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Content may be subject to copyright.

Chapter 6

Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

There is a wide confusion on what are “scalar waves”in serious and less serious

literature on electrical engineering. In this chapter we explain that this type of waves

are longitudinal waves of potentials. It is shown that a longitudinal wave is a

combination of a vector potential with a scalar potential. There is a full analog to

acoustic waves. Transmitters and receivers for longitudinal electromagnetic waves

are discussed. Scalar wave was found and used at ﬁrst by Nikola Tesla in his wireless

energy transmission experiment. The scalar wave is the extension of Maxwell

equation part that we can call it more complete electromagnetic (MCE) equation

as described in this chapter.

6.1 Introduction

It is the purpose of this chapter to discuss a new uniﬁed ﬁeld theory based on the

work of Tesla. This uniﬁed ﬁeld and particle theory explains quantum and classical

physics, mass, gravitation, constant speed of light, neutrinos, wave, and particles, all

can be explained by vortices [1], white to discuss on these unique, various recent

inventions and their possible modes of operation, but to convince those listening of

their value for hopefully directing a future program geared towards the rigorous

clariﬁcation and certiﬁcation, of the speciﬁc role the electroscalar domain might play

in shaping a future, consistent, classical, electrodynamics. Also, by extension to

perhaps shed light on current theory conceptual and mathematical inconsistencies do

exist, in the present interpretation of relativistic quantum mechanics. In this regard, it

is anticipated that by incorporating this more expansive electrodynamic model, the

source of the extant problems with gauge invariance in quantum electrodynamics

and the subsequent unavoidable divergences in energy/charge might be identiﬁed

and ameliorated.

©Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

B. Zohuri, Directed-Energy Beam Weapons,

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20794-6_6

323

Not only does the electroscalar domain have the potential to address such lofty

theoretical questions surrounding fundamental physics, but also another aim in this

chapter is to show that the protocol necessary for generating these ﬁeld effects may

not be present only in exotic conditions involving large ﬁeld strengths and speciﬁc

frequencies involving expensive infrastructure such as the Large Hadron Collider

(LHC), but as recent discoveries suggest may be present in the physical manipulation

of ordinary everyday objects. We will also see that nature has been and may be

engaged in the process of using scalar longitudinal waves (SLW) in many ways as

yet unsuspected and undetected by humanity. Some of these modalities of scalar

wave generation we will investigate will include the following: chemical bond

breaking, particularly as a precursor to seismic events (illuminating the study and

development of earthquake early warning system), solar events (related to eclipses),

and sunspot activity and how it impacts the earth’s magnetosphere. Moreover, this

overview of the unique aspects of the electroscalar domain will suggest that many of

the currently unexplained anomalies such as over-unity power observed in various

energy devices, and exotic energy effects associated with low-energy nuclear reac-

tions (LENR), may ﬁnd some basis in fact.

In regards, to the latter “cold fusion or LENR fusion-type scenarios”, the

electroscalar wave might be the actual agent needed to reduce the nuclear Coulomb

barrier, thus providing the long-sought-out viable theoretical explanation of this

phenomenon. Longitudinal electrodynamic forces in exploding wires, etc. may

actually be due to the operation of electroscalar waves at the subatomic levels of

nature. For instance, the extraordinary energies produced by Ken Shoulder’s charge

clusters (i.e., particles of like-charge repel each other—that is one of the laws

describing the interaction between single subatomic particles) may also possibly

be due to electroscalar mechanisms. Moreover, these observations, spanning as they

do cross many cross-disciplines of science, beg the question as to the possible

universality of the SLW—that the concept of the longitudinal electroscalar wave,

not present in current electrodynamics, may represent a general, key, overarching

principle, leading to new paradigms in other science besides physics. This idea will

also be explored in the talk, showing the possible connection of scalar-longitudinal

(also known as, electroscalar) wave dynamics to biophysical systems. Admittedly,

we’re proposing quite an ambitious agenda in reaching for these goals, but I think

you will see that recent innovations will have proven equal to the task of supporting

this quest.

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions

As you know from classical physics point of view, typically there are three kinds of

waves and wave equations that we can talk about (i.e., soliton wave is an exceptional

case and should be addressed separately).

324 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

These three types are listed as:

1. Mechanical waves (i.e., wave on string)

2. Electromagnetic waves (i.e., E

!and B

!ﬁelds from Maxwell’s equation to deduce

the wave equations, where these waves carry energy from one place to another)

3. Quantum mechanical waves (i.e., using Schrödinger equations to study particle

movement)

The second one is the subject of our interest, in terms of two types of waves

involved in electromagnetic wave and they are:

(a) Transverse waves

(b) Longitudinal pressure waves (LPWs), also known as scalar longitudinal waves

(SLWs)

From the above two waves, the scalar longitudinal wave (SLW) is the matter of

interest in directed energy weapons (DEW) [2]; this is why, and ﬁrst, we brieﬂy

describe the SLWs and their advantages for DEW purpose as well as communication

within a nonhomogeneous media such as seawater with different electrical primitiv-

ity εand magnetic permeability μat different layers of ocean depth. See Chap. 4of

this book.

A wave is deﬁned as a disturbance which travels through a particular medium.

The medium is a material through which a wave travels from one to another location.

Take the example of a slinky wave which can be stretched from one end to other end

and then becomes in static condition. This static condition is called its neutral

condition or equilibrium state.

In the slinky coil, the particles are moved up and down and then come into their

equilibrium state. This generates disturbance in coil which is moved from one to

another end. This is the movement of slinky pulse. This is a single disturbance in

medium from one to another location. If it is done continuously and in a

periodical manner, then it is called a wave. These are also called energy transport

medium. They are found in different shapes, and show different behaviors and

characteristic properties. On this basis, these are classiﬁed mainly in two types that

are longitudinal, transverse, and surface waves. Here we are discussing the longitu-

dinal waves, properties, and its examples. The movement of wave is parallel to the

medium of particles in these waves.

6.2.1 Transverse Waves

For transverse waves the displacement of the medium is perpendicular to the

direction of propagation of the wave. A ripple on a pond and a wave on a string

are easily visualized transverse waves. See Fig. 6.1.

Transverse waves cannot propagate in a gas or a liquid because there is no

mechanism for driving motion perpendicular to the propagation of the wave. In

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 325

summary, it is a wave in which the oscillation is perpendicular to the direction of

wave propagation. Electromagnetic waves [and secondary-waves (or S-waves or

shear waves sometimes called an elastic S-waves) in general] are transverse waves.

6.2.2 Longitudinal Waves

In longitudinal waves the displacement of the medium is parallel to the propagation

of the wave. A wave which is “slinky”is a good visualization. Sound waves in air are

longitudinal waves. See Fig. 6.2.

In summary, it is a wave in which the oscillation is opposite to the direction of

wave propagation. Sound waves [and primary-waves or (P-waves) in general] are

longitudinal waves. On the other hand, a wave motion in which the particles of the

medium oscillate about their mean positions in the direction of propagation of the

wave is called longitudinal wave.

However, if we use our wand to expand the subject of longitudinal wave (LW),

before we go deeper into the subject of scalar longitudinal wave (SLW), for

longitudinal wave the vibration of the particles of the medium is in the direction of

wave propagation. A longitudinal wave proceeds in the form of compression and

rarefaction which is the stretch and compression in the same direction as the wave

moves. For a longitudinal wave at places of compression the pressure and density

tend to be maximum, while at places where rarefaction takes place the pressure and

density are minimum. In gases only, longitudinal wave can propagate. Longitudinal

waves are known as compression waves.

Fig. 6.1 Depiction of a transverse wave

Fig. 6.2 Depiction of a longitudinal wave

326 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

A longitudinal wave travels through a medium in the form of compressions or

condensations Cand rarefaction R. A compression is a region of the medium in

which particles are compressed, i.e., particles come closer, i.e., distance between the

particles becomes less than the normal distance between them. Thus, there is

temporary decrease in volume and as a consequence increase in density of the

medium in the region of compression. A rarefaction is a region of the medium in

which particles are rareﬁed, i.e., particles get farther apart than what they normally

are. Thus, there is temporary increase in volume and a consequent decrease in

density of the medium in the region of rarefaction.

The distance between the centers of two consecutive rarefaction and two consec-

utive compressions is called wavelength. Examples of longitudinal waves are sound

waves, tsunami waves, earthquake P-waves, ultrasounds, vibrations in gas, and

oscillations in spring, internal water waves, and waves in slink.

1. Longitudinal Waves

The various examples of sound wave are:

(a) Sound wave

(b) Earthquake P-wave

(c) Tsunami wave

(d) Waves in a slink

(e) Glass vibrations

(f) Internal water waves

(g) Ultrasound

(h) Spring oscillations

2. Sound Waves

Now the question is that are sound waves longitudinal? The answer is yes,

sound wave travels as longitudinal wave in nature. Sound wave behaves as a

transverse wave in solids. Through gases, plasma, and liquid the sound travels as

longitudinal wave. Through solids it can be transmitted as transverse as well as

longitudinal wave.

Material medium is mandatory for the propagation of the sound waves. Sound

waves are mostly longitudinal in common nature. Speed of sound in air at

N.T.P. (normal standard and pressure) is 332 m/s. Vibrations of air column

above the surface of water in the tube of a resonance apparatus are longitudinal.

Vibrations of air column in organ pipes are longitudinal. Sound is audible only

between 20 Hz and 20 KHz. Sound waves cannot be polarized.

Vibrations of air column in organ pipes are longitudinal. Vibrations of air

columns above the surface of water in the tube of a resonance apparatus are

longitudinal.

(a) Propagation of sound waves in air

Sound waves are classiﬁed as longitudinal waves. Let us now see how sound

waves propagate. Take a tuning fork, vibrate it, and concentrate on the motion

of one of its prongs, say prong A. The normal position of the tuning fork and

the initial condition of air particles are shown in Fig. 6.3a. As the prong

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 327

A moves towards right, it compresses air particles near it, forming a com-

pression as shown in Fig. 6.3b. Due to vibrating air layers, this compression

moves forward as a disturbance.

As the prong A moves back to its original position, the pressure on its right

decreases, thereby forming a rarefaction. This rarefaction moves forward like

compression as a disturbance. As the tuning fork goes on vibrating, waves

consisting of alternate compressions and rarefactions spread in air as shown

in Fig. 6.3c, d. The direction of motion of the sound waves is same as that of

air particles; hence they are classiﬁed as longitudinal waves. The longitudinal

waves travel in the form of compressions and rarefactions.

The main parts of the sound wave are as follows:

The main parts of sound wave are listed below with their descriptions:

•Amplitude: The maximum displacement of a vibrating particle of the

medium from the mean position. A shows amplitude in y¼Asin(wt).

The maximum height of the wave is called its amplitude. If the sound is

more then the amplitude is more.

•Frequency: Number of vibrations made per second by the particles and is

denoted by fwhich is given as f¼1/Tand its unit: Hz. We can also get the

expression for angular frequency.

BA

BA

BA

BA

Compression

Compression

Compression Compression

Rarefaction

Rarefaction

Rarefaction

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 6.3 Tuning fork

328 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

•Pitch: It is that characteristic of sound with the help of which we can

distinguish between a SHRILL note and a note that is grave. When a sound

is shriller it is said to be of higher pitch and is found to be of greater

frequency, as ω¼2πf. On the other hand, a grave sound is said to be of low

pitch and is of low frequency. Hence pitch of a sound depends upon its

frequency. It should be made clear that pitch is not the frequency but

changes with frequency.

•Wavelength: The distance between two consecutive particles in the same

phase or the distance traveled by the wave in one periodic time and denoted

by lambda.

•Sound wave: It is a longitudinal wave with regions of compression

and rarefactions. The increase of pressure above its normal value may be

written as

Xp¼Xp0sin ωtc

v

ð6:1Þ

where

∑p¼increase in pressure at xposition at time t

∑p

0

¼maximum increase in pressure

ω¼2πfwhere fis frequency

If ∑pand ∑p

0

are replaced by Pand P

0

, then Eq. (6.1) has the following

form as

P¼P0sin ωtc

v

ð6:2Þ

(b) Sound intensity

Loudness of sound is related to the intensity of sound. The sound’s intensity

at any point may be deﬁned as the amount of sound energy passing per unit

time per unit area around that point in a perpendicular direction. It is a

physical quantity. It is measured in Wm

2

in S.I.

The sound wave falling on the eardrum of the observer produces the

sensation of hearing. The sound’s sensation which enables us to differentiate

between a loud and a faint sound is called loudness and we can designate by

the symbol of L. It depends on the intensity of the sound Iand the sensitivity

of the ear of the observer at that place. The lowest intensity of sound that can

be perceived by the human ear is called threshold of hearing and it is

denoted by I

0

. The mathematical relation between intensity and loudness is

L¼log I

I0

ð6:3Þ

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 329

The intensity of sound depends on

•Amplitude of vibrations of the source

•Surface area of the vibrating source

•Distance of the source from the observer

•Density of the medium in which sound travels from the source

•Presence of other surrounding bodies

•Motion of the medium

(c) Sound reﬂection

When a sound wave gets reﬂected from a rigid boundary, the particles at the

boundary are unable to vibrate. Hence the generation of reﬂected wave takes

place which interferes with the oncoming wave to produce zero displacement

at the rigid boundary. At the points where there is zero displacement, the

variation in pressure is maximum. This shows that the phase of wave has been

reversed but the nature of sound wave does not change, i.e., on reﬂection the

compression is reﬂected back as compression and rarefaction as rarefaction.

