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Abstract

Data-driven learning (DDL) is a learner-focused approach which promotes language learners’ discovery of linguistic patterns of use and meaning by examining extensive samples of attested uses of language. Despite the emergence of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) and its affordances, i.e. individualization and personalization, the potential of DDL in this context has not been widely explored. This study involved the creation of a mobile language learning app based on freely available natural language processing (NLP) tools, followed by a test of the app to gather the attitudes and perceptions of several groups of language learners across Europe. The results suggest a generally positive evaluation of DDL’s instant and personalized feedback and direct access to a variety of tools. Besides, suggestions for improvement were made concerning the design of the tasks, such as the addition of further built-in tools and adaptations to hardware constraints. Analyses also showed a need for specialized learner training, so as to grasp the potential of the feedback provided. This study may be construed as a first step towards creating more fleshed-out tools and further investigating the potential of combining DDL and MALL.

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... The idea of successful learning is attained in case of learners who fully collaborate in the activities. Thus, communication and technology expand the number of academic tasks due to the availability of a large resources of internet (Järvi et al., 2018;Pérez-Paredes et al., 2019;Belina, 2020;Chen, 2021), improve the credibility of duties and provide encouragement for having to implement an assignment in the school environment (Lan, 2020;Masuram and Sripada, 2020), and they simplify the . /feduc. . ...
Article
As English has become the preferred language for recording current innovation and technological breakthroughs, text is the essential medium through which EFL learners enhance their writing abilities. Desirable though it may be, the researcher’s experience has shown that most male students have just rudimentary L2 writing skills and are unable to write coherent passages in English. This implies a chasm between learners’ lexical and cohesive connections and earlier research has focused on ways and means to bridge this gap. However, the current study is ground-breaking in this field as it explores the efficacy of task-oriented training in filling this chasm. Using linguistic learning methods, the current research examines the efficacy of lexical and cohesive links in enhancing undergraduates’ writing. The study sample comprises 35 learners from an intermediate EFL reading class who are exposed to an intervention lasting 15 weeks. Data analysis shows that in the post-test, the learners’ grammatical and vocabulary skills are enhanced dramatically, particularly in the discourse analysis sections. Furthermore, during group work activities, (i) students are more engaged and motivated, and they acquire more knowledge about the language system, identification, cause and effect, “if” clause and the purpose and function of using the passages given; (ii) half of the students’ grammar proficiency and use of lexical items was correct in the writing output. Finally, the study shows that the biggest obstacle that the students faced in their writings and which they struggle to master is the use of the “if” clause which only 13 students could finally master. In addition, the study shows that (73%) of the students could master the discursive linkers in their writings better than the lexical or grammatical elements. Ultimately, the present study offers practical consequences that EFL teachers may want to contemplate including in their future classes
... Above all, these components are strategic for promoting social interactions and strengthening cooperative learning. Given that the world of digital didactic technologies is equipped with dialogic tools, teacher training should be aimed at better consolidation of the network affordances for quality technological didactic planning [35]. ...
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The use of digital technology as the only communication and relationship channel in work, school and social contexts is bringing out dynamics that are sometimes in contrast with each other. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of digital technology on teachers' school practices in the context of COVID-19. This impact was studied in relation to the constructs of motivation, perceived stress, sense of self-efficacy and resistance to/acceptance of technologies. This study examined the role played by the massive and coercive use of digital technologies (and the relationship with innovation and change) in predicting motivation and perceived stress among teachers. To this end, the impact of digital technologies on motivation and perceived stress were explored in the sample. A questionnaire consisting of three scales was administered to 688 Italian school teachers of all educational levels (from childhood to upper-secondary school), who completed a socio-demographic section, a section on the scale of the impact of technology and distance learning, a perceived stress scale and items on motivation and professional development. Descriptive and inferential analyses were applied to the data. Key findings indicated that the impact of digital technologies during the pandemic negatively correlates with both perceived stress and motivation. Practical implications were suggested to help teachers develop functional coping styles to cope with technological changes in work and life contexts.
... • Communicator (exchanging of information between each other) • Camera (photographing texts, etc.) • Dictaphone (recordings voice of a lecturer) • Mobile browser (access to sites) • Walkman (listening to the lectures) • Stopwatch (conducting experiments) • Translator (translation of foreign texts), etc. [7,8,27] Mobile learning becomes real in the successful implementation of educational activities. Scientists [25,26,28] identify such advantages of mobile learning as: ...
Article
The article deals with application of mobile technologies for the formation of analytical competence of future specialists. It discusses the concepts of mobile learning and mobile technologies. Advantages of using mobile technologies within the learning process are presented. The use of mobile learning is one of the most effective and affordable ways of formation of students' analytical competence. Managing, strategic, informational, reflexive components within the structure of analytical competence are revealed in the article. The results of experimental work of formation of analytical competence of future specialists by means of mobile learning technologies are presented. The authors conclude that formation analytical competence of future specialists using mobile devices expands the conventional framework by using the capabilities of mobile platforms and expands the learning environment.
... Besides that, other technology support interactions, including social media, wiki, web 2.0, have an open door for an enormous degree of interactions [13]. Besides that, the usage of mobile devices in accessing has hugely transformed the learning landscape [14]. The usage of mobile providing the learner with the opportunity of flexsibility, learning independent of time and location and created dinamically and communication with others [15]. ...
