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Studies on neotropical Phasmatodea V: Notes on certain species of Pseudosermyle Caudell, 1903, with the descriptions of three new species from Mexico (Phasmatodea: Diapheromeridae: Diapheromerinae: Diapheromerini)

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Six species of Pseudosermyle Caudell, 1903 occurring in Mexico are discussed. Three new species from Mexico are described and illustrated, all of which are closely related to Pseudosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907): P. chorreadero n. sp. from both sexes, P. procera n. sp. and P. claviger n. sp. from the males only. The males of P. inconguens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) and P. tolteca (Saussure, 1859) are re-described and illustrated. Detailed descriptions and illustrations are furthermore provided for both sexes and the eggs of P. phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907). Taxonomic problems caused by misidentifications and wrong synonymies of previous authors concerning to these six species are clarified. A lectotype is designated for Pseudosermyle incongruens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907). Ocnophila crudis Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 and Dyme depressa Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 are shown to be junior synonyms of P. phalangiphora Rehn, 1907.
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Accepted by B. Mantovani: 31 Mar. 2007; published: 4 Jun. 2007 31
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2007 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 1496: 3151 (2007)
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Studies on neotropical Phasmatodea V: Notes on certain species of Pseudosermyle
Caudell, 1903, with the descriptions of three new species from Mexico
(Phasmatodea: Diapheromeridae: Diapheromerinae: Diapheromerini)
OSKAR V. CONLE1, FRANK H. HENNEMANN2 & PAOLO FONTANA3
1Goldbachweg 24, 87538 Bolsterlang, Germany. E-Mail: conle@phasmatodea.com
2Triftstrasse 104, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany. E-Mail: hennemann@phasmatodea.com
3Università di Padova, Dipartimento Agronomia Ambientale e Produzioni Vegetali – Entomologia AGRIPOLIS, Viale dell'Università,
16 35020 Legnaro (Padova), Italy. Website: www.phasmatodea.com
Abstract
Six species of Pseudosermyle Caudell, 1903 occurring in Mexico are discussed. Three new species from Mexico are
described and illustrated, all of which are closely related to Pseudosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907): P. chorreadero
n. sp. from both sexes, P. procera n. sp. and P. claviger n. sp. from the males only. The males of P. inconguens (Brunner
v. Wattenwyl, 1907) and P. tolteca (Saussure, 1859) are re-described and illustrated. Detailed descriptions and illustra-
tions are furthermore provided for both sexes and the eggs of P. phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907).
Taxonomic problems caused by misidentifications and wrong synonymies of previous authors concerning to these
six species are clarified. A lectotype is designated for Pseudosermyle incongruens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907). Ocno-
phila crudis Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 and Dyme depressa Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 are shown to be junior syn-
onyms of P. phalangiphora Rehn, 1907.
Key words: Phasmatodea; Diapheromeridae; Diapheromerinae; Diapheromerini; Pseudosermyle; Mexico; Belize; Gua-
temala; Honduras; P. chorreadero n. sp.; P. claviger n. sp.; P. incongruens; P. phalangiphora; P. procera n. sp.; P.
tolteca; new species; new synonyms; keys; lectotype
Introduction
Examination of extensive material shows the Mexican phasmid fauna to be apparently rich and highly diverse
but up to date very poorly studied, with only about 90 species recorded so far. The high biodiversity of Mex-
ico is explained by its geographical position and its rather complex topography, which includes mountains
with altitudes up to 5700 m, as well as various types of environments and climatic zones ranging from dry
lowland savannah and grasslands in the north to tropical rainforest in the south. The northern and central
regions between the Cordillera Occidental and Cordillera Oriental represent a transition zone between the fau-
nas of the Nearctic and Neotropical Realms, termed the “Mexican transition zone” (Morrone, 2006).
A survey of the Mexican orthopteroid insects was carried out from 2004 through 2006 and is still on-
going. This has so far resulted in several expeditions under the leadership of one of the authors (Paolo Fon-
tana, Italy). Besides many interesting Orthoptera of various orders, large numbers of Phasmatodea were col-
lected from numerous localities. In addition to this recently collected material, more than 1000 specimens
from the Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) are at hand for examina-
tion and will support upcoming studies on the Phasmatodea of Mexico by the authors.