Let the incident wave be represented by the given equation:

Y¼asin ωtkxðÞ ð6:4Þ

Then Eq. (6.4)ofreﬂected wave takes the form

Y¼asin ωtþkx þπðÞ¼asin ωtþkxðÞ ð6:5Þ

Here in both Eqs. (6.4) and (6.5) the symbol of ais basically designation of

the amplitude of reﬂected wave.

A sound wave is also reﬂected if it encounters a rarer medium or free

boundary or low-pressure region. A common example is traveling of a sound

wave in a narrow open tube. On reaching an open end, the wave gets

reﬂected. So, the force exerted on the particles there due to outside air is

quite small and hence the particles vibrate with increasing amplitude. Due to

this the pressure there tends to remain at the average value. This means that

there is no alteration in the phase of the wave, but the ultimate nature of the

wave has been altered; that is, on the reﬂection of the wave the compression is

reﬂected as rarefaction and vice versa.

The amplitude of the reﬂected wave would be a

0

this time and Eq. (6.4)

becomes

y¼a0sin ωtþkxðÞ ð6:6Þ

3. Wave Interface

When listening to a single sine wave, amplitude is directly related to loudness and

frequency is directly related to pitch. When there are two or more simultaneously

sounding sine waves the wave interference takes place.

330 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

There are basically two types of wave interface:

(a) Constructive interference

(b) Destructive interference

4. Decibel

A smaller and practical unit of loudness is decibel (dB) and is deﬁned as follows:

1 Decibel ¼1

10 bel ð6:7Þ

In decibels, the loudness of a sound of intensity Iis given by

L¼10 log I

I0

ð6:8Þ

5. Timber

Timber can be called as the property which distinguishes two sounds and makes

them different from each other even when they have the same frequency. For

example, when we play violin and guitar on the same note and same loudness the

sound is still different. It is also denoted as tone color.

6. S-Waves

An S-wave is a wave in an elastic medium in which the restoring force is provided

by shear.S-waves are divergence-less:

—u

!¼0ð6:9Þ

where u

!is the displacement of the wave, and comes in two polarizations:

(a) SV (vertical)

(b) SH (horizontal)

The speed of an S-wave is given by

υs¼ﬃﬃﬃ

μ

ρ

rð6:10Þ

where μis the shear modulus and ρis the density.

7. P-Waves

Primary-waves are also called P-waves. These are compressional waves. They are

longitudinal in nature. These are a type of pressure waves. The speed of P-waves

is greater than other waves. These are called the primary waves as they are the

ﬁrst to arrive during the earthquake. This is because of large velocity. The

propagation of these waves knows no bounds and hence can travel through any

type of material, including ﬂuids.

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 331

P-waves, that is also called pressure waves, are longitudinal waves; that is, the

oscillation occurs in the same direction (and opposite) as the direction of wave

propagation. The restoring force for P-waves is provided by the medium’s bulk

modulus. In an elastic medium with rigidity or shear modules being zero (μ¼0),

a harmonic plane wave has the form

Sz;tðÞ¼S0cos kz ωtþϕðÞ ð6:11Þ

where S

0

is the amplitude of displacement, kis the wave number, zis the

distance along the axis of propagation, ωis the angular frequency, tis the time,

and ϕis a phase offset. From the deﬁnition of bulk modulus (K), we can write

K¼VdP

dVð6:12Þ

where Vis the volume and dP/dVis the derivative of pressure with respect to

volume.

The bulk modulus gives the change in volume of a solid substance as the

pressure on it is changed; then we can write

KVdP

dV

ρ∂P

∂ρ

ð6:13Þ

Consider a wave front with surface area A, and then the change in pressure of

the wave is given by the following relationship as

dP¼KdV

V¼KASzþΔzðÞSzðÞ½

AΔz

¼KSzþΔzðÞSzðÞ

Δz¼K∂S

∂z

ð6:14Þ

where ρis the density. The bulk modulus has units of pressure.

6.2.3 Pressure Waves and More Details

As we did mention above the pressure waves present the behavior and concept of

longitudinal waves; thus many of the important concepts and techniques used to

analyze transverse waves on a string as part of mechanical wave components can

also be applied to longitudinal pressure waves.

332 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

You can see an illustration of how a pressure wave works in Fig. 6.4. As the

mechanical wave source moves through the medium, it pushes on a nearby segment

of the material, and that segment moves away from the source and is compressed

(that is, the same amount of mass is squeezed into a smaller volume, so the density of

the segment increases). That segment of increased density exerts pressure on adja-

cent segments, and in this way a pulse (if the source gives a single push) or a

harmonic wave (if the source oscillates back and forth) is generated by the source

and propagates through the material.

The “disturbance”of such waves involves three things: the longitudinal displace-

ment of material, changes in the density of the material, and variation of the pressure

within the material. So, pressure waves could also be called “density waves”or even

“longitudinal displacement waves,”and when you see graphs of the wave distur-

bance in physics and engineering textbooks, you should make sure that you under-

stand which of these quantities is being plotted as the “displacement”of the wave.

As you can see in Fig. 6.4,we’re still considering one-dimensional wave motion

(that is, the wave propagates only along the x-axis). But pressure waves exist in a

three-dimensional medium, so instead of considering the linear mass density μ

(as we did for the string in the previous section), in this case it’s the volumetric

mass density ρthat will provide the inertial characteristic of the medium. But just as

we restricted the string motion to small angles and considered only the transverse

component of the displacement, in this case we’ll assume that the pressure and

density variations are small relative to the equilibrium values and consider only

longitudinal displacement (so the material is compressed or rareﬁed only by changes

in the segment length in the x-direction).

The most straightforward route to ﬁnding the wave equation for this type of wave

is very similar to the approach used for transverse waves on a string, which means

you can use Newton’s second law to relate the acceleration of a segment of the

material to the sum of the forces acting on that segment. To do that, start by deﬁning

the pressure (P) at any location in terms of the equilibrium pressure (ρ

0

) and the

incremental change in pressure produced by the wave (dP):

Fig. 6.4 Displacement and compression of a segment of materials

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 333

P¼P0þdPð6:15Þ

Likewise, the density (ρ) at any location can be written in terms of the equilibrium

density (ρ

0

) and the incremental change in density produced by the wave (aρ):

ρ¼ρ0þdρð6:16Þ

Before relating these quantities to the acceleration of material in the medium

using Newton’s second law, it is worthwhile to familiarize yourself with the termi-

nology and equations of volume compressibility. As you might imagine, when

external pressure is applied to a segment of material, how much the volume (and

thus the density) of that material changes depends on the nature of the material. To

compress a volume of air by 1% requires a pressure increase of about 1000 Pa

(pascals, or N/m

2

) but to compress a volume of steel by 1% requires a pressure

increase of more than 1 billion Pa. The compressibility of a substance is the inverse

of its “bulk modulus”(usually written as Kor B, with units of pascals), which relates

an incremental change in pressure (dP) to the fractional change in density (dρ) of the

material:

KdP

dρ=ρ0

ð6:17Þ

or

dP¼Kdρ

ρ0

ð6:18Þ

With this relationship in hand, you are ready to consider Newton’s second law for

the segment of material being displaced and compressed (or rareﬁed) by the wave.

To do that, consider the pressure from the surrounding material acting on the left and

on the right sides of the segment, as shown in Fig. 6.5.

Fig. 6.5 Pressure on a segment of material

334 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

Notice that the pressure (P

1

) on the left end of the segment is pushing in the

positive x-direction and the pressure on the left end of the segment is pushing in the

negative x-direction. Setting the sum of the x-direction forces equal to the acceler-

ation in the x-direction gives

XFx¼P1AP2A¼maxð6:19Þ

where mis the mass of the segment. If the cross-sectional area of the segment is

Aand the length of the segment is dx, the volume of the segment is Adx, and the mass

of the segment is this volume times the equilibrium density of the material:

m¼ρ0Adxð6:20Þ

Notice also that the pressure on the right end of the segment is smaller than the

pressure on the left end, since the source is pushing on the left end, which means that

the acceleration at this instant will be towards the right. Using the symbol ψto

represent the displacement of the material due to the wave, the acceleration in the x-

direction can be written as

ax¼∂2ψ

∂t2ð6:21Þ

Substituting these expressions for mand a

x

into Newton’s second law Eq. (6.19)

gives

XFx¼P1AP2A¼ρ0Adx∂2ψ

∂t2ð6:22Þ

Writing the pressure P

1

at the left end as P

0

+dP

1

and the pressure P

2

at the right

end as P

0

+dP

2

means that

P1AP2A¼P0þdP1

ðÞAP0þdP2

ðÞA

¼dP1dP2

ðÞAð6:23Þ

But the change in dP(that is, the change in the overpressure (or under-pressure)

produced by the wave) over the distance dxcan be written as

Change in overpressure ¼dP2dP1¼∂dPðÞ

∂xdxð6:24Þ

which means

∂dPðÞ

∂xdxA ¼ρ0Adx∂2ψ

∂t2ð6:25Þ

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 335

or

ρ0

∂2ψ

∂t2¼∂dPðÞ

∂xð6:26Þ

But dP¼dρK/ρ

0

,so

ρ0

∂2ψ

∂t2¼

∂K

ρ0

dρ

hi

∂xð6:27Þ

The next step is to relate the change in density (dρ) to the displacements of the left

and right ends of the segment (ψ

1

and ψ

2

). To do that, note that the mass of the

segment is the same before and after the segment is compressed. That mass is the

segment’s density times its volume (m¼ρV) and the volume of the segment can be

seen in Fig. 6.4 to be V

1

¼Adxbefore compression and V

2

¼A(dx+dψ) after

compression. Thus

ρ0V1¼ρ0þdρðÞV2

ρ0AdxðÞ¼ρ0þdρðÞAdxþdψðÞ ð6:28Þ

The change in displacement (dψ) over distance dxcan be written as

dψ¼∂ψ

∂xdxð6:29Þ

so

ρ0AdxðÞ¼ρ0þdρðÞAdxþ∂ψ

∂xdx

ρ0¼ρ0þdρðÞ1þ∂ψ

∂x

¼ρ0þdρþρ0

∂ψ

∂x

þdρ∂ψ

∂x

ð6:30Þ

Since we are restricting our consideration to the cases, in which the density

change (dρ) produced by the wave is small relative to the equilibrium density (ρ

0

),

the term dρ(∂ψ/∂x) must be small compared with the term ρ

0

(∂ψ/∂x). Thus to a

reasonable approximation we can write

dρ¼ρ0

∂ψ

∂xð6:31Þ

336 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

which we can insert into Eq. (6.27), giving the following:

ρ0

∂2ψ

∂t2

!

¼

∂K

ρ0

ρ0

∂ψ

∂x

∂x

¼

∂K∂ψ

∂x

∂x

ð6:32Þ

Rearranging makes this into an equation with a familiar form of wave equation in

one-dimensional:

ρ0

∂2ψ

∂t2¼K∂2ψ

∂x2ð6:33Þ

or

∂2ψ

∂x2¼ρ0

K

∂2ψ

∂t2ð6:34Þ

As in the case of transverse waves on a string, you can determine the phase speed

of a pressure wave by comparing the multiplicative term in the classical wave

equation of Eq. (6.35) below, with that in Eq. (6.34):

∂2ψ

∂x2¼1

υ2

∂2ψ

∂t2ð6:35Þ

Setting these factors equal to one another gives the result of

1

υ2¼ρ0

Kð6:36Þ

or

υ¼ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

K

ρ0

sð6:37Þ

As expected, the phase speed of the pressure wave depends both on the elastic (K)

and on the inertial (ρ

0

) properties of the medium. Speciﬁcally, the higher the bulk

modulus of the material (that is, the stiffer the material), the faster the components of

the wave will propagate (since Kis in the numerator), and the higher the density of

the medium, the slower those components will move (since ρ

0

is in the

denominator).

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 337

6.2.4 What Are Scalar Longitudinal Waves

Scalar longitudinal waves (SLW) are, conceived as longitudinal waves, as are sound

waves. Unlike the transversal waves of electromagnetism, which move up and down

perpendicularly to the direction of propagation, longitudinal waves vibrate in line

with the direction of propagation. Transversal waves can be observed in water

ripples: the ripples move up and down as the overall waves move outward, such

that there are two actions, one moving up and down, and the other propagating in a

speciﬁc direction outward.

Technically speaking, scalar waves have magnitude but no direction, since they

are imagined to be the result of two electromagnetic waves that are 180out of phase

with one another, which leads to both signals being canceled out. This results in a

kind of “pressure wave.”

Mathematical physicist James Clerk Maxwell, in his original mathematical equa-

tions concerning electromagnetism, established the theoretical existence of scalar

waves. After his death, however, later physicists assumed that these equations were

meaningless, since scalar waves had not been empirically observed and they were

not repeatedly veriﬁed among the scientiﬁc community at large.

