=G=CBG F9;5F8=B; H<=G =B7CAA9BGIF56=@=HM
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F9EI=F9 5 G<5FD 7F=H=75@ G9BG=H=J=HM HC H<9G9 BCFAG
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G99G H<9 KCF@8 6IH 9LD5B8=B; CIF K5M C: 69=B; 6M CD9B=B; CIFG9@J9G ID
HC 5@H9FB5H=J9G 5B8 6F=B;=B; H<9G9 5@H9FB5H=J9G HC @=:9 H<FCI;< CIF KF=H
=B; CIF 5FH A5?=B; 5B8 CIF D9F:CFA5B79
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
Fig. 6. ,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F
!B D5FH=7I@5F H<9 7C7CBGD=F9F F5=G9G 7CB79FBG CJ9F H<9 8=G75F8=B;
C: <IA5B 9A6C8=A9BH C: H<9 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ =A5;=B5FM 5B8 G<9 9B
7CIF5;9G 5B 9A6C8=98 97C@C;=75@ 7=H=N9BG<=D H<5H 5HH9B8G GI:U7=9BH@M
HC 6C8M D@579 5B8 DC@=H=7G 9GD97=5@@M 5G H<9G9 5F9 IB89FGHCC8 5G 8=:
:9F9BH AC89G C: 9B;5;9A9BH K=H< H<9 KCF@8 K=H<=B <=GHCFM *9=8 5B8
,5M@CF   $=?9 H<9 HF=7?GH9F D9FGCB=U98 5G H<9 >57?5@ =B A5BM
:F=75B GHCF=9G G<9 =G 56@9 HC ACJ9 69HK99B KCF@8G K=H< 95G9 =B H<=G
75G9 H<9 9L=GH=B; <5F89B98 GC7=C97CBCA=7 5B8 DC@=H=75@ <=GHCF=9G H<5H
K9 F9GDCB8 HC 85=@M K<=@9 A5=BH5=B=B; 5 899D@M 7CBB97H98 5B8 G9BGCF
=5@ F9@5H=CBG<=D K=H< H<9 K=89F B5HIF5@ 97C@C;M +<9 F9GDCB8G HC H<9 7I@
HIF5@ 5B8 DC@=H=75@ 6C8M6@=B8B9GGK9 G99 =B H97<BC7F5H=7 9BJ=FCBA9B
H5@ F9GDCBG9G 7CBB97H98 K=H< H<9 8=GD5F5;9A9BH C: @C75@ ?BCK@98;9 5B8
D9FGCB5@ :CFAG C: ?BCK=B; 5B8 75D57=H=9G BCH CB@M =B H<9 DC@=7M GMGH9A
6IH 5@GC =B 98I75H=CB 5B8 9J9B =B H<9 @5F;9F 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ ACJ9A9BH
%75FFM  ,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F 7<5@@9B;9G 6C8M6@=B8 BCB8I5@=G
H=7 IB89FGH5B8=B;G C: H<9 =B8=J=8I5@ K=H<=B 5 A5HF=L 5B8 GI6>97HC6>97H
8I5@=GAG 5B8 7CBB97HG H<=G HC 89AC7F5H=7 :F998CA *9=8 5B8 ,5M@CF
+<9 =G G9BG=H=J9 5B8 C6G9FJ5BH HC GIF:579 B5H=J9 A95B=B;G :FCA
K<5H K9 A=;<H H<=B? =G FCIH=B9 5B8 AIB85B9 5B8 F9J95@G H<9 =BB5H9
?BCK@98;9 H<5H 7C@CIFG =H F=7?9F  +<9 IB89FGH5B8G H<5H 9FCH=7
?BCK@98;9 =9 9A6C8=98 =BHI=H=J9 5B8 =BGH=B7H=J9 K5MG C: ?BCK=B;
$CF89  C: H<=G B5HIF9 =G 5 J=H5@ F9GCIF79 =H =G 7I@HIF5@ 75D=H5@ H<5H
<C@8G DCK9F H<5H ;FCKG 5G =H =G 7CBG=GH9BH@M GIF:5798 5B8 57?BCK@98;98
5G ?BCK@98;9 5B8 G99G H<=G ?BCK@98;9 5G 5 <9FA9B9IH=75@ F9GCIF79
F=7?9F   ,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F CD9BG ID K<5H CA= <56<5
75@@G H<9 ;9B9F5H=J9 H<=F8 GD579GH<5H ;C 69MCB8 8CA=B5BH 8=G7CIFG9G
5B8 6=B5F=9G =B 98I75H=CB5@ F9G95F7< 5B8 8F5KG :FCA D<9BCA9BC@C;
=75@ 5B8 G9BGI5@ F9B89F=B;G C: H<9 KCF@8 %9F@95I(CBHM  C66
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;9B9F5H9G B9K DCGG=6=@=H=9G 6M EI9GH=CB=B; 9BHF9B7<98 75H9;CF=G5H=CBG
C: ?BCK@98;9 GMGH9AG 5B8 7I@HIF9G 5B8 CD9BG ID B9K 5J9BI9G K=H< 5
7CIBH9F <9;9ACB=7 GHF5H9;M F9=8@=8  
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HC A5=BH5=B 5 <95@H<M 7CBB97H=CB HC <9F CKB =89BH=HM 5B8 5IHCBCAM
,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F 5@GC A=;<H UB8 H<5H G<9 75B ;9H @CGH =B H<9 ;9B9F5
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HK99B @=:H=B; CIH 9FCH=7 ?BCK@98;9 GMGH9AG $CF89   5B8 D9F
GCB5@ 5;9B7M K=H< H<9 B998 HC HF5BG:9F H<9G9 ?BCK@98;9G =BHC 7C@@97
H=J9 57H=CBG 5B8 5;9B7M #I@IB8I  ,<9 7C7CBGD=F9F A=;<H 69
CJ9FK<9@A98 K=H< 9ACH=CB5@ HF5IA5H=7 CF 8=:U7I@H :CFAG C: ?BCK@
98;9 H<5H A=;<H 9A9F;9 :FCA <9F HF5BG;F9GG=J9 DF57H=79 5B8 G<9 AIGH 69
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H<9G9 9ACH=CB5@@M 7CAD@9L ?BCK@98;9G =; 
4.5. The Responsible Participant
,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH GHF=J9G HC D5FH=7=D5H9 =B 5B8 <C@8 5 HF5BG
:CFA5H=J9 5B8 7CBB97H=J9 GC7=5@ GD579 H<5H =G 7C;B=N5BH C: D5F=HM =B
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:CFAG C: 9B;5;=B; ,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH  CF=;=B5@@M 7C=B98 6M
+<9@@9M +57?G   F9:9FG HC H<9 F9G95F7<9F 5G F9V9L=J9 DF57H=H=CB9F
=BH9FJ9B9F:57=@=H5HCF =B 5B 9A9F;9BH F9G95F7< DFC79GG F5H<9F H<5B H<9
8CA=B5BH :CF79 7CBHFC@@=B; H<9 G<5D9 C: H<9 DFC79GG
,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH 5=AG HC F9A5=B DF9G9BH 6M 69=B; DF9
G9BH K=H< <9F CKB G9BG9G 5B8 G9BG=6=@=H=9G G99 +7<5FA9F  =B KCF?
