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# Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon

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## Abstract and Figures

There is a wide confusion on what are “scalar waves” in serious and less serious literature on electrical engineering. In this chapter we explain that this type of waves are longitudinal waves of potentials. It is shown that a longitudinal wave is a combination of a vector potential with a scalar potential. There is a full analog to acoustic waves. Transmitters and receivers for longitudinal electromagnetic waves are discussed. Scalar wave was found and used at first by Nikola Tesla in his wireless energy transmission experiment. The scalar wave is the extension of Maxwell equation part that we can call it more complete electromagnetic (MCE) equation as described in this chapter.
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Chapter 6
Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
There is a wide confusion on what are scalar wavesin serious and less serious
literature on electrical engineering. In this chapter we explain that this type of waves
are longitudinal waves of potentials. It is shown that a longitudinal wave is a
combination of a vector potential with a scalar potential. There is a full analog to
acoustic waves. Transmitters and receivers for longitudinal electromagnetic waves
are discussed. Scalar wave was found and used at rst by Nikola Tesla in his wireless
energy transmission experiment. The scalar wave is the extension of Maxwell
equation part that we can call it more complete electromagnetic (MCE) equation
as described in this chapter.
6.1 Introduction
It is the purpose of this chapter to discuss a new unied eld theory based on the
work of Tesla. This unied eld and particle theory explains quantum and classical
physics, mass, gravitation, constant speed of light, neutrinos, wave, and particles, all
can be explained by vortices [1], white to discuss on these unique, various recent
inventions and their possible modes of operation, but to convince those listening of
their value for hopefully directing a future program geared towards the rigorous
clarication and certication, of the specic role the electroscalar domain might play
in shaping a future, consistent, classical, electrodynamics. Also, by extension to
perhaps shed light on current theory conceptual and mathematical inconsistencies do
exist, in the present interpretation of relativistic quantum mechanics. In this regard, it
is anticipated that by incorporating this more expansive electrodynamic model, the
source of the extant problems with gauge invariance in quantum electrodynamics
and the subsequent unavoidable divergences in energy/charge might be identied
and ameliorated.
B. Zohuri, Directed-Energy Beam Weapons,
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20794-6_6
323
Not only does the electroscalar domain have the potential to address such lofty
theoretical questions surrounding fundamental physics, but also another aim in this
chapter is to show that the protocol necessary for generating these eld effects may
not be present only in exotic conditions involving large eld strengths and specic
frequencies involving expensive infrastructure such as the Large Hadron Collider
(LHC), but as recent discoveries suggest may be present in the physical manipulation
of ordinary everyday objects. We will also see that nature has been and may be
engaged in the process of using scalar longitudinal waves (SLW) in many ways as
yet unsuspected and undetected by humanity. Some of these modalities of scalar
wave generation we will investigate will include the following: chemical bond
breaking, particularly as a precursor to seismic events (illuminating the study and
development of earthquake early warning system), solar events (related to eclipses),
and sunspot activity and how it impacts the earths magnetosphere. Moreover, this
overview of the unique aspects of the electroscalar domain will suggest that many of
the currently unexplained anomalies such as over-unity power observed in various
energy devices, and exotic energy effects associated with low-energy nuclear reac-
tions (LENR), may nd some basis in fact.
In regards, to the latter cold fusion or LENR fusion-type scenarios, the
electroscalar wave might be the actual agent needed to reduce the nuclear Coulomb
barrier, thus providing the long-sought-out viable theoretical explanation of this
phenomenon. Longitudinal electrodynamic forces in exploding wires, etc. may
actually be due to the operation of electroscalar waves at the subatomic levels of
nature. For instance, the extraordinary energies produced by Ken Shoulders charge
clusters (i.e., particles of like-charge repel each otherthat is one of the laws
describing the interaction between single subatomic particles) may also possibly
be due to electroscalar mechanisms. Moreover, these observations, spanning as they
do cross many cross-disciplines of science, beg the question as to the possible
universality of the SLWthat the concept of the longitudinal electroscalar wave,
not present in current electrodynamics, may represent a general, key, overarching
principle, leading to new paradigms in other science besides physics. This idea will
also be explored in the talk, showing the possible connection of scalar-longitudinal
(also known as, electroscalar) wave dynamics to biophysical systems. Admittedly,
were proposing quite an ambitious agenda in reaching for these goals, but I think
you will see that recent innovations will have proven equal to the task of supporting
this quest.
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions
As you know from classical physics point of view, typically there are three kinds of
waves and wave equations that we can talk about (i.e., soliton wave is an exceptional
case and should be addressed separately).
324 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
These three types are listed as:
1. Mechanical waves (i.e., wave on string)
2. Electromagnetic waves (i.e., E
!and B
!elds from Maxwells equation to deduce
the wave equations, where these waves carry energy from one place to another)
3. Quantum mechanical waves (i.e., using Schrödinger equations to study particle
movement)
The second one is the subject of our interest, in terms of two types of waves
involved in electromagnetic wave and they are:
(a) Transverse waves
(b) Longitudinal pressure waves (LPWs), also known as scalar longitudinal waves
(SLWs)
From the above two waves, the scalar longitudinal wave (SLW) is the matter of
interest in directed energy weapons (DEW) [2]; this is why, and rst, we briey
describe the SLWs and their advantages for DEW purpose as well as communication
within a nonhomogeneous media such as seawater with different electrical primitiv-
ity εand magnetic permeability μat different layers of ocean depth. See Chap. 4of
this book.
A wave is dened as a disturbance which travels through a particular medium.
The medium is a material through which a wave travels from one to another location.
Take the example of a slinky wave which can be stretched from one end to other end
and then becomes in static condition. This static condition is called its neutral
condition or equilibrium state.
In the slinky coil, the particles are moved up and down and then come into their
equilibrium state. This generates disturbance in coil which is moved from one to
another end. This is the movement of slinky pulse. This is a single disturbance in
medium from one to another location. If it is done continuously and in a
periodical manner, then it is called a wave. These are also called energy transport
medium. They are found in different shapes, and show different behaviors and
characteristic properties. On this basis, these are classied mainly in two types that
are longitudinal, transverse, and surface waves. Here we are discussing the longitu-
dinal waves, properties, and its examples. The movement of wave is parallel to the
medium of particles in these waves.
6.2.1 Transverse Waves
For transverse waves the displacement of the medium is perpendicular to the
direction of propagation of the wave. A ripple on a pond and a wave on a string
are easily visualized transverse waves. See Fig. 6.1.
Transverse waves cannot propagate in a gas or a liquid because there is no
mechanism for driving motion perpendicular to the propagation of the wave. In
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 325
summary, it is a wave in which the oscillation is perpendicular to the direction of
wave propagation. Electromagnetic waves [and secondary-waves (or S-waves or
shear waves sometimes called an elastic S-waves) in general] are transverse waves.
6.2.2 Longitudinal Waves
In longitudinal waves the displacement of the medium is parallel to the propagation
of the wave. A wave which is slinkyis a good visualization. Sound waves in air are
longitudinal waves. See Fig. 6.2.
In summary, it is a wave in which the oscillation is opposite to the direction of
wave propagation. Sound waves [and primary-waves or (P-waves) in general] are
longitudinal waves. On the other hand, a wave motion in which the particles of the
medium oscillate about their mean positions in the direction of propagation of the
wave is called longitudinal wave.
However, if we use our wand to expand the subject of longitudinal wave (LW),
before we go deeper into the subject of scalar longitudinal wave (SLW), for
longitudinal wave the vibration of the particles of the medium is in the direction of
wave propagation. A longitudinal wave proceeds in the form of compression and
rarefaction which is the stretch and compression in the same direction as the wave
moves. For a longitudinal wave at places of compression the pressure and density
tend to be maximum, while at places where rarefaction takes place the pressure and
density are minimum. In gases only, longitudinal wave can propagate. Longitudinal
waves are known as compression waves.
Fig. 6.1 Depiction of a transverse wave
Fig. 6.2 Depiction of a longitudinal wave
326 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
A longitudinal wave travels through a medium in the form of compressions or
condensations Cand rarefaction R. A compression is a region of the medium in
which particles are compressed, i.e., particles come closer, i.e., distance between the
particles becomes less than the normal distance between them. Thus, there is
temporary decrease in volume and as a consequence increase in density of the
medium in the region of compression. A rarefaction is a region of the medium in
which particles are rareed, i.e., particles get farther apart than what they normally
are. Thus, there is temporary increase in volume and a consequent decrease in
density of the medium in the region of rarefaction.
The distance between the centers of two consecutive rarefaction and two consec-
utive compressions is called wavelength. Examples of longitudinal waves are sound
waves, tsunami waves, earthquake P-waves, ultrasounds, vibrations in gas, and
oscillations in spring, internal water waves, and waves in slink.
1. Longitudinal Waves
The various examples of sound wave are:
(a) Sound wave
(b) Earthquake P-wave
(c) Tsunami wave
(e) Glass vibrations
(f) Internal water waves
(g) Ultrasound
(h) Spring oscillations
2. Sound Waves
Now the question is that are sound waves longitudinal? The answer is yes,
sound wave travels as longitudinal wave in nature. Sound wave behaves as a
transverse wave in solids. Through gases, plasma, and liquid the sound travels as
longitudinal wave. Through solids it can be transmitted as transverse as well as
longitudinal wave.
Material medium is mandatory for the propagation of the sound waves. Sound
waves are mostly longitudinal in common nature. Speed of sound in air at
N.T.P. (normal standard and pressure) is 332 m/s. Vibrations of air column
above the surface of water in the tube of a resonance apparatus are longitudinal.
Vibrations of air column in organ pipes are longitudinal. Sound is audible only
between 20 Hz and 20 KHz. Sound waves cannot be polarized.
Vibrations of air column in organ pipes are longitudinal. Vibrations of air
columns above the surface of water in the tube of a resonance apparatus are
longitudinal.
(a) Propagation of sound waves in air
Sound waves are classied as longitudinal waves. Let us now see how sound
waves propagate. Take a tuning fork, vibrate it, and concentrate on the motion
of one of its prongs, say prong A. The normal position of the tuning fork and
the initial condition of air particles are shown in Fig. 6.3a. As the prong
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 327
A moves towards right, it compresses air particles near it, forming a com-
pression as shown in Fig. 6.3b. Due to vibrating air layers, this compression
moves forward as a disturbance.
As the prong A moves back to its original position, the pressure on its right
decreases, thereby forming a rarefaction. This rarefaction moves forward like
compression as a disturbance. As the tuning fork goes on vibrating, waves
consisting of alternate compressions and rarefactions spread in air as shown
in Fig. 6.3c, d. The direction of motion of the sound waves is same as that of
air particles; hence they are classied as longitudinal waves. The longitudinal
waves travel in the form of compressions and rarefactions.
The main parts of the sound wave are as follows:
The main parts of sound wave are listed below with their descriptions:
Amplitude: The maximum displacement of a vibrating particle of the
medium from the mean position. A shows amplitude in y¼Asin(wt).
The maximum height of the wave is called its amplitude. If the sound is
more then the amplitude is more.
Frequency: Number of vibrations made per second by the particles and is
denoted by fwhich is given as f¼1/Tand its unit: Hz. We can also get the
expression for angular frequency.
BA
BA
BA
BA
Compression
Compression
Compression Compression
Rarefaction
Rarefaction
Rarefaction
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Fig. 6.3 Tuning fork
328 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
Pitch: It is that characteristic of sound with the help of which we can
distinguish between a SHRILL note and a note that is grave. When a sound
is shriller it is said to be of higher pitch and is found to be of greater
frequency, as ω¼2πf. On the other hand, a grave sound is said to be of low
pitch and is of low frequency. Hence pitch of a sound depends upon its
frequency. It should be made clear that pitch is not the frequency but
changes with frequency.
Wavelength: The distance between two consecutive particles in the same
phase or the distance traveled by the wave in one periodic time and denoted
by lambda.
Sound wave: It is a longitudinal wave with regions of compression
and rarefactions. The increase of pressure above its normal value may be
written as
Xp¼Xp0sin ωtc
v
 ð6:1Þ
where
p¼increase in pressure at xposition at time t
p
0
¼maximum increase in pressure
ω¼2πfwhere fis frequency
If pand p
0
are replaced by Pand P
0
, then Eq. (6.1) has the following
form as
P¼P0sin ωtc
v
 ð6:2Þ
(b) Sound intensity
Loudness of sound is related to the intensity of sound. The sounds intensity
at any point may be dened as the amount of sound energy passing per unit
time per unit area around that point in a perpendicular direction. It is a
physical quantity. It is measured in Wm
2
in S.I.
The sound wave falling on the eardrum of the observer produces the
sensation of hearing. The sounds sensation which enables us to differentiate
between a loud and a faint sound is called loudness and we can designate by
the symbol of L. It depends on the intensity of the sound Iand the sensitivity
of the ear of the observer at that place. The lowest intensity of sound that can
be perceived by the human ear is called threshold of hearing and it is
denoted by I
0
. The mathematical relation between intensity and loudness is
L¼log I
I0
ð6:3Þ
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 329
The intensity of sound depends on
Amplitude of vibrations of the source
Surface area of the vibrating source
Distance of the source from the observer
Density of the medium in which sound travels from the source
Presence of other surrounding bodies
Motion of the medium
(c) Sound reection
When a sound wave gets reected from a rigid boundary, the particles at the
boundary are unable to vibrate. Hence the generation of reected wave takes
place which interferes with the oncoming wave to produce zero displacement
at the rigid boundary. At the points where there is zero displacement, the
variation in pressure is maximum. This shows that the phase of wave has been
reversed but the nature of sound wave does not change, i.e., on reection the
compression is reected back as compression and rarefaction as rarefaction.
Let the incident wave be represented by the given equation:
Y¼asin ωtkxðÞ ð6:4Þ
Then Eq. (6.4)ofreected wave takes the form
Y¼asin ωtþkx þπðÞ¼asin ωtþkxðÞ ð6:5Þ
Here in both Eqs. (6.4) and (6.5) the symbol of ais basically designation of
the amplitude of reected wave.
A sound wave is also reected if it encounters a rarer medium or free
boundary or low-pressure region. A common example is traveling of a sound
wave in a narrow open tube. On reaching an open end, the wave gets
reected. So, the force exerted on the particles there due to outside air is
quite small and hence the particles vibrate with increasing amplitude. Due to
this the pressure there tends to remain at the average value. This means that
there is no alteration in the phase of the wave, but the ultimate nature of the
wave has been altered; that is, on the reection of the wave the compression is
reected as rarefaction and vice versa.
The amplitude of the reected wave would be a
0
this time and Eq. (6.4)
becomes
y¼a0sin ωtþkxðÞ ð6:6Þ
3. Wave Interface
When listening to a single sine wave, amplitude is directly related to loudness and
frequency is directly related to pitch. When there are two or more simultaneously
sounding sine waves the wave interference takes place.
330 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
There are basically two types of wave interface:
(a) Constructive interference
(b) Destructive interference
4. Decibel
A smaller and practical unit of loudness is decibel (dB) and is dened as follows:
1 Decibel ¼1
10 bel ð6:7Þ
In decibels, the loudness of a sound of intensity Iis given by
L¼10 log I
I0
 ð6:8Þ
5. Timber
Timber can be called as the property which distinguishes two sounds and makes
them different from each other even when they have the same frequency. For
example, when we play violin and guitar on the same note and same loudness the
sound is still different. It is also denoted as tone color.
6. S-Waves
An S-wave is a wave in an elastic medium in which the restoring force is provided
by shear.S-waves are divergence-less:
u
!¼0ð6:9Þ
where u
!is the displacement of the wave, and comes in two polarizations:
(a) SV (vertical)
(b) SH (horizontal)
The speed of an S-wave is given by
υs¼ﬃﬃ
μ
ρ
rð6:10Þ
where μis the shear modulus and ρis the density.
7. P-Waves
Primary-waves are also called P-waves. These are compressional waves. They are
longitudinal in nature. These are a type of pressure waves. The speed of P-waves
is greater than other waves. These are called the primary waves as they are the
rst to arrive during the earthquake. This is because of large velocity. The
propagation of these waves knows no bounds and hence can travel through any
type of material, including uids.
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 331
P-waves, that is also called pressure waves, are longitudinal waves; that is, the
oscillation occurs in the same direction (and opposite) as the direction of wave
propagation. The restoring force for P-waves is provided by the mediums bulk
modulus. In an elastic medium with rigidity or shear modules being zero (μ¼0),
a harmonic plane wave has the form
Sz;tðÞ¼S0cos kz ωtþϕðÞ ð6:11Þ
where S
0
is the amplitude of displacement, kis the wave number, zis the
distance along the axis of propagation, ωis the angular frequency, tis the time,
and ϕis a phase offset. From the denition of bulk modulus (K), we can write
K¼VdP
dVð6:12Þ
where Vis the volume and dP/dVis the derivative of pressure with respect to
volume.
The bulk modulus gives the change in volume of a solid substance as the
pressure on it is changed; then we can write
KVdP
dV