Vibrational or subtle energetic research, however, has helped advance our under-

standing of scalar waves. One important discovery states that there are many

different types of scalar waves, not just those of the electromagnetic variety. For

example, there are vital scalar waves (corresponding with the vital or “Qi”body),

emotional scalar waves, mental scalar waves, causal scalar waves, and so forth. In

essence, as far as we are aware, all “subtle”energies are made up of various types of

scalar waves.

Qi Body Qi can be interpreted as the “life energy”or “life force,”which ﬂows

within us. Sometimes, it is known as the “vital energy”of the body. In

traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, qi is the vital substance consti-

tuting the human body. It also refers to the physiological functions of organs

and meridians.

Some general properties of scalar waves (of the beneﬁcial kind) include the

following:

•Travel faster than the speed of light

•Seem to transcend space and time

•Cause the molecular structure of water to become coherently reordered

•Positively increase immune function in mammals

•Are involved in the formation process in nature

See more details of SLW applications in the next section below.

338 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

6.2.5 Scalar Longitudinal Wave Applications

The possibility of developing a means of establishing a communication through a

nonhomogeneous means is looking very promising via utilization of more complete

electrodynamic (MCE) theory [3]. This theory reveals the scalar longitudinal wave

(SLW), which is created by a gradient-driven current, has no magnetic ﬁeld, and

thus is not constrained by the skin effect. The SLW is slightly attenuated by non-

linearities in the electrical conductivity as a function of electrical ﬁeld magnitude.

The SLW does not interfere with classical transverse electromagnetic (TEM) trans-

mission or vice versa. By contrast, TEM waves are severely attenuated in conductive

media due to magnetically driven eddy currents that arise from the skin effect.

Consequently, only very-low- and ultralow-frequency TEM waves can be success-

fully used for long-distance underwater communications. The SLW also has imme-

diate implications for the efﬁcient redesign and optimization of existing TEM-based

electronic technologies, because both TEM and SLW are created simultaneously

with present electronic technologies.

The goal of application of SLW-based 150 kb/s digital data propagation over

distances of many kilometers to address strategic, tactical, surveillance, and undersea

warfare missions of the organization such as Navy. With this goal in mind, the

optimization of SLW underwater-antenna design will be guided by development of a

ﬁrst-principle SLW simulator from the MCE theory, since all existing simulators

model only circulating current-based TEM waves. A proof-of-principle demonstra-

tion of the prototype antenna through freshwater will be conducted in-house,

followed by controlled tests at typical government underwater test range(s). These

tests would include characterization of wave attenuation versus frequency, modula-

tion bandwidth, and beamwidth control. The deliverable will be an initial prototype

for SLW communications over tactical distances or more, followed by a ﬁeld-

deployable prototype, as dictated by Navy performance needs.

The unique properties of the scalar longitudinal wave lead to more sophisticated

application areas, with implications for ocean surveillance systems, underwater

imaging, energy production, power transmission, transportation, guidance, and

national security. This disruptive technology has the potential to transform commu-

nications, as well as electrodynamics applications in general.

As far as low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) is concerned, it is certain that most

of us have heard of scalar electrodynamics. However, we probably have many

questions about this electrodynamic phenomenon. Since it has been up to now

mostly shrouded in mystery, we may even wonder whether it exists at all. And if

it exists, do we need exotic conditions to produce and use it, or will it require a

drastic transformation in our current understanding of classical electrodynamics, or

how much of an impact will it have on future modes of power generation and

conversion, whether has applications in weaponry, medical, or Lowe energy fusion

driven as source of energy (D + D reaction as it was mentioned above)?

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 339

There is also a possibility of applying such scalar electrodynamics wave (SEW) in

applications such as developing and demonstrating of an all-electronic (AE) engine

that replaces electromechanical (EM) engines for vehicle propulsion.

As far as other applications of scalar longitudinal wave are concerned few can be

listed here as well, and they are as follows:

6.2.5.1 Medical Application of Scalar Longitudinal Waves

Not all scalar waves, or subtle energies, are beneﬁcial to living systems. Electro-

magnetism of the 60 Hz AC variety, for example, emanates a secondary longitudi-

nal/scalar wave that is typically detrimental to living systems.

However, to utilize the SLW as an application in bioﬁeld technology effectively,

we need to cancel the detrimental aspect of wave scale and transmit it into a

beneﬁcial wave; therefore this innovative approach qualiﬁes the medical application

of SLW, where we can approach that biomedical folks to suggest such invention and

ask for funding there as well. Last three bullet points are of vital interest in bioﬁeld

approach application of SLW.

6.2.5.2 Bona Fide Application of SLW for Low-Temperature Fusion

Energy

In case of low-temperature fusion interaction of D + D, by lowering nuclear potential

barrier for the purpose of “cold fusion”for lack of better word, we know that in

low-energy heavy-ion fusion, the term “Coulomb barrier”commonly refers to the

barrier formed by the repulsive “Coulomb”and the attractive “nuclear”(nucleus-

nucleus) interactions in a central (S-wave) collision. This barrier is frequently called

fusion barrier (for light and medium mass heavy-ion systems) or capture barrier

(heavy systems). In general, there is a centrifugal component to such a barrier

(noncentral collisions). Experimenters may use the term “Coulomb barrier”to the

nominal value of the “Coulomb barrier distribution”when either coupled-channel

effects operate or (at least) a collision partner is deformed as the barrier features

depend on orientation. To my knowledge, the terminology “transfer barrier”has not

been used much. In my view, it could be applied to the transfer of charged particles/

clusters.

There is a vast literature on the methods for calculating Coulomb barriers. For

instance, the double-folding method is broadly used in the low-energy nuclear

physics community. Based on this technique, there is a potential called “Sao-Paulo

potential”because it has been developed by theorists in Sao Paulo city in Brazil.

The Coulomb barrier is calculated theoretically by adding the nuclear and Cou-

lomb contributions of the interaction potential. For fusion, there are other contribu-

tions coming from the different degrees of freedom such as the angular momentum

(centrifugal potential), and the vibrational and rotational states in both interacting

nuclei in addition to the transfer contribution.

340 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

This is an area in which we may or could approach DOE or NRC with some RFP,

in particular Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

6.2.5.3 Weapon Application of SLW as Directed Energy Weapons

The scalar beam weapons were originally invented in 1904 by Nicola Tesla, an

American immigrant from Yugoslavia (1856 or 1857–1943). Since he died in 1943,

many nations have secretly developed his beam weapons, which now further reﬁned

are so powerful that just by satellite one can make a nuclear-like destruction;

earthquake; hurricane; tidal wave; and instant freezing—killing every living thing

instantly over many miles. It can also cause intense heat like a burning ﬁreball over a

wide area; induce hypnotic mind control over a whole population; or even read

anyone on the planet’s mind by remote. Due to the nature of behaving as a pressure

wave and carrying tremendous energy, SLW can remove something right out of its

place in time and space faster than the speed of light, without any detectable warning

by crossing two or more beams with each other. Moreover, any target can be aimed

at even right through to the opposite side of the earth. If either of the major scalar

weapon armed countries, e.g., the United States or Russia, were to ﬁre a nuclear

missile to attack each other this may possibly not even reach the target, because the

missile could be destroyed with scalar technology before it even left its place or

origin. The knowledge via radio waves that it was about to be ﬁred could be

eavesdropped and the target could be destroyed in the bunker, ﬁred at from space

by satellite.

Above 60 Hz Ac frequency, this wave can be very detrimental in nature. A scalar

beam can be sent from a transmitter to the target, coupled with another sent from

another transmitter, and as they cross an explosion can be made. This interference

grid method could enable scalar beams to explode the missile before launch, as well

as en route with knowing the right coordinates. If the target does manage to launch,

what are known as Tesla globes or Tesla hemispheric shields can be sent to envelop a

missile or aircraft. These are made of luminous plasma, which emanates physically

from crossed scalar beams and can be created in any size, even over 100 miles

across. Initially detected and tracked as it moves on the scalar interference grid, a

continuous electromagnetic pulse (EMP) Tesla plasma globe could kill the electron-

ics of the target. More intensely hot Tesla “ﬁreball”globes could vaporize the

missile. Tesla globes could also activate a missile’s nuclear warhead en route by

creating a violent low-order nuclear explosion. Various parts of the ﬂying debris can

be subjected to smaller and more intense Tesla globes where the energy density to

destroy is more powerful than the larger globe ﬁrst encountered. This can be done in

pulse mode with any remaining debris given maximum continuous heating to

vaporize metals and materials. If anything still rains down on Russia or the United

States, either could have already made a Tesla shield over the targeted area to block it

from entering the airspace.

Other useful aspect of SLW in military application: There is a community in the

United States that believes the scalar waves are realizable in its nature of

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 341

mathematical approach. In recent conference sponsored by the Institute of Electrical

and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), these were openly discussed and a proceeding on

the conference exists. The conference was dedicated to Nicola Tesla and his work,

and the papers presented claimed that some of Tesla’s work used scalar wave

concepts. Thus, there is an implied “Tesla connection”in all of this. As it was stated

above, these are unconventional waves that are not necessarily a contradiction to

Maxwell’s equations as some have suggested but might represent an extension to

Maxwell’s understanding at the time. If realizable, the scalar longitudinal waves

(SLWs) could represent a new form of wave propagation that could penetrate

seawater (knowing the permeability, permittivity of salt water, and consequently

skin depth), resulting in a new method of submarine communications and possibly a

new form of technology for anti-submarine warfare (ASW). This technology also

helps folks in Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Community such as Navy Seals to be

able to communicate with each other even in a murky water condition.

Here are some mathematical notations and physics involved with this aspect of

scalar longitudinal waves:

1. The scalar wave, as it is understood, is not an electromagnetic (EM) wave. An

electromagnetic wave has both electric E

!ﬁelds and magnetic B

!ﬁelds and

power ﬂow in EM waves is by means of the Poynting vector, as Eq. (6.1) written

below:

S

!¼E

!B

!W=m2ð6:38Þ

The energy per second crossing a unit area whose normal is pointed in

direction of S

!

is the energy in the electromagnetic wave.

A scalar wave has no time varying B

!ﬁeld. In some cases, it also has no E

!ﬁeld.

Thus, it has no energy propagated in the EM wave form. It must be realized

however that any vector could be added that may be integrated to zero over a

closed surface and Poynting theorem still applies. Thus, there is some ambiguity

in even stating the relationship that is given by Eq. (6.38), and that is the total EM

energy ﬂow.

2. The scalar wave could be accompanied by a vector potential A

!

, and yet E

!and B

!

remain zero in the far ﬁeld.

From EM theory, we can write as follows:

E

!¼—

!

ϕ1

c

∂A

!

∂t

B

!¼—

!

A

!

8

>

<

>

:

ð6:39Þ

In this case ϕis the scalar (electric) potential and A

!

is the (magnetic) vector

potential. The Maxwell’s equations then predict the following mathematical

relation as

342 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

—2ϕ1

c2

∂2ϕ

∂t2¼0 Scalar Potential WavesðÞð6:40Þ

—2A

!1

c2

∂2A

!

∂t2¼0 Vector Potential WavesðÞð6:41Þ

A solution appears to exist for the special case of E

!¼0, B

!¼0, and —A

!¼0,

for a new wave satisfying the following relations:

A

!¼∇

!

S

ϕ¼1

c

∂S

∂t

8

>

<

>

:

ð6:42Þ

sthen stratiﬁes the following relationship:

—2S1

c2

∂2S

∂t2ð6:43Þ

Note that quantity cis a representation of speed of light.

Mathematically sis a “potential”with a wave equation, one that suggests

propagation of this wave even through E

!¼B

!¼0 and the Poynting theorem

indicates no electromagnetic (EM) power ﬂow.

3. From bolt point paragraph 2 above, there is the suggestion of a solution to

Maxwell’s equations involving a scalar wave with potential sthat can propagate

without Poynting vector EM power ﬂow. However, the question arises as to

where the energy is drawn from to sustain such a ﬂow of energy. Some suggesting

a vector that integrates to zero over a closed surface might be added in the theory,

as suggested in paragraph or bolt point 1 above. Another is the possibility of

drawing energy from the vacuum, assuming that net energy could be drawn

from “free space.”Quantum electrodynamics allows random energy in free

space but conventional electromagnetic (EM) theory has not allowed this to

date. Random energy in free space that is built of force ﬁelds that sum to zero

is a possible approach. If so, these might be a source of energy to drive the

swaves drawn from “free space.”A number of engineers/scientists in the

community suggested as stated in early statement within this write-up that, if

realizable, the scalar wave could represent a new form of wave propagation that

could penetrate seawater or be used as a new approach for directed energy

weapons (DEWs).

This author suggests considering another scenario where we may need to look

at equations of more complete electromagnetic theory (MCE) and new predictions

of producing energy that way; thus we generate scalar longitudinal wave (SLW),

where the Lagrangian density equation for MCE can be deﬁned as

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 343

L¼εc2

4FμvFμvþJμAμγεc2

2∂μAμ

2εc2k2

2AμAμ

ð6:44Þ

where Lagrangian density equation is written in terms of the potentials A

!

and ϕas

follows:

The proof of equation was given in Chap. 5of this book. See Eq. (5.126).