=B; K=H< H<9 7CB79DH C: DF9G9B7=B;5G D5FH C: <=G -H<9CFM !B H<=G
Fig. 7. ,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
K5M G<9 697CA9G 5B 5DDF9BH=79 HC <9F CKB =BHI=H=CB =A5;=B5H=CB 5B8
9AD5H<=7 75D56=@=H=9G 5G K9@@ 5G 5B 5DDF9BH=79 HC H<9 D5FH=7=D5BHG CB
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F5H<9F <9F D9FGCB5@ 56=@=HM HC 57H =B 5B =BHI=H=J9 F9V9L=J9 5B8 75F
=B; K5M K<=7< ;I=89 <9F D5FH=7=D5H=CB 69MCB8 5 65G=7 7CAA=HA9BH HC
8CBC<5FA %75FFM 9H 5@  G +C7=5@ 9J9@CDA9BH DF57H=H=CB
9FG 5B8 5IH<CFG C: 5FH=GHG C: H<9 =BJ=G=6@9 #5D@5B 5B8 5J=8CW 
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H<5H 9BGIF9G H<9M 5F9 J=;=@5BH =B 5JC=8=B; GHF9B;H<9B=B; H<9 J9FM D5H
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 DF=A5FM 5=A =G HC F98I79 H<9 DCK9F C: H<9 F9G95F7<9F 5G :57=@=H5
HCF 5B8 HC 5JC=8 H<9 :57=@=H5HCFG DCH9BH=5@ 75D57=HM HC A5B=DI@5H9  CF
K<5H <5A69FG  75@@G facipulation A5B=DI@5H98 :57=@=H5H=CB ,<=G
7<5F57H9F 75@@G :CF G9BG=H=J=HM HC H<9 HMF5BBM C: D5FH=7=D5H=CB  =7?9M
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H=J9 :CFAG GI7< 5G 7CBB97H=J9 59GH<9H=7G 56@=?  5B8CF GC
7=5@ G7I@DHIF9 A9H<C8C@C;M 9IMG  +57?G  %75FFM 
,<9 *9GDCBG=6@9 (5FH=7=D5BH G99G H<9 59GH<9H=7 5G H<9 CDDCG=H9 C: 5B9G
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5H9 GD579G C: 9LHF5GC7=5@ 5IH<CF=HM H<5H 9L=GH CIHG=89 C: 5 <IA5B 69=B;
5B8 K=H<=B 5 7C@@97H=J9@M 5;F998 IDCB 7I@HIF9 C: 9B;5;9A9BH 5FCIB8 5
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,<FCI;< 5 7CA6=B5H=CB C: =BH9FB5@ 5B8 GC7=5@ F9V9L=J=HM H<9 *9
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H<9 F9G95F7< HC D5FH=7=D5H9 =B 5 ACF9 9EI=H56@9 @9GG8CA=B5BH :CFA =B
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:CF H<=G 5DDFC57< =B 7C@@56CF5H=J9 DF57H=7965G98 F9G95F7< :CF 89J9@CD
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*9=8 5B8 ,5M@CF 
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5 ;FCID CF 5 7CAAIB=HM  G=AD@9 9L5AD@9 =G F9ACJ=B; H<9 K5GH9 6=B
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5G H97<B=EI9G H<5H AIGH 5@K5MG F9GC@J9 6CH< CIF GC7=5@ 5B8 97C@C;=75@
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4.6. The critical comrade/the dialectic activist scholar
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Fig. 8. ,<9 7F=H=75@ 7CAF589
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L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
EIC GI77IA6=B; HC V5HH9F=9G ;5=B98 6M G9FJ=B; DCK9F CB8 9@56CF5H9G
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GC7=5@ ACJ9A9BH 5;9BHG H<9G9 =B7@I89 <=>57?=B; =B K<=7< 5 F9G95F7<9F
H5?9G CKB9FG<=D C: 5 ACJ9A9BH 5B8 =HG =BH9FDF9H5H=CB substitutionism
K<9F96M H<9 F9G95F7<9F F9D@579G @C75@ IB89FGH5B8=B; K=H< <=G CKB J=
G=CB Ventriloquism F9D<F5G=B; C: ACJ9A9BH H9LHG =B <=G CKB 5758
9A=7 KCF8G careerism through parasitism H97<B=7=GA <I7?GH9F=GA
8=J=G=J9B9GG 5B8 69HF5M5@ /=H<=B H<=G H<9 75F8=B5@ G=B =G D9F<5DG Fail-
ure of analytical nerve =B56=@=HM C:H9B 8I9 HC :95F HC 8F5K CIH H<9
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4.7. The Queer Enquirer
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Fig. 9. ,<9 )I99F BEI=F9F
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4.8. The slow and care-full scholar
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L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
Fig. 10. ,<9 G@CK 5B8 75F9:I@@ G7<C@5F
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5. Discussion: political rigour
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9B79 !B H<=G K5M DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF IG9G G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF GHF5H9;=75@@M 5G
5 7CIBH9F<9;9ACB=7 HCC@ !B H<=G K5M G7=9BH=U7 5B8 DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF 75B
69 GMB9F;=GH=7 /<=@9 H9BG=CBG GIF9@M 9L=GH H<9G9 5F9 5DDFC57<98 H<FCI;<
69=B; 9LD@=7=H 5B8 =BH9BH=CB5@ K=H< CIF 6=5G9G 5B8 5=AG 5B8 7@95F@M DCG=
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F=;CIF =G VI=8 5B8 <95J=@M 89D9B89BH CB 7CBH9LH
