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Effect of Fennel Extract on the Improvement of Memory Disorders in Beta Amyloid Alzheimer Model of Male Wistar Rats

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Abstract

Introduction: Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Due to the neurodegenerative effect of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) this study aimed at investigating the effect of this plant on the improvement of learning and memory in rat models of Alzheimer's disease. Material & Methods: The male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups, namely the control group (no injection), sham group (saline injection), experimental group (injection of beta-amyloid (40-1). The other three groups received 75, 140, and 250 ml/kg of fennel extract intraperitoneally 7 days before and 3 weeks after bilateral intraventricular beta-amyloid injection. Shuttle box was used to study the learning and memory behavior of the rats; moreover hematoxylin-eosin staining was conducted for histological studies. Findings: According to the results, fennel extract at a dose of 140 mg/kg increased behavioral indicators in measuring the passive avoidance memory in the Alzheimer's group, compared to the sham group (P
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
Email: eslimid@yahoo.com
Copyright © 2018 Journal of Ilam University of Medical Science. This is an open-access article distributed
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              
Foeniculum vulgare
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
     
neurodegenerative
      

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  
       
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    
     

       

beta-amyloid (Aβ)

 

        
    
       

 

    
    
      
 reactive oxygen spices (ROS)
   
  
    ROS 
     



    
        

     
     


   
       
  


       
  
CA1
  

   
Foeniculum vulgar Mill Apiaccac
     
   
    

   

     
    
  
       
     

  



        




        

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 
     




   



A9810

     



 

  

     


      


Watman
 

      

  
   
     
      
    ±
     

     
       
        
      
    

       


   

        
        
         
       
        
     
 .      
      
        
       . 
         
      
        
   
      
         
    .    
    
        
        
     
      
       
    . 
      
        
Downloaded from sjimu.medilam.ac.ir at 6:23 IRDT on Tuesday June 25th 2019 [ DOI: 10.29252/sjimu.27.1.1 ]

      
        
        
        
      
     .     
       
         
          
      
   

     
 
Cambridge Medical Instruments,
United Kingdom    
        
  -  
       
      
       
    .   
      
    
 Olysiabioreport
 

   SPSS     
ANOVAT-test
PTukey-testPost
hocP<0.05
   
      Sigma plat


      

        
       
      
     
P<0.001 

Aβ (1-40)Aβ (1-40))P<0.001###( (n=8)
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 
        
        
   
 P<0.05    
       
  
   
 P<0.05  
  

Aβ (1-40)P<0.05#, P<0.05***(
     

        

 





   
       
   

    P<0.001

#
Downloaded from sjimu.medilam.ac.ir at 6:23 IRDT on Tuesday June 25th 2019 [ DOI: 10.29252/sjimu.27.1.1 ]

P<0.001
P<0.001###
     
 
  
       

        


    
       
     

      
    


      
    
  
P<0.001
P<0.001***
P<0.001###
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 

    &
    
CA1

      
    CA1




         



       
CA1
      
       

CA1

     
      
   (1-40) 
     
CA1
AC

  
   CA1
    
       

       
    

CA1



(1-40)B


CA1

 

       
E


CA1
   
     

Aβ (1-40)
 

 
       
      
     
     Aβ (1-40)
EDF
Downloaded from sjimu.medilam.ac.ir at 6:23 IRDT on Tuesday June 25th 2019 [ DOI: 10.29252/sjimu.27.1.1 ]

H&ECA1AAβ (1-40)B
mg/kgFV 70Dmg/kgE FV 140 
mg/kgFV 250 F

   
     CA1

     

   
     



CA1

       
   Aβ (1-40)
       
 
   

        
    

CA1A
Aβ (1-40)Bmg/kgFV 70Dmg/kgE FV 140 
mg/kgFV 250 F
Downloaded from sjimu.medilam.ac.ir at 6:23 IRDT on Tuesday June 25th 2019 [ DOI: 10.29252/sjimu.27.1.1 ]
 

       
        
   1-40  
       

      

       



    
   

    

    

     
    
 (1-40)
  

   


α

     
  AD 
   
       
        
     

     CA1
 

      


    
Woolly 
    CA1  
 
      
  NO    
NO
      
      
    
   β 
      
    
     
   β
 NT2
  PC12

 H2O2

   
    



       
Visual

   
    

     
   


     

   
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

      

      



         
       