LEM ¼εc2

2

1

c2—ϕ

!þ∂A

!

∂t

0

@1

A

2

—A

!2

2

43

5

ρϕ

!þJ

!A

!εc2

2

1

c2

∂ϕ

!

∂þ—A

!

|ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ}

C

0

B

B

@1

C

C

A

2ð6:45Þ

This is the area where there are a lot of speculations among scientists, around the

community of electromagnetic and utilization of scalar wave as a weapon applica-

tion, and you ﬁnd a lot of good as well as nonsense approaches in the Internet, by

different folks.

The present approach uses several approaches:

1. One is acoustic signals that travel slowly (1500 m/s in seawater).

2. A second is blue-green laser light that has a typical range of 270 m, and is readily

scattered by seawater particulates.

3. A third is high-frequency radio waves that are limited to a range of 7–10 m in

seawater at high frequencies.

4. A fourth is extremely low-frequency radio signals that are of long range (world-

wide) but transmit only a few characters per second for one-way, bell-ring calls to

individual submarines.

The new feature of this proposed work is the use of a novel electrodynamic

wave that has no magnetic ﬁeld, and thus is not so severely constrained by the high

conductivity of seawater, as regular radio waves are. We have demonstrated the low

loss property of this novel (scalar longitudinal) wave experimentally by sending a

video signal through two millimeters of solid copper at 8 GHz.

If one has a background in physics or electrical engineering you know that

unquestionably our knowledge of the properties and dynamics of electromagnetic

systems is believed to be the most solid and ﬁrmly established in all classical

physics. By its extension, the application of quantum electrodynamics, describing

accurately the interaction of light and matter at the subatomic realms, has resulted in

the most successful theoretical scientiﬁc theory to date, agreeing with corresponding

experimental ﬁndings to astounding levels of precision. Accordingly, these devel-

opments have led to the belief among physicists that the theory of classical electro-

dynamics is complete and that it is essentially a closed subject.

344 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

However, at least as far back to the era of Nikola Tesla, there have been continual

rumblings of discontent stemming from occasional physical evidence from both

laboratory experimental protocols and knowledge obtained from observation of

natural phenomena such as the dynamics of atmospheric electricity to suggest that

in extreme situations involving the production of high energies at speciﬁc frequen-

cies, there might be some cracks exposed in the supposed impenetrable monolithic

fortress of classical/quantum electrodynamics, implying possible key missing theo-

retical and physical elements. Unfortunately, some of these experimental phenom-

ena have been difﬁcult to replicate and produce on-demand. Moreover, some have

been shown to apparently violate some of the established principles underlying

classical thermodynamics. On top of that, many of those courageous individuals

promoting the study of this phenomenon have couched their understanding of the

limited reliable experimental evidence available from these sources, in language

unfamiliar to the legion of mainstream technical specialists in electrodynamics,

preventing clear communication of these ideas. Also, the various sources that have

sought to convey this information have at times delivered contradictory statements.

It is therefore no wonder that for many decades, such exotic claims have been

disregarded, ignored, and summarily discounted by mainstream physics. However,

due to important developments over the past 2 years, there has been a welcome

resurgence of research in this area, bringing back renewed interest towards the

certiﬁcation of the existence of these formerly rejected anomalous energy phenom-

ena. Consequently, this renaissance of the serious enterprise in searching for speciﬁc

weaknesses that currently plague a fuller understanding of electrodynamics has

propelled the proponents of this research to more systematically outline in a clearer

fashion the possible properties of these dynamics, how inclusion could change our

current understanding of electricity and magnetic, as well as implications for poten-

tial, vast, practical ramiﬁcations to the disciplines of physics, engineering, and

energy generation.

It is the purpose of this book and particularly this chapter to report on these

unique, various recent inventions and their possible modes of operation, but also to

convince those listening of their value for hopefully directing a future program

geared towards the rigorous clariﬁcation and certiﬁcation, of the speciﬁc role the

electroscalar domain might play in shaping a future, consistent, classical, electrody-

namics—also by extension to perhaps shed light on current thorny conceptual and

mathematical inconsistencies that do exist, in the present interpretation of relativistic

quantum mechanics. In this regard, it is anticipated that by incorporating this more

expansive electrodynamic model, the source of the extant problems with gauge

invariance in quantum electrodynamics and the subsequent unavoidable divergences

in energy/charge might be identiﬁed and ameliorated.

Not only does the electroscalar domain have the potential to address such lofty

theoretical questions surrounding fundamental physics, but also another aim of this

chapter is to show that the protocol necessary for generating these ﬁeld effects may

not be present only in exotic conditions involving large ﬁeld strengths and speciﬁc

frequencies involving expensive infrastructure such as the large Hadron Collider

(LHC), but as recent discoveries suggest may be present in the physical manipulation

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 345

of ordinary everyday objects. We will also see that nature has been and may be

engaged in the process of using scalar longitudinal waves (SLW) in many ways as

yet unsuspected and undetected by humanity. Some of these modalities of scalar

wave generation we will investigate will include the following: chemical bond

breaking, particularly as a precursor to seismic events (illuminating the study and

development of earthquake early warning system), solar events (related to eclipses),

and sunspot activity and how it impacts the earth’s magnetosphere. Moreover, this

overview of the unique aspects of the electroscalar domain will suggest that many of

the currently unexplained anomalies such as over-unity power observed in various

energy devices, and exotic energy effects associated with low energy nuclear

reactions (LENR), may ﬁnd some basis in fact.

As we did mention at the beginning of this chapter, under Sect. 6.0, in regards to

the latter “cold fusion”-type scenarios, the electroscalar wave might be the actual

agent needed to reduce the nuclear Coulomb barrier, thus providing the long-sought-

after viable theoretical explanation of this phenomenon [4]. Longitudinal electrody-

namic forces in exploding wires, etc. may actually be due to the operation of

electroscalar waves at the subatomic levels of nature. For instance, the extraordinary

energies produced by Ken Shoulder’s charge clusters may also possibly be due to

electroscalar mechanisms. Moreover, these observations, spanning as they do cross

many cross-disciplines of science, beg the question as to the possible universality of

the SLW—that the concept of the longitudinal electroscalar wave, not present in

current electrodynamics, may represent a general, key, overarching principle, lead-

ing to new paradigms in other science besides physics. This idea will also be

explored in the talk, showing the possible connection of scalar longitudinal (also

known as electroscalar) wave dynamics to biophysical systems. Admittedly, we’re

proposing quite an ambitious agenda in reaching for these goals, but I think you will

see that recent innovations will have proven equal to the task of supporting this

quest.

Insight into the incompleteness of classical electrodynamics can begin with the

Helmholtz theorem, which states that any sufﬁciently smooth three-dimensional

vector ﬁeld can be uniquely decomposed into two parts. By extension, a generalized

theorem exists, certiﬁed through the recent scholarly work of physicist-

mathematician Dale Woodside [5] (see Eq. (6.44) above as well) for unique decom-

position of a sufﬁciently smooth Minkowski four-vector ﬁeld (three spatial dimen-

sions, plus time) into four-irrotational and four-solenoidal parts, together with the

tangential and normal components on the bounding surface. With this background,

the theoretical existence of the electroscalar wave can be attributed to failure to

include certain terms in the standard, general, four-dimensional, electromagnetic,

Lagrangian density that are related to the four-irrotational parts of the vector ﬁeld.

Here, εis electrical permittivity—not necessarily of the vacuum. Speciﬁcally, the

electroscalar ﬁeld becomes incorporated in the structure of electrodynamics, when

we let Eq. (6.44) above for γ¼1, and k¼(2πmc/h)¼0. As we can see in this

representation as it is written for Eq. (6.44), it is the presence of the third term that

describes these new features.

346 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

We can see more clearly how this term arises by writing the Lagrangian density in

terms of the standard electromagnetic scalar (ϕ) (see Eq. 6.45 above) and magnetic

vector potentials (A), without the electroscalar representation included. This equa-

tion has zero divergence of the potentials (formally called solenoidal), consistent

with classical electromagnetics, as we see here. The second class of four-vector

ﬁelds has zero curl of the potentials (irrotational vector ﬁeld), which will emerge

once we add this scalar factor. Here we see that it is represented by the last term,

which is usually zero in standard classical electromagnetics. The expression in the

parentheses, when set equal to zero, describes what is known as the Lorentz

condition, which makes the scalar potential and the vector potential in their usual

form, mathematically dependent on each other. Accordingly, the usual electromag-

netic theory then speciﬁes that the potentials may be chosen arbitrarily, based on the

speciﬁc, so-called, gauge that is chosen for this purpose. However, the MCE theory

allows for a nonzero value for this scalar-valued expression, essentially making the

potentials independent of each other, where this new scalar-valued component (Cin

Eq. 6.45 that we may call it Lagrangian density) is a dynamic function of space and

time. It is from this new idea of independence of the potentials which the scalar value

(C) is derived, and from which the unique properties and dynamics of the scalar

longitudinal electrodynamic (SLW) wave arise.

To put all these in perspective, a more complete electrodynamic model may be

derived from this last equation of the Lagrangian density. The Lagrangian expres-

sion is important in physics, since invariance of the Lagrangian under any trans-

formation gives rise to a conserved quantity. Now, as is well known, conservation

of charge current is a fundamental principle of physics and nature. Conventionally,

in classical electrodynamics charged matter creates an E

!ﬁeld. Motion of charged

matter creates a magnetic B

!ﬁeld from an electrical current which in turn inﬂuences

the B

!and E

!ﬁelds.

Before we continue further, let us write the following equations as

E

!¼—ϕ∂A

!

∂tRelativistic Covariance ð6:46Þ

B

!¼—A

!

Classical fields B

!and E

!

in terms of usual classical

potentials A

!

and ϕ

!

ð6:47Þ

C¼1

c2

∂ϕ

!

∂tþ—A

!

Classical wave equation for A

!

,B

!ð6:48Þ

—B

!1

c2

∂E

!

∂t—C¼μJ

!E

!and ϕ

!

without the use of a gauge ð6:49Þ

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 347

—E

!þ∂C

∂t¼ρ

εCondition the MCE theory produces

cancellation of ∂C=∂tand ∇

!

Cin the

classical wave equation for ϕ

!

and A

!

,

thus eliminating the need for a gauge condition

ð6:50Þ

These effects can be modeled by Maxwell’s equations. Now, exactly how and to

what degree do these equations change when the new scalar-valued Cﬁeld is

incorporated. Those of you who are knowledgeable of Maxwellian theory will

notice that the two homogeneous Maxwell’s equations—representing Faraday’s

law and ∇

!B

!(standard Gauss law equation for divergence-less magnetic ﬁeld)—

are both unchanged from the classical model. Notice that the last three equations

incorporate this new scalar component which is labeled C. This formulation as

deﬁned by Eq. (6.48) creates a somewhat revised version of Maxwell’s equations,

with one new term ∇

!

Cin Gauss law (Eq. 6.50), where ρis the charge density, and

one new term (∂C/∂t) in Ampere’s law (Eq. 6.49), where Jis the current density. We

see that these new equations lead to some important conditions. First, relativistic

covariance is preserved. Second, unchanged are the classical ﬁelds E

!and B

!in terms

of the usual classical potentials A

!

and ϕ

!. We have the same classical wave

equations for A

!

,ϕ

!

,E

!, and B

!without the use of a gauge condition (and its attendant

incompleteness) since the MCE theory shows cancellation of ∂C/∂tand —C, the

classical wave equations for ϕ

!

and A

!

; and a scalar longitudinal wave (SLW) is

revealed, composed of the scalar and longitudinal electric ﬁelds.

A wave equation for Cis revealed by use of the time derivative of Eq. (6.50),

added to divergence of Eq. (6.49). Now, as is known, matching conditions at the

interface between two different media are required to solve Maxwell’s equations.

The divergence theorem on Eq. (6.51) below will yield interface matching in the

normal component (“^

n”)of—C/μas shown in Eq. (6.15):

∂2C

∂c2t2—2C¼□2C¼μ∂ρ

∂tþ—J

!

ð6:51Þ

—C

μ

1n

¼—C

μ

1n

ð6:52Þ

C¼C0exp jkrωtðÞ½=rð6:53Þ

Note: The above sets of Eqs. (6.51) and (6.52) present wave equation for scalar

factor Cmatching condition in normal component of —C/μ; spherically symmetric

wave solution for C; and the operator □2¼∂2

∂c2t2—2, and it is called d’Alembert

operator.

348 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

The subscripts in Eq. (6.15) denote —C/μin medium 1 or medium 2, respectively,

and (μ) is magnetic permeability—again not necessarily that of the vacuum. In this

regard, with the vector potential A

!and scalar potential ϕ

!now stipulated as

independent of each other, it is the surface charge density at the interface which

produces a discontinuity in the gradient of the scalar potential, rather than the

standard discontinuity in the normal component of E

!(see Hively) [3].