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G95F7< 5ACB;GH 5B 9LH9B898 D99F 7CAAIB=HM !H =G DFC79GGCF=9BH98 BCH
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5B8 =B7@I89G 7CBG=89F5H=CB C: 9D=GH9A=7 >IGH=79 F=7?9F  ,9AD9F
5B8 9@ 9B9  H<5H A5M 69 89UB98 5G H<9 J5@CF=N5H=CB 5B8 F97C;
B=H=CB C: CH<9F :CFAG C: ?BCK=B; 5B8 CH<9F @=:9KCF@8G =B7@I8=B; ?BCK@
98;9G FCA 69@CK HC H<9 $9:H K=H< H<9 5FH<G7C65F 
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I5H=B; DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF 5B8 :CF ;I=8=B; F9V9L=J=HM GC 5G HC 5GG9GG H<9
7CBG9EI9B79G C: H<9 F9G95F7< 5B8 <CK H<9G9 UH =BHC CIF J5@I9G C6
>97H=J9G 5B8 6FC589F HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 J=G=CBG /9 A5M 5G? C: F9G95F7<
=BH9B898 :CF GC7=5@ HF5BG:CFA5H=CB *9G95F7< :CF K<5H /=H< K<CA
CK /<5H ?=B8 C: 7<5B;9 CK =B DF57H=79 K=@@ H<=G DFC8I7H=CB C:
?BCK@98;9 HF5BG:CFA DCK9F F9@5H=CBG<=DG+I7< 5 7F=H=75@ DC@=H=75@@M
F=;CFCIG F9V97H=CB KCI@8 =B7@I89 7CBG=89F5H=CB C: H<9 CBHC@C;=9G K<5H
=G HFIH< 9D=GH9AC@C;=9G K<5H =G H<9 7CBB97H=CB 69HK99B H<9 ?BCK9F
5B8 K<5H =G CF 7CI@8 69 ?BCKB A9H<C8C@C;=9G <CK 8C K9 G9H CIH HC
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
7F95H9 5B8 8=G7CJ9F ?BCK@98;9 5B8 5L=C@C;=9G K<5H =G 9GG9BH=5@@M J5@I
56@9 5B8 =ADCFH5BH H<5H =B:CFA H<9 F9G95F7< DFC79GG I65 5B8 $=B7C@B
 .5F;5G 9H 5@  !H =B7@I89G 5 7CBGH5BH =BH9FD@5M 5B8 8=5@97H=7
69HK99B 57H=CB 5B8 F9V97H=CB C:H9B F9:9FF98 HC 5G H<9 DF5L=G C: F9G95F7<
F9=F9 
)I9GH=CBG HC 69 9L5A=B98 =B7@I89 H<CG9 CB H<9 HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 5=AG
5B8 89G=F98 DC@=H=75@ =AD57HG 9A9F;=B; :FCA H<9 DFC>97H A9H<C8C@C;=9G
9LD@CF5H=CBG =BHC H<9 A95B=B; 5B8 :CFAG C: D5FH=7=D5H=CB GC@=85F=HM 5B8
F97=DFC7=HM =B H<9 F9G95F7< EI9GH=CBG C: F9@5H=CBG K=H< 7CF9G95F7<9FG
5IH<CFG<=D 5B8 57?BCK@98;A9BH 5B8 9BEI=F=9G =BHC H<9 GCIF79G C:
?BCK@98;9 5B8 5HH9BH=CB HC K<C =G 7CBG=89F98 5B 9LD9FH K<5H :CFAG C:
?BCK@98;9 5F9 J5@I98 5B8 K<=7< 5F9 A5F;=B5@=N98X /<5H 5F9 CIF F9
G95F7< DI6@=7G 5B8 CIHDIHG  K<C 5F9 K9 GD95?=B; HC 5B8 <CK =B K<5H
:CFAG B8 <CK 8C K9 9J5@I5H9 CIFG9@J9G 5B8 G99? 9J5@I5H=CB :FCA CH<
9B95H< 5@@ H<=G =G H<9 EI9GH=CB C: H<9 J5@I9G 5B8 H<9 7F=H9F=5 H<5H =B
:CFA H<9 F9G95F7< 9F9 65G98 CB CIF CKB 9LD9F=9B79G 5B8 H<CG9 C: CH<
9FG =B CIF F9G95F7< 7CAAIB=H=9G K9 DFCDCG9 GCA9 DF=B7=D@9G H<5H :F9
EI9BH@M 9A9F;9 =B 5 politicalD99F F9J=9K DFC79GG ,<9G9 5F9 DF=B7=D@9G
H<5H <5J9 699B F9V97H98 H<FCI;< H<9 ,5FCH 7<5F57H9FG H<5H K9 <5J9 >IGH
89G7F=698 K<=7< K9 GI;;9GH 75B 57H 5G ;I=89G =B <CK GCA9 F9G95F7<9FG
5DD@M H<9G9 J5@I9G =B H<9=F CKB KCF? ,<IG H<9 G@CK 5B8 75F9:I@ G7<C@5F
F9A=B8G IG <CK HC 75F9 5B8 <CK HC 895@ K=H< H<9 6@IFF=B; C: CIF D9F
GCB5@ 5B8 DFC:9GG=CB5@ @=J9G 5B8 H<9 =B8=;9BCIG 5@@M A5M H957< IG K<5H
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HC >C=BH@M 89UB9 H<9 J5@I9G 5B8 7F=H9F=5 H<5H =B:CFA H<9=F CKB 7C@@97H=J9
5B8 =B8=J=8I5@ DFC79GG9G
(C@=H=75@ D99F F9J=9K 9BH5=@G H<9 >C=BH 89:=B=H=CB C: G<5F98 J5@I9G 5G
H<CG9 56CJ9 H<9 7C89J9@CDA9BH C: A95BG HC J9F=:M H<9=F 5DD@=75H=CB
5B8 =BH9;F=HM 5B8 H<9 CIH@=B=B; C: 5B =H9F5H=J9 75@@ 5B8 F9GDCBG9 DFC79GG
:CF 58>IGH=B; H<9 F9G95F7< 89G=;B DFC79GG 5B8 CIH7CA9G HC 9BGIF9 H<9A
 Accessibility F9G95F7< 75B 69 IB89FGHCC8 6FC58@M 5B8 5 A95BG :CF
GC7=5@ @95FB=B;
 Reexivity 7F=H=75@@M 9L5A=B5H=CB C: CIF CKB DF57H=79G DF9GIAD
 Relevance code>ning Matter of Concern K=H< 5@@ =BJC@J98 *9G95F7<
 Transparency 7@5F=HM C: GHFI7HIF9 DFC79GG9G 5B8 CIH7CA9
 Carefull ness F9@5H=CBG C: 75F9 K=H< CB9G9@: @CJ98 CB9G 7CAAI
B=H=9G C: G7<C@5F 5B8 D5FH=7=D5BHG
 Respectfulness <CK 5F9 CH<9F :CFAG C: ?BCK@98;9 5B8 KCF@8J=9KG
J5@CF=N98 F97C;B=N98 5B8 =BH9;F5H98 =BHC H<9 F9G95F7< DFC79GG
 Relationality F9G95F7< G<CI@8 69 ;FCIB898 5B8 7CBH9LH 89D9B89BH
 Reciprocity 7C89G=;B C: F9G95F7< EI9GH=CB A9H<C8G 5B5@MG=G 5B8
 Fallibility DCGG=6=@=HM HC :5=@ 5B8 @95FB :FCA :5=@IF9
 TransformativityTransgression <CK =G H<9 F9G95F7< HF5BG:CFA=B;
9A5B7=D5HCFM DCGG=6=@=H=9G
8<9F9B79 HC GI7< J5@I9G 75B <9@D =B:CFA G7<C@5F57H=J=GHG =B 5 7C@
@97H=J9 DFC79GG C: 7F95H=B; HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 ?BCK@98;9 H<5H =G G9BG=H=J9