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This paper presents ICT-supported for participatory engagement learning within the e-learning community. Effectively tools in e-Learning facilitate interactive learning and the achievement of desired learning outcomes for learners. However, the intensity of its usage is not very remarkable; there is a need to understand ICT- supported for learners from the perspectives of participatory engagement. Therefore, integrating suitable technology into e-learning is expected to strengthen learner's engagement within the e-learning community. The objective of the study is to identify technology that could effectively support learners' engagement. This study analyzes the available technology in the market to integrate into e-learning using the technology evaluation process. Interview sessions with experts were held to validated and suggested other technology uses in e-learning. This research is carrying out with three experts (academic staff) of the e-technologies within the University. This study uses semi-structured interviews to captured expert suggestions, knowledge, and expertise about technologies. Understanding learner's requirements toward technology are essential to ensure learners can reap the benefits of technology usage. This study uses a thematical analysis to identify and organize key themes from qualitative data. The result reveals mobile technology, wireless technology, live streaming technology, authoring tool, summative assessment, cloud computing, gamification and Instagram is suitable technologies that support participatory engagement activities.
... The use of mobile technologies is an under-researched area within the LA field (Shorfuzzaman et al., 2019), and scholars have emphasised that there are few studies on data-driven learning with mobile devices in L2 learning research (Pérez-Paredes et al., 2019). This is a critical constraint since extensive earlier research within the MALL field has shown that the use of mobile technologies is advantageous in L2 learning (e.g., Kukulska-Hulme & Viberg, 2018;Sung et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Many adult second and foreign language learners have insufficient opportunities to engage in language learning. However, their successful acquisition of a target language is critical for various reasons, including their fast integration in a host country and their smooth adaptation to new work or educational settings. This suggests that they need additional support to succeed in their second language acquisition. We argue that such support would benefit from recent advances in the fields of mobile-assisted language learning, self-regulated language learning, and learning analytics. In particular, this paper offers a conceptual framework, mobile-assisted language learning through learning analytics for self-regulated learning (MALLAS), to help learning designers support second language learners through the use of learning analytics to enable self-regulated learning. Although the MALLAS framework is presented here as an analytical tool that can be used to operationalise the support of mobile-assisted language learning in a specific exemplary learning context, it would be of interest to researchers who wish to better understand and support self-regulated language learning in mobile contexts.
... Si la discussion suggère que les élèves doivent acquérir des compétences numériques, nous postulons que les enseignants qui les accompagnent dans leur apprentissage doivent aussi pouvoir développer leurs compétences numériques, comme le préconise la recherche (Pérez-Paredes et al., 2019). Cela permettrait une réduction du sentiment d'incompétence (Guichon, 2012) qu'ils peuvent éprouver lors d'activités numériques avec les élèves mais également un accompagnement adéquat des élèves allant de la création du dispositif, à son enseignement et à l'enseignement de certaines compétences numériques. ...
Article
Dans le cadre du Pacte pour un Enseignement d’Excellence, les consortiums Langues Modernes et Numérique ont analysé plusieurs dispositifs didactiques numériques dans neuf classes de langues modernes et de français-informatique. Les résultats des expérimentations ont mis en avant plusieurs difficultés techniques rencontrées par les élèves quant à l’utilisation d’outils numériques en classe. Par ailleurs, une série de facteurs ont été identifiés comme jouant un rôle sur la qualité de la production des élèves en matière de contenu disciplinaire. Le croisement des données permet dès lors de proposer certaines pistes de réflexion pour une intégration efficace d’un nouvel outil numérique dans une activité scolaire. Une combinaison réfléchie de l’expertise disciplinaire, pédagogique et technologique de l’enseignant est au cœur des suggestions tout comme, pour l’élève, une combinaison entre le contenu à produire, les activités pédagogiques dont il doit bénéficier pour le produire, et les outils à utiliser pour réaliser la tâche.
... In the last Ph.D. thesis from abroad, Mthethwa (2014) investigated the utility of mobileassisted language learning in Swaziland, mainly the use of smartphones for learning English. Students' beliefs about the potential benefits of MALL were also examined. ...
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In recent years, mobile language learning, which can also be defined as mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), is commonly used in a wide range all over the world. MALL is utilized in language learning to foster new possibilities in providing more useful and attractive learning activities. Thus, the current study aimed to identify the effectiveness of MALL as a tool for language learning by examining 10 Ph.D. dissertations (5 from Turkey, 5 from several counties) and 10 journal articles published in different Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) journals between 2013 and 2019. The review was conducted to identify the research domains such as scope, research questions, methodologies, common emergent features and overall implications of those studies. The results showed that while Ph.D. dissertations from Turkey mostly focused on vocabulary learning through several MALL applications, Ph.D. dissertations from other countries had diverse research domains. Further, the article studies vary in terms of scopes, methodologies and contexts, providing insights for context-dependent practices such as restricted settings. Those studies also revealed the pros and cons and suggested employing MALL applications appropriately in facilitating language learning.