Notice also from Eq. (6.51) that the source for the scalar factor Cimplies a

violation of charge conservation (RHS (right-hand side) nonzero), a situation which

we noted cannot exist in macroscopic nature. Nevertheless, this will be compatible

with standard Maxwellian theory if this violation occurs at very short time scales,

such as occur in subatomic interactions. Now, interestingly, with the stipulation of

charge conservation on large time scales, giving zero on RHS of Eq. (6.51), longi-

tudinal wavelike solutions are produced with the lowest order form in a spherically

symmetric geometry at a distance (r), C¼C

0

exp [j(kr ωt)]/r. Applying the

boundary condition C!0asr!1is thus trivially satisﬁed. The Cwave therefore

is a pressure wave, similar to that in acoustics and hydrodynamics. This is unique

under the new MCE model since, although classical electrodynamics forbids a

spherically symmetric transverse wave to exist, this constraint will be absent

under MCE theory. Also, an unprecedented result is that these longitudinal C

waves will have energy but no momentum. But this is not unlike charged-particle-

antiparticle ﬂuctuations which also have energy but no net momentum.

Now that we are here so far, the question of why this constraint prohibiting a

spherically symmetric wave is lifted in MCE can be seen in the following sets of

Eq. (6.54) as below for the wave equation for the vertical magnetic ﬁeld:

1

c2

∂2B

!

∂t2—2B

!¼μ0—J

!

—J

!¼0!J¼—k

Gradient-Driven Current !SLW

8

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

:

ð6:54Þ

The sets of Eq. (6.54) are established for wave equation for B

!resulting gradient-

driven current in more complete electrodynamic (MCE) for generating scalar longi-

tudinal wave (SLW).

Notice again that the source of the magnetic ﬁeld (right-hand side (RHS)) is a

nonzero value of —J

!, which signiﬁes solenoidal current density, as is the case in

standard Maxwellian theory. When B

!is zero, so is ∇

!J

!. This is an important

result. Then the current density is irrotational, which implies that J¼—k. Here κis a

scalar function of space and time. Thus, in contrast to closed current paths generated

in ordinary Maxwell theory which result in classical waves that arise from a

solenoidal current density ∇

!J

!6¼ 0,Jfor the scalar longitudinal wave (SLW)

is gradient driven and may be uniquely detectable. We also see from this result that a

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 349

zero value of the magnetic ﬁeld is a necessary and sufﬁcient condition for this

gradient-driven current. Now, since in linearly conductive media the current density

J

!is directly proportional to the electric ﬁeld intensity E

!that produced it, where

σis the conductivity, this gradient-driven current will then produce a longitudinal E

!

ﬁeld.

Based on so far calculations, we can establish wave equation for E

!solution for

longitudinal E

!in MCE spherically symmetric wave solutions for E

!and J

!in linearly

conductive media:

∂2E

!

∂c2t2—2E

!¼∂2

∂c2t2—2

!

E

!□2E

!¼μ∂J

!

∂t—ρ

εð6:55Þ

E¼Err

_exp jkrωtðÞ½=rð6:56Þ

J

!¼σE

!!□2J

!¼0ð6:57Þ

We can also see this from examining the standard vectorial wave equation for the

electric ﬁeld. The wave equation for E

!(Eq. 6.55) arises from the curl of Faraday’s

law, use of —B

!from Ampere’s law Eq. (6.49), and substitution of —E

!from

Eq. (6.50) with cancellation of the terms —(∂C/∂t)¼(∂/∂t)—C. When the RHS

of Eq. (6.50) is zero, the lowest order outgoing spherical wave is

E¼Err

_exp jkrωtðÞ½=r, where r

_represents the unit vector in the radial direction

and r represents the radial distance. The electrical ﬁeld is also longitudinal. Substi-

tution of J

!¼σE

!into □2E

!¼0 results in □2J

!¼0, meaning that current density is

also radial. The SLW equations for E and J are remarkable for several reasons. First,

the vector SLW equations for E

!and J

!are fully captured in one wave equation for the

scalar function (κ), □

2

κ¼0. Second, these forms are like □

2

C¼0. Third, these

equations have zero on the RHS for propagation in conductive media. This arises

since B

!¼0 for the SLW, implying no back electromagnetic ﬁeld from ∂B

!=∂tin

Faraday’s law which in turn gives no circulating eddy currents. Experimentation has

shown that the SLW is not subject to the skin effect in media with linear electric

conductivity, and travels with minimum resistance in any conductive media.

This last fact affords some insight into another related ongoing conundrum in

condensed matter physics—the mystery surrounding high-temperature supercon-

ductivity (HTS). As we know, the physical problem of high HTS is one of the

major unsolved problems in theoretical condensed matter physics, in part, because

the materials are somewhat complex, multilayered crystals.

350 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

Here the more complete electrodynamic (MCE) theory may provide an explana-

tion on the basis of gradient-driven currents between (or among) the crystal layers.

The new MCE Hamiltonian (Eq. 6.16) includes the SLW due to gradient-driven

currents among the crystalline layers as an explanation for high temperature super-

conductivity (HTS).

The electrodynamic Hamiltonian for more complete electrodynamic (MCE) is

written as

HEM ¼εE2

2þB2

2μ

þρε∇

!E

!

ϕ

!J

!A

!þC2

2μþC∇

!A

!

μð6:58Þ

In conclusion we can build an antenna based on the above concept within

laboratory environment and use a simulation software such as multi-physics

COMSOL©or ANSYS computer code to model such antenna.

However, we believe that we have examined adequate analysis in this white paper

to show the ﬁeld of electrodynamics (classical and quantum), although considered to

be totally understood, with any criticisms of incompleteness on the part of dissenters

essentially taken as veritable heresy; nevertheless it needs re-evaluation in terms of

apparent unfortunate sins of omission in the failure to include an electroscalar

component. Anomalies previously not completely understood may get a boost of

new understanding from the operation of electroscalar energy. We have seen in the

three instances examined—the mechanism of generation of seismic precursor elec-

trical signals due to the movement of the earth’s crust, ordinary peeling of adhesive

tape, as well as irradiation by the special TESLAR chip, the common feature of the

breaking of chemical bonds. In fact, we may ultimately ﬁnd that any phenomena

requiring the breaking of chemical bonds, in either inanimate or biological systems,

may actually be scalar wave mediated.

Thus, we may discover that the scientiﬁc disciplines of chemistry or biochemistry

may be more closely related to physics than is currently thought. Accordingly, the

experimental and theoretical re-evaluation of even the simplest phenomena in this

regard, such as tribo-electriﬁcation processes described above, is of the absolute

essence for those researchers knowledgeable of the necessity for this reassessment of

electromagnetics. As I said in my introduction, it may even turn out that the gradient-

driven current and associated scalar longitudinal wave could be the umbrella concept

under which many of the currently unexplained electrodynamic phenomena that are

frequently under discussion in our conferences might ﬁnd a satisfying explanation.

The new scalar longitudinal wave patent itself—which is the centerpiece of this

talk—is a primary example of the type of invention that probably would not have

seen the light of day even 10 years ago. As I had previously mentioned, we are

seeing more of this inspired breakthrough technology based on operating principles

formerly viewed with rank skepticism boarding on haughty derision by mainstream

science, now surfacing to provide an able challenge to the prevailing worldview by

reproducible corroborating tests by independent sources. This revolution in the

technological witness to the overhaul of current orthodoxy is deﬁnitely a harbinger

6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 351

of the rapidly approaching time where many of the encrusted and equally

ill-conceived still accepted paradigms of science, thought to underpin our sentient

reality, will fall by the wayside. On a grander panoramic scale, our expanding

knowledge gleaned from further examining the electroscalar wave concept, as

applied to areas of investigation such as cold fusion research and over-unity power

sources, will explicitly shape the future of society as well as science, especially

concerning our openness to phenomena that challenge our current belief systems.

To the point, the incompleteness in our received understanding of the properties

of electrodynamical systems can be attributed to the failure to properly incorporate

what can be termed the electroscalar force in the structural ediﬁce of electrodynam-

ics. Unbeknownst to most specialists in the disciplines mentioned, over the last

decade in technological circles of development, there has quietly but inexorably

emerged bona ﬁde physical evidence of the demonstration of the existence of scalar

longitudinal wave dynamics in recent inventions and discoveries. As technology

leads to new understanding, at this point we are certainly rapidly approaching a time

in which these ﬁndings can no longer be pushed aside or ignored by orthodox

physics, and physics must come to terms with their potential physical and philo-

sophical impacts on our world society. By the time you read this book, this author

thinks you might agree with the fact that we could be on the brink of a new era in

science and technology, the likes of which this generation has never seen before.

Despite what mainstream physics may claim, the study of electrodynamics is by no

means a closed book. Further details are provided in the following sections of this

chapter.

6.3 Description of B

!3ðÞField

During the investigation of the theory optically induced line shifts in nuclear

magnetic resonance (NMR), people have come across the result that the antisym-

metric part of the intensity tensor of light is directly proportional in free space to an

entirely novel, phase-free, magnetic ﬁeld of light, which was identiﬁed as B

!3ðÞﬁeld,

and which is deﬁned in the following such as Eq. (6.59a–6.59c). The presence of

B

!3ðÞ in free space shows that the usual, propagating, transverse waves of electro-

magnetic radiation are linked geometrically to the spin ﬁeld B

!3ðÞ

, which indeed

emerges directly from the fundamental, classical equation of motion of a single

electron in a circularly polarized light beam [6]:

B

!1ðÞB

!2ðÞ¼iB 0ðÞ

B

!3ðÞ ð6:59aÞ

B

!2ðÞB

!3ðÞ¼iB 0ðÞ

B

!1ðÞ ð6:59bÞ

352 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

B

!3ðÞB

!1ðÞ¼iB 0ðÞ

B

!2ðÞ ð6:59cÞ

Note that the symbol of () means conjugate form of the ﬁeld, and super-scribe

(1), (2), and (3) can be permuted to give the other two equations in Eq. (6.1); hence

the ﬁelds B

!1ðÞ

,B

!2ðÞ

, and B

!3ðÞare simply components of the magnetic ﬂux density of

free space electromagnetism in a circular, rather than in a Cartesian, basis. In the

quantum ﬁeld theory, the longitudinal component B

!3ðÞ becomes the fundamental

photomagnetic of light, and operator deﬁned by the following relationship as [7–12]

B

_3ðÞ¼B0ðÞP

_

hð6:60Þ

where P

_is the angular momentum operator of one photon. The existence of the

longitudinal B

_3ðÞ

in free space is indicated experimentally by optically induced NMR

shifts and by several well-known phenomena of magnetization by light, for example

the inverse Faraday effects.

The core logic of Eqs. (6.59a–6.59c) asserts that there exists a novel cyclically

symmetric ﬁeld algebra in free space, implying that the usual transverse solutions of

Maxwell’s equations are tied to the longitudinal, nonzero, real, and physical mag-

netic ﬂux density B

!3ðÞ

, which we name the spin ﬁeld. This deduction changes

fundamentally our current appreciation of electrodynamics and therefore the princi-

ples on which the old quantum theory was derived, for example the Planck law [13]

and the light quantum hypothesis proposed in 1905 by Einstein. The belated

recognition of B

!3ðÞ implies that there is a magnetic ﬁeld in free space which is

associated with the longitudinal space axis, z, which is labeled (3) in the circular

basis. Conventionally, the radiation intensity distribution is calculated using only

two, transverse, degrees of freedom, right and left circular, corresponding to (1) and

(2) in the circular basis.

The B

!3ðÞ

ﬁeld of vacuum electromagnetism introduces a new paradigm of the ﬁeld

theory, summarized in the cyclically symmetric equations linking it to the usual

transverse magnetic plane wave components B

!1ðÞ¼B

!2ðÞ[3,6,14,15].

The B

!3ðÞ ﬁeld was ﬁrst and obliquely inferred in January 1992 at Cornell

University from a careful, re-examination of known magneto-optics phenomena

[16,17] which had previously been interpreted in orthodoxy through the conjugate

product E

!1ðÞE

!2ðÞ of electric plane wave components E

!1ðÞE

!2ðÞ

. In the inter-

vening three and a half years its understanding has developed substantially into

monographs and papers [3,6,14,15] covering several fundamental aspects of ﬁeld

theory.

The B

!3ðÞﬁeld produces magnetization in an electron plasma which is proportional

to the square root of the power density dependence of the circularly polarized electro-

magnetic radiation, conclusive evidence for the presence of the phase-free B

!3ðÞin the

6.3 Description of B

!ð3ÞField 353

vacuum. There are many experimental consequences of this ﬁnding, some of which are

of practical utility, such as optical NMR. However, the most important theoretical

consequence is that there exist longitudinal components in free space of electromag-

netic radiation, a conclusion which is strikingly reminiscent of that obtained from the

theory of ﬁnite photon mass. The two ideas are interwoven throughout the volume. The

characteristic square root light intensity dependence of B

!3ðÞdominates and is theoret-

ically observable at low cyclotron frequencies when intense, circularly polarized

electromagnetic radiation interacts with a single electron, or in practical terms an

electron plasma or beam. The magnetization induced in such an electron ensemble

by circularly polarized radiation is therefore expected to be proportional to the square

root of the power density (i.e., the intensity in watts per square meter) of the radiation.