!B H<=G @=B9 5B =BH9F9GH=B; =B=H=5H=J9 =G H<9 7=H5H=CB DF57H=79G 7<5@@9B;9 <HHDKKK
7F=H=75@9H<B=7GHI8=9G>CIFB5@CF;7=H5H=CBDF57H=79G K<=7< F9A=B8G IG HC 69 =BH9BH=CB5@ =B
CIF 7=H5H=CB DF57H=79G
HC H<9 DC@=H=7G C: 7CDFC8I7H=CB 5B8 <CK DC@=H=7G =BH9F9GHG =AD9F5H=J9G
5B8 ?BCK@98;9 C: 8=::9F9BH 57HCFG 5B8 GH5?9<C@89FG 5F9 F9V97H98 =B H<9
UB5@ F9G95F7< ,<9 B9K HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 ?BCK@98;9 D5F58=;A 89A5B8G
GI7< 5 B9K9F 899D9F :CFA C: F58=75@ F9V9L=J=HM H<5H =G =B H<9 A5?=B;
6. Conclusion
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57H=J=GH F9G95F7<9FG 5F9 9B;5;=B; =B 8=F97H=B; H<9 F9589F HC F9:9F9B79G
5B8 @=H9F5HIF9 CB 957< 5B8 <5G :CF79:I@@M 5F;I98 :CF H<9 B998 :CF DC
@=H=75@ F=;CIF =B:CFA98 6M 9LD@=7=H J5@I9G 5G 5 7CAD@9A9BH HC 57589
A=7 5B8 G7=9BH=U7 F=;CIF K=H<=B 5 B9K D5F58=;A C: G7=9BH=U7 EI5@=HM
:CF HF5BG;F9GG=J9 5B8 HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 ?BCK@98;9 DFC8I7H=CB 5B8 G7=9B79
M =89BH=:M=B; 7CAACB5@=H=9G 57FCGG 8=J9FG9 7F=H=75@ 5B8 9A9F;9BH 5D
DFC57<9G HC G7=9B79 H<=G D5F58=;A <9@DG IG ACJ9 HCK5F8G ACF9 7C<9F
9BH A9H<C8C@C;=75@ 5DDFC57<9G =B HF5BG8=G7=D@=B5FM G7=9B79G @=?9 97C@C;
=75@ 97CBCA=7G H<5H <5J9 GHFI;;@98 K=H< IB7F=H=75@ D@IF5@=HM 5B8 A9H<C8
C@C;=75@ 7CB:IG=CB CK  +D5G< 
'IF :IHIF9 F9G95F7< 5;9B85 =B H<=G @=B9 =B7@I89G H<9 9@56CF5H=CB C:
CH<9F HCC@G 8=GFIDH=J9 DF57H=79GD985;C;=9G ;5A9G 5B8 9L9F7=G9G H<5H
75B <9@D ;I=89 5 F9V97H=J9 DFC79GG C: DC@=H=75@ F=;CIF ,<=G DFC79GG =B
7@I89G CB;C=B; =B8=J=8I5@ F9V9L=J=HM 6IH 5@GC 5 7C@@97H=J9 9LD@CF5H=CB
=BHC H<9 DC@=H=7G C: ?BCK@98;9 5B8 H<9 H<CFBM KCF? K9 AIGH 8C C: 7CA
D@=75H=B; GH5B85F8 57589A=7 DFCHC7C@G 5B8 H<9 HF5BG:CFA5H=CB C: H<9 =B
GH=HIH=CBG K9 KCF? =B 5B8 C: <CK K9 DFC8I79 5B8 J5@I9 ?BCK@98;9 DFC
8I7H=CB !B H<=G J9=B K9 AIGH 7CBGH5BH@M 5G? CIFG9@J9G 5B8 CH<9FG <CK
=G H<=G KCF? HF5BG;F9GG=J9$CHN+=G=H?5  CK 5F9 K9 ID9B8=B;
7<5@@9B;=B; 5B8 EI9GH=CB=B; H<9 5GGIADH=CBG H<9 8I5@=GAG H<9 5BH<FC
DC79BHF=GA 5B8 C6>97H=U75H=CB C: HF58=H=CB5@ 57589A=7 ?BCK@98;9 =
B5@@M <CK 8C K9 G99 CIF F9G95F7< 5G 5 DFC79GG C: 697CA=B; 5B8 HF5BG
:CFA5H=CB F5H<9F H<5B 5B IB7CJ9F=B; C: 9L=GH=B; HFIH< /9 <CD9 H<=G D5
9B79 B998G HC HF5BG:CFA =HG9@: 5B8 G9FJ9G 5G 5 J9<=7@9 :CF 7F=H=75@ F9V97
H=CB :CF F9G95F7<9FG F989UB=B; H<9AG9@J9G 5B8 H<9=F KCF?
Funding and acknowledgements
/9 5F9 ;F5H9:I@ HC H<9 !BH9FB5H=CB5@ +C7=5@ +7=9B79 CIB7=@ !++
5B8 H<9 ,F5BG:CFA5H=CBG HC +IGH5=B56=@=HM :CF H<9=F UB5B7=5@ 5B8 575
89A=7 GIDDCFH =B 7F95H=B; H<9 A95BG :CF H<=G 7C@@56CF5H=J9 D5D9F HC
9A9F;9 /9 5F9 =B896H98 HC +IG5BB9 %CG9F :CF <9F ?=B8 7F=H=75@ F9J=9K
C: 95F@=9F 8F5:HG C: H<=G D5D9F 5B8 <9F 7CBGH5BH GIDDCFH =B <9@D=B; ;I=89
5B8 G<5D9 H<9 #&'/$" 5B8 ,$95FB=B; &9HKCF? /9 5F9 ;F5H9:I@
:CF !B>5=FI #I@IB8I :CF DFCJ=8=B; IG UFGH <5B8 =BG=;<HG :CF H<9 7C7CB
GD=F9F,5FCH 5F8 5B8 <9F 7CIF5;9CIG 7C7CBGD=F=B; 57H=CB =B +CIH<
:F=75 +D97=5@ H<5B?G HC 9=@5 $CHN+=G=H?5 :CF <9F ;I=8=B; @=;<H =B 5@@
Uncited references
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L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
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#5D@5B  5J=8CW +   9@=75H9 7H=J=GA !G ,FI@M *58=75@ 5 *58=75@ DDFC57<
HC <5B;9 (FCH9IG !B=H=5H=J9 <HHDKKKDFCH9IG=B=H=5H=J9CF;779GG98 +9DH9A69F
#@9=B ",  *9DF=BH C: =G7CIFG9G C: HF5BG8=G7=D@=B5F=HM @CC?=B; 657? HC H<9 :IHIF9
IHIF9G  
#TB=; & TFG9B , AA97<9   ,<9 9H<CG C: DCGHBCFA5@ G7=9B79 IHIF9G=B
DF9GG <HHDG8C=CF;>:IHIF9G
#FCB@=8   +=;HIB5 H<=B? D=979  7@=A5H9 75D56=@=H=9G 5B8 7@=A5H9 7<5B;9 98I75H=CB
F9G95F7< +CIH<9FB :F=75B "CIFB5@ C: BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 8I75H=CB  
#I@IB8I !  *9;9B9F5H=B; 5B8 *9=A5;=B=B; :F=75B $=69F5HCFM (985;C;M =B H<9
<5B;9 F=J9FG (< (FCDCG5@ GI6A=HH98 HC *<C89G -B=J9FG=HM =;<9F 89;F99G CA
#I@IB8I !  ,<=B? D=979 =BH9FG97H=CB5@ F9GCB5B79 5B8 H<9 AI@H=D@=7=HM C: 69=B; =B 5
DC@5F=G98 KCF@8 +CIH<9FB :F=75B "CIFB5@ C: BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 8I75H=CB 
$CF89   +=GH9F 'IHG=89F ,<9 FCGG=B; (F9GG ,FIA5BG69F; 5B8 &9K 0CF?