   
       

Aβ (1-40)

CA1
 

    
Aβ(1-40)

  
       

     
     


 (1-40)
CA1
  
Aβ (1-40)

CA1
CA3
DG  

      
(1-40)
CA1

     
     
      

  RNA
 
   
  CA1
  
 (1-40)









     
     
     

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

Effect of Fennel Extract on the Improvement of Memory
Disorders in Beta Amyloid Alzheimer Model
of Male Wistar Rats
Eslimiesfahani D1*, Oryan S1, Khosravi M1, valizadegan F2
(Received: January 6, 2018 Accepted: May 28, 2018)
Abstract
Introduction: Alzheimer's disease is the
most common neurodegenerative disorder.
Due to the neurodegenerative effect of
fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) this study
aimed at investigating the effect of this
plant on the improvement of learning and
memory in rat models of Alzheimer's
disease.
Material & Methods: The male Wistar rats
were assigned into six groups, namely the
control group (no injection), sham group
(saline injection), experimental group
(injection of beta-amyloid (40-1). The other
three groups received 75, 140, and 250
ml/kg of fennel extract intraperitoneally 7
days before and 3 weeks after bilateral
intraventricular beta-amyloid injection.
Shuttle box was used to study the learning
and memory behavior of the rats; moreover
hematoxylin-eosin staining was conducted
for histological studies.
Findings: According to the results, fennel
extract at a dose of 140 mg/kg increased
behavioral indicators in measuring the
passive avoidance memory in the
Alzheimer's group, compared to the sham
group (P<0.001). Moreover, optical
microscopy studies showed a significant
decrease in tissue damage and an increase
in the number of Nissl bodies stained in
CA1 hippocampal region, especially in
pyramidal layer, in Alzheimer's disease-
induced rats treated with fennel extract at a
dose of 140 mg/kg.
Discussion & Conclusions: In this study,
fennel extract shows the neuroprotective
effect against Alzheimer’s disease induced
by beta-amyloid (40-1). the observed
improvements are probably related with
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pseudo-
estrogenic properties of this plant.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, Beta-
amyloid, Passive avoidance memory, Rat,
Shuttle box
1. Dept of Animal Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2. Dept of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran
* Corresponding author Email: eslimid@yahoo.com
Scientific Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences
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Article
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by the presence of two aberrant structures in the brain, those are, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, along with neuronal death. Amyloid-beta further exacerbates the metabolic decline and results in cognitive impairments. Because of the favorable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia absinthium (wormwood), this study aimed to evaluate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of this plant on spatial memory performance, neuronal injury, and apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta. Forty-eight male Wistar rats (220-250 g) were divided into the following groups: 1) control; 2) sham (solvent; ICV); 3) amyloid-beta 1-40 (ICV); and 4) amyloid-beta plus A. absinthium (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day; gavage). Congo red and TUNEL staining were performed to investigate the neuronal injury. Also, the Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the spatial memory of the experimental groups. The results showed that spatial memory for finding the hidden platform in the MWM task decreased significantly in the amyloid-beta group, compared to the control and sham groups. In contrast, treatment with A. absinthium improved spatial memory dose-dependently and reduced tissue degeneration, amyloid plaques, and apoptosis. It seems that the hydroalcoholic extract of A. absinthium, due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, can effectively reverse spatial memory deficits and reduce amyloid-beta plaques.
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Background and Objectives: Alzheimerchr('39')s disease is one of the most important neurodegenerative diseases that occur following the production of free radicals and inflammatory factors. Terpinolene has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of terpinolene and physical activity on memory and learning in a model of Alzheimerchr('39')s rats. Methods: Bilateral injection of AB1-42 was administered to the hippocampus of the male rats to create the model of Alzheimerchr('39')s disease. The assigned groups included control (-), sham, exercise, control (+), Alzheimerchr('39')s+distilled water, Alzheimerchr('39')s+exercise, Alzheimerchr('39')s+terpinolene (treatment), Alzheimerchr('39')s+terpinolene (prevention), and Alzheimerchr('39')s+terpinolene+exercise. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, shuttle box behavioral test, as well as neurogenesis and amyloid plaques were assessed in this study. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results: The SOD activity and neurogenesis levels decreased significantly in the control (+) group, compared to control groups of the behavioral test. However, the MDA level and plaque increased significantly (P