ρP
ρ
 ð6:13Þ
Consider a wave front with surface area A, and then the change in pressure of
the wave is given by the following relationship as
dP¼KdV
V¼KASzþΔzðÞSzðÞ½
AΔz
¼KSzþΔzðÞSzðÞ
Δz¼KS
z
ð6:14Þ
where ρis the density. The bulk modulus has units of pressure.
6.2.3 Pressure Waves and More Details
As we did mention above the pressure waves present the behavior and concept of
longitudinal waves; thus many of the important concepts and techniques used to
analyze transverse waves on a string as part of mechanical wave components can
also be applied to longitudinal pressure waves.
332 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
You can see an illustration of how a pressure wave works in Fig. 6.4. As the
mechanical wave source moves through the medium, it pushes on a nearby segment
of the material, and that segment moves away from the source and is compressed
(that is, the same amount of mass is squeezed into a smaller volume, so the density of
the segment increases). That segment of increased density exerts pressure on adja-
cent segments, and in this way a pulse (if the source gives a single push) or a
harmonic wave (if the source oscillates back and forth) is generated by the source
and propagates through the material.
The disturbanceof such waves involves three things: the longitudinal displace-
ment of material, changes in the density of the material, and variation of the pressure
within the material. So, pressure waves could also be called density wavesor even
longitudinal displacement waves,and when you see graphs of the wave distur-
bance in physics and engineering textbooks, you should make sure that you under-
stand which of these quantities is being plotted as the displacementof the wave.
As you can see in Fig. 6.4,were still considering one-dimensional wave motion
(that is, the wave propagates only along the x-axis). But pressure waves exist in a
three-dimensional medium, so instead of considering the linear mass density μ
(as we did for the string in the previous section), in this case its the volumetric
mass density ρthat will provide the inertial characteristic of the medium. But just as
we restricted the string motion to small angles and considered only the transverse
component of the displacement, in this case well assume that the pressure and
density variations are small relative to the equilibrium values and consider only
longitudinal displacement (so the material is compressed or rareed only by changes
in the segment length in the x-direction).
The most straightforward route to nding the wave equation for this type of wave
is very similar to the approach used for transverse waves on a string, which means
you can use Newtons second law to relate the acceleration of a segment of the
material to the sum of the forces acting on that segment. To do that, start by dening
the pressure (P) at any location in terms of the equilibrium pressure (ρ
0
) and the
incremental change in pressure produced by the wave (dP):
Fig. 6.4 Displacement and compression of a segment of materials
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 333
P¼P0þdPð6:15Þ
Likewise, the density (ρ) at any location can be written in terms of the equilibrium
density (ρ
0
) and the incremental change in density produced by the wave (aρ):
ρ¼ρ0þdρð6:16Þ
Before relating these quantities to the acceleration of material in the medium
using Newtons second law, it is worthwhile to familiarize yourself with the termi-
nology and equations of volume compressibility. As you might imagine, when
external pressure is applied to a segment of material, how much the volume (and
thus the density) of that material changes depends on the nature of the material. To
compress a volume of air by 1% requires a pressure increase of about 1000 Pa
(pascals, or N/m
2
) but to compress a volume of steel by 1% requires a pressure
increase of more than 1 billion Pa. The compressibility of a substance is the inverse
of its bulk modulus(usually written as Kor B, with units of pascals), which relates
an incremental change in pressure (dP) to the fractional change in density (dρ) of the
material:
KdP
dρ=ρ0
ð6:17Þ
or
dP¼Kdρ
ρ0
ð6:18Þ
With this relationship in hand, you are ready to consider Newtons second law for
the segment of material being displaced and compressed (or rareed) by the wave.
To do that, consider the pressure from the surrounding material acting on the left and
on the right sides of the segment, as shown in Fig. 6.5.
Fig. 6.5 Pressure on a segment of material
334 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
Notice that the pressure (P
1
) on the left end of the segment is pushing in the
positive x-direction and the pressure on the left end of the segment is pushing in the
negative x-direction. Setting the sum of the x-direction forces equal to the acceler-
ation in the x-direction gives
XFx¼P1AP2A¼maxð6:19Þ
where mis the mass of the segment. If the cross-sectional area of the segment is
Aand the length of the segment is dx, the volume of the segment is Adx, and the mass
of the segment is this volume times the equilibrium density of the material:
Notice also that the pressure on the right end of the segment is smaller than the
pressure on the left end, since the source is pushing on the left end, which means that
the acceleration at this instant will be towards the right. Using the symbol ψto
represent the displacement of the material due to the wave, the acceleration in the x-
direction can be written as
ax¼2ψ
t2ð6:21Þ
Substituting these expressions for mand a
x
into Newtons second law Eq. (6.19)
gives
t2ð6:22Þ
Writing the pressure P
1
at the left end as P
0
+dP
1
and the pressure P
2
at the right
end as P
0
+dP
2
means that
P1AP2A¼P0þdP1
ðÞAP0þdP2
ðÞA
¼dP1dP2
ðÞAð6:23Þ
But the change in dP(that is, the change in the overpressure (or under-pressure)
produced by the wave) over the distance dxcan be written as
Change in overpressure ¼dP2dP1¼dPðÞ
xdxð6:24Þ
which means
dPðÞ
t2ð6:25Þ
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 335
or
ρ0
2ψ
t2¼dPðÞ
xð6:26Þ
But dP¼dρK/ρ
0
,so
ρ0
2ψ
t2¼
K
ρ0

dρ
hi
xð6:27Þ
The next step is to relate the change in density (dρ) to the displacements of the left
and right ends of the segment (ψ
1
and ψ
2
). To do that, note that the mass of the
segment is the same before and after the segment is compressed. That mass is the
segments density times its volume (m¼ρV) and the volume of the segment can be
seen in Fig. 6.4 to be V
1
2
¼A(dx+dψ) after
compression. Thus
ρ0V1¼ρ0þdρðÞV2
The change in displacement (dψ) over distance dxcan be written as
dψ¼ψ
xdxð6:29Þ
so
xdx

ρ0¼ρ0þdρðÞ1þψ
x

¼ρ0þdρþρ0
ψ
x

þdρψ
x

ð6:30Þ
Since we are restricting our consideration to the cases, in which the density
change (dρ) produced by the wave is small relative to the equilibrium density (ρ
0
),
the term dρ(ψ/x) must be small compared with the term ρ
0
(ψ/x). Thus to a
reasonable approximation we can write
dρ¼ρ0
ψ
xð6:31Þ
336 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
which we can insert into Eq. (6.27), giving the following:
ρ0
2ψ
t2
!
¼
K
ρ0
ρ0
ψ
x

x
¼
Kψ
x

x
ð6:32Þ
Rearranging makes this into an equation with a familiar form of wave equation in
one-dimensional:
ρ0
2ψ
t2¼K2ψ
x2ð6:33Þ
or
2ψ
x2¼ρ0
K