$CHN+=G=H?5   +=;HIB5 H<=B? D=979  D=97=B; HC;9H<9F 7CB79DHI5@ :F5A=B;G :CF 7@=
A5H9 7<5B;9 98I75H=CB F9G95F7< =B +CIH<9FB :F=75B 7CBH9LHG +CIH<9FB :F=75B "CIF
B5@ C: BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 8I75H=CB  
$CHN+=G=H?5   /<M CBHC@C;M A5HH9FG HC F9J=9K=B; 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 98I75H=CB F9
G95F7< BJ=FCB 8I7 *9G   
$CHN+=G=H?5  /5@G  #FCB@=8  %75FFM   ,F5BG:CFA5H=J9 HF5BG;F9GG=J9
GC7=5@ @95FB=B; F9H<=B?=B; <=;<9F 98I75H=CB D985;C;M =B H=A9G C: GMGH9A=7 ;@C65@ 8MG
:IB7H=CB IFF 'D=B BJ=FCB +IGH5=B  
$CHN+=G=H?5  @= % %D<9DC  <5J9G % %57=BHMF9 , (9G5B5M= , /5@G 
%I?IH9 % #FCB@=8  ,F5B , "CCB  %75FFM   C89G=;B=B; F9
G95F7< CB HF5BG;F9GG=J9 @95FB=B; =B H=A9G C: 7@=A5H9 7<5B;9 IFF 'D=B BJ=FCB +IG
H5=B  
%5@A B8F95G CFB6CF; @:  ,<9 ;9C@C;M C: A5B?=B8 7F=H=EI9 C: H<9 B
H<FCDC79B9 B5FF5H=J9 ,<9 BH<FCDC79B9 *9J=9K   <HHDG8C=CF;
%5FL #  ,<9G9G C: 9I9F657< !B %5FLB;9@G +9@97H98 /CF?G =B 'B9 .C@IA9
$5KF9B79 5B8 /=G<5FH $CB8CB
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H=79@98 !BEI=FM !BHC 9J9@CD=B; (985;C;=9G :CF 7C@C;=75@ =H=N9BG<=D 9D5FHA9BH C:
8I75H=CB *<C89G -B=J9FG=HM C7HCF5@ H<9G=G :CF H<9 9;F99 C: C7HCF C: (<=@CGC
D<MGID9FJ=G98 6M (FC: 9=@5 $CHNG=G=H?5
%75FFM   ,<9 9AD5H<9H=7 5DDF9BH=79 D985;C;=75@ 89J9@CDA9BHG =B H<9 59GH<9H=7
98I75H=CB C: H<9 GC7=5@ @95FB=B; DF57H=H=CB9F =B +CIH< :F=75 <5DH9F  =B CF7C
F5B !B @5N9 (9H9F C@@=B;G<958 F5B8CB ( 8G !BH9F;9B9F5H=CB5@ $95FB=B; 5B8
,F5BG:CFA5H=J9 $9589FG<=D :CF +IGH5=B56@9 IHIF9G /5;9B=B;9B 7589A=7 (I6@=G<9FG
/5;9B=B;9B H<9 &9H<9F@5B8G =B DF9GG
%7#9BN=9 % 5FH ( 5=  "=7?@=B;   =9@8G C: F99B 5ADHCB (F9GG !B7
F9GG?=@@ &"
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 
%9F@95I(CBHM %  ,<9 .=G=6@9 5B8 H<9 !BJ=G=6@9  $=B;=G ,F5BG &CFH<K9GH9FB
%9FHCB *#  ,<9 +C7=C@C;M C: +7=9B79 ,<9CF9H=75@ 5B8 AD=F=75@ !BJ9GH=;5H=CBG
-B=J9FG=HM C: <=75;C (F9GG
%=H7<9@@  CF89@@  5A   9;=BB=B; 5H H<9 9B8 H<9 CIH7CA9 GD579G :F5A9
KCF? HC ;I=89 DIFDCG=J9 HF5BG8=G7=D@=B5FM F9G95F7< IHIF9G   <HHDG8C=
%CG9F + 57?A5BB  5=@@C8G   @C65@ 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 7<5B;9 7<5B;9G 9J9FM
H<=B; ?9M A9GG5;9G 5B8 F97CAA9B85H=CBG !B /CF@8 +C7=5@ +7=9B79 *9DCFH  DD
%CIBHN  CB8G  %5BGU9@8  $CM8 " MB8A5B " /5@HCB*C69FHG % 5GI
* /<=HGCB * 5K?=BG * 5A=@HCB , IFF5B /  CF G@CK G7<C@5FG<=D
5 :9A=B=GH DC@=H=7G C: F9G=GH5B79 H<FCI;< 7C@@97H=J9 57H=CB =B H<9 B9C@=69F5@ IB=J9FG=HM
% 5B =BH9FB5H=CB5@ >CIFB5@ :CF 7F=H=75@ ;9C;F5D<=9G   
&CKCHBM  +7CHH ( =66CBG %  ,<9 7C9JC@IH=CB C: GC7=9HM 5B8 G7=9B79 !B
*9H<=B?=B; +7=9B79 #BCK@98;9 5B8 H<9 (I6@=7 =B 5B ;9 C: -B79FH5=BHM DD 
(9BB=B;HCB  +=ADGCB $ %7CBB9@@ %+ 5=F "% 5?9F *"  ,F5BG8=G
7=D@=B5FM F9G95F7< HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 @95FB=B; 5B8 HF5BG:CFA5H=J9 G7=9B79 =C+7=9B79 
 
(9F9=F5  +5@H9@@=   (CGHBCFA5@ =BGH=HIH=CB5@ =89BH=H=9G EI5@=HM 5GGIF5B79 F9
V9L=J=HM 5B8 9H<CG C: 75F9 IHIF9G <HHDG8C=CF;>:IHIF9G =B
DF9GG !++& 
(@IAKCC8 .  BJ=FCBA9BH5@ I@HIF9 ,<9 7C@C;=75@ F=G=G C: *95GCB *CIH@98;9
(CHHG # FCKB $  97CA=B; 5B 5BH=CDDF9GG=J9 F9G95F7<9F !B +HF9;5 + FCKB
$ 8G *9G95F7< 5G *9G=GH5B79 F=H=75@ !B8=;9BCIG 5B8 BH=CDDF9GG=J9 DDFC57<9G
5B58=5B +7<C@5FG (F9GG ,CFCBHC '& DD 
L. Temper et al. Ecological Economics xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx
*56=BCK (  GG5MG CB H<9 BH<FCDC@C;M C: *95GCB (F=B79HCB -B=J9FG=HM (F9GG
(F=B79HCB &"
*9=8  ,5M@CF   A6C8M=B; 97C@C;=75@ 7=H=N9BG<=D F9H<=B?=B; H<9 DC@=H=7G C:
;F5GGFCCHG ;@C65@=N5H=CB =B H<9 -B=H98 +H5H9G @H9FB5H=J9G @C65@ $C75@ (C@=H=75@ 
*9=8  ,5M@CF   "C<B 9K9MG 59GH<9H=7 97C@C;M C: DI6@=7 =BH9@@=;9B79 5B8 H<9
;FCIB8=B; C: 7=J=7 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@=GA H<=7G 5B8 H<9 BJ=FCBA9BH   
*=HH9@  /9669F %  =@9AA5G =B 5 ;9B9F5@ H<9CFM C: D@5BB=B; (C@=7M +7= 
 AGH9F85A @G9J=9F +7=9BH=U7 (I6@=G<=B; CAD5BM 2*9DF=BH98 =B  =B
& FCGG 8 9J9@CDA9BHG =B 9G=;B %9H<C8C@C;M DD  <=7<9GH9F " /=
@9M 5B8 +CBG3 *9HF=9J98 CB 96FI5FM   :FCA <HHDKKKI7H7B9HAK9669F
*C8FQ;I9N$565>CG  0OB9N ! CB8 ( F9M@ $ %IB;IH= + '>C - 'J9F699? /
 &CH GC B5HIF5@ 5B 5@@=5B79 9;FCKH< 5B8 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ >IGH=79 ACJ9A9BHG =B
H<9 ;@C65@ GCIH< 7C@ 7CB  
+57?G +  +C7=5@ G7I@DHIF9 5B8 B9K CF;5BG C: D9F79DH=CB B9K DF57H=79G 5B8 B9K
D985;C;M :CF 5 <IA5B9 5B8 97C@C;=75@@M J=56@9 :IHIF9 !B $9FB 5M9G % /5@H9FG
. 8G 9IMG=5B $9;57=9G =B !F9@5B8 5B8 9MCB8 FH I@HIF9 5B8 (C@=H=7G $=H .9F
@5; 9F@=B
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B5H=CB5@ 5B86CC? C: (C@=H=75@ 7C@C;M D 
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+5F85F 1  /9@7CA9 HC DCGHBCFA5@ H=A9G IHIF9G   
+7<5FA9F '  88F9GG=B; H<9 @=B8 +DCH C: 'IF ,=A9 B L97IH=J9 +IAA5FM C: H<9
&9K CC? 6M 'HHC +7<5FA9F ,<9CFM - $958=B; FCA H<9 IHIF9 5G !H A9F;9G *9
HF=9J98 +9DH9A69F   :FCA KKKH<9CFM-7CA
