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PALEOVEGETACIÓN Y SU RELACIÓN CON LAS SOCIEDADES PREHISPÁNICAS DEL 300 N.E AL 1200/1300 N.E. SEGÚN LA SECUENCIA OCUPACIONAL DEL MONTÍCULO 01, NUEVO CORINTO (L-72-NC)

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El presente trabajo estudió el vínculo entre las sociedades prehispánicas y su entorno. La investigación se enfocó en las prácticas culturales y su registro en la paleovegetación de Nuevo Corinto (L-72 NC) desde el 300 n.e. hasta el 1200/1300 n.e. Para esto, la investigación incluyó los planteamientos sobre las interacciones humano-ambiente (Human-Environment Interactions, HEI), las cuales se enfocan en el estudio de las transformaciones ambientales en un amplio espectro cultural y temporal. Según las HEI, la domesticación de paisajes comprende una amplia gama de estrategias y prácticas de transformación del ambiente. Las actividades humanas que alteran los ambientes son diversas, sin embargo, las prácticas agrícolas, constructivas y agroforestales sobresalen debido a su impacto y su carácter histórico; lo cual favorece que éstas sean registradas arqueológicamente en Costa Rica y otras partes del mundo. Es así que, las actividades humanas desarrolladas en Nuevo Corinto fueron inferidas mediante 16 muestras de suelos recuperadas durante la excavación del montículo principal (M-01). Los suelos fueron recolectados en uno de los perfiles estratigráficos de la operación 2-3-2-2-1 SW. Dichas muestras se procesaron por medio de análisis de fitolitos, esta técnica fue seleccionada debido a su alto potencial en suelos ácidos del trópico. Por ende, la metodología incluyó diversas etapas, tales como: recolección y descripción de suelos, así como la extracción e identificación de fitolitos; esto con el fin de comparar porcentualmente los datos. Finalmente, la evidencia analizada mostró un total de 35 morfotipos y 16 taxones; los cuales indicaron una estructura de la paleovegetación compuesta por zacates, palmas, árboles, herbáceas y cultivos. Adicionalmente, la paleovegetación comprendió una diversidad taxonómica similar a la registrada en bosques húmedos tropicales. Las variaciones en el registro taxonómico permitieron inferir respecto a las actividades humanas desarrollas en Nuevo Corinto; las prácticas culturales evidenciaron una domesticación del paisaje. Las prácticas constructivas, agrícolas y agroforestales reflejaron una manipulación intencional de los componentes de la paleovegetación; la agroforestería fue una actividad que sobresalió debido a su implementación para incrementar de la productividad del bosque en Nuevo Corinto.
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