The extensive material collected during 2004–2006 shows the great importance of new collections for our
understanding of the diverse Mexican fauna, as these can serve precise locality data, information on the habi-
CONLE ET AL.
32 · Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press
tats and preferably even the host-plants of the insects collected. Material from both sources contains numerous
species which are new to science and show several representatives of Diapheromerinae in particular to exhibit
a wide range of intraspecific variation and tendency to develop distinct colour morphs in Mexico. Each local-
ity in Mexico reveals new species and geographical forms of described species, the latter of which appear to
be rather constant in each locality. This fact decidedly increases the difficulty in differentiating species and
defining specific characters.
This paper is the fifth part of an on-going study of the neotropical Phasmatodea (written by the first two
authors) and deals with the discussion of six species of Pseudosermyle Caudell, 1903, three of which are
newly described. Extensive comparison of specimens from a wide range of localities has shown the shape and
structure of the terminal abdominal segments and external genitalia, like the cerci or terminal appendix of the
poculum of , to be the most prolific characters for the distinction of species. appear to be apparently
difficult to distinguish and are almost impossible to attribute to a certain species, without having specimens in
copula. Therefore, the present study puts the main emphasis on features of the genitalia.
Abbreviations
ANSP: Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia / USA.
BMNH: The Natural History Museum, London / England.
MHNG: Muséum d’histoire naturelle, Geneva / Switzerland.
MNHN: Muséum d’Histoire naturelle, Paris / France.
NHMW: Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna / Austria.
UNAM: Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico / Mexico.
FH: Private collection Frank H. Hennemann, Kaiserslautern / Germany.
OC: Private collection Oskar V. Conle, Bolsterlang / Germany
HT: Holotype
PT: Paratype
LT: Lectotype
PLT: Paralectotype
Pseudosermyle Caudell, 1903
Type-species: Pseudosermyle banksii Caudell, 1903: 871, by original designation.
Comments. Caudell (1903: 867) established Pseudosermyle for five United States species, provided a key
and designated the newly described P. banksii from Texas (Brazon County) as the type-species. Zompro
(2001a: 216) provided a brief diagnosis of the genus and a preliminary list of species. Currently (Otte &
Brock, 2005: 291 ff.), 21 species are attributed to Pseudosermyle, several of which are only known from the
type-specimen(s) or a single sex. Three new species from Mexico are described below. Due to the very frac-
tional knowledge of the genus no generic diagnoses can be provided with confirmation. The very diverse
structure of the male genitalia and the cerci in particular, indicate the genus as presently treated may contain
several distinct generic units. However, any broader discussion on this subject or eventual splitting of the
genus is only possible with extensive research and examinations of the complete vast amount of museums
specimens and realisation of new collections in Central America. The aim of the present paper restricts to the
descriptions of the three new species found among material from the UNAM collection.
Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press · 33
NOTES ON CERTAIN SPECIES OF PSEUDOSERMYLE
Therefore the keys presented below can only be provisional but appear to be warranted for easier determi-
nation.
Distribution. Southwestern USA and Central America.
List of species discussed below:
1. Pseudosermyle chorreadero n. sp. [Mexico: Chiapas]
2. Pseudosermyle claviger n. sp. [Mexico: Veracruz]
3. Bacunculus incongruens Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907: 336. [Mexico: Veracruz]
4. Sermyle phalangiphora Rehn, 1907: 229. [Mexico, Belize & Guatemala]
= Ocnophila crudis Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907: 312. n. syn.
= Dyme depressa Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907: 327. n. syn.
5. Pseudosermyle procera n. sp. [Mexico: Veracruz]
6. Bacteria tolteca Saussure, 1859: 62. [Mexico]
Keys to the six species discussed below:
Female (Those of P. claviger n. sp., P. incongruens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) and P. procera n. sp. are not known)
1. Pronotum with four prominent spines tolteca
- Pronotum without prominent spines............................................................................................................ 2
2. Mesofemora longer than mesonotum; cerci not projecting over anal segment, rounded apically................
..........................................................................................................................................chorreadero n. sp.