+7<B9=89K=B8 - +=B;9FFC8CKG?= % I;9BGH9=B # +H9@N9F   (@98;9 :CF 5
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... In response to the problem of the practical implications of power asymmetries, ideas of transgressive learning and science emerged focusing specifically on structures of privilege, hegemonies of power, and innovative strategies to arrest systemic dysfunction or systemic violence while foregrounding epistemic, social, and environmental justice (Lotz-Sisitka, Wals, Kronlid, & McGarry, 2015;Temper, McGarry, & Weber, 2019). They explicitly propose introducing the idea of 'political rigour' as a tool for promoting reflexivity and consciousness in every step of the research process. ...
... They further argue that political rigour, similarly as scientific rigour, can be achieved with specific tools. While scientific rigour is secured by the use of scientific methods that ensure the reliability and robustness of results, political rigour can be reached through the design of tools and practices, like games, exercises, etc. that would guide a reflection on political dimensions of research process (Temper et al., 2019). ...
... It is increasingly acknowledged that transdisciplinary action research necessitates new forms of radical reflexivity (Cunliffe, 2003;Temper et al., 2019). This includes the explicit articulation of values, assumptions, and normative orientations, and renewed attention to asymmetries in power among participants engaging in new approaches, methodologies, and processes of co-production (Temper et al., 2019). ...
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In this paper, we focus on transdisciplinary action research to explore the key challenge of post-normal science – how to deal with power. First, the paper reviews the literature on stakeholder inclusion and identifies a methodological dilemma trapping transdisciplinary action research between the promise of effectiveness and inclusiveness and the danger of power asymmetries affecting the research process and outcomes. We then develop a framework distinguishing three different power-related tensions permeating transdisciplinary research promises: the systemic level of institutions, the heterogeneous stakeholder group, and the role and position of the researcher. We provide concrete literature-based tools for dealing with each of these tensions and mould a power-sensitive approach for transdisciplinary action research.
... promotes not just telling but talking to and with the public (Leshner, 2021;Temper et al., 2019). ...
Engagement of the public by researchers and policymakers is crucial to address pressing societal issues. Yet, while it holds the promise of improving interactions among distinct publics, it is not always evident what counts as engagement. This perspective discusses the ambiguity of the engagement construct and associated imaginaries. It explores variations concerning the engagement construct; and uses five lenses to suggest ways of transforming engagement under climate change. It notes that engagement processes need to go beyond informing to empowering the distinct publics to deliberate ways of transforming society, achieving mutually satisfying outcomes, and securing the future of our planet.
... While reflecting on this case report, the interconnection of various disciplines can lead to the cocreation of knowledge on sustainability in both regions, as exemplified in this report. Reflexive practices are crucial to transdisciplinary research and will involve multiple positions held by the researcher [69,70]. ...
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A joint collaboration between the Cuarto region of Argentina championed by the National University of Rio Cuarto and the Arctic Centre of the University of Lapland, Finland organised a conference on several topics that are related to food sovereignty, sustainability, circular economy and bioeconomy. The efficient utilisation of natural resources in both regions is an important theme in meeting the sustainable development goals agenda. Hence, this partnership between the partner institutions will lead to the cocreation of knowledge. The topics were multidisciplinary, and the discussion focussed on research and teaching opportunities for institutions in both countries. The experts from both countries will continue to engage on the possibility of promoting the research agenda in these important areas.
... When available, we complemented this information with academic and peer-reviewed publications. Our scientific methodology and political positionality aim therefore at abiding to both scientific and political rigor (Temper et al., 2019), as well as to the principles of quality in the scientific process suggested by post-normal science scholars. ...