... These challenges entail a need to carefully consider learning and technology design (see e.g., Chen & Hsu, 2020;Viberg, Wasson, & Kukulska-Hulme, 2020), policy-related issues that can contribute to the sustainability of MALL designs over time and space (e.g., the implementation of bring-your-own-device policy, see e.g., Bartholomew, 2019;Chen & Hsu, 2020), and mobile data-driven language learning solutions that would facilitate the provision of adaptive language learning paths (Viberg, Wasson, & Kukulska-Hulme, 2020). Generally, as emphasized by Pérez-Paredes et al. (2019), the potential of data-driven learning in the MALL context is underexplored. ...
Chapter
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Many language learners need to be supported in acquiring a second or foreign language quickly and effectively across learning environments beyond the classroom. The chapter argues that support should focus on the development of two vital learning skills, namely being able to self-regulate and to collaborate effectively in the learning process. We base our argumentation on the theoretical lenses of self-regulated learning (SRL) and collaborative learning in the context of mobile situated learning that can take place in a variety of settings. The chapter examines a sample of selected empirical studies within the field of mobile-assisted language learning with a twofold aim. Firstly, the studies are analyzed in order to understand the role of learner self-regulation and collaboration while acquiring a new language beyond the classroom. Secondly, we aim to provide a deeper understanding of any mechanisms provided to develop or support language learners’ self-regulated and collaborative learning skills. Finally, we propose that fostering SRL and collaborative learning skills and strategies will benefit from recent advances in the fields of learning analytics and artificial intelligence, coupled with the use of mobile technologies and self-monitoring mechanisms. The ultimate aim is to enable the provision of individual adaptive learning paths to facilitate language learning beyond the classroom.
... These challenges entail a need to carefully consider learning and technology design (see e.g., Chen & Hsu, 2020;Viberg, Wasson, & Kukulska-Hulme, 2020), policy-related issues that can contribute to the sustainability of MALL designs over time and space (e.g., the implementation of bring-your-own-device policy, see e.g., Bartholomew, 2019;Chen & Hsu, 2020), and mobile data-driven language learning solutions that would facilitate the provision of adaptive language learning paths (Viberg, Wasson, & Kukulska-Hulme, 2020). Generally, as emphasized by Pérez-Paredes et al. (2019), the potential of data-driven learning in the MALL context is underexplored. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many language learners need to be supported in acquiring a second or foreign language quickly and effectively across learning environments beyond the classroom. The chapter argues that support should focus on the development of two vital learning skills, namely being able to self-regulate and to collaborate effectively in the learning process. We base our argumentation on the theoretical lenses of self-regulated learning (SRL) and collaborative learning in the context of mobile situated learning that can take place in a variety of settings. The chapter examines a sample of selected empirical studies within the field of mobile-assisted language learning with a twofold aim. Firstly, the studies are analyzed in order to understand the role of learner self-regulation and collaboration while acquiring a new language beyond the classroom. Secondly, we aim to provide a deeper understanding of any mechanisms provided to develop or support language learners' self-regulated and collaborative learning skills. Finally, we propose that fostering SRL and collaborative learning skills and strategies will benefit from recent advances in the fields of learning analytics and artificial intelligence, coupled with the use of mobile technologies and self-monitoring mechanisms. The ultimate aim is to enable the provision of individual adaptive learning paths to facilitate language learning beyond the classroom.
... The idea of successful learning is attained in case of learners who fully collaborate in the activities. Thus, communication and technology expand the number of academic tasks due to the availability of a large resources of internet (Järvi et al., 2018;Pérez-Paredes et al., 2019;Belina, 2020;Chen, 2021), improve the credibility of duties and provide encouragement for having to implement an assignment in the school environment (Lan, 2020;Masuram and Sripada, 2020), and they simplify the . /feduc. . ...
Article
Full-text available
As English has become the preferred language for recording current innovation and technological breakthroughs, text is the essential medium through which EFL learners enhance their writing abilities. Desirable though it may be, the researcher's experience has shown that most male students have just rudimentary L2 writing skills and are unable to write coherent passages in English. This implies a chasm between learners' lexical and cohesive connections and earlier research has focused on ways and means to bridge this gap. However, the current study is ground-breaking in this field as it explores the efficacy of task-oriented training in filling this chasm. Using linguistic learning methods, the current research examines the efficacy of lexical and cohesive links in enhancing undergraduates' writing. The study sample comprises 35 learners from an intermediate EFL reading class who are exposed to an intervention lasting 15 weeks. Data analysis shows that in the post-test, the learners' grammatical and vocabulary skills are enhanced dramatically, particularly in the discourse analysis sections. Furthermore, during group work activities, (i) students are more engaged and motivated, and they acquire more knowledge about the language system, identification, cause and effect, “if” clause and the purpose and function of using the passages given; (ii) half of the students' grammar proficiency and use of lexical items was correct in the writing output. Finally, the study shows that the biggest obstacle that the students faced in their writings and which they struggle to master is the use of the “if” clause which only 13 students could finally master. In addition, the study shows that (73%) of the students could master the discursive linkers in their writings better than the lexical or grammatical elements. Ultimately, the present study offers practical consequences that EFL teachers may want to contemplate including in their future classes.
... FRAME (Koole, 2009) In FRAME (Koole, 2009) (Figure 1), there are three main aspects, mainly depicting the process that learners interact with information mediated through technology. The device aspect relates to the different physical and technological characteristics of mobile devices (e.g., the keyboard/voice/multilingual interfaces), which impact hugely on how learners interact with resources and determine whether these are adopted in the long run (Pérez-Paredes et al., 2019). The learner aspect takes into account learners' cognitive abilities, memory capabilities, language knowledge and learning motivations, illustrating how learners receive, process, internalise, store and use knowledge when using a mobile device. ...
