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Teaching: Trends in Research on Teaching



Research on Teaching has shifted from an examination of effective teacher behaviors to teacher cognition and actions. This accompanies a revised image of the teacher from that of a teacher standing in front of the class and transmitting information and skills to the students to one of the teacher as facilitator of learning. This article examines the changes in the research that accompanies the sea change in views of teaching and teacher education.
Richardson, V. (2001) Teaching: Trends in research. In N. Smelser and P. Baltes (Eds.), International
Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences (Section 23, pp. 15483-15487). Oxford, England: Elsevier Science
... In this work, Stenhouse initiated a movement to encourage teachers to research the process of curriculum development. Teacher research is a form of self-study whereby teachers research or inquire into their own practices (Richardson, 2001). Stenhouse's (1975) notion of the teacher-researcher is part of the action research movement that suggests that teachers are in the best position to inquire into their own practices to solve problems in the contexts in which they teach. ...
... Stenhouse's (1975) notion of the teacher-researcher is part of the action research movement that suggests that teachers are in the best position to inquire into their own practices to solve problems in the contexts in which they teach. The process of teachers conducting their own research, often in their own classrooms, provides many benefits for them, their pupils, and the school environment (Richardson, 2001). In recent years, teacher research is seen as a means of professional development. ...
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The primary purpose of action research carried out by teachers is to improve their own educational and pedagogical practices in a specific context. However, teachers need to develop a more critical stance on their practice to interrogate and validate their action research systematically. Literature suggests that action research can be strengthened through the involvement of critical friends who can ask provocative questions, provide data to be examined through another lens, and offer a critique of a person’s work as a friend. This narrative review paper seeks to emphasize the role of critical friends and propose a critical friend framework that can be integrated into action research studies. It extensively reviews the role of critical friends in action research with illustrations from previous studies. It offers a critical friend’s protocol according to the action research process of self-reflective cycles, namely reconnaissance, planning, action and observation, and reflection. It is therefore suggested that teachers should consider the incorporation of critical friends into their action research studies.
... De même. Kavanoz(2006) et Kazempour et al. (2009) affirment que la compréhension des Plusieurs études (Borg, 2003b ;Richardson, 2001) démontrent qu'il y a une relation entre les pratiques des enseignants et leur système cognitif. Ces études mettent l'accent sur la relation entre les processus mentaux des enseignants et leurs actions pédagogiques. ...
... Ces études mettent l'accent sur la relation entre les processus mentaux des enseignants et leurs actions pédagogiques. En ce sens, les croyances et les connaissances sont devenues des facteurs les plus importants dans l'explication et l'interprétation des pratiques des enseignants (Kilic 2010;Richardson, 2001). ...
... In this qualitative study, participants were engaged in a teacher research defined as a research design in which the teacher inquires into his/her own practices (Richardson, 2001). Within this research design, the study adopts a descriptive case study (Yin, 2003) focusing on the perspectives of a group of English language teachers about CLIL after they voluntarily took part in a CLIL lesson planning procedure following an introduction to different aspects of CLIL in an MA course. ...
The aim of the study is to explore the perspectives of English language teachers about content and language integrated learning (CLIL) after their preparation of lesson plans and accompanying materials in line with the language-driven CLIL approach. The participants are five English language teachers who are enrolled in the MA program in the department of English Language Teaching (ELT) at a state university in Turkey. After receiving adequate theoretical background, they were given time to develop three language-driven CLIL lesson plans following the steps of a lesson template. When the participants completed each lesson plan based on the contents they chose, they received feedback from their peers and revised their lesson plans accordingly. At the end of the whole lesson planning procedure, their lesson plans were analyzed to uncover their CLIL lesson plan preferences in terms of content. Also, by means of semi-structured interviews, their perspectives about the lesson planning process and in what ways the process contributed to their improvement were revealed. It was found that the CLIL lesson planning process and its contribution to their improvement in certain areas were generally perceived positively. Thus, it can be suggested that English language teachers should be encouraged to develop CLIL lesson plans.
... As the TAR paradigm emerged after the PPT paradigm and was aligned with the global trend of encouraging teachers in researching their practices since the 1950s (Richardson, 2001;Snoek & Moens, 2011), this more recent paradigm is regarded as the academisation of teacher education (Simola, 2015), with two distinctive features: (1) pursuing a full-scale academic degree in education at the undergraduate or master levels rather than a practice-oriented diploma or teaching certificate (Puustinen et al., 2018), and (2) participating in research-based learning course to be equipped with applied research skills (Brew & Saunders, 2020). TAR has become an international trend in teacher education (OECD, 2005), with one of the main requirements asking teacher candidates to conduct a research project and write a graduation dissertation in education (Kansanen, 2014). ...
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Collective academic supervision (CAS) is a collective model for students' academic supervision to reduce their isolation and as a measure to establish a congenial culture and to develop networks with their peers. Most studies focus on the benefits of online CAS, leaving the pedagogical process and students' learning experiences understudied. This research examines the participation and learning experience of a cohort of Master of Education (MEd) students in online supervision that took place on a Moodle platform. This article reports a case study of Moodle‐based CAS in Hong Kong that aims to train postgraduate students into teacher‐researchers. A class of MEd students and their supervisors were observed, and their online dialogues were analysed. The bio‐ecological student engagement model was used to explain the online supervision process. The results indicated that the students' learning was situated and embodied in the online social processes facilitated by peers' and supervisors' replies. The online interaction behaviours mainly included proposing questions or problems, providing information or solutions, and making comments. The findings have provided an exemplary case regarding the application of the online learning environment in supporting CAS and active research‐based learning. The productive online CAS seems to benefit both teacher candidates and their supervisors by promoting the co‐construction of the knowledge and skills of educational research, although more evidence is needed.
... Teacher research (or practitioner inquiry) has been promoted to encourage teachers in conducting research on or inquiry into their own practices since the 1950s (Richardson, 2001). According to Bromme (2001), there are three paradigms emerging from the historical evolution of teacher research: (1) the 'Teacher Traits' paradigm, which aims to accurately figure out teachers' personal characteristics that would explain differences in terms of educational impact, primarily through the use of psychometric instruments; (2) the 'Teacher Skills' paradigm, which shifts to search for effective teaching strategies by measuring the effect of teacher skills on learning outcomes in the classroom, following the behaviourism or process-product logic; and (3) the 'Teacher Expertise' paradigm, which believes in teacher's agency and decision-making in selecting appropriate actions for each situation and improve the teaching and learning activities according to the type of learners, teaching content, teaching process and the teaching aims. ...
Teacher research has been promoted as a context-relevant approach to improving children’s learning experiences in early childhood settings. In this article, we focus on social-emotional learning (SEL), a crucial domain of the early childhood curriculum, to illustrate the role of teacher research in changing early childhood teachers’ everyday practices. We present an informative project on facilitating toddlers’ conflict resolution to exemplify the process of early childhood teacher research for supporting SEL. Evidence of the teacher research project revealed that integrating the child-focused approach into the existing curriculum was beneficial for promoting children’s conflict resolution skills and self-regulation. As situated in the particular context of Singapore, this case of teacher research presents how to successfully innovate early childhood curriculum practices within sociocultural realities, which include the hierarchical management culture, the imbalance between pressure upon and support for teachers, and limited time and resources. Suggestions and implications for early childhood practitioners and policymakers are also discussed.
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