2ψ
t2ð6:34Þ
As in the case of transverse waves on a string, you can determine the phase speed
of a pressure wave by comparing the multiplicative term in the classical wave
equation of Eq. (6.35) below, with that in Eq. (6.34):
2ψ
x2¼1
υ2
2ψ
t2ð6:35Þ
Setting these factors equal to one another gives the result of
1
υ2¼ρ0
Kð6:36Þ
or
υ¼ﬃﬃﬃﬃ
K
ρ0
sð6:37Þ
As expected, the phase speed of the pressure wave depends both on the elastic (K)
and on the inertial (ρ
0
) properties of the medium. Specically, the higher the bulk
modulus of the material (that is, the stiffer the material), the faster the components of
the wave will propagate (since Kis in the numerator), and the higher the density of
the medium, the slower those components will move (since ρ
0
is in the
denominator).
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 337
6.2.4 What Are Scalar Longitudinal Waves
Scalar longitudinal waves (SLW) are, conceived as longitudinal waves, as are sound
waves. Unlike the transversal waves of electromagnetism, which move up and down
perpendicularly to the direction of propagation, longitudinal waves vibrate in line
with the direction of propagation. Transversal waves can be observed in water
ripples: the ripples move up and down as the overall waves move outward, such
that there are two actions, one moving up and down, and the other propagating in a
specic direction outward.
Technically speaking, scalar waves have magnitude but no direction, since they
are imagined to be the result of two electromagnetic waves that are 180out of phase
with one another, which leads to both signals being canceled out. This results in a
kind of pressure wave.
Mathematical physicist James Clerk Maxwell, in his original mathematical equa-
tions concerning electromagnetism, established the theoretical existence of scalar
waves. After his death, however, later physicists assumed that these equations were
meaningless, since scalar waves had not been empirically observed and they were
not repeatedly veried among the scientic community at large.
Vibrational or subtle energetic research, however, has helped advance our under-
standing of scalar waves. One important discovery states that there are many
different types of scalar waves, not just those of the electromagnetic variety. For
example, there are vital scalar waves (corresponding with the vital or Qibody),
emotional scalar waves, mental scalar waves, causal scalar waves, and so forth. In
essence, as far as we are aware, all subtleenergies are made up of various types of
scalar waves.
Qi Body Qi can be interpreted as the life energyor life force,which ows
within us. Sometimes, it is known as the vital energyof the body. In
traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, qi is the vital substance consti-
tuting the human body. It also refers to the physiological functions of organs
and meridians.
Some general properties of scalar waves (of the benecial kind) include the
following:
Travel faster than the speed of light
Seem to transcend space and time
Cause the molecular structure of water to become coherently reordered
Positively increase immune function in mammals
Are involved in the formation process in nature
See more details of SLW applications in the next section below.
338 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
6.2.5 Scalar Longitudinal Wave Applications
The possibility of developing a means of establishing a communication through a
nonhomogeneous means is looking very promising via utilization of more complete
electrodynamic (MCE) theory [3]. This theory reveals the scalar longitudinal wave
(SLW), which is created by a gradient-driven current, has no magnetic eld, and
thus is not constrained by the skin effect. The SLW is slightly attenuated by non-
linearities in the electrical conductivity as a function of electrical eld magnitude.
The SLW does not interfere with classical transverse electromagnetic (TEM) trans-
mission or vice versa. By contrast, TEM waves are severely attenuated in conductive
media due to magnetically driven eddy currents that arise from the skin effect.
Consequently, only very-low- and ultralow-frequency TEM waves can be success-
fully used for long-distance underwater communications. The SLW also has imme-
diate implications for the efcient redesign and optimization of existing TEM-based
electronic technologies, because both TEM and SLW are created simultaneously
with present electronic technologies.
The goal of application of SLW-based 150 kb/s digital data propagation over
distances of many kilometers to address strategic, tactical, surveillance, and undersea
warfare missions of the organization such as Navy. With this goal in mind, the
optimization of SLW underwater-antenna design will be guided by development of a
rst-principle SLW simulator from the MCE theory, since all existing simulators
model only circulating current-based TEM waves. A proof-of-principle demonstra-
tion of the prototype antenna through freshwater will be conducted in-house,
followed by controlled tests at typical government underwater test range(s). These
tests would include characterization of wave attenuation versus frequency, modula-
tion bandwidth, and beamwidth control. The deliverable will be an initial prototype
for SLW communications over tactical distances or more, followed by a eld-
deployable prototype, as dictated by Navy performance needs.
The unique properties of the scalar longitudinal wave lead to more sophisticated
application areas, with implications for ocean surveillance systems, underwater
imaging, energy production, power transmission, transportation, guidance, and
national security. This disruptive technology has the potential to transform commu-
nications, as well as electrodynamics applications in general.
As far as low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) is concerned, it is certain that most
of us have heard of scalar electrodynamics. However, we probably have many
mostly shrouded in mystery, we may even wonder whether it exists at all. And if
it exists, do we need exotic conditions to produce and use it, or will it require a
drastic transformation in our current understanding of classical electrodynamics, or
how much of an impact will it have on future modes of power generation and
conversion, whether has applications in weaponry, medical, or Lowe energy fusion
driven as source of energy (D + D reaction as it was mentioned above)?
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 339
There is also a possibility of applying such scalar electrodynamics wave (SEW) in
applications such as developing and demonstrating of an all-electronic (AE) engine
that replaces electromechanical (EM) engines for vehicle propulsion.
As far as other applications of scalar longitudinal wave are concerned few can be
listed here as well, and they are as follows:
6.2.5.1 Medical Application of Scalar Longitudinal Waves
Not all scalar waves, or subtle energies, are benecial to living systems. Electro-
magnetism of the 60 Hz AC variety, for example, emanates a secondary longitudi-
nal/scalar wave that is typically detrimental to living systems.
However, to utilize the SLW as an application in bioeld technology effectively,
we need to cancel the detrimental aspect of wave scale and transmit it into a
benecial wave; therefore this innovative approach qualies the medical application
of SLW, where we can approach that biomedical folks to suggest such invention and
ask for funding there as well. Last three bullet points are of vital interest in bioeld
approach application of SLW.
6.2.5.2 Bona Fide Application of SLW for Low-Temperature Fusion
Energy
In case of low-temperature fusion interaction of D + D, by lowering nuclear potential
barrier for the purpose of cold fusionfor lack of better word, we know that in
low-energy heavy-ion fusion, the term Coulomb barriercommonly refers to the
barrier formed by the repulsive Coulomband the attractive nuclear(nucleus-
nucleus) interactions in a central (S-wave) collision. This barrier is frequently called
fusion barrier (for light and medium mass heavy-ion systems) or capture barrier
(heavy systems). In general, there is a centrifugal component to such a barrier
(noncentral collisions). Experimenters may use the term Coulomb barrierto the
nominal value of the Coulomb barrier distributionwhen either coupled-channel
effects operate or (at least) a collision partner is deformed as the barrier features
depend on orientation. To my knowledge, the terminology transfer barrierhas not
been used much. In my view, it could be applied to the transfer of charged particles/
clusters.
There is a vast literature on the methods for calculating Coulomb barriers. For
instance, the double-folding method is broadly used in the low-energy nuclear
physics community. Based on this technique, there is a potential called Sao-Paulo
potentialbecause it has been developed by theorists in Sao Paulo city in Brazil.
The Coulomb barrier is calculated theoretically by adding the nuclear and Cou-
lomb contributions of the interaction potential. For fusion, there are other contribu-
tions coming from the different degrees of freedom such as the angular momentum
(centrifugal potential), and the vibrational and rotational states in both interacting
nuclei in addition to the transfer contribution.
340 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
This is an area in which we may or could approach DOE or NRC with some RFP,
in particular Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
6.2.5.3 Weapon Application of SLW as Directed Energy Weapons
The scalar beam weapons were originally invented in 1904 by Nicola Tesla, an
American immigrant from Yugoslavia (1856 or 18571943). Since he died in 1943,
many nations have secretly developed his beam weapons, which now further rened
are so powerful that just by satellite one can make a nuclear-like destruction;
earthquake; hurricane; tidal wave; and instant freezingkilling every living thing
instantly over many miles. It can also cause intense heat like a burning reball over a
wide area; induce hypnotic mind control over a whole population; or even read
anyone on the planets mind by remote. Due to the nature of behaving as a pressure
wave and carrying tremendous energy, SLW can remove something right out of its
place in time and space faster than the speed of light, without any detectable warning
by crossing two or more beams with each other. Moreover, any target can be aimed
at even right through to the opposite side of the earth. If either of the major scalar
weapon armed countries, e.g., the United States or Russia, were to re a nuclear
missile to attack each other this may possibly not even reach the target, because the
missile could be destroyed with scalar technology before it even left its place or
origin. The knowledge via radio waves that it was about to be red could be
eavesdropped and the target could be destroyed in the bunker, red at from space
by satellite.
Above 60 Hz Ac frequency, this wave can be very detrimental in nature. A scalar
beam can be sent from a transmitter to the target, coupled with another sent from
another transmitter, and as they cross an explosion can be made. This interference
grid method could enable scalar beams to explode the missile before launch, as well
as en route with knowing the right coordinates. If the target does manage to launch,
what are known as Tesla globes or Tesla hemispheric shields can be sent to envelop a
missile or aircraft. These are made of luminous plasma, which emanates physically
from crossed scalar beams and can be created in any size, even over 100 miles
across. Initially detected and tracked as it moves on the scalar interference grid, a
continuous electromagnetic pulse (EMP) Tesla plasma globe could kill the electron-
ics of the target. More intensely hot Tesla reballglobes could vaporize the
missile. Tesla globes could also activate a missiles nuclear warhead en route by
creating a violent low-order nuclear explosion. Various parts of the ying debris can
be subjected to smaller and more intense Tesla globes where the energy density to
destroy is more powerful than the larger globe rst encountered. This can be done in
pulse mode with any remaining debris given maximum continuous heating to
vaporize metals and materials. If anything still rains down on Russia or the United
States, either could have already made a Tesla shield over the targeted area to block it
from entering the airspace.
Other useful aspect of SLW in military application: There is a community in the
United States that believes the scalar waves are realizable in its nature of
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 341
mathematical approach. In recent conference sponsored by the Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), these were openly discussed and a proceeding on
the conference exists. The conference was dedicated to Nicola Tesla and his work,
and the papers presented claimed that some of Teslas work used scalar wave
concepts. Thus, there is an implied Tesla connectionin all of this. As it was stated
above, these are unconventional waves that are not necessarily a contradiction to
Maxwells equations as some have suggested but might represent an extension to
Maxwells understanding at the time. If realizable, the scalar longitudinal waves
(SLWs) could represent a new form of wave propagation that could penetrate
seawater (knowing the permeability, permittivity of salt water, and consequently
skin depth), resulting in a new method of submarine communications and possibly a
new form of technology for anti-submarine warfare (ASW). This technology also
helps folks in Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Community such as Navy Seals to be
able to communicate with each other even in a murky water condition.
Here are some mathematical notations and physics involved with this aspect of
scalar longitudinal waves:
1. The scalar wave, as it is understood, is not an electromagnetic (EM) wave. An
electromagnetic wave has both electric E
!elds and magnetic B
!elds and
power ow in EM waves is by means of the Poynting vector, as Eq. (6.1) written
below:
S
!¼E
!B
!W=m2ð6:38Þ
The energy per second crossing a unit area whose normal is pointed in
direction of S
!
is the energy in the electromagnetic wave.
A scalar wave has no time varying B
!eld. In some cases, it also has no E
!eld.
Thus, it has no energy propagated in the EM wave form. It must be realized
however that any vector could be added that may be integrated to zero over a
closed surface and Poynting theorem still applies. Thus, there is some ambiguity
in even stating the relationship that is given by Eq. (6.38), and that is the total EM
energy ow.
2. The scalar wave could be accompanied by a vector potential A
!
, and yet E
!and B
!
remain zero in the far eld.
From EM theory, we can write as follows:
E
!¼
!
ϕ1
c
A
!
t
B
!¼
!
A
!
8
>
<
>
:
ð6:39Þ
In this case ϕis the scalar (electric) potential and A
!
is the (magnetic) vector
potential. The Maxwells equations then predict the following mathematical
relation as
342 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
2ϕ1
c2
2ϕ
t2¼0 Scalar Potential WavesðÞð6:40Þ
2A
!1
c2
2A
!
t2¼0 Vector Potential WavesðÞð6:41Þ
A solution appears to exist for the special case of E
!¼0, B
!¼0, and A
!¼0,
for a new wave satisfying the following relations:
A
!¼
!
S
ϕ¼1
c
S
t
8
>
<
>
:
ð6:42Þ
sthen straties the following relationship:
2S1
c2
2S
t2ð6:43Þ
Note that quantity cis a representation of speed of light.
Mathematically sis a potentialwith a wave equation, one that suggests
propagation of this wave even through E
!¼B
!¼0 and the Poynting theorem
indicates no electromagnetic (EM) power ow.
3. From bolt point paragraph 2 above, there is the suggestion of a solution to
Maxwells equations involving a scalar wave with potential sthat can propagate
without Poynting vector EM power ow. However, the question arises as to
where the energy is drawn from to sustain such a ow of energy. Some suggesting
a vector that integrates to zero over a closed surface might be added in the theory,
as suggested in paragraph or bolt point 1 above. Another is the possibility of
drawing energy from the vacuum, assuming that net energy could be drawn
from free space.Quantum electrodynamics allows random energy in free
space but conventional electromagnetic (EM) theory has not allowed this to
date. Random energy in free space that is built of force elds that sum to zero
is a possible approach. If so, these might be a source of energy to drive the
swaves drawn from free space.A number of engineers/scientists in the
community suggested as stated in early statement within this write-up that, if
realizable, the scalar wave could represent a new form of wave propagation that
could penetrate seawater or be used as a new approach for directed energy
weapons (DEWs).
This author suggests considering another scenario where we may need to look
at equations of more complete electromagnetic theory (MCE) and new predictions
of producing energy that way; thus we generate scalar longitudinal wave (SLW),
where the Lagrangian density equation for MCE can be dened as
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 343
L¼εc2
4FμvFμvþJμAμγεc2
2μAμ