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Despite the increasing ownership of mobile devices among Chinese postgraduate EFL learners, relevant studies regarding mobile English learning resources (MELR) use by postgraduate learners are still lacking. This study tries to understand the uses and the motivation behind language learners selection of MALL resources. In this research, 95 Chinese postgraduate students from four university levels took part in a questionnaire, and eight of them in an interview. The results show that "passing exams" was the top reason for using MELR and expanding one's English vocabulary was the aspect learners aimed to improve. The portability of mobile devices enabled learners to use MELR during short time intervals 1 , which suggests that MALL applications should target this behaviour. However, as a type of supplementary material, few students used MELR for more than one hour per day, and they were not regularly and actively involved in using MELR. Few learners were able to select suitable MELR to meet their current English learning needs, and they relied on recommendations from social media and authoritative education experts. Due to the importance of vocabulary, mobile dictionaries and vocabulary learning applications were the learners' favourite type of MELR. As the participants suggested , enjoyment and interactivity were the two driving factors behind MELR selection and use. On the basis of Framework for the Rational Analysis of Mobile Education (FRAME, Koole, M. (2009). A model for framing mobile learning. In M. Ally (Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training. Athabasca: Athabasca University Press, 25-47) and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM [Davis, F. D., (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. Management Information Systems, 13, 319-339]; TAM 2 [Venkatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management Science, 46(2), 186-204]), a new theoretical model for better understanding the complex nature of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) and the importance of learners in the self-directed, non-formal English language learning setting is proposed in this study.
... Among many measures to address such technical, pedagogical and attitudinal problems, one emerging proposal to promote 'mobile DDL' (Pérez-Paredes et al., 2019), i.e., presenting concordances directly to leaners through special mobile apps, may be promising. It is believed that the new mobile platform may help alleviate at least some of the technical and attitudinal problems with DDL. ...
Article
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Academic environment can contribute to academic perception and learning preferences. Thiscan be particularly evident in institutions undergoing a significant change. University Teknologi Brunei (UTB) is one of the youngest and fastest growing universities in Brunei. Previously known as Institute Teknologi Brunei, it was upgraded to a University status in 2016.This is a study set in 2011 prior to the change in status and again in 2020 where it looks the changes and development that has happened over the years from the students’ perspective. A questionnaire was used as the instrument targeting first year students from UTB’s School of Business and School of Computing and Informatics. The same set of questionnaires and analysis was used for both 2011 and 2020 sampling. The findings show that UTB still have some improvement to make with regards to providing conducive learning environment. At the same time, the students also show significant change in academic perception and preferred learning style, preferring blended learning to face-to-face learning, partly in light of the exposure to online learning towards the middle of the first semester due to COVID-19.
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Digital Literacy (DL) is defined as the ability to use information and communication technology to communicate with cognitive and technical skills. One of the Digital Literacy is Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) or mobile phones-based language learning. Merits of this study are worthy of helping learners easier understand the language learning materials presented by either guided face to face in the classroom or self-learning out of the school. The study used experimental and control classes to compare the results that the significance of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning in learning language could be prescribed. Refer to the initial students' ability, this study designed pre and post-test for the experiment. Furthermore, participants were 40 students of second-year students at the English Education Department. Same topics were taught for experiment and control class in alter methods. The results claimed that the using post-test of MALL had merits on improving experimental group more than control group performance. The results declared that using MALL would encourage stu-dents' learning activities such as self-language learning, enriching vocabulary, promoting teacher's pedagogic, student's cognitive, writing skill, reading comprehension, speaking, grammar and listening skill. Lastly, this paper implied MALL as a reference for future curriculum and material development.
Chapter
Critical thinking is widely recognized to be the key to high-quality professional education. The previous studies of teaching tools that develop critical thinking searched mostly for traditional reading-discussion activities in a traditional classroom. The article updates the choice of the resources and evaluates mobile applications and online courses used in EFL teaching practice. The research is aimed at analyzing digital options that are essential for language learning as well as for professional growth and cognitive development. The authors scrutinize a number of language massive open online courses, mobile apps, and digital platforms targeted at promoting learners’ critical thinking skills in reading, writing, and interaction. The methods of the research require evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the examined digital tools. Additionally, some options in the digital assessment of the academic texts features are studied. Finally, the authors provide recommendations on the effective EFL teaching strategies coupled with the essential critical thinking activities in academic contexts.
Article
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Digital Literacy (DL) is defined as the ability to use information and communication technology to communicate with cognitive and technical skills. One of the Digital Literacy is Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) or mobile phones-based language learning. Merits of this study are worthy of helping learners easier understand the language learning materials presented by either guided face to face in the classroom or self-learning out of the school. The study used experimental and control classes to compare the results that the significance of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning in learning language could be prescribed. Refer to the initial students' ability, this study designed pre and post-test for the experiment. Furthermore, participants were 40 students of second-year students at the English Education Department. Same topics were taught for experiment and control class in alter methods. The results claimed that the using post-test of MALL had merits on improving experimental group more than control group performance. The results declared that using MALL would encourage stu-dents' learning activities such as self-language learning, enriching vocabulary, promoting teacher's pedagogic, student's cognitive, writing skill, reading comprehension, speaking, grammar and listening skill. Lastly, this paper implied MALL as a reference for future curriculum and material development.