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder representing the major cause of dementia. It is characterized by memory loss, and cognitive and behavioral decline. In particular, the hallmarks of the pathology are amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), formed by aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Oxidative stress plays a main role in AD, and it is involved in initiation and progression of AD. It is well known that Aβ induced oxidative stress, promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and consequently lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, tau hyperphosphorylation, results in toxic effects on synapses and neurons. In turn, oxidative stress can increase Aβ production. For these reasons, the administration of an antioxidant therapy in AD patients was suggested. The term vitamin E includes different fat-soluble compounds, divided into tocopherols and tocotrienols, that possess antioxidant action. α-Tocopherol is the most studied, but some studies suggested that tocotrienols may have different health promoting capacities. In this review, we focused our attention on the effects of vitamin E supplementation in AD animal models and AD patients or older population. Experimental models showed that vitamin E supplementation, by decreasing oxidative stress, may be a good strategy to improve cognitive and memory deficits. Furthermore, the combination of vitamin E with other antioxidant or anti-inflammatory compounds may increase its efficacy. However, even if some trials have evidenced some benefits, the effects of vitamin E in AD patients are still under debate.
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Phytoestrogens are plant‐derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17‐β‐oestradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)oestrogenic effects by binding to the oestrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is to present a state‐of‐the‐art overview of the potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens. Various beneficial health effects have been ascribed to phytoestrogens, such as a lowered risk of menopausal symptoms like hot flushes and osteoporosis, lowered risks of cardiovascular disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, brain function disorders, breast cancer, prostate cancer, bowel cancer and other cancers. In contrast to these beneficial health claims, the (anti)oestrogenic properties of phytoestrogens have also raised concerns since they might act as endocrine disruptors, indicating a potential to cause adverse health effects. The literature overview presented in this paper illustrates that several potential health benefits of phytoestrogens have been reported but that, given the data on potential adverse health effects, the current evidence on these beneficial health effects is not so obvious that they clearly outweigh the possible health risks. Furthermore, the data currently available are not sufficient to support a more refined (semi) quantitative risk–benefit analysis. This implies that a definite conclusion on possible beneficial health effects of phytoestrogens cannot be made. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc
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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with life-threatening complications. Despite the enormous progress in conventional medicine and pharmaceutical industry, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. This study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected Sudanese plants that are traditionally used to treat diabetes.
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This century-old observation is still valid today, despite everything we have learned about the mammal nervous system, especially in the area of neurobiology of learning and memory. After “training” an experimental animal, such as a rat or a mouse, the only way to be sure that a “memory” was formed is by evoking it back, i.e., by recalling it in a “test” session: this “memory” is expressed by a behavior that differs from that one emitted in the training session. Until proof to the contrary, the best explanation for this new response to the same context is that some kind of internal modification—a “record”—mediates it inside the animal: this is what we call “memory”. Everything else is consequence: if recalling depends upon the established memory trace intensity, it will be a function of the experience intensity during the acquisition, or “training”, session, and so on.
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Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with life-threatening complications. Despite the enormous progress in conventional medicine and pharmaceutical industry, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. This study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected Sudanese plants that are traditionally used to treat diabetes. Methods Extraction was carried out according to method described by Sukhdev et. al. and the extracts were tested for their glycogen phosphorylase inhibition, Brine shrimp lethality and antioxidant activity using (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and iron chelating activity. Extracts prepared from the leaves of Ambrosia maritima, fruits of Foeniculum vulgare and Ammi visnaga, exudates of Acacia Senegal, and seeds of Sesamum indicum and Nigella sativa. Results Nigella sativa ethanolic extract showed no toxicity on Brine shrimp Lethality Test, while its aqueous extract was toxic. All other extracts were highly toxic and ethanolic extracts of Foeniculum vulgare exhibited the highest toxicity. All plant extracts with exception of Acacia senegal revealed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Conclusions These results highly agree with the ethnobotanical uses of these plants as antidiabetic. This study endorses further studies on plants investigated, to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Moreover isolation and identification of active compounds are highly recommended.