2εc2k2
2AμAμ
 ð6:44Þ
where Lagrangian density equation is written in terms of the potentials A
!
and ϕas
follows:
The proof of equation was given in Chap. 5of this book. See Eq. (5.126).
LEM ¼εc2
2
1
c2ϕ
!þA
!
t
0
@1
A
2
A
!2
2
43
5
ρϕ
!þJ
!A
!εc2
2
1
c2
ϕ
!
þA
!
|ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ}
C
0
B
B
@1
C
C
A
2ð6:45Þ
This is the area where there are a lot of speculations among scientists, around the
community of electromagnetic and utilization of scalar wave as a weapon applica-
tion, and you nd a lot of good as well as nonsense approaches in the Internet, by
different folks.
The present approach uses several approaches:
1. One is acoustic signals that travel slowly (1500 m/s in seawater).
2. A second is blue-green laser light that has a typical range of 270 m, and is readily
scattered by seawater particulates.
3. A third is high-frequency radio waves that are limited to a range of 710 m in
seawater at high frequencies.
4. A fourth is extremely low-frequency radio signals that are of long range (world-
wide) but transmit only a few characters per second for one-way, bell-ring calls to
individual submarines.
The new feature of this proposed work is the use of a novel electrodynamic
wave that has no magnetic eld, and thus is not so severely constrained by the high
conductivity of seawater, as regular radio waves are. We have demonstrated the low
loss property of this novel (scalar longitudinal) wave experimentally by sending a
video signal through two millimeters of solid copper at 8 GHz.
If one has a background in physics or electrical engineering you know that
unquestionably our knowledge of the properties and dynamics of electromagnetic
systems is believed to be the most solid and rmly established in all classical
physics. By its extension, the application of quantum electrodynamics, describing
accurately the interaction of light and matter at the subatomic realms, has resulted in
the most successful theoretical scientic theory to date, agreeing with corresponding
experimental ndings to astounding levels of precision. Accordingly, these devel-
opments have led to the belief among physicists that the theory of classical electro-
dynamics is complete and that it is essentially a closed subject.
344 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
However, at least as far back to the era of Nikola Tesla, there have been continual
rumblings of discontent stemming from occasional physical evidence from both
laboratory experimental protocols and knowledge obtained from observation of
natural phenomena such as the dynamics of atmospheric electricity to suggest that
in extreme situations involving the production of high energies at specic frequen-
cies, there might be some cracks exposed in the supposed impenetrable monolithic
fortress of classical/quantum electrodynamics, implying possible key missing theo-
retical and physical elements. Unfortunately, some of these experimental phenom-
ena have been difcult to replicate and produce on-demand. Moreover, some have
been shown to apparently violate some of the established principles underlying
classical thermodynamics. On top of that, many of those courageous individuals
promoting the study of this phenomenon have couched their understanding of the
limited reliable experimental evidence available from these sources, in language
unfamiliar to the legion of mainstream technical specialists in electrodynamics,
preventing clear communication of these ideas. Also, the various sources that have
sought to convey this information have at times delivered contradictory statements.
It is therefore no wonder that for many decades, such exotic claims have been
disregarded, ignored, and summarily discounted by mainstream physics. However,
due to important developments over the past 2 years, there has been a welcome
resurgence of research in this area, bringing back renewed interest towards the
certication of the existence of these formerly rejected anomalous energy phenom-
ena. Consequently, this renaissance of the serious enterprise in searching for specic
weaknesses that currently plague a fuller understanding of electrodynamics has
propelled the proponents of this research to more systematically outline in a clearer
fashion the possible properties of these dynamics, how inclusion could change our
current understanding of electricity and magnetic, as well as implications for poten-
tial, vast, practical ramications to the disciplines of physics, engineering, and
energy generation.
It is the purpose of this book and particularly this chapter to report on these
unique, various recent inventions and their possible modes of operation, but also to
convince those listening of their value for hopefully directing a future program
geared towards the rigorous clarication and certication, of the specic role the
electroscalar domain might play in shaping a future, consistent, classical, electrody-
namicsalso by extension to perhaps shed light on current thorny conceptual and
mathematical inconsistencies that do exist, in the present interpretation of relativistic
quantum mechanics. In this regard, it is anticipated that by incorporating this more
expansive electrodynamic model, the source of the extant problems with gauge
invariance in quantum electrodynamics and the subsequent unavoidable divergences
in energy/charge might be identied and ameliorated.
Not only does the electroscalar domain have the potential to address such lofty
theoretical questions surrounding fundamental physics, but also another aim of this
chapter is to show that the protocol necessary for generating these eld effects may
not be present only in exotic conditions involving large eld strengths and specic
frequencies involving expensive infrastructure such as the large Hadron Collider
(LHC), but as recent discoveries suggest may be present in the physical manipulation
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 345
of ordinary everyday objects. We will also see that nature has been and may be
engaged in the process of using scalar longitudinal waves (SLW) in many ways as
yet unsuspected and undetected by humanity. Some of these modalities of scalar
wave generation we will investigate will include the following: chemical bond
breaking, particularly as a precursor to seismic events (illuminating the study and
development of earthquake early warning system), solar events (related to eclipses),
and sunspot activity and how it impacts the earths magnetosphere. Moreover, this
overview of the unique aspects of the electroscalar domain will suggest that many of
the currently unexplained anomalies such as over-unity power observed in various
energy devices, and exotic energy effects associated with low energy nuclear
reactions (LENR), may nd some basis in fact.
As we did mention at the beginning of this chapter, under Sect. 6.0, in regards to
the latter cold fusion-type scenarios, the electroscalar wave might be the actual
agent needed to reduce the nuclear Coulomb barrier, thus providing the long-sought-
after viable theoretical explanation of this phenomenon [4]. Longitudinal electrody-
namic forces in exploding wires, etc. may actually be due to the operation of
electroscalar waves at the subatomic levels of nature. For instance, the extraordinary
energies produced by Ken Shoulders charge clusters may also possibly be due to
electroscalar mechanisms. Moreover, these observations, spanning as they do cross
many cross-disciplines of science, beg the question as to the possible universality of
the SLWthat the concept of the longitudinal electroscalar wave, not present in
current electrodynamics, may represent a general, key, overarching principle, lead-
ing to new paradigms in other science besides physics. This idea will also be
explored in the talk, showing the possible connection of scalar longitudinal (also
known as electroscalar) wave dynamics to biophysical systems. Admittedly, were
proposing quite an ambitious agenda in reaching for these goals, but I think you will
see that recent innovations will have proven equal to the task of supporting this
quest.
Insight into the incompleteness of classical electrodynamics can begin with the
Helmholtz theorem, which states that any sufciently smooth three-dimensional
vector eld can be uniquely decomposed into two parts. By extension, a generalized
theorem exists, certied through the recent scholarly work of physicist-
mathematician Dale Woodside [5] (see Eq. (6.44) above as well) for unique decom-
position of a sufciently smooth Minkowski four-vector eld (three spatial dimen-
sions, plus time) into four-irrotational and four-solenoidal parts, together with the
tangential and normal components on the bounding surface. With this background,
the theoretical existence of the electroscalar wave can be attributed to failure to
include certain terms in the standard, general, four-dimensional, electromagnetic,
Lagrangian density that are related to the four-irrotational parts of the vector eld.
Here, εis electrical permittivitynot necessarily of the vacuum. Specically, the
electroscalar eld becomes incorporated in the structure of electrodynamics, when
we let Eq. (6.44) above for γ¼1, and k¼(2πmc/h)¼0. As we can see in this
representation as it is written for Eq. (6.44), it is the presence of the third term that
describes these new features.
346 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
We can see more clearly how this term arises by writing the Lagrangian density in
terms of the standard electromagnetic scalar (ϕ) (see Eq. 6.45 above) and magnetic
vector potentials (A), without the electroscalar representation included. This equa-
tion has zero divergence of the potentials (formally called solenoidal), consistent
with classical electromagnetics, as we see here. The second class of four-vector
elds has zero curl of the potentials (irrotational vector eld), which will emerge
once we add this scalar factor. Here we see that it is represented by the last term,
which is usually zero in standard classical electromagnetics. The expression in the
parentheses, when set equal to zero, describes what is known as the Lorentz
condition, which makes the scalar potential and the vector potential in their usual
form, mathematically dependent on each other. Accordingly, the usual electromag-
netic theory then species that the potentials may be chosen arbitrarily, based on the
specic, so-called, gauge that is chosen for this purpose. However, the MCE theory
allows for a nonzero value for this scalar-valued expression, essentially making the
potentials independent of each other, where this new scalar-valued component (Cin
Eq. 6.45 that we may call it Lagrangian density) is a dynamic function of space and
time. It is from this new idea of independence of the potentials which the scalar value
(C) is derived, and from which the unique properties and dynamics of the scalar
longitudinal electrodynamic (SLW) wave arise.
To put all these in perspective, a more complete electrodynamic model may be
derived from this last equation of the Lagrangian density. The Lagrangian expres-
sion is important in physics, since invariance of the Lagrangian under any trans-
formation gives rise to a conserved quantity. Now, as is well known, conservation
of charge current is a fundamental principle of physics and nature. Conventionally,
in classical electrodynamics charged matter creates an E
!eld. Motion of charged
matter creates a magnetic B
!eld from an electrical current which in turn inuences
the B
!and E
!elds.
Before we continue further, let us write the following equations as
E
!¼ϕA
!
tRelativistic Covariance ð6:46Þ
B
!¼A
!
Classical fields B
!and E
!
in terms of usual classical
potentials A
!
and ϕ
!
ð6:47Þ
C¼1
c2
ϕ
!
tþA
!
Classical wave equation for A
!
,B
!ð6:48Þ
B
!1
c2
E
!
tC¼μJ
!E
!and ϕ
!
without the use of a gauge ð6:49Þ
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 347
E
!þC
t¼ρ
εCondition the MCE theory produces
cancellation of C=tand
!
Cin the
classical wave equation for ϕ
!
and A
!
,
thus eliminating the need for a gauge condition
ð6:50Þ
These effects can be modeled by Maxwells equations. Now, exactly how and to
what degree do these equations change when the new scalar-valued Celd is
incorporated. Those of you who are knowledgeable of Maxwellian theory will
notice that the two homogeneous Maxwells equationsrepresenting Faradays
law and
!B
!(standard Gauss law equation for divergence-less magnetic eld)
are both unchanged from the classical model. Notice that the last three equations
incorporate this new scalar component which is labeled C. This formulation as
dened by Eq. (6.48) creates a somewhat revised version of Maxwells equations,
with one new term
!
Cin Gauss law (Eq. 6.50), where ρis the charge density, and
one new term (C/t) in Amperes law (Eq. 6.49), where Jis the current density. We
see that these new equations lead to some important conditions. First, relativistic
covariance is preserved. Second, unchanged are the classical elds E
!and B
!in terms
of the usual classical potentials A
!
and ϕ
!. We have the same classical wave
equations for A
!
,ϕ
!
,E
!, and B
!without the use of a gauge condition (and its attendant
incompleteness) since the MCE theory shows cancellation of C/tand C, the
classical wave equations for ϕ
!
and A
!
; and a scalar longitudinal wave (SLW) is
revealed, composed of the scalar and longitudinal electric elds.
A wave equation for Cis revealed by use of the time derivative of Eq. (6.50),
added to divergence of Eq. (6.49). Now, as is known, matching conditions at the
interface between two different media are required to solve Maxwells equations.
The divergence theorem on Eq. (6.51) below will yield interface matching in the
normal component (^
n)ofC/μas shown in Eq. (6.15):
2C
c2t22C¼2C¼μρ
tþJ
!
 ð6:51Þ
C
μ