- Mesofemora distinctly shorter than mesonotum; cerci projecting over anal segment, pointed towards the
apex.........................................................................................................................................phalangiphora
Male
1. Cerci forked apically.................................................................................................................................... 2
- Cerci not forked apically.............................................................................................................................. 5
2. Sternite IX bearing a dextrolateral appendix, projecting distinctly over poculum......................................3
- Sternite IX with a very indistinct dextrolateral appendix, not projecting over poculum.. chorreadero n.sp.
3. Anal segment distinctly wider than long; left cercus at best as long as right cercus; both cerci shorter than
anal segment ...............................................................................................................................incongruens
- Anal segment at best as wide as long; left cercus distinctly longer than right cercus; left cercus longer than
anal segment ................................................................................................................................................ 4
4. Mesonotum < 7x longer than wide; arms of left cercus widely diverging.............................phalangiphora
- Mesonotum > 10x longer than wide; arms of left cercus pipe wrench-like .......................... procera n. sp.
5. Cerci straight or only very indistinctly down-curving; sternite IX distinctly longer than wide, without a
sinistral dorsolateral spine ................................................................................................................. tolteca
- Cerci very distinctly incurving; sternite IX distinctly shorter than wide, bearing a broad sinistral dorsolat-
eral spine.................................................................................................................................claviger n. sp.
Pseudosermyle chorreadero n. sp.
(Figs. 1–3, 15–16)
HT, : Mexico, Chiapas, El Chorreadero, 13.IX.1980, Coll. C.R.B. (UNAM).
PT, : Mexico, Chiapas, El Chorreadero, 13.IX.1980, Coll. C.R.B. (UNAM).
CONLE ET AL.
34 · Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas: El Chorreadero).
Etymology: This new species is named after the type-locality El Chorreadero, a waterfall in the Chiapas
district of Mexico.
Differentiation: are distinguished from the other species with forked cerci, P. incongruens (Brunner
v. Wattenwyl, 1907), P. phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907) and P. procera n. sp., by: the strongly reduced dextrolat-
eral appendix of sternite IX, which does not projecting over the apex of the poculum; the strongly reduced
dorsal arm of the right cercus, and the long mesofemora which are distinctly longer than the mesonotum.
differ from P. phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907) by: the more distinct spines of the head and thorax; longer
mesofemora which are at least as long, or longer than the mesonotum, and the shorter, apically rounded cerci.
From P. tolteca (Saussure, 1859) differ by the lack of the four prominent spines on the pronotum and
longer mesofemora which are at least as long, but usually longer than the mesonotum.
Description: The following descriptions of the and are based on the dried and pinned types, which
probably lost their original colouration during the preservation. Therefore the colouration is only described
briefly. (Fig. 16): Medium-sized (body length 70.3 mm) and rather robust for the genus. Complete body sur-
face, but head and thorax in particular, densely covered with granules and small spines. General colouration of
head and body brown or green. Legs brown to dark-brown with indistinct dark and pale patches. Antennae
uniformly pale to mid brown in basal half and faintly annulated with yellow afterwards.
Head: Elongate, at best 1.5 x longer than wide, parallel-sided, oval in cross-section; vertex flat and cov-
ered with many minute spines. Between the eyes with two sharply pointed spines (length 0.5–1 mm). Eyes
small, circular and strongly convex. Antennae distinctly longer than head and thorax combined (broken in the
PT and probably reaching as far as to the posterior margin of tergite IV). Antennomeres very short and
decreasing in length towards apices of antennae, densely covered by minute setae. Scapus dorsoventrally flat-
tened, rectangular and about 2x longer than wide. Pedicellus cylindrical, broader than following antennomeres
and about half the length of scapus.
Thorax: Complete surface densely covered with large granules and minute spines, longitudinal dorsome-
dian line very indistinct. Meso- and metathorax slightly broadened towards the posterior. Pronotum parallel-
sided, as wide but slightly shorter than the head, 1.3x longer than wide and slightly constricted medially.