Article
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Technology as a learning tool or otherwise holds great attraction for learners today. The current study explored the impact of Short Messages as Learning Tool (SMLT) on EFL Saudi learners learning confused English words. It also gauges learners' satisfactions towards using such tools on their autonomy and language proficiency. The study pursued a quasi-experiment research design. It recruited 80 EFL learners across Najran University and Qassim University, KSA. To ensure parity of existing language proficiency and learning success, the Oxford Placement Test is administered once before and once at the end of the intervention to all of the 80 participants to obtain comparative values.. Furthermore, a semi-structured interview is also used with three randomly selected participants from each of the experimental groups to obtain data on individual perceptions of the EFL learners to the use of MALL in the EFL classroom. Content analysis is used to identify dominant themes in these. Findings revealed that learners acquisition for confusing words were developed to a great extent in both universities. Moreover, the study found that there is no significant difference in the students' achievement attributed to the learning sittings, Z = .935. Finally the students expressed satisfaction in terms of their autonomy ratings and complementary points of view on the use of SMS, based on the semi-structured interviews. The current research is useful as its findings can apply to mobile teaching and text messaging in the English classroom for EFL curriculum developers and English language teachers.
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Introduction: In the information society, the stimulus threshold for learners has changed, which requires a novel education strategy. Today, it is no longer what attracts students’ attention that it was 20 years ago. In addition to the rapid development of ICT, public education cannot go either. We believe that advanced teacher digital competence can be one of the keys of finding common ground with students and doing effective teaching work. Methods: In our research we examine the level of digital competence of public education teachers before the pandemic and during the 2nd wave in Hungary (2020 autumn). We examine the development of digital competence, student performance, and the effectiveness of education outside the classroom in the spring period based on teacher experience. Data from the completed forms were evaluated by using basic statistical indicators. Results: According to the data received, the pandemic revealed serious shortcomings in the level of development of the digital competence of both teachers and students. However, it also opened the way for catching up on both sides. Teachers were already better prepared during the second wave, so they were able to solve education more efficiently. Regional development differences and a lack of digital tools have widened the gap between students. Discussion: The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed these shortcomings in education. For here the process of teaching had to be placed in digital space from one moment to the next. Limitations: The research shows data valid only for Hungary. Conclusions: Expected result is the demonstrable development of competences.
Article
Introduction: One of the prominent approaches in language education is Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) due to recent advances in technology. To benefit from MALL effectively and develop it when it is required, it is important to know the perceptions of the ones who use it. Although much research related to students’ and teachers’ perceptions of MALL in primary and secondary education is present in the literature, research related to perceptions of instructors in higher education is limited. Thus, this study aimed at identifying the instructors’ perceptions of utilizing MALL in higher education. Methods: As the perceptions of the participants were aimed to be explored in detail, the qualitative research design was adopted. An open-ended questionnaire was developed by the researchers and administered to 24 instructors working at the English Language Teaching (ELT) departments of different universities in Turkey. The data were analyzed through content analysis. Results: It was found that the instructors defined MALL as using mobile technologies for language learning. Moreover, the participants had positive perceptions about MALL as it had some benefits, such as anytime, anywhere learning, stronger students’ interest, higher motivation and autonomy, individualized and collaborative learning. However, MALL users faced some challenges, such as weak internet connection and battery, time consumption in terms of preparing content for the class, classroom management problems and low digital literacy of both students and instructors. Discussion: The results of the study were parallel to the findings of the previous studies in the literature. This study found that MALL contributed to learning independent of time and place, high motivation and interest, saving time and energy, individualized learning, collaborative learning, autonomous learning, and learning with fun. Limitations: This study is not without limitations. Triangulation of data with in-depth interviews could be implemented to increase detailed information and reliability. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that instructors who had benefitted from technology in their teaching process had positive perceptions despite some challenges. To this end, it is suggested that MALL be utilized in language teaching by minimizing its challenges.
This study applied Edmodo as a supplementary environment for additional language practice in a semi-technical English course in an EFL context, with a quasi-experimental between-subjects (control versus experimental group) design. In addition to conventional classroom instruction and practice, the experimental group practiced additional language exercises using Edmodo application while the control group participants worked on similar exercises during extended classroom meetings. The results of paired and independent sample t-tests conducted on both groups’ using 48-item, multiple-choice (vocabulary, grammar, and reading comprehension) pre and posttests revealed that while both groups demonstrated a statistically significant performance in the achievement posttest which was administered at the end of the course, the performance of the experimental group was significantly better than the control. The findings suggest that Edmodo is a valuable and cost-effective tool for language learning/practice beyond the physical and temporal confinements of conventional language classrooms.
Chapter
An information about competitor’s value of the contract became the basic term of revenue maximization in contemporary public procurement. The standard revenue-maximizing auction reduces information rents of the bidders. Such reduction is no longer optimal when the auction’s winner may resell the contract to another bidder, and the auctioneer has informational uncertainty about possibility of such resale. If bidders’ values become publicly known after the auction losing bidders could compete to buy the object from the winner. This form of resale no longer reduces the information rents of the low-value bidder, as he could still secure the same rents by selling the object in resale. The paper overviews research on auction theory & auctions with resale. The author attempted to find a better design of the auction in resale conditions, providing telling the truth about bidders’ value. Implementation of the proposed auction may increase the revenue of standard procurement auctions for the auctioneer.