1n
¼C
μ

1n
ð6:52Þ
C¼C0exp jkrωtðÞ½=rð6:53Þ
Note: The above sets of Eqs. (6.51) and (6.52) present wave equation for scalar
factor Cmatching condition in normal component of C/μ; spherically symmetric
wave solution for C; and the operator 2¼2
c2t22, and it is called dAlembert
operator.
348 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
The subscripts in Eq. (6.15) denote C/μin medium 1 or medium 2, respectively,
and (μ) is magnetic permeabilityagain not necessarily that of the vacuum. In this
regard, with the vector potential A
!and scalar potential ϕ
!now stipulated as
independent of each other, it is the surface charge density at the interface which
produces a discontinuity in the gradient of the scalar potential, rather than the
standard discontinuity in the normal component of E
!(see Hively) [3].
Notice also from Eq. (6.51) that the source for the scalar factor Cimplies a
violation of charge conservation (RHS (right-hand side) nonzero), a situation which
we noted cannot exist in macroscopic nature. Nevertheless, this will be compatible
with standard Maxwellian theory if this violation occurs at very short time scales,
such as occur in subatomic interactions. Now, interestingly, with the stipulation of
charge conservation on large time scales, giving zero on RHS of Eq. (6.51), longi-
tudinal wavelike solutions are produced with the lowest order form in a spherically
symmetric geometry at a distance (r), C¼C
0
exp [j(kr ωt)]/r. Applying the
boundary condition C!0asr!1is thus trivially satised. The Cwave therefore
is a pressure wave, similar to that in acoustics and hydrodynamics. This is unique
under the new MCE model since, although classical electrodynamics forbids a
spherically symmetric transverse wave to exist, this constraint will be absent
under MCE theory. Also, an unprecedented result is that these longitudinal C
waves will have energy but no momentum. But this is not unlike charged-particle-
antiparticle uctuations which also have energy but no net momentum.
Now that we are here so far, the question of why this constraint prohibiting a
spherically symmetric wave is lifted in MCE can be seen in the following sets of
Eq. (6.54) as below for the wave equation for the vertical magnetic eld:
1
c2
2B
!
t22B
!¼μ0J
!
J
!¼0!J¼k
8
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
:
ð6:54Þ
The sets of Eq. (6.54) are established for wave equation for B
driven current in more complete electrodynamic (MCE) for generating scalar longi-
tudinal wave (SLW).
Notice again that the source of the magnetic eld (right-hand side (RHS)) is a
nonzero value of J
!, which signies solenoidal current density, as is the case in
standard Maxwellian theory. When B
!is zero, so is
!J
!. This is an important
result. Then the current density is irrotational, which implies that J¼k. Here κis a
scalar function of space and time. Thus, in contrast to closed current paths generated
in ordinary Maxwell theory which result in classical waves that arise from a
solenoidal current density
!J
!0,Jfor the scalar longitudinal wave (SLW)
is gradient driven and may be uniquely detectable. We also see from this result that a
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 349
zero value of the magnetic eld is a necessary and sufcient condition for this
gradient-driven current. Now, since in linearly conductive media the current density
J
!is directly proportional to the electric eld intensity E
!that produced it, where
σis the conductivity, this gradient-driven current will then produce a longitudinal E
!
eld.
Based on so far calculations, we can establish wave equation for E
!solution for
longitudinal E
!in MCE spherically symmetric wave solutions for E
!and J
!in linearly
conductive media:
2E
!
c2t22E
!¼2
c2t22
!
E
!2E
!¼μJ
!
tρ
εð6:55Þ
E¼Err
_exp jkrωtðÞ½=rð6:56Þ
J
!¼σE
!!2J
!¼0ð6:57Þ
We can also see this from examining the standard vectorial wave equation for the
electric eld. The wave equation for E
!(Eq. 6.55) arises from the curl of Faradays
law, use of B
!from Amperes law Eq. (6.49), and substitution of E
!from
Eq. (6.50) with cancellation of the terms (C/t)¼(/t)C. When the RHS
of Eq. (6.50) is zero, the lowest order outgoing spherical wave is
E¼Err
_exp jkrωtðÞ½=r, where r
_represents the unit vector in the radial direction
and r represents the radial distance. The electrical eld is also longitudinal. Substi-
tution of J
!¼σE
!into 2E
!¼0 results in 2J
!¼0, meaning that current density is
also radial. The SLW equations for E and J are remarkable for several reasons. First,
the vector SLW equations for E
!and J
!are fully captured in one wave equation for the
scalar function (κ),
2
κ¼0. Second, these forms are like
2
C¼0. Third, these
equations have zero on the RHS for propagation in conductive media. This arises
since B
!¼0 for the SLW, implying no back electromagnetic eld from B
!=tin
Faradays law which in turn gives no circulating eddy currents. Experimentation has
shown that the SLW is not subject to the skin effect in media with linear electric
conductivity, and travels with minimum resistance in any conductive media.
This last fact affords some insight into another related ongoing conundrum in
condensed matter physicsthe mystery surrounding high-temperature supercon-
ductivity (HTS). As we know, the physical problem of high HTS is one of the
major unsolved problems in theoretical condensed matter physics, in part, because
the materials are somewhat complex, multilayered crystals.
350 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
Here the more complete electrodynamic (MCE) theory may provide an explana-
tion on the basis of gradient-driven currents between (or among) the crystal layers.
The new MCE Hamiltonian (Eq. 6.16) includes the SLW due to gradient-driven
currents among the crystalline layers as an explanation for high temperature super-
conductivity (HTS).
The electrodynamic Hamiltonian for more complete electrodynamic (MCE) is
written as
HEM ¼εE2
2þB2
2μ

þρε
!E
!