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Alzheimer's disease begins about two decades before the onset of symptoms or neuron death, and is believed to be caused by pathogenic amyloid-β aggregates that initiate a cascade of molecular events culminating in widespread neurodegeneration. The microtubule binding protein tau may mediate the effects of amyloid-β in this cascade. Amyloid plaques comprised of insoluble, fibrillar amyloid-β aggregates are the most characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease. However, the correspondence between the distribution of plaques and the pattern of neurodegeneration is tenuous. This discrepancy has stimulated the investigation of other amyloid-β aggregates, including soluble amyloid-β oligomers. Different soluble amyloid-β oligomers have been studied in several mouse models, but not systematically in humans. Here, we measured three amyloid-β oligomers previously described in mouse models-amyloid-β trimers, Aβ*56 and amyloid-β dimers-in brain tissue from 75 cognitively intact individuals, ranging from young children to the elderly, and 58 impaired subjects with mild cognitive impairment or probable Alzheimer's disease. As in mouse models, where amyloid-β trimers appear to be the fundamental amyloid-β assembly unit of Aβ*56 and are present in young mice prior to memory decline, amyloid-β trimers in humans were present in children and adolescents; their levels rose gradually with age and were significantly above baseline in subjects in their 70s. Aβ*56 levels were negligible in children and young adults, rose significantly above baseline in subjects in their 40s and increased steadily thereafter. Amyloid-β dimers were undetectable until subjects were in their 60s; their levels then increased sharply and correlated with plaque load. Remarkably, in cognitively intact individuals we found strong positive correlations between Aβ*56 and two pathological forms of soluble tau (tau-CP13 and tau-Alz50), and negative correlations between Aβ*56 and two postsynaptic proteins (drebrin and fyn kinase), but none between amyloid-β dimers or amyloid-β trimers and tau or synaptic proteins. Comparing impaired with age-matched unimpaired subjects, we found the highest levels of amyloid-β dimers, but the lowest levels of Aβ*56 and amyloid-β trimers, in subjects with probable Alzheimer's disease. In conclusion, in cognitively normal adults Aβ*56 increased ahead of amyloid-β dimers or amyloid-β trimers, and pathological tau proteins and postsynaptic proteins correlated with Aβ*56, but not amyloid-β dimers or amyloid-β trimers. We propose that Aβ*56 may play a pathogenic role very early in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive loss of cognitive abilities and memory loss. The aim of this study was to compare neuropathological changes in hippocampus and brain cortex in a rat model of AD. Adult male Albino Wistar rats (weighing 250-300 g) were used for behavioral and histopathological studies. The rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control, sham and Beta amyloid (ABeta) injection. For behavioral analysis, Y-maze and shuttle box were used, respectively at 14 and 16 days post-lesion. For histological studies, Nissl, modified Bielschowsky and modified Congo red staining were performed. The lesion was induced by injection of 4 muL of ABeta (1-40) into the hippocampal fissure. In the present study, ABeta (1-40) injection into hippocampus could decrease the behavioral indexes and the number of CA1 neurons in hippocampus. ABeta injection CA1 caused ABeta deposition in the hippocampus and less than in cortex. We observed the loss of neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions. Y-maze test and single-trial passive avoidance test showed reduced memory retention in AD group. We found a significant decreased acquisition of passive avoidance and alternation behavior responses in AD group compared to control and sham group (P<0.0001). Compacted amyloid cores were present in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and white matter, whereas, scattered amyloid cores were seen in cortex and hippocampus of AD group. Also, reduced neuronal density was indicated in AD group.
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Amtyloid formation plays a central role in the cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease. The major component of this amyloid is the amyloid-beta (A beta) peptide, which is currently the subject of intense study. This review discusses some recent studies in the area of A beta synthesis, purification and structural analysis. Also discussed are proposed mechanisms for A beta -induced neurotoxicity and some recent advances in the development of A beta -related therapeutic strategies. Copyright (C) 2001 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons. Ltd.
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Foeniculum vulgare Mill. with common name fennel, is a very popular spice as well as an important traditional Chinese medicine. The plant is native to Southern Europe and Mediterranean region. It has two important subspecies of Capillaceum and Piperitum. It mainly contains essential oil, fatty acids and phenolic compounds, etc. The most intense odor compounds of fennel are trans-anethole, estragole and fenchone. Fennel has many biological activities due to its volatile and nonvolatile compounds, and it has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating various conditions, particularly rheumatism, cold pain and stomach disorder. It is also used as a spice for its aromatic fruit. This review covers progresses on the chemistry, pharmacology and nutraceutical value of fennel, and aims to lay the foundation for further study and utilization of fennel.