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Controversies around large-scale development projects offer many cases and insights which may be analyzed through the lenses of corporate social ( ir )responsibility (CS I R) and business ethics studies. In this paper, we confront the CSR narratives and strategies of WeBuild (formerly known as Salini Impregilo ), an Italian transnational construction company. Starting from the Global Atlas of Environmental Justice (EJAtlas), we collect evidence from NGOs, environmental justice organizations, journalists, scholars, and community leaders on socio-environmental injustices and controversies surrounding 38 large hydropower schemes built by the corporation throughout the last century. As a counter-reporting exercise, we code (un)sustainability discourses from a plurality of sources, looking at their discrepancy under the critical lenses of post-normal science and political ecology, with environmental justice as a normative framework. Our results show how the mismatch of narratives can be interpreted by considering the voluntary, self-reporting, non-binding nature of CSR accounting performed by a corporation wishing to grow in a global competitive market. Contributing to critical perspectives on political CS(I)R, we question the reliability of current CSR mechanisms and instruments, calling for the inclusion of complexity dimensions in and a re-politicization of CS(I)R accounting and ethics. We argue that the fields of post-normal science and political ecology can contribute to these goals.
... We wish to stress that the picture we have highlighted is one of a collective problem that cannot be addressed through a purely individual struggle. An understanding of the wider context-which we referred to earlier as the "canvas" on which researchers "paint"-and a willingness to creatively transgress established academic structures and protocols (Temper et al., 2019) are of utmost importance if we as academics wish to move towards truly creative academic practice while avoiding the latent risks of forced creativity. In other words, one cannot be truly creative in a transgressive manner if one does not know exactly what they are transgressing. ...
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This chapter aims to put creative methods into the context of wider trends in university institutions. As managerialism—here understood as the application of corporate values and practices into all sectors of society—continues to play a large role in the production and creation of knowledge, we argue that creative methods have the potential to either subvert or reinforce these trends. We see the entrenchment of managerialism as contradictory to the stated aims of the application of creative methods in knowledge production. In an attempt to avoid this, we provide a picture and discuss the institutional framework in which creative methods are deployed to understand and critique the values and practices of managerialism in academia. We point towards the constraints it places on those who wish to take a creative approach. First, we provide an historical accounting of how managerial values have contributed to de-politicization in the wider public sphere, with a particular focus on academia. Second, we outline the fundamental properties of the managerial university, summarized as: (i) accountability, (ii) competition, and (iii) obedience. Third, we sketch out a definition of forced creativity and illustrate two applied cases of how it might look in practice: “artwashing” and “funding tricks”. This section is meant to contribute to defining “truly” creative methods by spelling out what they are not. Finally, we summarize our main points and provide future directions of discussion.
... Accordingly, contemplations of what (not) to record and tell, how, when, where, and by and with whom are imperative for navigating difficult tensions that arise in applied communication collaborations that refuse academic pressures and messages to "produce" and "engage" more. Ethically collaborating with frontline/coastline communities-home to many residents who resist and refuse their exploitation and expulsion-requires addressing asymmetrical power relations among collaborators, attending carefully to values, and challenging normative practices and assumptions (Hale, 2006;Lotz-Sisitka et al., 2016;Temper et al., 2019;Pellow, 2020). These focus areas are essential for examining race/racism/racialization in "outdoor spaces" to advance critical environmental and energy justice communication studies that support self-determined movement struggles and the local people who energize them (Pellow, 2018). ...
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Rural, coastal communities in the Jobos Bay region of southeastern Puerto Rico confront disproportionate harms as an energy sacrifice zone. This space is constituted by imported fossil fuel dependency, economic and climate injustices, environmental racism, ecocide, US colonialism and imperialism, neoliberalism, and racial capitalism. In response, many grassroots actors mobilize against the toxic assault on their communities to push for alternatives beyond the suffocating status quo via apoyo mutuo [mutual support]. This survival work and movement building occur literally in “the outdoors” and in other intertwined multispecies environments, challenging narrow, oppressive colonial, and consumerist constructs that reduce “the outdoors” to recreation and thus erase the numerous ways that people labor in, honor, and defend places and spaces to lead good lives. Thus, critical examinations of communication and race/racism/racialization in and about this colonial US territory must grapple with the brutalities and pain caused by systemic and structural cruelties and translate how, where, and with whom self-determined and potentially liberatory environmental and energy justice advocacy takes shape to refuse a trauma-only narrative. Studying these embodied and emplaced efforts positions energy and power broadly construed, including in the form of collective action. This article centers on the collaborative energies of local grassroots actors and scholars who ideologically and politically align and who value working together toward anti-colonial praxis. To provide one example of how these collaborations can yield public-facing projects that contribute to struggles tied to the survival and well-being of the most impacted communities, this essay focuses on the creation of an environmental justice children’s book. This bilingual text documents and translates the pollution caused by a US-owned, coal-fired power plant and mobilizations to topple this corporate invader. The article concludes by reflecting on some of the difficulties and possibilities that emerged during multi-year coalitional relationships that inform and exceed the children’s book. To reject racist and colonial dominant assumptions and discourses about outdoor spaces as only privileged recreational areas or as a “blank slate” devoid of people and culture, this project narrates how grassroots organizers and scholars persist in continued study and struggle for power(ful) transformations in Jobos Bay and beyond.
... Thus, what is at stake here is epistemic power and the politics of knowledge (Skeggs, 2008) making this part of a much broader fight against the dominant mechanisms, protocols and discourses within HE that continue to marginalise other ways of knowing and that contribute to the perpetuation of injustices (i.e. gender, colonial and environmental, among others (see Temper et al., 2019). Without research on 'politically sensitive' topics, we are unable to fully understand or 'solve' social problems. ...
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This is a reflexive account of carrying out ‘dirty research’ on cis women’s experiences of working as erotic dancers while at university in the UK. Focusing on the recruitment process, I discuss how universities avoided becoming ‘subjects’ of research by blocking the study and labelling it ‘extremely sensitive’ or ‘inappropriate’. By scrutinising the fieldwork, this revealed the prevalence of whorephobia within Higher Education and the general, rather than idiosyncratic, prioritisation of institutional reputation management at the expense of silencing marginalised voices and experiences. This article adds to scholarship problematising the taken-for-granted, subjective power wielded by research ethics committees which has the potential to curtail academic freedom and the advancement of knowledge and debate within specific fields. By restricting access to potential participants and through delay tactics, this hindered my ability to carry out the initial research design, shaping the type of data gathered and the knowledge I was able to contribute to this already under-researched area of study.
... Further, research needs to honour multiple forms of knowing if it is genuine in its effort to accurately represent the 'whole' of experience as a basis for social change. Temper, McGarry & Weber (2019) observe, "The role of science and knowledge production is at a crossroads, as societal transformation calls for challenging dominant forms of knowledge production that have contributed to marginalizing other ways of knowing" (para 1). From a social field perspective, a new epistemological framework is needed in order to address the root causes of current disruption, namely, the dynamics and source conditions from which social systems originate and evolve. ...