ϕ
!J
!A
!þC2
2μþC
!A
!
μð6:58Þ
In conclusion we can build an antenna based on the above concept within
laboratory environment and use a simulation software such as multi-physics
COMSOL©or ANSYS computer code to model such antenna.
However, we believe that we have examined adequate analysis in this white paper
to show the eld of electrodynamics (classical and quantum), although considered to
be totally understood, with any criticisms of incompleteness on the part of dissenters
essentially taken as veritable heresy; nevertheless it needs re-evaluation in terms of
apparent unfortunate sins of omission in the failure to include an electroscalar
component. Anomalies previously not completely understood may get a boost of
new understanding from the operation of electroscalar energy. We have seen in the
three instances examinedthe mechanism of generation of seismic precursor elec-
trical signals due to the movement of the earths crust, ordinary peeling of adhesive
tape, as well as irradiation by the special TESLAR chip, the common feature of the
breaking of chemical bonds. In fact, we may ultimately nd that any phenomena
requiring the breaking of chemical bonds, in either inanimate or biological systems,
may actually be scalar wave mediated.
Thus, we may discover that the scientic disciplines of chemistry or biochemistry
may be more closely related to physics than is currently thought. Accordingly, the
experimental and theoretical re-evaluation of even the simplest phenomena in this
regard, such as tribo-electrication processes described above, is of the absolute
essence for those researchers knowledgeable of the necessity for this reassessment of
electromagnetics. As I said in my introduction, it may even turn out that the gradient-
driven current and associated scalar longitudinal wave could be the umbrella concept
under which many of the currently unexplained electrodynamic phenomena that are
frequently under discussion in our conferences might nd a satisfying explanation.
The new scalar longitudinal wave patent itselfwhich is the centerpiece of this
talkis a primary example of the type of invention that probably would not have
seen the light of day even 10 years ago. As I had previously mentioned, we are
seeing more of this inspired breakthrough technology based on operating principles
formerly viewed with rank skepticism boarding on haughty derision by mainstream
science, now surfacing to provide an able challenge to the prevailing worldview by
reproducible corroborating tests by independent sources. This revolution in the
technological witness to the overhaul of current orthodoxy is denitely a harbinger
6.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Descriptions 351
of the rapidly approaching time where many of the encrusted and equally
ill-conceived still accepted paradigms of science, thought to underpin our sentient
reality, will fall by the wayside. On a grander panoramic scale, our expanding
knowledge gleaned from further examining the electroscalar wave concept, as
applied to areas of investigation such as cold fusion research and over-unity power
sources, will explicitly shape the future of society as well as science, especially
concerning our openness to phenomena that challenge our current belief systems.
To the point, the incompleteness in our received understanding of the properties
of electrodynamical systems can be attributed to the failure to properly incorporate
what can be termed the electroscalar force in the structural edice of electrodynam-
ics. Unbeknownst to most specialists in the disciplines mentioned, over the last
decade in technological circles of development, there has quietly but inexorably
emerged bona de physical evidence of the demonstration of the existence of scalar
longitudinal wave dynamics in recent inventions and discoveries. As technology
leads to new understanding, at this point we are certainly rapidly approaching a time
in which these ndings can no longer be pushed aside or ignored by orthodox
physics, and physics must come to terms with their potential physical and philo-
sophical impacts on our world society. By the time you read this book, this author
thinks you might agree with the fact that we could be on the brink of a new era in
science and technology, the likes of which this generation has never seen before.
Despite what mainstream physics may claim, the study of electrodynamics is by no
means a closed book. Further details are provided in the following sections of this
chapter.
6.3 Description of B
!3ðÞField
During the investigation of the theory optically induced line shifts in nuclear
magnetic resonance (NMR), people have come across the result that the antisym-
metric part of the intensity tensor of light is directly proportional in free space to an
entirely novel, phase-free, magnetic eld of light, which was identied as B
!3ðÞeld,
and which is dened in the following such as Eq. (6.59a6.59c). The presence of
B
!3ðÞ in free space shows that the usual, propagating, transverse waves of electro-
!3ðÞ
, which indeed
emerges directly from the fundamental, classical equation of motion of a single
electron in a circularly polarized light beam [6]:
B
!1ðÞB
!2ðÞ¼iB 0ðÞ
B
!3ðÞ ð6:59aÞ
B
!2ðÞB
!3ðÞ¼iB 0ðÞ
B
!1ðÞð6:59bÞ
352 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
B
!3ðÞB
!1ðÞ¼iB 0ðÞ
B
!2ðÞð6:59cÞ
Note that the symbol of () means conjugate form of the eld, and super-scribe
(1), (2), and (3) can be permuted to give the other two equations in Eq. (6.1); hence
the elds B
!1ðÞ
,B
!2ðÞ
, and B
!3ðÞare simply components of the magnetic ux density of
free space electromagnetism in a circular, rather than in a Cartesian, basis. In the
quantum eld theory, the longitudinal component B
!3ðÞ becomes the fundamental
photomagnetic of light, and operator dened by the following relationship as [712]
B
_3ðÞ¼B0ðÞP
_
hð6:60Þ
where P
_is the angular momentum operator of one photon. The existence of the
longitudinal B
_3ðÞ
in free space is indicated experimentally by optically induced NMR
shifts and by several well-known phenomena of magnetization by light, for example
The core logic of Eqs. (6.59a6.59c) asserts that there exists a novel cyclically
symmetric eld algebra in free space, implying that the usual transverse solutions of
Maxwells equations are tied to the longitudinal, nonzero, real, and physical mag-
netic ux density B
!3ðÞ
, which we name the spin eld. This deduction changes
fundamentally our current appreciation of electrodynamics and therefore the princi-
ples on which the old quantum theory was derived, for example the Planck law [13]
and the light quantum hypothesis proposed in 1905 by Einstein. The belated
recognition of B
!3ðÞ implies that there is a magnetic eld in free space which is
associated with the longitudinal space axis, z, which is labeled (3) in the circular
basis. Conventionally, the radiation intensity distribution is calculated using only
two, transverse, degrees of freedom, right and left circular, corresponding to (1) and
(2) in the circular basis.
The B
!3ðÞ
eld of vacuum electromagnetism introduces a new paradigm of the eld
theory, summarized in the cyclically symmetric equations linking it to the usual
transverse magnetic plane wave components B
!1ðÞ¼B
!2ðÞ[3,6,14,15].
The B
!3ðÞ eld was rst and obliquely inferred in January 1992 at Cornell
University from a careful, re-examination of known magneto-optics phenomena
[16,17] which had previously been interpreted in orthodoxy through the conjugate
product E
!1ðÞE
!2ðÞ of electric plane wave components E
!1ðÞE
!2ðÞ
. In the inter-
vening three and a half years its understanding has developed substantially into
monographs and papers [3,6,14,15] covering several fundamental aspects of eld
theory.
The B
!3ðÞeld produces magnetization in an electron plasma which is proportional
to the square root of the power density dependence of the circularly polarized electro-
magnetic radiation, conclusive evidence for the presence of the phase-free B
!3ðÞin the
6.3 Description of B
!ð3ÞField 353
vacuum. There are many experimental consequences of this nding, some of which are
of practical utility, such as optical NMR. However, the most important theoretical
consequence is that there exist longitudinal components in free space of electromag-
netic radiation, a conclusion which is strikingly reminiscent of that obtained from the
theory of nite photon mass. The two ideas are interwoven throughout the volume. The
characteristic square root light intensity dependence of B
!3ðÞdominates and is theoret-
ically observable at low cyclotron frequencies when intense, circularly polarized
electromagnetic radiation interacts with a single electron, or in practical terms an
electron plasma or beam. The magnetization induced in such an electron ensemble
by circularly polarized radiation is therefore expected to be proportional to the square
root of the power density (i.e., the intensity in watts per square meter) of the radiation.
This result emerges directly from the fundamental, classical, equation of motion of one
electron in the beam, the relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi equation.
To establish the physical presence of B
!3ðÞin the vacuum therefore requires the
observation of this magnetization as a function of the beams power density, a
critically important experiment. Other possible experiments to detect B
!3ðÞ
, such as
the optical equivalent of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, are suggested throughout the
volume.
More details about the subject in this section can be found in the references that
are mentioned in the count of this section and above and further details are beyond
the scope of this book. Thus, we encourage the readers to refer themselves to those
references from [3,612,1417].
6.4 Scalar Wave Description
What is a scalar waveexactly? Scalar wave (SW) is just another name for a
longitudinal wave (LW). The term scalaris sometimes used instead because the
hypothetical source of these waves is thought to be a scalar eldof some kind
similar to the Higgs eld for example.
In general, denition of longitudinal wave falls into the following description:
A wave motion in which the particles of the medium oscillate about their mean
positions in the direction of propagation of the wave is called longitudinal wave.
For longitudinal wave the vibration of the particles of the medium is in the
direction of wave propagation. A longitudinal wave proceeds in the form of com-
pression and rarefaction which is the stretch and compression in the same direction
as the wave moves. For a longitudinal wave at places of compression the pressure
and density tend to be maximum, while at places where rarefaction takes place the
pressure and density are minimum. In gases only longitudinal wave can propagate.
Longitudinal waves are known as compression waves.
A longitudinal wave travels through a medium in the form of compressions or
condensations Cand rarefaction R. A compression is a region of the medium in
354 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
which particles are compressed, i.e., particles come closer, i.e., distance between the
particles becomes less than the normal distance between them. Thus, there is
temporary decrease in volume and as a consequence increase in density of the
medium in the region of compression. A rarefaction is a region of the medium in
which particles are rareed, i.e., particles get farther apart than what they normally
are. Thus, there is temporary increase in volume and a consequence decrease in
density of the medium in the region of rarefaction. See Fig. 6.6.
There is nothing particularly controversial about longitudinal waves (LW) in
general. They are a ubiquitous and well-acknowledged phenomenon in nature.
Sound waves traveling through the atmosphere (or underwater) are longitudinal, as
are plasma waves propagating through space (also known as Birkeland currents).
Longitudinal waves moving through the earths interior are known as telluric
currents.They can all be thought of as pressure waves of sorts.
SW/LW are quite different from transversewaves. You can observe transverse
waves (TW) by plucking a guitar string or watching ripples on the surface of a pond.
They oscillate (vibrate, move up and down, or side to side) perpendicular to their
arrow of propagation (directional movement). Comparatively SW/LW oscillate in
the same direction as their arrow of propagation. See Fig. 6.6.
In modern-day electrodynamics (both classical and quantum), electromagnetic
waves (EMW) traveling in free space(such as photons in the vacuum) are
generally considered to be TW. But this was not always the case. When the
preeminent mathematician James Clerk Maxwell rst modeled and formalized his
unied theory of electromagnetism in the late nineteenth century neither the EM
SW/LW nor the EM TW had been experimentally proven, but he had postulated and
calculated the existence of both.
After Heinrich Hertz demonstrated experimentally the existence of transverse
radio waves in 1887, theoreticians (such as Heaviside, Gibbs, and others) went about
Transverse wave
Longitudinal wave
Wavelength
Wavelength
Compression Expansion
Fig. 6.6 Illustration of transverse wave and longitudinal wave
6.4 Scalar Wave Description 355
revising Maxwells original equations (who was now deceased and could not
object). They wrote out the SW/LW component from the original equations because
they felt the mathematical framework and theory should be made to agree only with
experiment. Obviously, the simplied equations workedthey helped make the
AC/DC electrical age engineerable. But at what expense?
Then in 1889 Nikola Tesla, a prolic experimental physicist and inventor of
alternative current (AC), threw a proverbial wrench in the works when he discovered
experimental proof for the elusive electric scalar wave. This seemed to suggest that
SW/LW, opposed to TW, could propagate as pure electric waves or as pure magnetic
waves. Tesla also believed that these waves carried a hitherto-unknown form of
excess energy he referred to as radiant.This intriguing and unexpected result was
said to have been veried by Lord Kelvin and others soon after.
However, instead of merging their experimental results into a unied proof for
Maxwells original equations, Tesla, Hertz, and others decided to bicker and squab-
ble over who was more correct. In actuality they both derived correct results. But
because humans (even rationalscientists) are fallible and prone to ts of vanity
and self-aggrandizement, each side insisted dogmatically that they were right, and
the other side was wrong.
The issue was allegedly settled after the dawn of the twentieth century when:
(a) The concept of the mechanical (passive/viscous) ether was purportedly
disproven by Michelson-Morley and replaced by Einsteins relativistic space-
time manifold.
(b) Detection of SW/LWs proved much more difcult than initially thought (mostly
due to the waves subtle densities, uctuating frequencies, and orthogonal
directional ow). As a result, the truncation of Maxwells equations was upheld.
SW/LW in free space however are quite real. Beside Tesla, empirical work
carried out by electrical engineers such as Eric Dollard, Konstantin Meyl, Thomas
Imlauer, and Jean-Louis Naudin (to name only some) have clearly demonstrated
their existence experimentally. These waves seem able to exceed the speed of light,
pass through EM shielding (also known as Faraday cages), and produce over-unity
(more energy out than in) effects. They seem to propagate in a yet-unacknowledged
counter-spatial dimension (also known as hyperspace, pre-space, false-vacuum,
Aether, implicit order, etc.).
Because the concept of an all-pervasive material ether was discarded by most
scientists, the thought of vortex-like electric and/or magnetic waves existing in free
space, without the support of a viscous medium, was thought to be impossible.
However later experiments carried out by Dayton Miller, Paul Sagnac,
E.W. Silvertooth, and others have contradicted the ndings of Michelson and
Morley. More recently Italian mathematician-physicist Daniele Funaro, American
physicist-systems theorist Paul LaViolette, and British physicist Harold Aspden
have all conceived of (and mathematically formulated) models for a free space
ether that is dynamic, uctuating, and self-organizing, and allows for the formation
and propagation of SW/LW.
356 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
With the appearance of experiments on nonclassical effects of electrodynamics,
authors often speak of electromagnetic waves not being based on oscillations of
electric and magnetic elds. For example, it is claimed that there is an effect of such
waves on biological systems and the human body. Even medical devices are sold
which are assumed to work on the principle of transmitting any kind of information
via waves,which have a positive effect on human health. In all cases, the
explanation of these effects is speculative, and even the transmission mechanism
remains unclear because there is no sound theory on such waves, often subsumed
under the notion scalar waves.We try to give a clear denition of certain types of
waves which can serve to explain the observed effects [18].
Before analyzing the problem in more detail, we have to discern between scalar
waves,which contain fractions of ordinary electric and magnetic elds and such
waves which do not and therefore appear even more obscure. Often scalar waves
are assumed to consist of longitudinal elds. In ordinary Maxwellian electrodynam-
ics such elds do not exist, and electromagnetic radiation is said to be always
transversal. In modern unied physics approaches like Einstein-Cartan-Evans theory
[19,20], however, it was shown that polarization directions of electromagnetic elds
do exist in all directions of four-dimensional space. So, in the direction of transmis-
sion, an ordinary electromagnetic wave has a longitudinal magnetic component, the
so-called B
!3ðÞeld of Evans [21]. (See Sect. 6of this chapter for more details about
B
!3ðÞeld.) The B
!3ðÞeld is detectable by the so-called inverse Faraday effect which
is known experimentally since the 1960s [22]. Some experimental setups, for
example the magnifying transmitterof Tesla [16,17], make the claim to utilize
these longitudinal components. They can be considered to consist of an extended
resonance circuit where the capacitor plates have been displaced to the transmitter
and receiver site each (see Fig. 6.7). In an ordinary capacitor (or cavity resonator), a
very-high-frequent wave (GHz or THz range) leads to signicant runtime effects of
the signal so that the quasi-static electric eld can be considered to be cut into pulses.
These represent the near eld of an electromagnetic wave and may be considered to
Fig. 6.7 Propagation of longitudinal electric wave according to Tesla
6.4 Scalar Wave Description 357
be longitudinal. For lower frequencies, the electric eld between the capacitor plates
remains quasi-static and therefore longitudinal too.
We do not want to go deeper into this subject here. Having given hints for the
possible existence of longitudinal electric and magnetic elds, we leave this area and
concentrate on mechanisms which allow transmission of signals even without any
detectable electromagnetic elds.
Before we move on with more details of scalar wave we need to lay ground about
the types of waves, where the scalar wave falls under that category; thus we need to
have some idea about transverse wave and longitudinal wave and what their
descriptions are. This is the subject that was discussed in previous section of this