Chapter
The article aims to study the use of app-based multimedia in foreign language teaching. The authors consider the problem of mobile apps usage distinguishing its advantages and disadvantages. A comparative analysis of several popular mobile resources made it possible to identify success factors for further application of mobile devices in teaching foreign languages and enabled the authors to produce some recommendations. It was determined that the use of mobile devices for autonomous study of foreign languages enhances the participants’ performance and helps to master students’ knowledge of foreign languages.
Article
The present study compared the role of hands-on and hands-off data-driven learning (DDL) in learning verb-preposition collocations by Iranian learners of English. It also elicited learners’ attitudes towards DDL through a questionnaire. A total of 60 female pre-intermediate learners were randomly divided into a hands-on, a hands-off, and a control group. During the 10-session treatment, the hands-on group searched some verb-preposition collocations in concordancing, on the screen of the computer, while the hands-off DDL group received the same collocations on paper-based corpus. The experimental groups were provided with dialogue, i.e., teacher guidance, as to how to benefit from DDL in the first session of the treatment. The control group received the same collocations explicitly through traditional approaches. Results indicated that the experimental groups outperformed the control group in learning verb-preposition collocations on the immediate posttest with no significant difference between the experimental groups. However, the hands-on group maintained the gain into the delayed posttest significantly better than the hands-off group. The results of the questionnaire revealed that all learners had positive perception of DDL to learn collocations. Results of the current study suggest using both hands-on (followed by dialogue) and hands-off DDL to help pre-intermediate learners develop their collocational competence.
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Drawing on the nonlinearity and dynamicity of second language (L2) motivation and individual differences, the present study introduced and examined the computer-assisted interactive reading model (CAIRM) incorporating computer-assisted language learning (CALL) tools and affordances to assist reading comprehension in blended and distance learning contexts. The CAIRM aims at incorporating CALL tools and affordances to move L2 readers from strategic (conscious, deliberate, intentional) to automatized (reading without employing conscious strategies) processing to develop L2 reading proficiency. The model arranges emerging digital reading features to facilitate restructuring and checking content comprehension as a way to alter between bottom-up and top-down processing. To investigate CAIRM effectiveness at three levels of implementation, a between-subject design was used in a sample of 278 Iranian learners. Results indicated significant improvement on the measure of reading performance, favoring all three experimental groups (d = 2.34, d = 2.49, and d = 3.82 for bottom-up, top-down, and both processing approaches conditions, respectively). The combination of bottom-up and top-down processing strategies emerged as the most effective level of CAIRM implementation. Results also documented positive perceptions of the proposed model efficacy among participants. This suggests that offering a variety of strategies under the CAIRM—or similar models—teachers can move away from static traditional approaches based on just one particular data processing mode towards more flexible uses of the CALL tools and strategies that fit their unique teaching and their students’ unique learning styles best while supporting positive attitudes towards learning among L2 students in blended and distance learning contexts.
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Combined with the ubiquity and constant connectivity of mobile devices, and with innovative approaches such as Data-Driven Learning (DDL), Natural Language Processing Technologies (NLPTs) as Open Educational Resources (OERs) could become a powerful tool for language learning as they promote individual and personalized learning. Using a questionnaire that was answered by language teachers (n= 230) in Spain and the UK, this research explores the extent to which OER NLPTs are currently known and used in adult foreign language learning. Our results suggest that teachers´ familiarity and use of OER NLPTs are very low. Although online dictionaries, collocation dictionaries and spell checkers are widely known, NLPTs appear to be generally underused in foreign language teaching. It was found that teachers prefer computer-based environments over mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets and that teachers´ qualification determines their familiarity with a wider range of OER NLPTs. This research offers insight into future applications of Language Processing Technologies as OERs in language learning.
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Mobile Learning: A Handbook for Developers, Educators and Learners provides research-based foundations for developing, evaluating, and integrating effective mobile learning pedagogy. Twenty-first century students require twenty-first century technology, and mobile devices provide new and effective ways to educate children. But with new technologies come new challenges-therefore, this handbook presents a comprehensive look at mobile learning by synthesizing relevant theories and drawing practical conclusions for developers, educators, and students. Mobile devices-in ways that the laptop, the personal computer, and netbook computers have not-present the opportunity to make learning more engaging, interactive, and available in both traditional classroom settings and informal learning environments. From theory to practice, Mobile Learning explores how mobile devices are different than their technological predecessors, makes the case for developers, teachers, and parents to invest in the technology, and illustrates the many ways in which it is innovative, exciting, and effective in educating K-12 students. Explores how mobile devices can support the needs of students. Provides examples, screenshots, graphics, and visualizations to enhance the material presented in the book. Provides developers with the background necessary to create the apps their audience requires. Presents the case for mobile learning in and out of classrooms as early as preschool. Discusses how mobile learning enables better educational opportunities for the visually impaired, students with Autism, and adult learners. If you're a school administrator, teacher, app developer, or parent, this topical book provides a theoretical, well-researched discussion of the pedagogical theory and mobile learning, as well as practical advice in setting up a mobile learning strategy.