This result emerges directly from the fundamental, classical, equation of motion of one

electron in the beam, the relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

To establish the physical presence of B

!3ðÞin the vacuum therefore requires the

observation of this magnetization as a function of the beam’s power density, a

critically important experiment. Other possible experiments to detect B

!3ðÞ

, such as

the optical equivalent of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, are suggested throughout the

volume.

More details about the subject in this section can be found in the references that

are mentioned in the count of this section and above and further details are beyond

the scope of this book. Thus, we encourage the readers to refer themselves to those

references from [3,6–12,14–17].

6.4 Scalar Wave Description

What is a “scalar wave”exactly? Scalar wave (SW) is just another name for a

longitudinal wave (LW). The term “scalar”is sometimes used instead because the

hypothetical source of these waves is thought to be a “scalar ﬁeld”of some kind

similar to the Higgs ﬁeld for example.

In general, deﬁnition of longitudinal wave falls into the following description:

A wave motion in which the particles of the medium oscillate about their mean

positions in the direction of propagation of the wave is called longitudinal wave.

For longitudinal wave the vibration of the particles of the medium is in the

direction of wave propagation. A longitudinal wave proceeds in the form of com-

pression and rarefaction which is the stretch and compression in the same direction

as the wave moves. For a longitudinal wave at places of compression the pressure

and density tend to be maximum, while at places where rarefaction takes place the

pressure and density are minimum. In gases only longitudinal wave can propagate.

Longitudinal waves are known as compression waves.

A longitudinal wave travels through a medium in the form of compressions or

condensations Cand rarefaction R. A compression is a region of the medium in

354 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

which particles are compressed, i.e., particles come closer, i.e., distance between the

particles becomes less than the normal distance between them. Thus, there is

temporary decrease in volume and as a consequence increase in density of the

medium in the region of compression. A rarefaction is a region of the medium in

which particles are rareﬁed, i.e., particles get farther apart than what they normally

are. Thus, there is temporary increase in volume and a consequence decrease in

density of the medium in the region of rarefaction. See Fig. 6.6.

There is nothing particularly controversial about longitudinal waves (LW) in

general. They are a ubiquitous and well-acknowledged phenomenon in nature.

Sound waves traveling through the atmosphere (or underwater) are longitudinal, as

are plasma waves propagating through space (also known as Birkeland currents).

Longitudinal waves moving through the earth’s interior are known as “telluric

currents.”They can all be thought of as pressure waves of sorts.

SW/LW are quite different from “transverse”waves. You can observe transverse

waves (TW) by plucking a guitar string or watching ripples on the surface of a pond.

They oscillate (vibrate, move up and down, or side to side) perpendicular to their

arrow of propagation (directional movement). Comparatively SW/LW oscillate in

the same direction as their arrow of propagation. See Fig. 6.6.

In modern-day electrodynamics (both classical and quantum), electromagnetic

waves (EMW) traveling in “free space”(such as photons in the “vacuum”) are

generally considered to be TW. But this was not always the case. When the

preeminent mathematician James Clerk Maxwell ﬁrst modeled and formalized his

uniﬁed theory of electromagnetism in the late nineteenth century neither the EM

SW/LW nor the EM TW had been experimentally proven, but he had postulated and

calculated the existence of both.

After Heinrich Hertz demonstrated experimentally the existence of transverse

radio waves in 1887, theoreticians (such as Heaviside, Gibbs, and others) went about

Transverse wave

Longitudinal wave

Wavelength

Wavelength

Compression Expansion

Fig. 6.6 Illustration of transverse wave and longitudinal wave

6.4 Scalar Wave Description 355

revising Maxwell’s original equations (who was now deceased and could not

object). They wrote out the SW/LW component from the original equations because

they felt the mathematical framework and theory should be made to agree only with

experiment. Obviously, the simpliﬁed equations worked—they helped make the

AC/DC electrical age engineerable. But at what expense?

Then in 1889 Nikola Tesla, a proliﬁc experimental physicist and inventor of

alternative current (AC), threw a proverbial wrench in the works when he discovered

experimental proof for the elusive electric scalar wave. This seemed to suggest that

SW/LW, opposed to TW, could propagate as pure electric waves or as pure magnetic

waves. Tesla also believed that these waves carried a hitherto-unknown form of

excess energy he referred to as “radiant.”This intriguing and unexpected result was

said to have been veriﬁed by Lord Kelvin and others soon after.

However, instead of merging their experimental results into a uniﬁed proof for

Maxwell’s original equations, Tesla, Hertz, and others decided to bicker and squab-

ble over who was more correct. In actuality they both derived correct results. But

because humans (even “rational”scientists) are fallible and prone to ﬁts of vanity

and self-aggrandizement, each side insisted dogmatically that they were right, and

the other side was wrong.

The issue was allegedly settled after the dawn of the twentieth century when:

(a) The concept of the mechanical (passive/viscous) ether was purportedly

disproven by Michelson-Morley and replaced by Einstein’s relativistic space-

time manifold.

(b) Detection of SW/LWs proved much more difﬁcult than initially thought (mostly

due to the wave’s subtle densities, ﬂuctuating frequencies, and orthogonal

directional ﬂow). As a result, the truncation of Maxwell’s equations was upheld.

SW/LW in free space however are quite real. Beside Tesla, empirical work

carried out by electrical engineers such as Eric Dollard, Konstantin Meyl, Thomas

Imlauer, and Jean-Louis Naudin (to name only some) have clearly demonstrated

their existence experimentally. These waves seem able to exceed the speed of light,

pass through EM shielding (also known as Faraday cages), and produce over-unity

(more energy out than in) effects. They seem to propagate in a yet-unacknowledged

counter-spatial dimension (also known as hyperspace, pre-space, false-vacuum,

Aether, implicit order, etc.).

Because the concept of an all-pervasive material ether was discarded by most

scientists, the thought of vortex-like electric and/or magnetic waves existing in free

space, without the support of a viscous medium, was thought to be impossible.

However later experiments carried out by Dayton Miller, Paul Sagnac,

E.W. Silvertooth, and others have contradicted the ﬁndings of Michelson and

Morley. More recently Italian mathematician-physicist Daniele Funaro, American

physicist-systems theorist Paul LaViolette, and British physicist Harold Aspden

have all conceived of (and mathematically formulated) models for a free space

ether that is dynamic, ﬂuctuating, and self-organizing, and allows for the formation

and propagation of SW/LW.

356 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

With the appearance of experiments on nonclassical effects of electrodynamics,

authors often speak of electromagnetic waves not being based on oscillations of

electric and magnetic ﬁelds. For example, it is claimed that there is an effect of such

waves on biological systems and the human body. Even medical devices are sold

which are assumed to work on the principle of transmitting any kind of information

via “waves,”which have a positive effect on human health. In all cases, the

explanation of these effects is speculative, and even the transmission mechanism

remains unclear because there is no sound theory on such waves, often subsumed

under the notion “scalar waves.”We try to give a clear deﬁnition of certain types of

waves which can serve to explain the observed effects [18].

Before analyzing the problem in more detail, we have to discern between “scalar

waves,”which contain fractions of ordinary electric and magnetic ﬁelds and such

waves which do not and therefore appear even more obscure. Often “scalar waves”

are assumed to consist of longitudinal ﬁelds. In ordinary Maxwellian electrodynam-

ics such ﬁelds do not exist, and electromagnetic radiation is said to be always

transversal. In modern uniﬁed physics approaches like Einstein-Cartan-Evans theory

[19,20], however, it was shown that polarization directions of electromagnetic ﬁelds

do exist in all directions of four-dimensional space. So, in the direction of transmis-

sion, an ordinary electromagnetic wave has a longitudinal magnetic component, the

so-called B

!3ðÞﬁeld of Evans [21]. (See Sect. 6of this chapter for more details about

B

!3ðÞﬁeld.) The B

!3ðÞﬁeld is detectable by the so-called inverse Faraday effect which

is known experimentally since the 1960s [22]. Some experimental setups, for

example the “magnifying transmitter”of Tesla [16,17], make the claim to utilize

these longitudinal components. They can be considered to consist of an extended

resonance circuit where the capacitor plates have been displaced to the transmitter

and receiver site each (see Fig. 6.7). In an ordinary capacitor (or cavity resonator), a

very-high-frequent wave (GHz or THz range) leads to signiﬁcant runtime effects of

the signal so that the quasi-static electric ﬁeld can be considered to be cut into pulses.

These represent the near ﬁeld of an electromagnetic wave and may be considered to

Fig. 6.7 Propagation of longitudinal electric wave according to Tesla

6.4 Scalar Wave Description 357

be longitudinal. For lower frequencies, the electric ﬁeld between the capacitor plates

remains quasi-static and therefore longitudinal too.

We do not want to go deeper into this subject here. Having given hints for the

possible existence of longitudinal electric and magnetic ﬁelds, we leave this area and

concentrate on mechanisms which allow transmission of signals even without any

detectable electromagnetic ﬁelds.

Before we move on with more details of scalar wave we need to lay ground about

the types of waves, where the scalar wave falls under that category; thus we need to

have some idea about transverse wave and longitudinal wave and what their

descriptions are. This is the subject that was discussed in previous section of this

chapter quite extensively; however, we talk furthermore about the subject of longi-

tudinal potential wave in the next section here.

6.5 Longitudinal Potential Waves

In the following we develop the theory of electromagnetic waves with vanishing

ﬁeld vectors. Such a ﬁeld state is normally referred to as a “vacuum state”and was

described in full relativistic detail in [22]. Vacuum states also play a role in the

microscopic interaction with matter. Here we restrict consideration to ordinary

electrodynamics to give engineers a chance to fully understand the subject. With

E

!and B

!designating the classical electric and magnetic ﬁeld vectors, a vacuum state

is deﬁned by

E

!¼0ð6:61Þ

B

!¼0ð6:62Þ

The only possibility to ﬁnd electromagnetic effects then is by the potentials.

These are deﬁned as vector and scalar potentials to constitute the “force”ﬁelds E

!and

B

!as

E

!¼—U

_

A

!ð6:63Þ

B

!¼∇

!A

!ð6:64Þ

with electric scalar potential Uand magnetic vector potential A

!

. The dot above the A

!

,

in Eq. (6.63), denotes the time derivative. For the vacuum, conditions as stated in

Eq. (6.61) and Eq. (6.62) will lead to the following sets of equations:

358 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

—U¼

_

A

!ð6:65Þ

∇

!A

!¼0ð6:66Þ

From Eq. (6.66), it follows immediately that the vector potential is vortex free,

representing a laminar ﬂow. The gradient of the scalar potential is coupled to the

time derivative of the vector potential, so both are not independent of one another. A

general solution of these equations was derived in [22]. This is a wave solution

where A

!

is in the direction of propagation, i.e., this is a longitudinal wave. Several

wave forms are possible, which may even result in a propagation velocity different

from the speed of light c. As a simple example we assume a sine-like behavior of

vector potential A

!

as

A

!¼A

!

0sin k

!x

!ωtð6:67Þ

with direction of propagation k

!

(wave vector), space coordinate vector x

!, and time

frequency ω. Then it follows from Eq. (6.66) that

—U¼A

!

0ωcos k

!x

!ωtð6:68Þ

This condition has to be met for any potential U. We make the approach as

U¼U0sin k

!x

!ωtð6:69Þ

To ﬁnd that

—U¼kU0cos k

!x

!ωtð6:70Þ

which, compared to Eq. (6.68), deﬁnes the constant A

!

0to be as

A

!

0¼k

!U0

ω

ð6:71Þ

Obviously, the waves of A

!

and Uhave the same phase. Next, we consider the

energy density of such a combined wave. This is in general given by

6.5 Longitudinal Potential Waves 359

w¼1

2ε0E

!2þ1

2μ0

B

!2ð6:72Þ

From Eqs. (6.65) and (6.66), it is seen that the magnetic ﬁeld disappears identi-

cally, but the electric ﬁeld is a vanishing sum of two terms, which are different

from zero.

These two terms evoke an energy density of space where the wave propagates.

This cannot be obtained out of the force ﬁelds (these are zero) but must be computed

from the constituting potentials. As discussed in the paper by (Eckardt and

Lindstrom) [20], we have to write

w¼1

2ε0

_

A

!2þ—UðÞ

2

ð6:73Þ

With Eqs. (6.67) and (6.69), it follows that

w¼ε0k2U2

0cos 2k

!x

!ωtð6:74Þ

This is an oscillating function, meaning that the energy density varies over space

and time in phase with the propagation of the wave. All quantities are depicted in

Fig. 6.8. Energy density is maximal where the potentials cross the zero axis.

There is a phase shift of 90between both plots that can be observed in Fig. 6.8.

There is an analogy between longitudinal potential waves and acoustic waves. It

is well known that acoustic waves in air or solids are mainly longitudinal too. The

Fig. 6.8 Phases of potentials A

!

and U, and energy density w

360 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

elongation of molecules is in direction of wave propagation as shown in Fig. 6.9.