chapter quite extensively; however, we talk furthermore about the subject of longi-
tudinal potential wave in the next section here.
6.5 Longitudinal Potential Waves
In the following we develop the theory of electromagnetic waves with vanishing
eld vectors. Such a eld state is normally referred to as a vacuum stateand was
described in full relativistic detail in [22]. Vacuum states also play a role in the
microscopic interaction with matter. Here we restrict consideration to ordinary
electrodynamics to give engineers a chance to fully understand the subject. With
E
!and B
!designating the classical electric and magnetic eld vectors, a vacuum state
is dened by
E
!¼0ð6:61Þ
B
!¼0ð6:62Þ
The only possibility to nd electromagnetic effects then is by the potentials.
These are dened as vector and scalar potentials to constitute the forceelds E
!and
B
!as
E
!¼U
_
A
!ð6:63Þ
B
!¼
!A
!ð6:64Þ
with electric scalar potential Uand magnetic vector potential A
!
. The dot above the A
!
,
in Eq. (6.63), denotes the time derivative. For the vacuum, conditions as stated in
Eq. (6.61) and Eq. (6.62) will lead to the following sets of equations:
358 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
U¼
_
A
!ð6:65Þ
!A
!¼0ð6:66Þ
From Eq. (6.66), it follows immediately that the vector potential is vortex free,
representing a laminar ow. The gradient of the scalar potential is coupled to the
time derivative of the vector potential, so both are not independent of one another. A
general solution of these equations was derived in [22]. This is a wave solution
where A
!
is in the direction of propagation, i.e., this is a longitudinal wave. Several
wave forms are possible, which may even result in a propagation velocity different
from the speed of light c. As a simple example we assume a sine-like behavior of
vector potential A
!
as
A
!¼A
!
0sin k
!x
!ωtð6:67Þ
with direction of propagation k
!
(wave vector), space coordinate vector x
!, and time
frequency ω. Then it follows from Eq. (6.66) that
U¼A
!
0ωcos k
!x
!ωtð6:68Þ
This condition has to be met for any potential U. We make the approach as
U¼U0sin k
!x
!ωtð6:69Þ
To nd that
U¼kU0cos k
!x
!ωtð6:70Þ
which, compared to Eq. (6.68), denes the constant A
!
0to be as
A
!
0¼k
!U0
ω
 ð6:71Þ
Obviously, the waves of A
!
and Uhave the same phase. Next, we consider the
energy density of such a combined wave. This is in general given by
6.5 Longitudinal Potential Waves 359
w¼1
2ε0E
!2þ1
2μ0
B
!2ð6:72Þ
From Eqs. (6.65) and (6.66), it is seen that the magnetic eld disappears identi-
cally, but the electric eld is a vanishing sum of two terms, which are different
from zero.
These two terms evoke an energy density of space where the wave propagates.
This cannot be obtained out of the force elds (these are zero) but must be computed
from the constituting potentials. As discussed in the paper by (Eckardt and
Lindstrom) [20], we have to write
w¼1
2ε0
_
A
!2þUðÞ
2
 ð6:73Þ
With Eqs. (6.67) and (6.69), it follows that
w¼ε0k2U2
0cos 2k
!x
!ωtð6:74Þ
This is an oscillating function, meaning that the energy density varies over space
and time in phase with the propagation of the wave. All quantities are depicted in
Fig. 6.8. Energy density is maximal where the potentials cross the zero axis.
There is a phase shift of 90between both plots that can be observed in Fig. 6.8.
There is an analogy between longitudinal potential waves and acoustic waves. It
is well known that acoustic waves in air or solids are mainly longitudinal too. The
Fig. 6.8 Phases of potentials A
!
and U, and energy density w
360 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
elongation of molecules is in direction of wave propagation as shown in Fig. 6.9.
This is a variation in velocity. Therefore, the magnetic vector potential can be
compared with a velocity eld. The differences of elongation evoke a local pressure
difference. Where the molecules are pressed together, the pressure is enhanced, and
vice versa. From conservation of momentum, the force F
!in a compressible uid is
given by
F
!¼_
u
!þp
ρð6:75Þ
In Eq. (6.75), the term u
!is the velocity eld, pis the pressure, and ρis the density
of the medium.
This is in full analogy to Eq. (6.63). In particular we see that in the electromag-
netic case space-time must be compressible; otherwise there will be no gradient of
the scalar potential. As a consequence, space itself must be compressible, leading us
to the principles of general relativity.
6.6 Transmitters and Receiver for Longitudinal Waves
A sender for longitudinal potential waves has to be a device which avoids producing
E
!and B
!elds but sends out oscillating potential waves. We discuss two propositions
on how this can be achieved technically. In the rst case, we use two ordinary
transmitter antennas (with directional characteristic) with distance of half a wave-
length (or an odd number of half-waves). This means that ordinary electromagnetic
waves cancel out, assuming that the near eld is not disturbing signicantly. Since
Fig. 6.9 Schematic representation of longitudinal and transversal waves
6.6 Transmitters and Receiver for Longitudinal Waves 361
the radiated energy cannot disappear, it must propagate in space and is transmitted in
the form of potential waves. This is depicted in Fig. 6.10.
A more common example is a bilar at coil, for example from the patent of Tesla
[23]; see Fig. 6.10, second drawing. The currents in opposite directions affect
annihilation of the magnetic eld component, while an electric part may remain
due to the static eld of the wires. See Fig. 6.11.
Construction of a receiver is not so straightforward. In principle no magnetic eld
can be retrieved directly from A
!
due to Eq. (6.66). The only way is to obtain an
electrical signal by separating both contributing parts in Eq. (6.63) so that the
equality [22] is out weighted and an effective electric eld remains which can be
detected by conventional devices. A very simple method would be to place two
plates of a capacitor in distance of half a wavelength (or odd multiples of it). Then
the voltage in space should have an effect on the charge carriers in the plates, leading
to the same effect as if a voltage had been applied between the plates. The real
voltage in the plates or the compensating current can be measured (Fig. 6.12). The
tension of spaceoperates directly on the charge carriers while no electric eld is
induced. The
_
A
!
part is not contributing because the direction of the plates is
perpendicular to it, i.e., no signicant current can be induced.
Another possibility of a receiver is to use a screened box (Faraday cage). If the
mechanism described for the capacitor plates is valid, the electrical voltage part of
the wave creates charge effects which are compensated immediately due to the high
conductivity of the material. As is well known, the interior of a Faraday cage is free
of electric elds. The potential is constant because it is constant on the box surface.
Therefore, only the magnetic part of the wave propagates in the interior where it can
be detected by a conventional receiver; see Fig. 6.13.
Fig. 6.10 Suggestion for a transmitter of longitudinal potential waves
362 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
Another method of detection is using vector potential effects in crystalline solids.
As is well known from solid-state physics, the vector potential produces excitations
within the quantum mechanical electronic structure, provided that the frequency
is near to the optical range. Crystal batteries work in this way. They can be
Fig. 6.12 Suggestion for a receiver of longitudinal potential waves (capacitor)
Fig. 6.11 Tesla coils
according to the patent [23]
6.6 Transmitters and Receiver for Longitudinal Waves 363
engineered through chemical vapor deposition of carbon. In the process you get
strong lightweight crystalline shapes that can handle lots of heat and stress by high
currents. For detecting longitudinal waves, the excitation of the electronic system
has to be measured, for example by photoemission or other energetic processes in the
crystal.
All these are suggestions for experiments with longitudinal waves. Additional
experiments can be performed for testing the relation between wave vector kand
frequency ωto check if this type of waves propagates with ordinary velocity of light
cas
c¼ω
kð6:76Þ
where kis dened from the wave length λby the following relation:
k¼2π
λð6:77Þ
As pointed out in the paper by Eckhardt [22], the speed of propagation depends
on the form of the waves.
This can even be a nonlinear step function. The experimental setup of Fig. 6.11
can directly be used for nding the ωk
!relation because the wavelength and
frequency are measured at the same time. There are rumors that Eric P. Dollard [24]
found a propagation speed of longitudinal waves of (π/2) c, which is 1.5 times the
speed of light, but there are no reliable experiments on this reported in the literature.
Fig. 6.13 Suggestion for a receiver of longitudinal potential waves (Faraday cage)
364 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
The ideas worked out in this write-up in this section may not be the only way how
longitudinal waves can be explained and technically handled. As mentioned in the
introduction, electrodynamics derived from a unied eld theory (Evens et al.) [19]
predicts effects of polarization in all space and time dimensions and may lead to a
discovery of even richer and more interesting effects.
6.6.1 Scalar Communication System
The basic scalar communication system indicates that the communications antenna
does not make any sense according to normal electromagnetic theory. The goal of a
scalar antenna is to create powerful repulsion/attraction between two magnetic elds,
to create large scalar bubbles/voids. This is done by using an antenna with two
opposing electromagnetic coils that effectively cancel out as much of each others
magnetic eld as possible. An ideal scalar antenna will emit no electromagnetic eld
(or as little as possible), since all power is being focused into the repulsion/attraction
between the two opposing magnetic elds. Normal electromagnetic theory suggests
that since such a device emits no measurable electromagnetic eld, it is useless and
will only heat up.
A scalar signal reception antenna similarly excludes normal electromagnetic
waves and only measures changes in magnetic eld attraction and repulsion. This
will typically be a two-coil-powered antenna that sets up a static opposing or
attracting magnetic eld between the coils, and the coils are counter-wound so that
any normal RF signal will be picked up by both coils and effectively cancel itself out.
It has been suggested that scalar elds do not follow the same rules as electro-
magnetic waves and can penetrate through materials that would normally slow or
absorb electromagnetic waves. If true, a simple proving method is to design a scalar
signal emitter and a scalar signal receiver and encasing each inside separate shielded
and grounded metal box, known as Faraday cages. These boxes will absorb all
normal electromagnetic energy and will prevent any regular non-scalar signal trans-
missions from passing from one box to the other.
Some people have suggested that organic life may make use of scalar energies in
ways that we do not yet understand. Therefore, caution is recommended when
experimenting with this fringe technology. However, keep in mind that if scalar
elds do exist, we are likely already deeply immersed in an unseen eld of scalar
noise all the time, generated anywhere two magnetic elds oppose or attract.
Common scalar eld noise sources include AC electric cords and powerlines
carrying high current, and electric motors which operate on the principle of powerful
spinning regions of repulsion and attraction.
6.6 Transmitters and Receiver for Longitudinal Waves 365
6.7 Scalar Wave Experiments
It can be shown that scalar waves, normally remaining unnoticed, are very interest-
ing in practical use for information and energy technology for reason of their special
attributes. The mathematical and physical derivations are supported by practical
experiments. The demonstration will show:
1. The wireless transmission of electrical energy
2. The reaction of the receiver to the transmitter
3. Free energy with an over-unity effect of about 3
4. Transmission of scalar waves with 1.5 times the speed of light
5. The inefciency of a Faraday cage to shield scalar waves
Here is shown extraordinary science, ve experiments, which are incompatible with
textbook physics. Following short courses, that were given by Meyl [25], show the
transmission of longitudinal electric waves.
It is a historical experiment, because already 100 years ago the famous experi-
mental physicist Nikola Tesla has measured the same wave properties, as me. From
him stems a patent concerning the wireless transmission of energy (1900) [26]. Since
he also had to nd out that at the receiver arrives more energy very much, than the
transmitter takes up, he spoke of a magnifying transmitter.
By the effect back on the transmitter Tesla sees if he has found the resonance of
the earth and that lies according to his measurement at 12 Hz. Since the Schumann
resonance of a wave, which goes with the speed of light, however, lies at 7.8 Hz,
Tesla comes to the conclusion that his wave has 1.5 times the speed of light c[27].
As founder of the diathermy Tesla already has pointed to the biological effec-
tiveness and to the possible use in medicine. The diathermy of today has nothing to
do with the Tesla radiation; it uses the wrong wave and as a consequence hardly has
a medical importance.
The discovery of the Tesla radiation is denied and isnt mentioned in the
textbooks anymore. For that there are two reasons:
1. No high school ever has rebuilt a magnifying transmitter.The technology
simply was too costly and too expensive. In that way the results have not been
reproduced, as it is imperative for an acknowledgement. I have solved this
problem using modern electronics, by replacing the spark gap generator with a
function generator and the operation with high tension with 24 V low tension.
Meyl [25] sells the experiment as a demonstration set so that it is reproduced as
often as possible. It ts in a case and has been sold more than 100 times. Some
universities already could conrm the effects. The measured degrees of effec-
tiveness lie between 140% and 1000%.
366 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
2. The other reason why this important discovery could fall into oblivion is to be
seen in the missing of a suitable eld description. The Maxwell equations in any
case only describe transverse waves, for which the eld pointers oscillate per-
pendicular to the direction of propagation.
The vectorial part of the wave equation derived from the Maxwell equation is
presented here as
!E
!¼B
!
t
!H
!¼J
!þD
!
t
B
!¼μH
!
D
!¼εE
!
J
!¼0
)In Linear Media
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
ð6:78Þ
and
!
!E
!¼μ
!H
!
t¼με 2E
!
t2
! ð6:79Þ
Then, from the result of Eqs. (6.78) and (6.79), we obtain the wave equation as
2E
!¼
!
!E
!
!
!E
!¼1
c2
2E
!
t2με ¼1
c2
(ð6:80Þ
See Chap. 4of this book for more details on derivation of wave equations from
Maxwells equation.
Note that in all these calculations, the following symbols do apply:
E
!¼Electric led or electric force
H
!¼Auxiliary eld or magnetic eld
D
!¼Electric displacement (D
!¼εE
!in linear medium)
B
!¼Magnetic intensity or magnetic induction
J
!¼Current density
6.7 Scalar Wave Experiments 367
Now breaking down the rst equation in the sets of Eq. (6.80) will be as follows:
2E
!
|ﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄ}
Laplace
operator over E
!
¼
!
!E
!
!
!E
!
|ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ}
If
!E
!¼0 then we have Transversal Wave
If
!E
!¼0 then we have Longitudinal Wave
¼1
c2
2E
!
t2
|ﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄ}
cis speed of light
ð6:81Þ
Note that in Eq. (6.81)if
!E
!0, then we have situation that is providing the
scalar wave conditions, while the following relationships do apply as well:
E
!¼
!
ϕ:
1ðÞ
!
=
!E
!¼
!
=1
c2
2ϕ
t2
"#
2ðÞ
!E
!¼
!
!
ϕ
8
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
:
!D
!¼ρ:3ðÞ
!E
!¼ρ
ε
ð6:82Þ
From Eq. (6.82), we also can conclude the plasma wave as
2ϕ¼1
c22ϕ
t2
!
ρ
εð6:83Þ
The results found in Eq. (6.81) through Eq. (6.82) are the scalar part of the wave
equation describing the longitudinal electric waves, which ends up with deviation of
plasma waves, as it is seen in Eq. (6.83). In these equations symbol of ϕis
representation of scalar eld, as described in Chap. 4of this book.
If we derive the eld vector from a scalar potential ϕ, then this approach
immediately leads to an inhomogeneous wave equation, which is called plasma
wave. Solutions are known, like the electron plasma waves, which are longitudinal
oscillations of the electron density (Langmuir waves).
6.7.2 Vortex Model
The Tesla experiment and my historical rebuild however show more. Such longitu-
dinal waves obviously exist even without plasma in the air and even in vacuum. The
question thus is asked: What the divergence E
!describes in this case?
1. How is the impulse passed on, so that a longitudinal standing wave can form?
2. How should a shock wave come about, if there are no particles which can push
each other?
368 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
We have solved this question, by extending Maxwellseld theory for vortices of
the electric eld. These so-called potential vortices are able to form structure and they
propagate in space for reason of their particle nature as a longitudinal shock wave. The
model concept is based on the ring vortex model of Hermann von Helmholtz, which
Lord Kelvin did make popular. In Volume 3 of the Meyl book under the title of
Potential Vortex [1], the mathematical and physical derivation is described.
In spite of the eld theoretical set of difculties every physicist at rst will seek
for a conventional explanation. We will try three approaches as follows:
1. Resonant circuit interpretation
2. Near-eld interpretation
3. Vortex interpretation
The details of these two approaches are given in the two following subsections.
6.7.2.1 Resonant Circuit Interpretation
Tesla had presented his experiment to, among others, Lord Kelvin, and 100 years
ago Tesla had spoken of a vortex transmission. In the opinion of Kelvin, however,
vortex transmission by no means concerns a wave but rather radiation. Kelvin had
the course of the eld lines is a completely different one.
It presents itself to assume a resonant circuit, consisting of a capacitor and an
inductance (refer to Fig. 6.14). If both electrodes of the capacitor are pulled apart,
then between both stretches an electric eld. The eld lines start at one sphere, the
transmitter, and they bundle up again at the receiver. In this manner, a higher degree
of effectiveness and a very tight coupling can be expected. In this manner, without
doubt some, but not all, of the effects can be explained.
The inductance is split up in two air transformers, which are wound in a
completely identical fashion. If a fed in sinusoidal tension voltage is transformed
up in the transmitter, then it is again transformed down at the receiver. The output
voltage should be smaller or, at most, equal to the input voltage, but it is substantially
bigger!
An alternative wiring diagram can be drawn and calculated, but in no case does
the measurable result that light-emitting diodes at the receiver glow brightly
(U> 2 V) occur, whereas at the same time the corresponding light-emitting diodes