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Much discussion in language learning and teaching revolves around two main questions: what to learn and how to learn it. Corpus linguistics has had a significant impact on the former, as publishers use the findings to inform the language content of their syllabuses. On the other hand, and despite significant output in terms of research articles and publications, few teachers and still fewer learners have had any direct contact with language corpora per se. For such awareness to filter down to the end users, the major players upstream (publishers, software developers, politicians, schools, teacher trainers, etc.) have to be convinced that corpora have something to offer. While well-developed theoretical arguments show the potential is considerable, empirical evidence is surprisingly lacking (Chambers 2007). This paper looks at nearly 50 studies which provide some form of evaluation of the use of corpora in language learning. Many are essentially qualitative, bringing useful insights but remaining by definition rather subjective; quantitative evidence, however, remains scarce. Furthermore, the focus is often on learners' and teachers' attitudes to the use of corpora, or on their ability to use corpus techniques, rather than on the effectiveness of corpus use. Finally, the remaining studies tend to divide into two main categories: those which are concerned with the use of corpora as a reference tool, especially in written production (including error-correction) and translation; and those few which actually look at whether corpora contribute to language learning itself – “data-driven learning”, to use Johns' term (e.g. 1991). This paper synthesises the research findings to date on all these questions, and argues that there is an urgent need for considerably more empirical evaluation of data-driven language learning, taking into account the large number of variables involved. Only then can we expect to see such techniques become part of mainstream language teaching and learning practices. Chambers, A. 2007. Popularising corpus consultation by language learners and teachers. In E. Hidalgo, L. Quereda & J. Santana (eds) Corpora in the Foreign Language Classroom. Amsterdam: Rodopi, p. 3-16. Johns, T. 1991. From printout to handout: Grammar and vocabulary teaching in the context of data-driven learning. In T. Johns and P. King (eds) Classroom Concordancing. English Language Research Journal 4, p. 27-45.
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This paper reports on the long-term use of personal do-it-yourself corpora by students of EAP. Forty international graduate students attended a course in which they built and examined their own corpora of research articles in their field. One year after the course, they completed an email questionnaire, which asked about their corpus use in the 12 months since the end of the course. Results show that 70% of the respondents had used their corpus: 38% were regular users (once per week or more), 33% irregular users (once per month or seldom) and 30% non-users. Most users consulted the corpus for checking grammar and lexis while composing and revising and 93% of them considered that corpus use had improved their academic writing. Reasons for non-use included the small size of the corpus and its lack of reliability and convenience. Case studies of a user and a non-user are presented and highlight two other factors likely to affect take-up: the individual’s writing process and the focus of their current writing concerns. The paper discusses the reasons behind long-term use of personal corpora and some of the challenges to be overcome in extending the approach more widely.
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This paper reports on the feasibility and value of an approach to teaching EAP writing in which students construct and examine their own individual, discipline-specific corpora. The approach was trialed in multidisciplinary classes of advanced-level students (mostly graduates). The course consisted of six weekly 2-h sessions. Data were collected from initial and final questionnaires, which provided background information and asked students to evaluate the corpus work. Data from 50 participants are presented and show generally positive results. Over 90% of students found it easy to build their own corpora and most succeeded in constructing a corpus of 10–15 research articles. Most students were enthusiastic about working with their own corpora: about 90% agreed that their corpus helped them improve their writing and intended to use it in the future. This suggests that even corpora of this size and type can provide a useful resource for writing discipline-specific texts. The paper discusses the data on participants’ attitudes and experiences and considers the issues and problems that arise in connection with do-it-yourself corpus-building. It argues that this approach need not be restricted to small groups of well-resourced students, but can be implemented in mainstream EAP classes.
The study investigates the relative effectiveness of inductive and deductive approaches to learning collocations by using a concordancer. The relationship between cognitive approaches and levels of collocation difficulty is also examined. Eighty-one second-year students from a senior high school in Taiwan participated in the study. The results showed that the inductive group improved significantly better than the deductive group in the performance of collocation learning and easy collocations seem to be more suitable in the concordancer learning setting.
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Many excellent corpus-based language learning resources (e.g., concordancers) have been freely available on the Internet for some time. Google assisted language learning (GALL) is also gaining increasing acceptance. These tools are a potential resource for English as an additional language (EAL) university students who want to independently improve their academic writing. However, many Australian universities have been remarkably slow to integrate these tools into English language support operations. In this study, Australian EAL university students were trained in Internet-based tools and techniques for language learning and subsequently surveyed on their attitudes and behaviour. Students' competence in using the tools and techniques to correct errors in their writing was also measured. The results revealed that students are enthusiastic and reasonably competent users of Internet-based tools and techniques for independent language learning. It is argued that Internet-based corpus tools and techniques are undervalued by Australian universities, but could be promoted and used to support EAL university student writers.
Usage-based theories of language learning suggest that native speakers of a language are acutely aware of formulaic language due in large part to frequency effects. Corpora and data-driven learning can offer useful insights into frequent patterns of naturally occurring language to second/foreign language learners who, unlike native speakers, are not privy to a lifetime of input and fine-tuning. Recently, the use of the web in combination with the Google search engine as an accessible corpus and concordancer has received much attention. This article describes an experiment which tests the hypothesis that native speakers of English perceive learner-generated phrases to be more natural after learners have searched the phrases on Google and modified them in light of the frequency of search results. The findings indicate that native speakers perceive phrases that generated more results in Google searches to be more natural.