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In this piece we share our discovery process as action researchers in an online, global change initiative that emerged during the first lockdown of the Covid-19 pandemic, 2020. In the spirit of sharing our work "in the making" we aim to make visible our own reflection process and the questions that surface from it. In particular, we share and explore our realization that in order to fully serve the transformational intention of the initiative and the research itself, we needed to expand our research framework mid-process. The framework that best serves the emergent and transformative nature of the initiative is one that both supports awareness-based action and generates widely applicable knowledge; that integrates a variety of perspectives on social phenomena (first-, second-, and third-person); and that aims to bring systematic inquiry both to the observable phenomena and the deeper underlying dimensions. The approach requires us to make visible our assumptions and to integrate and validate different epistemologies, including relational, intuitive and aesthetic knowing. As such, the approach to research we suggest here can be thought of as an epistemological framework itself.
... Schneidewind et al., 2016;Fazey at al., 2016). As Temper, McGarry & Weber (2019) observe, "the role of science and knowledge production is (...) at a crossroads" (p. 1). Many of our dominant forms of knowledge production with their embedded and established protocols, methods, and discourses stem from an overt western and colonializing focus on rational thought. ...
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In this inaugural editorial, we tell the story of the emergence of the journal as a response to our current global context. We seek to exemplify the different ways of coming to know and different forms of knowledge that are required to bring about the deep systems change needed to address the divides of our time. We reveal the ways in which the very process of enacting different research paradigms is itself emancipatory and transformative: making these practices visible is the work of awareness-based systems change.
Both within science and society, transdisciplinary approaches are increasingly employed to address today’s sustainability challenges. Often transdisciplinary research processes are structured in three core phases: a) problem identification and formation of a common research object; b) co-production of solution-oriented and transferable knowledge; c) embedding co-produced knowledge through transdisciplinary reintegration. In all phases of this ideal-typical model, the involvement of non-academic actors is essential to meet the challenges of real-world problems, and of transformative research practices. Despite existing guidance for the core transdisciplinary process, its initiation often remains an uncharted area because of its strong context dependency. Based on a concrete transdisciplinary case study addressing sustainability transformation in Transylvania, we bring together our learned experience with initiating a transdisciplinary process using a research-driven approach. To this end, we introduce the notion of Phase 0, as an initiating phase prior to beginning an ideal-typical transdisciplinary process. Within Phase 0, we propose three empirically and literature informed sub-phases: Sub-Phase 0.1) selecting the case study; Sub-Phase 0.2) understanding the case study context from a transdisciplinary perspective; Sub-Phase 0.3) fostering premises for coming together. We outline the general rationale behind these sub-phases, and we illustrate how we carried out each sub-phase in practice. By deriving cross-cutting lessons from the three sub-phases, we enhance the practice of transdisciplinary sustainability research with the aim to leverage its transformative potential.
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A transformation to sustainability calls for radical and systemic societal shifts. Yet what this entails in practice and who the agents of this radical transformation are require further elaboration. This article recenters the role of environmental justice movements in transformations, arguing that the systemic, multi-dimensional and intersectional approach inherent in EJ activism is uniquely placed to contribute to the realization of equitable sustainable futures. Based on a perspective of conflict as productive, and a “conflict transformation” approach that can address the root issues of ecological conflicts and promote the emergence of alternatives, we lay out a conceptual framework for understanding transformations through a power analysis that aims to confront and subvert hegemonic power relations; that is, multi-dimensional and intersectional; balancing ecological concerns with social, economic, cultural and democratic spheres; and is multi-scalar, and mindful of impacts across place and space. Such a framework can help analyze and recognize the contribution of grassroots EJ movements to societal transformations to sustainability and support and aid radical transformation processes. While transitions literature tends to focus on artifacts and technologies, we suggest that a resistance-centred perspective focuses on the creation of new subjectivities, power relations, values and institutions. This recenters the agency of those who are engaged in the creation and recuperation of ecological and new ways of being in the world in the needed transformation.
OPEN ACCESS, Ecological Economics Both environmental justice (EJ) and degrowth movements warn against increasing the physical size of the economy. They both oppose extractivism and debt-fuelled economies, as well as the untrammelled profit motive which fails to incorporate full environmental and social costs. They both rely upon social movements that have led scholarship in its activities and achievements, in part through challenging power structures. Therefore, some argue the existence of an obvious alliance between degrowth and EJ movements in the Global South. Yet, direct observation unveils concerns from EJ activists in the Global South about the plausibility of alliances until some significant divergences have been examined and reconciled. Activists inspire, promote and disseminate transformations that overcome several forms of domination. Their perspectives on degrowth advance informed cooperation. Our aim is thus to systematically evaluate tensions and possible analogies between the scope of action of EJ organisations operating in the Global South and the main propositions of the Degrowth movement. The argument relies on methodical scrutiny of core themes in the degrowth debate by critical thinkers in the Global South. It incorporates insights from EJ struggles in Ecuador, Italy, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Uruguay, with important implications in Brazil, Mozambique, and Indonesia. The paper contributes to an exploration of the implications of the degrowth debate for the Global South, with the purpose of strengthening potential synergies, through an assertive recognition of the barriers to doing so.
Present day reasoning about difficulties in science reproducibility, science governance, and the use of science for policy could benefit from a philosophical and historical perspective. This would show that the present crisis was anticipated by some scholars of these disciplines, and that diagnoses were offered which are not yet mainstream among crisis-conscious disciplines, from statistics to medicine, from bibliometrics to biology. Diagnoses in turn open the path to possible solutions. This discussion is urgent given the joint impact of the crises on public trust in institutions. We ask whether the present crisis may be seminal in terms of drawing attention to alternative visions and governance arrangements for the role between science and society. We finish by offering a number of suggestions in this direction.
Degrowth has evolved within a decade from an activist movement into a multi-disciplinary academic paradigm. However, an overview taking stock of the peer-refereed degrowth literature is yet missing. Here, we review 91 articles that were published between 2006 and 2015. We find that the academic degrowth discourse occupies a small but expanding niche at the intersection of social and applied environmental sciences. The discourse is shaped by authors from high-income, mainly Mediterranean, countries. Until 2012, articles largely constitute conceptual essays endorsed by normative claims. More recently, degrowth has branched out into modelling, empirical assessments, and the study of concrete implementations. Authors tend to agree in that economic growth cannot be sustained ad infinitum on a resource constraint planet and that degrowth requires far reaching societal change. Whether degrowth should be considered as a collectively consented choice or an environmentally-imposed inevitability constitutes a major debate among degrowth thinkers. We argue that the academic discourse could benefit from rigid hypotheses testing through input-output modelling, material flow analysis, life-cycle assessments, or social surveys. By analyzing the potentials for non-market value creation and identifying concrete well-being benefits, the degrowth discourse could receive wider public support and contribute to a paradigmatic change in the social sciences.