at the transmitter go out (U< 2 V)! To check this result, both coils are exchanged.
The measured degree of effectiveness lies despite the exchange at 1000%. If the
law of conservation of energy is not to be violated, then only one interpretation is
left: The open capacitor withdraws eld energy from its environment. Without
consideration of this circumstance, the error deviation of every conventional
model calculation lies at more than 90%. In this case, one should do without the
calculation.
The calculation will concern oscillating elds, because the spherical electrodes
change in polarity with a frequency of approximately 7 MHz. They are operated in
6.7 Scalar Wave Experiments 369
resonance. The condition for resonance reads as identical frequency and opposite
phase. The transmitter obviously modulates the eld in its environment, while the
receiver collects everything that fullls the condition for resonance.
Also, in the open question regarding the transmission velocity of the signal, the
resonant circuit interpretation fails. But the HF technician still has another explana-
tion on the tip of his tongue.
6.7.2.2 Near-Field Interpretation
At the antennae of a transmitter in the near eld (a fraction of the wavelength), only
scalar waves (potential vortex) exist. They decompose into electromagnetic (EM) in
the far eld and further. The near eld is not described by Maxwells equations and
Fig. 6.14 Interpretation as an open resonant circuit
370 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
the theory is only postulated. It is possible to pick up only scalar waves from radio
transmissions. Receivers which pick up EM waves are actually converting those
waves into potential vortices which are conceived as standing waves.
It presents itself to assume a resonant circuit, consisting of a capacitor and an
inductance (refer to Fig. 6.15). If both electrodes of the capacitor are pulled apart,
then between both stretches an electric eld. The eld lines start at one sphere, the
transmitter, and they bundle up again at the receiver. In this manner, a higher degree
of effectiveness and a very tight coupling can be expected. In this manner, without
doubt some, but not all, of the effects can be explained.
In the near eld of an antenna effects are measured, which on the one hand go as
inexplicable, because they evade the normally used eld theory, which on the other
hand it shows scalar wave effects very close. Everyone knows a practical applica-
tion: e.g., at the entrance of department stores, where the customer has to go through
in between of scalar wave detectors.
In Meyls experiment [25] the transmitter is situated in the mysterious near zone.
Also, Tesla always worked in the near zone. But who asks for the reasons will
discover that the near-eld effect is nothing else but the scalar wave part of the wave
equation. Meyls explanation goes as follows:
The charge carriers which oscillate with high frequency in an antenna rod form
longitudinal standing wave. As a result, also, the elds in the near zone of a Hertzian
dipole are longitudinal scalar wave elds. The picture shows clearly how vortices
are forming and how they come off the dipole.
Like for the charge carriers in the antenna rod the phase angle between current
and tension voltage amounts to 90, in the near eld also the electric and the
magnetic eld phase shifted for 90. In the far eld however, the phase angle is
zero. In my interpretation the vortices are breaking up, they decay, and transverse
6.7.2.3 Vortex Interpretation
The vortex decay however depends on the velocity of propagation. Calculated at the
speed of light the vortices already have decayed within half the wavelength. The
Fig. 6.15 The coming off of the electric eld lines of the dipole
6.7 Scalar Wave Experiments 371
faster the velocity, the more stable they get to remain stable above 1.6 times the
velocity. These very fast vortices contract in the dimensions. They now can tunnel.
Therefore, speed faster than light occurs at the tunnel effect. Therefore, no Faraday
cage is able to shield fast vortices.
Since these eld vortices with particle nature following the high-frequency
oscillation permanently change their polarity from positive to negative and back,
they do not have a charge on the average over time. As a result, they almost
unhindered penetrate solids. Particles with this property are called neutrinos in
physics. The eld energy which is collected in my experiment is that which stems
from the neutrino radiation which surrounds us. Because the source of this radiation,
all the same if the origin is articial or natural, is far away from receiver, every
attempt of a near-eld interpretation goes wrong. After all, does the transmitter
installed in the near-eld zone supply less than 10% of the received power? The 90%
however, which it concerns here, cannot stem from the near-eld zone!
6.7.3 Experiment
In Meyls experimental setup he also takes few other steps in order to conduct his
experiment that is reported here [25].
At the function generator he adjusts frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal
signal, with which the transmitter is operated. At the frequency regulator I turn so
long, till the light-emitting diodes at the receiver glow brightly, whereas those at the
transmitter go out. Now an energy transmission takes place.
If the amplitude is reduced so far, till it is guaranteed that no surplus energy is
radiated, then in addition a gain of energy takes place by energy amplication.
If we take down the receiver by pulling out the earthing, then the lighting up of
the LED signals (light-emitting diode) the mentioned effect back on the transmitter.
The transmitter thus feels if its signal is received.
The self-resonance of the Tesla coils, according to the frequency counter, lies at
7 MHz. Now the frequency is running down and at approx. 4.7 MHz the receiver
again glows, but less brightly, easily shieldable, and without discernible effect back
on the transmitter. Now we unambiguously are dealing with the transmission of the
Hertzian part and that goes with the speed of light. Since the wavelength was not
changed, does the proportion of the frequencies determine the proportion of the
velocities of propagation? The scalar wave according to that goes with (7/4.7¼) 1.5
times the speed of light.
If we put the transmitter into the aluminum case and close the door, then nothing
should arrive at the receiver. Expert laboratories for electromagnetic compatibility in
this case indeed cannot detect anything and in spite of that the receiver lamps glow!
By turning off the receiver coil, it can be veried that an electric and not a magnetic
coupling is present although the Faraday cage should shield electric elds. The scalar
wave obviously overcomes the cage with a speed faster than light, by tunneling. We
can summarize what we have discussed so far in respect to scalar wave in the next
subsection of this chapter as follows.
372 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
6.8 Summary
Konstantin Meyl is a German professor who developed a new unied eld theory
based on the work of Tesla. Meyls unied eld and particle theory explains
quantum and classical physics, mass, gravitation, constant speed of light, neutrinos,
waves, and particles, all explained by vortices. The subatomic particle characteristics
are accurately calculated by this model. Well-known equations are also derived by
the unied equation. He provides a kit replicating one of Teslas experiments which
demonstrates the existence of scalar waves. Scalar waves are simply energy vortices
in the form of particles. Here is an interview with Konstantin Meyl on his theory and
technologies.
The unied eld theory describes the electromagnetic, eddy current, potential
vortex, and special distributions. This combines an extended wave equation with a
Poisson equation. Maxwells equations can be derived as a special case where
Gausss law for magnetism is not equal to 0. That means that magnetic charges do
exist in Meyls theory [25]. That electric and magnetic elds are always generated by
motion is the fundamental idea which this equation is derived from. The unipolar
generator and transformer have conicting theories under standard theories. Meyl
splits them into the equations of transformation of the electric and magnetic elds
separately which describes unipolar induction and the equation of convection,
relatively.
Meyl says that the eld is always rst, which generates particles by decay or
conversion. Classical physics does not recognize energy particles aka potential
vortices, so they were not included in the theory. Quantum physics effectively
tried to explain everything with vortices, which is why it is incomplete. The
derivation of Schrodingers equation from the extended Maxwell equations means
they are vortices. For example, photons are light as particle vortices and electro-
magnetic (EM) light is in wave form which depends on the detection method which
can change the form of light.
Gravitation is from the speed of light difference caused by proximity, which
proportional to eld strength decreases the distance of everything for the eld
strength. This causes the spin of the earth or other mass to move quicker farther
away from the greatest other eld inuence and thus orbit the sun or larger mass. The
closest parts of the bodies have smaller distances because of larger total elds and
thus slower speeds of light. These elds are generated by closed eld lines of
vortices and largely matter. Matter does not move as energy because the speed of
light is 0 in the eld of the vortex due to innite eld strength within the closed eld.
The more mass in proximity something has the greater the eld strength and the
shorter the distances, which causes larger groups of subatomic particles to individ-
ually have smaller sizes.
The total eld energy in the universe is exactly 0, but particle and energy forms of
vortices divide the energy inside and outside the vortex boundary. When particles
are destroyed no energy is released. No energy was produced when large amount of
matter was destroyed at MIT with accelerated natrium atoms. This is what Tesla
6.8 Summary 373
2
. Einsteins equation is correct as long
as the number of subatomic particles is only divided; energy comes from mass
defect, not from destruction.
There are a few kinds of waves. EM which are elds, scalar electric, or eddy
currents or magnetic vortex which Tesla started with, and magnetic scalar or the
potential vortex which Meyl focuses on and is used in nature. EM is xed at the
speed of light at that specic closed eld strength. Scalar vortices can be of any
speed. Neutrinos travel at 1.6c or higher and do not decay to EM. Tesla-type scalar is
between c and 1.6c and decays at distances proportional to their speed (used in
traditional radio near eld). Under the speed c, the scalar vortex acts as an electron.
Black holes may produce and emit neutrinos by condensing and transforming
matter into massive fast particles with apparently no mass or charge due to their very
high frequency of uctuation. Neutrinos oscillate in mass and charge. When neutri-
nos hit matter and they have a precise charge or mass they produce one of the three
effects: a gain in mass, a production of EM, or emission of slower neutrinos.
Resonance requires the same frequency, same modulation, and opposite phase
angle. Once (scalar) resonance is reached, a direct connection is created from the
transmitter to the receiver. Signal and power will pass through a Faraday cage.
In part of summary close-up, as we briey mentioned in Chap. 1, according to
Tom Bearden, the scalar interferometer is a powerful superweapon that the Soviet
Union used for years to modify weather in the rest of the world [28]. It taps the
quantum vacuum energy, using a method discovered by T. Henry Moray in the
1920s [29]. It may have brought down the Columbia spacecraft. However, some
conspiracy theorists believe that Bearden is an agent of disinformation on this topic;
thus we leave this matter to the reader to make their own conclusions and be able to
follow up their own nding and this author does not claim that any of these matters
are false or true. However, in the 1930s Tesla announced other bizarre and terrible
weapons: a death ray, a weapon to destroy hundreds or even thousands of aircraft at
hundreds of miles range, and his ultimate weapon to end all warthe Tesla shield,
which nothing could penetrate. However, by this time no one any longer paid any
real attention to the forgotten great genius. Tesla died in 1943 without ever revealing
the secret of these great weapons and inventions. Tesla called this superweapon as
scalar potential howitzer or death ray as artistically depicted in Figs. 2.55 and 2.56
and later was demonstrated by Soviets in their Sary Shagan Missile Range during the
pick of Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) time period and mentioned it during SALT
treaty negotiation [30,31].
References
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2. B. Zohuri, Directed energy weapons: physics of high energy lasers (HEL), 1st edn. (Springer
Publishing Company, New York, 2016)
374 6 Scalar Wave Energy as Weapon
3. L.M. Hively, G.C. Giakos, Toward a more complete electrodynamic theory. Int. J. Signals
Imaging Syst. Engr. 5,210 (2012)
4. B. Zohuri, Plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear reactions driven fusion energy
(Springer Publishing Company, New York, 2016)
5. D.A. Woodside, Three vector and scalar eld identities and uniqueness theorems in Euclidian
and Minkowski space. Am. J. Phys. 77, 438 (2009)
6. M.W. Evans, J.-P. Vigier, The enigmatic photon, Volume 1: The eld B
(3)
Dordrecht,. Springer; Softcover Reprint of the Originated, 1994)
7. M.W. Evans, Physics B 182, 237 (1992); 183, 103 (1993)
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(Plenum, New York, 1994)
9. M.W. Evans, The photons magnetic eld (World Scientic, Singapore, 1992)
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Singapore, 1992)
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Primaerliteratur/Scalar-Waves.pdf
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787,412, N.Y. 18.4.1905
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29. http://www.cheniere.org/images/people/moray%20pics.htm
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This book delves deeply into the real-world technologies behind the ‘directed energy weapons’ that many believe exist only within the confines of science fiction. On the contrary, directed energy weapons such as high energy lasers are very real, and this book provides a crash course in all the physical and mathematical concepts that make these weapons a reality. Written to serve both scientists researching the physical phenomena of laser effects, as well as engineers focusing on practical applications, the author provides worked examples demonstrating issues such as how to solve for heat diffusion equation for different boundary and initial conditions. Several sections are devoted to reviewing and dealing with solutions of diffusion equations utilizing the aid of the integral transform techniques. Ultimately this book examines the state-of-the-art in currently available high energy laser technologies, and suggests future directions for accelerating practical applications in the field
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Maxwell's equations require a gauge condition for specific solutions. This incompleteness motivates use of a dynamical quantity, Î¶ = -â Â· A - ÎµÎ¼ âÏ/ât. Here, A and Ï are the vector and scalar potentials, with permeability and permittivity, Îµ and Î¼ respectively. The results are: relativistic covariance; classical wave solutions; elimination of inconsistency between the media-interface matching for Ï and for Gauss law; independent determination of A and Ï; prediction of two new waves, one being a charge-fluctuation-driven scalar wave, having energy but not momentum; a second longitudinal-electric wave with energy and momentum; experimental suggestions.
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This book covers the basic principles of both fusion and plasma physics, examining their combined application for driving controlled thermonuclear energy. The author begins by explaining the underlying scientific theory, and then goes on to explore the nuances of deployment within thermonuclear reactors. The potential for these technologies to help shape the new generation of clean energy is examined in-depth, encompassing perspectives both highlighting benefits, and warning of challenges associated with the nuclear fusion pathway. The associated computer code and numerical analysis are included in the book. No prior knowledge of plasma physics or fusion is required. • Provides a basic scientific grounding in Plasma Physics, as well as in Fusion • Demonstrates pathways whereby plasma-driven fusion may be superior to the current generation of fission-based reactors • Examines fusion within the broader context of clean energy applications, discussing efficiency, costs and environmental impacts
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• The only unclassified source of detailed information on high energy laser development • Covers scientific and mathematical background, on practical issues governing field application • Includes worked examples of all key mathematical equations This book delves deeply into the real-world technologies behind the ‘directed energy weapons’ that many believe exist only within the confines of science fiction. On the contrary, directed energy weapons such as high energy lasers are very real, and this book provides a crash course on all the physical and mathematical concepts that make these weapons a reality. Written to serve both scientists researching the physical phenomena of laser effects, as well as engineers focusing on practical applications; the author provides worked examples demonstrating issues such as how to solve for heat diffusion equation for different boundary and initial conditions. Several sections are devoted to reviewing and dealing with solutions of diffusion equations utilizing the aid of the integral transform techniques. Ultimately, this book examines the state-of-the-art in currently available high energy laser technologies, and suggests future directions for accelerating practical applications in the field.
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There is a wide confusion on what are scalar waves in serious and less serious literature on electrical engineering. In this paper we explain that this type of waves are longitudinal waves of potentials. It is shown that a longitudinal wave is a combination of a vector potential with a sacalar potential. There is a full analogue to acoustic waves. Transmitters and receivers for longitudinal electro-magnetic waves are discussed.
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The recent experimental observation of the optical Cotton–Mouton effect is consistent with the induction of magnetization by the longitudinal component of the photon's magnetic field, whose classical counterpart is the equivalent flux density B(3). In the optical Cotton–Mouton effect observed by Zon et al.,16 the field B(3) acts at second order and is independent of the polarization of the inducing laser beam propagating parallel to a permanent magnetic field. The optical Cotton–Mouton effect is therefore proportional to the laser intensity as observed.16
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DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.15.190