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In choosing a title for this paper, we have consciously copied the name of the series of biannual conferences, started at Lancaster in 1994, which aim to bring together those who have an interest in the application of corpora to the teaching of language and linguistics. Already, those conferences have set in train a series of publications – conference proceedings (Wilson and McEnery, 1994; Botley, Glass, McEnery and Wilson, 1996), a general selection of papers (Wichmann, Knowles, McEnery and Fligelstone, 1997) and a collection of papers related to multilingual copora (Botley, McEnery and Wilson, 1997). The aim of this paper is to summarize the progress to date in the field of teaching and language corpora, both as a general introduction and as a gateway to the more comprehensive literature which is developing. As such, this paper owes a considerable debt to all of the participants at the past two conferences.
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One very active research tradition in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) attempts to establish causal relationships between environmental factors and learning. These include the type and quantity of input, instruction and feedback, and the interactional context of learning (Larsen-Freeman and Long 1991). A second very influential line of research and theory in SLA that came to fruition during the 1980s investigates the possible role of universal grammar (UG) in SLA (Eubank 1991b, White 1989). In the Chomskyan tradition, UG refers not to properties of language as the external object of learning but to innate properties of mind that direct the course of primary language acquisition. One question asked within this tradition has been whether or not second language learners still “have access” to UG, but it is assumed that UG principles are not accessible to learner awareness for any kind of conscious analysis of input. It is possible that SLA is the result of UG (a deep internal factor) acting upon input (an external factor), as proposed by White (1989), but what seems to be left out of such an account is the role of the learner's conscious mental processes.
Article
Today's teachers are expected to use modern digital technology (DT) to optimise pedagogical effects. Singaporean policy makers have introduced directives to explicitly require teachers to apply DT in teaching. Inherent in such directives is an assumption that by requiring teachers to apply DT, they will perceive its value and use it in their teaching. This paper tests this assumption. Students in initial teacher education programs in Singapore responded to a survey on four variables about their use of DT: (1) compliance with requirements, (2) sense of competence, (3) perceived value and (4) frequency of DT application. Compliance was found to be negatively correlated with competence and uncorrelated with frequency, indicating that teachers who were more competent in DT were less likely to be compliant and those who were compliant may not actually apply DT in teaching. In contrast, both competence and value were positively correlated with frequency of application. Compliance differs for students in different programs and is higher for females. The results indicate that mandating use of DT may not be useful. A more productive approach may be to enhance the competence of teachers in DT so that they value its effectiveness and are confident to apply it in classroom activities. What is already known about this topic What this paper adds Implications for practice and/or policy
Article
The Noticing Hypothesis—an hypothesis that input does not become intake for language learning unless it is noticed, that is, consciously registered (Schmidt, 1990, 2001)—has been around now for about two decades and continues to generate experimental studies, suggestions for L2 pedagogy, conference papers and controversy. To many people, the idea that SLA is largely driven by what learners pay attention to and become aware of in target language input seems the essence of common sense. In the simplest terms, people learn about the things that they pay attention to and do not learn much about the things they do not attend to. Others consider the hypothesis to be undesirably vague, lacking in empirical support, or incompatible with well-grounded theories. In this talk I will review the evidence for the hypothesis, as well the major objections that have been raised against it, paying particular attention to learner characteristics such as motivation, aptitude, and language learning history that affect what learners notice and become aware of when processing L2 input.
Article
In much of the literature on the exploitation of corpora for language learning, the learners are viewed as researchers, who formulate and test their own hypotheses about language use. Having identified difficulties encountered in corpus investigations by our intermediate-level students of Italian in a previous study, we have designed a semester-long apprenticeship in corpus use which does not demand of them the high level of language proficiency, attention to detail in observation, and logical rigour that we consider necessary for rewarding work in the learner-as-researcher role. Instead, we introduce a corpus initially as an aid to the imagination in writing, and then to achieving accuracy through specific grammatical problem solving. We see this as the groundwork for subsequent development of the students’ research skills with corpus data. This paper describes the approach we have adopted to the corpus apprenticeship and reports on an evaluation of its effectiveness through case studies of three students and their use of a corpus and bilingual dictionary as reference resources when writing. Drawing on insights from the case studies, we outline a working definition of corpus-consultation literacy for our learning context and identify some refinements to be made to our apprenticeship.
Article
This paper reports on our experience in using a corpus of our own compilation, Contemporary Written Italian Corpus (CWIC), in teaching intermediate students at Griffith University in Australia. After an overview of the corpus design and the training approach adopted, we focus on our initial evaluation of the effectiveness of the students' investigations. Much has been written on what can be done with corpora in language learning: what kinds of discoveries can be made with different types of corpora. There is relatively little on how learners actually go about investigations. Since we intend for our students to progress from classroom use to independent work as a result of using a Web-based version of CWIC, we have been seeking to understand how successful they are at extracting information from this corpus in the absence of a teacher. Our initial study highlighted the complexity of the process and the specialized skills required. We found that lack of rigor in observation and reasoning contributed greatly to the problems that arose, as did ignorance of common pitfalls and techniques for avoiding them. We, therefore, conclude the paper with an outline of proposed changes to our apprenticeship program, aimed at better equipping the students as "corpus researchers.".
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