This is a variation in velocity. Therefore, the magnetic vector potential can be

compared with a velocity ﬁeld. The differences of elongation evoke a local pressure

difference. Where the molecules are pressed together, the pressure is enhanced, and

vice versa. From conservation of momentum, the force F

!in a compressible ﬂuid is

given by

F

!¼_

u

!þ—p

ρð6:75Þ

In Eq. (6.75), the term u

!is the velocity ﬁeld, pis the pressure, and ρis the density

of the medium.

This is in full analogy to Eq. (6.63). In particular we see that in the electromag-

netic case space-time must be “compressible”; otherwise there will be no gradient of

the scalar potential. As a consequence, space itself must be compressible, leading us

to the principles of general relativity.

6.6 Transmitters and Receiver for Longitudinal Waves

A sender for longitudinal potential waves has to be a device which avoids producing

E

!and B

!ﬁelds but sends out oscillating potential waves. We discuss two propositions

on how this can be achieved technically. In the ﬁrst case, we use two ordinary

transmitter antennas (with directional characteristic) with distance of half a wave-

length (or an odd number of half-waves). This means that ordinary electromagnetic

waves cancel out, assuming that the near ﬁeld is not disturbing signiﬁcantly. Since

Fig. 6.9 Schematic representation of longitudinal and transversal waves

6.6 Transmitters and Receiver for Longitudinal Waves 361

the radiated energy cannot disappear, it must propagate in space and is transmitted in

the form of potential waves. This is depicted in Fig. 6.10.

A more common example is a biﬁlar ﬂat coil, for example from the patent of Tesla

[23]; see Fig. 6.10, second drawing. The currents in opposite directions affect

annihilation of the magnetic ﬁeld component, while an electric part may remain

due to the static ﬁeld of the wires. See Fig. 6.11.

Construction of a receiver is not so straightforward. In principle no magnetic ﬁeld

can be retrieved directly from A

!

due to Eq. (6.66). The only way is to obtain an

electrical signal by separating both contributing parts in Eq. (6.63) so that the

equality [22] is out weighted and an effective electric ﬁeld remains which can be

detected by conventional devices. A very simple method would be to place two

plates of a capacitor in distance of half a wavelength (or odd multiples of it). Then

the voltage in space should have an effect on the charge carriers in the plates, leading

to the same effect as if a voltage had been applied between the plates. The real

voltage in the plates or the compensating current can be measured (Fig. 6.12). The

“tension of space”operates directly on the charge carriers while no electric ﬁeld is

induced. The

_

A

!

part is not contributing because the direction of the plates is

perpendicular to it, i.e., no signiﬁcant current can be induced.

Another possibility of a receiver is to use a screened box (Faraday cage). If the

mechanism described for the capacitor plates is valid, the electrical voltage part of

the wave creates charge effects which are compensated immediately due to the high

conductivity of the material. As is well known, the interior of a Faraday cage is free

of electric ﬁelds. The potential is constant because it is constant on the box surface.

Therefore, only the magnetic part of the wave propagates in the interior where it can

be detected by a conventional receiver; see Fig. 6.13.

Fig. 6.10 Suggestion for a transmitter of longitudinal potential waves

362 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

Another method of detection is using vector potential effects in crystalline solids.

As is well known from solid-state physics, the vector potential produces excitations

within the quantum mechanical electronic structure, provided that the frequency

is near to the optical range. Crystal batteries work in this way. They can be

Fig. 6.12 Suggestion for a receiver of longitudinal potential waves (capacitor)

Fig. 6.11 Tesla coils

according to the patent [23]

6.6 Transmitters and Receiver for Longitudinal Waves 363

engineered through chemical vapor deposition of carbon. In the process you get

strong lightweight crystalline shapes that can handle lots of heat and stress by high

currents. For detecting longitudinal waves, the excitation of the electronic system

has to be measured, for example by photoemission or other energetic processes in the

crystal.

All these are suggestions for experiments with longitudinal waves. Additional

experiments can be performed for testing the relation between wave vector kand

frequency ωto check if this type of waves propagates with ordinary velocity of light

cas

c¼ω

kð6:76Þ

where kis deﬁned from the wave length λby the following relation:

k¼2π

λð6:77Þ

As pointed out in the paper by Eckhardt [22], the speed of propagation depends

on the form of the waves.

This can even be a nonlinear step function. The experimental setup of Fig. 6.11

can directly be used for ﬁnding the ωk

!relation because the wavelength and

frequency are measured at the same time. There are rumors that Eric P. Dollard [24]

found a propagation speed of longitudinal waves of (π/2) c, which is 1.5 times the

speed of light, but there are no reliable experiments on this reported in the literature.

Fig. 6.13 Suggestion for a receiver of longitudinal potential waves (Faraday cage)

364 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

The ideas worked out in this write-up in this section may not be the only way how

longitudinal waves can be explained and technically handled. As mentioned in the

introduction, electrodynamics derived from a uniﬁed ﬁeld theory (Evens et al.) [19]

predicts effects of polarization in all space and time dimensions and may lead to a

discovery of even richer and more interesting effects.

6.6.1 Scalar Communication System

The basic scalar communication system indicates that the communications antenna

does not make any sense according to normal electromagnetic theory. The goal of a

scalar antenna is to create powerful repulsion/attraction between two magnetic ﬁelds,

to create large scalar bubbles/voids. This is done by using an antenna with two

opposing electromagnetic coils that effectively cancel out as much of each other’s

magnetic ﬁeld as possible. An ideal scalar antenna will emit no electromagnetic ﬁeld

(or as little as possible), since all power is being focused into the repulsion/attraction

between the two opposing magnetic ﬁelds. Normal electromagnetic theory suggests

that since such a device emits no measurable electromagnetic ﬁeld, it is useless and

will only heat up.

A scalar signal reception antenna similarly excludes normal electromagnetic

waves and only measures changes in magnetic ﬁeld attraction and repulsion. This

will typically be a two-coil-powered antenna that sets up a static opposing or

attracting magnetic ﬁeld between the coils, and the coils are counter-wound so that

any normal RF signal will be picked up by both coils and effectively cancel itself out.

It has been suggested that scalar ﬁelds do not follow the same rules as electro-

magnetic waves and can penetrate through materials that would normally slow or

absorb electromagnetic waves. If true, a simple proving method is to design a scalar

signal emitter and a scalar signal receiver and encasing each inside separate shielded

and grounded metal box, known as Faraday cages. These boxes will absorb all

normal electromagnetic energy and will prevent any regular non-scalar signal trans-

missions from passing from one box to the other.

Some people have suggested that organic life may make use of scalar energies in

ways that we do not yet understand. Therefore, caution is recommended when

experimenting with this fringe technology. However, keep in mind that if scalar

ﬁelds do exist, we are likely already deeply immersed in an unseen ﬁeld of scalar

noise all the time, generated anywhere two magnetic ﬁelds oppose or attract.

Common scalar ﬁeld noise sources include AC electric cords and powerlines

carrying high current, and electric motors which operate on the principle of powerful

spinning regions of repulsion and attraction.

6.6 Transmitters and Receiver for Longitudinal Waves 365

6.7 Scalar Wave Experiments

It can be shown that scalar waves, normally remaining unnoticed, are very interest-

ing in practical use for information and energy technology for reason of their special

attributes. The mathematical and physical derivations are supported by practical

experiments. The demonstration will show:

1. The wireless transmission of electrical energy

2. The reaction of the receiver to the transmitter

3. Free energy with an over-unity effect of about 3

4. Transmission of scalar waves with 1.5 times the speed of light

5. The inefﬁciency of a Faraday cage to shield scalar waves

6.7.1 Tesla Radiation

Here is shown extraordinary science, ﬁve experiments, which are incompatible with

textbook physics. Following short courses, that were given by Meyl [25], show the

transmission of longitudinal electric waves.

It is a historical experiment, because already 100 years ago the famous experi-

mental physicist Nikola Tesla has measured the same wave properties, as me. From

him stems a patent concerning the wireless transmission of energy (1900) [26]. Since

he also had to ﬁnd out that at the receiver arrives more energy very much, than the

transmitter takes up, he spoke of a “magnifying transmitter”.

By the effect back on the transmitter Tesla sees if he has found the resonance of

the earth and that lies according to his measurement at 12 Hz. Since the Schumann

resonance of a wave, which goes with the speed of light, however, lies at 7.8 Hz,

Tesla comes to the conclusion that his wave has 1.5 times the speed of light c[27].

As founder of the diathermy Tesla already has pointed to the biological effec-

tiveness and to the possible use in medicine. The diathermy of today has nothing to

do with the Tesla radiation; it uses the wrong wave and as a consequence hardly has

a medical importance.

The discovery of the Tesla radiation is denied and isn’t mentioned in the

textbooks anymore. For that there are two reasons:

1. No high school ever has rebuilt a “magnifying transmitter.”The technology

simply was too costly and too expensive. In that way the results have not been

reproduced, as it is imperative for an acknowledgement. I have solved this

problem using modern electronics, by replacing the spark gap generator with a

function generator and the operation with high tension with 2–4 V low tension.

Meyl [25] sells the experiment as a demonstration set so that it is reproduced as

often as possible. It ﬁts in a case and has been sold more than 100 times. Some

universities already could conﬁrm the effects. The measured degrees of effec-

tiveness lie between 140% and 1000%.

366 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

2. The other reason why this important discovery could fall into oblivion is to be

seen in the missing of a suitable ﬁeld description. The Maxwell equations in any

case only describe transverse waves, for which the ﬁeld pointers oscillate per-

pendicular to the direction of propagation.

The vectorial part of the wave equation derived from the Maxwell equation is

presented here as

∇

!E

!¼∂B

!

∂t

∇

!H

!¼J

!þ∂D

!

∂t

B

!¼μH

!

D

!¼εE

!

J

!¼0

)In Linear Media

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

ð6:78Þ

and

∇

!∇

!E

!¼μ

∂∇

!H

!

∂t¼με ∂2E

!

∂t2

! ð6:79Þ

Then, from the result of Eqs. (6.78) and (6.79), we obtain the wave equation as

—2E

!¼∇

!∇

!E

!∇

!∇

!E

!¼1

c2

∂2E

!

∂t2με ¼1

c2

(ð6:80Þ

See Chap. 4of this book for more details on derivation of wave equations from

Maxwell’s equation.

Note that in all these calculations, the following symbols do apply:

E

!¼Electric ﬁled or electric force

H

!¼Auxiliary ﬁeld or magnetic ﬁeld

D

!¼Electric displacement (D

!¼εE

!in linear medium)

B

!¼Magnetic intensity or magnetic induction

J

!¼Current density

6.7 Scalar Wave Experiments 367

Now breaking down the ﬁrst equation in the sets of Eq. (6.80) will be as follows:

—2E

!

|ﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄ}

Laplace

operator over E

!

¼∇

!∇

!E

!∇

!∇

!E

!

|ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ}

If ∇

!E

!¼0 then we have Transversal Wave

If ∇

!E

!¼0 then we have Longitudinal Wave

¼1

c2

∂2E

!

∂t2

|ﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄ}

cis speed of light

ð6:81Þ

Note that in Eq. (6.81)if∇

!E

!6¼ 0, then we have situation that is providing the

scalar wave conditions, while the following relationships do apply as well:

E

!¼∇

!

ϕ:

1ðÞ∇

!

=∇

!E

!¼∇

!

=1

c2

∂2ϕ

∂t2

"#

2ðÞ∇

!E

!¼∇

!∇

!

ϕ

8

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

:

∇

!D

!¼ρ:3ðÞ ∇

!E

!¼ρ

ε

ð6:82Þ

From Eq. (6.82), we also can conclude the plasma wave as

—2ϕ¼1

c2∂2ϕ

∂t2

!

ρ

εð6:83Þ

The results found in Eq. (6.81) through Eq. (6.82) are the scalar part of the wave

equation describing the longitudinal electric waves, which ends up with deviation of

plasma waves, as it is seen in Eq. (6.83). In these equations symbol of ϕis

representation of scalar ﬁeld, as described in Chap. 4of this book.

If we derive the ﬁeld vector from a scalar potential ϕ, then this approach

immediately leads to an inhomogeneous wave equation, which is called plasma

wave. Solutions are known, like the electron plasma waves, which are longitudinal

oscillations of the electron density (Langmuir waves).

6.7.2 Vortex Model

The Tesla experiment and my historical rebuild however show more. Such longitu-

dinal waves obviously exist even without plasma in the air and even in vacuum. The

question thus is asked: What the divergence E

!describes in this case?

1. How is the impulse passed on, so that a longitudinal standing wave can form?

2. How should a shock wave come about, if there are no particles which can push

each other?

368 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

We have solved this question, by extending Maxwell’sﬁeld theory for vortices of

the electric ﬁeld. These so-called potential vortices are able to form structure and they

propagate in space for reason of their particle nature as a longitudinal shock wave. The

model concept is based on the ring vortex model of Hermann von Helmholtz, which

Lord Kelvin did make popular. In Volume 3 of the Meyl book under the title of

Potential Vortex [1], the mathematical and physical derivation is described.

In spite of the ﬁeld theoretical set of difﬁculties every physicist at ﬁrst will seek

for a conventional explanation. We will try three approaches as follows:

1. Resonant circuit interpretation

2. Near-ﬁeld interpretation

3. Vortex interpretation

The details of these two approaches are given in the two following subsections.

6.7.2.1 Resonant Circuit Interpretation

Tesla had presented his experiment to, among others, Lord Kelvin, and 100 years

ago Tesla had spoken of a vortex transmission. In the opinion of Kelvin, however,

vortex transmission by no means concerns a wave but rather radiation. Kelvin had

recognized clearly that every radio-technical interpretation had to fail, because alone

the course of the ﬁeld lines is a completely different one.

It presents itself to assume a resonant circuit, consisting of a capacitor and an

inductance (refer to Fig. 6.14). If both electrodes of the capacitor are pulled apart,

then between both stretches an electric ﬁeld. The ﬁeld lines start at one sphere, the

transmitter, and they bundle up again at the receiver. In this manner, a higher degree

of effectiveness and a very tight coupling can be expected. In this manner, without

doubt some, but not all, of the effects can be explained.

The inductance is split up in two air transformers, which are wound in a

completely identical fashion. If a fed in sinusoidal tension voltage is transformed

up in the transmitter, then it is again transformed down at the receiver. The output

voltage should be smaller or, at most, equal to the input voltage, but it is substantially

bigger!

An alternative wiring diagram can be drawn and calculated, but in no case does

the measurable result that light-emitting diodes at the receiver glow brightly

(U> 2 V) occur, whereas at the same time the corresponding light-emitting diodes

at the transmitter go out (U< 2 V)! To check this result, both coils are exchanged.

The measured degree of effectiveness lies despite the exchange at 1000%. If the

law of conservation of energy is not to be violated, then only one interpretation is

left: The open capacitor withdraws ﬁeld energy from its environment. Without

consideration of this circumstance, the error deviation of every conventional

model calculation lies at more than 90%. In this case, one should do without the

calculation.

The calculation will concern oscillating ﬁelds, because the spherical electrodes

change in polarity with a frequency of approximately 7 MHz. They are operated in

6.7 Scalar Wave Experiments 369

resonance. The condition for resonance reads as identical frequency and opposite

phase. The transmitter obviously modulates the ﬁeld in its environment, while the

receiver collects everything that fulﬁlls the condition for resonance.

Also, in the open question regarding the transmission velocity of the signal, the

resonant circuit interpretation fails. But the HF technician still has another explana-

tion on the tip of his tongue.

6.7.2.2 Near-Field Interpretation

At the antennae of a transmitter in the near ﬁeld (a fraction of the wavelength), only

scalar waves (potential vortex) exist. They decompose into electromagnetic (EM) in

the far ﬁeld and further. The near ﬁeld is not described by Maxwell’s equations and

Fig. 6.14 Interpretation as an open resonant circuit

370 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

the theory is only postulated. It is possible to pick up only scalar waves from radio

transmissions. Receivers which pick up EM waves are actually converting those

waves into potential vortices which are conceived as “standing waves.”

It presents itself to assume a resonant circuit, consisting of a capacitor and an

inductance (refer to Fig. 6.15). If both electrodes of the capacitor are pulled apart,

then between both stretches an electric ﬁeld. The ﬁeld lines start at one sphere, the

transmitter, and they bundle up again at the receiver. In this manner, a higher degree

of effectiveness and a very tight coupling can be expected. In this manner, without

doubt some, but not all, of the effects can be explained.

In the near ﬁeld of an antenna effects are measured, which on the one hand go as

inexplicable, because they evade the normally used ﬁeld theory, which on the other

hand it shows scalar wave effects very close. Everyone knows a practical applica-

tion: e.g., at the entrance of department stores, where the customer has to go through

in between of scalar wave detectors.

In Meyl’s experiment [25] the transmitter is situated in the mysterious near zone.

Also, Tesla always worked in the near zone. But who asks for the reasons will

discover that the near-ﬁeld effect is nothing else but the scalar wave part of the wave

equation. Meyl’s explanation goes as follows:

The charge carriers which oscillate with high frequency in an antenna rod form

longitudinal standing wave. As a result, also, the ﬁelds in the near zone of a Hertzian

dipole are longitudinal scalar wave ﬁelds. The picture shows clearly how vortices

are forming and how they come off the dipole.

Like for the charge carriers in the antenna rod the phase angle between current

and tension voltage amounts to 90, in the near ﬁeld also the electric and the

magnetic ﬁeld phase shifted for 90. In the far ﬁeld however, the phase angle is

zero. In my interpretation the vortices are breaking up, they decay, and transverse

radio waves are formed.

6.7.2.3 Vortex Interpretation

The vortex decay however depends on the velocity of propagation. Calculated at the

speed of light the vortices already have decayed within half the wavelength. The

Fig. 6.15 The coming off of the electric ﬁeld lines of the dipole

6.7 Scalar Wave Experiments 371

faster the velocity, the more stable they get to remain stable above 1.6 times the

velocity. These very fast vortices contract in the dimensions. They now can tunnel.

Therefore, speed faster than light occurs at the tunnel effect. Therefore, no Faraday

cage is able to shield fast vortices.

Since these ﬁeld vortices with particle nature following the high-frequency

oscillation permanently change their polarity from positive to negative and back,

they do not have a charge on the average over time. As a result, they almost

unhindered penetrate solids. Particles with this property are called neutrinos in

physics. The ﬁeld energy which is collected in my experiment is that which stems

from the neutrino radiation which surrounds us. Because the source of this radiation,

all the same if the origin is artiﬁcial or natural, is far away from receiver, every

attempt of a near-ﬁeld interpretation goes wrong. After all, does the transmitter

installed in the near-ﬁeld zone supply less than 10% of the received power? The 90%

however, which it concerns here, cannot stem from the near-ﬁeld zone!

6.7.3 Experiment

In Meyl’s experimental setup he also takes few other steps in order to conduct his

experiment that is reported here [25].

At the function generator he adjusts frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal

signal, with which the transmitter is operated. At the frequency regulator I turn so

long, till the light-emitting diodes at the receiver glow brightly, whereas those at the

transmitter go out. Now an energy transmission takes place.

If the amplitude is reduced so far, till it is guaranteed that no surplus energy is

radiated, then in addition a gain of energy takes place by energy ampliﬁcation.

If we take down the receiver by pulling out the earthing, then the lighting up of

the LED signals (light-emitting diode) the mentioned effect back on the transmitter.

The transmitter thus feels if its signal is received.

The self-resonance of the Tesla coils, according to the frequency counter, lies at

7 MHz. Now the frequency is running down and at approx. 4.7 MHz the receiver

again glows, but less brightly, easily shieldable, and without discernible effect back

on the transmitter. Now we unambiguously are dealing with the transmission of the

Hertzian part and that goes with the speed of light. Since the wavelength was not

changed, does the proportion of the frequencies determine the proportion of the

velocities of propagation? The scalar wave according to that goes with (7/4.7¼) 1.5

times the speed of light.

If we put the transmitter into the aluminum case and close the door, then nothing

should arrive at the receiver. Expert laboratories for electromagnetic compatibility in

this case indeed cannot detect anything and in spite of that the receiver lamps glow!

By turning off the receiver coil, it can be veriﬁed that an electric and not a magnetic

coupling is present although the Faraday cage should shield electric ﬁelds. The scalar

wave obviously overcomes the cage with a speed faster than light, by tunneling. We

can summarize what we have discussed so far in respect to scalar wave in the next

subsection of this chapter as follows.

372 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

6.8 Summary

Konstantin Meyl is a German professor who developed a new uniﬁed ﬁeld theory

based on the work of Tesla. Meyl’s uniﬁed ﬁeld and particle theory explains

quantum and classical physics, mass, gravitation, constant speed of light, neutrinos,

waves, and particles, all explained by vortices. The subatomic particle characteristics

are accurately calculated by this model. Well-known equations are also derived by

the uniﬁed equation. He provides a kit replicating one of Tesla’s experiments which

demonstrates the existence of scalar waves. Scalar waves are simply energy vortices

in the form of particles. Here is an interview with Konstantin Meyl on his theory and

technologies.

The uniﬁed ﬁeld theory describes the electromagnetic, eddy current, potential

vortex, and special distributions. This combines an extended wave equation with a

Poisson equation. Maxwell’s equations can be derived as a special case where

Gauss’s law for magnetism is not equal to 0. That means that magnetic charges do

exist in Meyl’s theory [25]. That electric and magnetic ﬁelds are always generated by

motion is the fundamental idea which this equation is derived from. The unipolar

generator and transformer have conﬂicting theories under standard theories. Meyl

splits them into the equations of transformation of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds

separately which describes unipolar induction and the equation of convection,

relatively.

Meyl says that the ﬁeld is always ﬁrst, which generates particles by decay or

conversion. Classical physics does not recognize energy particles aka potential

vortices, so they were not included in the theory. Quantum physics effectively

tried to explain everything with vortices, which is why it is incomplete. The

derivation of Schrodinger’s equation from the extended Maxwell equations means

they are vortices. For example, photons are light as particle vortices and electro-

magnetic (EM) light is in wave form which depends on the detection method which

can change the form of light.

Gravitation is from the speed of light difference caused by proximity, which

proportional to ﬁeld strength decreases the distance of everything for the ﬁeld

strength. This causes the spin of the earth or other mass to move quicker farther

away from the greatest other ﬁeld inﬂuence and thus orbit the sun or larger mass. The

closest parts of the bodies have smaller distances because of larger total ﬁelds and

thus slower speeds of light. These ﬁelds are generated by closed ﬁeld lines of

vortices and largely matter. Matter does not move as energy because the speed of

light is 0 in the ﬁeld of the vortex due to inﬁnite ﬁeld strength within the closed ﬁeld.

The more mass in proximity something has the greater the ﬁeld strength and the

shorter the distances, which causes larger groups of subatomic particles to individ-

ually have smaller sizes.

The total ﬁeld energy in the universe is exactly 0, but particle and energy forms of

vortices divide the energy inside and outside the vortex boundary. When particles

are destroyed no energy is released. No energy was produced when large amount of

matter was destroyed at MIT with accelerated natrium atoms. This is what Tesla

6.8 Summary 373

predicted but contradicts Einstein’sE¼MC

2

. Einstein’s equation is correct as long

as the number of subatomic particles is only divided; energy comes from mass

defect, not from destruction.

There are a few kinds of waves. EM which are ﬁelds, scalar electric, or eddy

currents or magnetic vortex which Tesla started with, and magnetic scalar or the

potential vortex which Meyl focuses on and is used in nature. EM is ﬁxed at the

speed of light at that speciﬁc closed ﬁeld strength. Scalar vortices can be of any

speed. Neutrinos travel at 1.6c or higher and do not decay to EM. Tesla-type scalar is

between c and 1.6c and decays at distances proportional to their speed (used in

traditional radio near ﬁeld). Under the speed c, the scalar vortex acts as an electron.

Black holes may produce and emit neutrinos by condensing and transforming

matter into massive fast particles with apparently no mass or charge due to their very

high frequency of ﬂuctuation. Neutrinos oscillate in mass and charge. When neutri-

nos hit matter and they have a precise charge or mass they produce one of the three

effects: a gain in mass, a production of EM, or emission of slower neutrinos.

Resonance requires the same frequency, same modulation, and opposite phase

angle. Once (scalar) resonance is reached, a direct connection is created from the

transmitter to the receiver. Signal and power will pass through a Faraday cage.

In part of summary close-up, as we brieﬂy mentioned in Chap. 1, according to

Tom Bearden, the scalar interferometer is a powerful superweapon that the Soviet

Union used for years to modify weather in the rest of the world [28]. It taps the

quantum vacuum energy, using a method discovered by T. Henry Moray in the

1920s [29]. It may have brought down the Columbia spacecraft. However, some

conspiracy theorists believe that Bearden is an agent of disinformation on this topic;

thus we leave this matter to the reader to make their own conclusions and be able to

follow up their own ﬁnding and this author does not claim that any of these matters

are false or true. However, in the 1930s Tesla announced other bizarre and terrible

weapons: a death ray, a weapon to destroy hundreds or even thousands of aircraft at

hundreds of miles range, and his ultimate weapon to end all war—the Tesla shield,

which nothing could penetrate. However, by this time no one any longer paid any

real attention to the forgotten great genius. Tesla died in 1943 without ever revealing

the secret of these great weapons and inventions. Tesla called this superweapon as

scalar potential howitzer or death ray as artistically depicted in Figs. 2.55 and 2.56

and later was demonstrated by Soviets in their Sary Shagan Missile Range during the

pick of Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) time period and mentioned it during SALT

treaty negotiation [30,31].

References

1. http://www.k-meyl.de/xt_shop/index.php?cat¼c3_Books-in-English.html

2. B. Zohuri, Directed energy weapons: physics of high energy lasers (HEL), 1st edn. (Springer

Publishing Company, New York, 2016)

374 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

3. L.M. Hively, G.C. Giakos, Toward a more complete electrodynamic theory. Int. J. Signals

Imaging Syst. Engr. 5,2–10 (2012)

4. B. Zohuri, Plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear reactions driven fusion energy

(Springer Publishing Company, New York, 2016)

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