Transverse median depression very distinct, slightly curved and reaching to lateral margins of segment.
Mesothorax elongate and round in cross-section, mesonotum about 4x longer than pronotum and 4–5x longer
than wide. Metanotum 2x longer than wide, about half as long as mesonotum, parallel sided. Pro-, meso- and
metasternum simple.
Abdomen: Hardly longer than head and thorax combined. Dorsal surface less distinctly granulose than
thorax but with a distinct longitudinal dorsomedian carina reaching from the median segment to the anal seg-
ment. Otherwise, tergites with several longitudinal carinae. Transverse fissure between median segment and
metanotum distinct and almost straight. Median segment transverse, about 2x wider than long, and about 1/3
the length of the metanotum. Segments II–III slightly increasing, IV–VII decreasing in width. Segments II
VII slightly increasing in length, II 1.2, VI 1.6x VII, and VII 1.7–2x longer than wide. Tergites VIII and IX
about as wide as long, strongly convex and shorter than anal segment. VIII and IX the shortest and narrowest,
III–V the longest and widest tergites. Anal segment longer than IX, parallel sided, with the median carina very
distinct and the posterior margin rounded with a broad median incision. Lateral margins with a faint concave
excavation near the bases of the cerci. Sternites II–VII simple and granulose. VII with an insdistinct praeoper-
cular organ formed by a small medial notch at posterior margin. Supraanal plate short with the apex angulate
and not reaching the posterior margin of anal segment. Subgenital plate small, flat and scoop-shaped, at best
reaching half way along anal segment (Fig. 3), minutely setose and with apex very sharply pointed. Cerci
small, short, triangular in cross-section, tapered towards a blunt and rounded apex, not projecting over anal
segment. Gonapophyses elongate, slender, apically up-curving, and completely covered by the subgenital
plate.
Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press · 35
NOTES ON CERTAIN SPECIES OF PSEUDOSERMYLE
Legs: All rather long and slender, profemora slightly longer than mesonotum, mesofemora at least as long
as mesonotum, hind legs distinctly projecting over apex of abdomen. All distinctly carinated, destitute of teeth
or spines and with all carinae minutely bristled. Profemora considerably compressed and curved basally.
Mesofemora without sub-basal lobes on the ventral carinae (at least in the unique known).
(Fig. 15): Medium-sized (body length 60.2 mm) rather slender and elongate. Body smooth and
slightly shiny, head with two blunt tubercles between the eyes. General colouration of head and body dark
brown with dark green longitudinal stripes along the lateral surfaces of the meso- and metathorax. Legs of
same general colour as body, but with distinct yellow annulations. Antennae uniformly pale to mid brown in
basal half, very indistinctly annulated with yellow in the apical half.
Head: As in female but smooth, without granules or spines and between the eyes with two low blunt
tubercles. Eyes as in female. Antennae as in female, but relatively longer and possibly projecting the apex of
the abdomen (broken in HT).
Thorax: Complete surface smooth and partly shiny. Meso- and metathorax round in cross-section and
slightly constricted medially. Pronotum parallel-sided, slightly shorter and as wide as the head, 1.3–1.5x
longer than wide, slightly constricted medially. Transverse median depression distinct, slightly curved and
reaching lateral margins of segment. Mesonotum more slender and 5–6x longer than pronotum, 6–7x longer
than wide, slightly widened at the posterior and anterior margins. Metanotum 4–5x longer than wide, about 2/
3 the length of mesonotum and slightly widened at the posterior and anterior margins. Pro- meso- and meta-
pleurae and sterna smooth and simple.
Abdomen: As long as head and thorax combined. Surface smooth and partly shiny. Transverse fissure
between median segment and metanotum distinct and almost straight. Median segment hardly wider than
long, ¼ the length of metanotum. Segments II–VII longest and most slender segment, parallel sided, 3–5x
longer than wide. Tergite VIII wider than VII, slightly widened towards the posterior, about as long as wide.
IX narrower than VIII, medially constricted and hardly longer than wide. Anal segment widest, strongly con-
vex and prominently widened towards a broad, rounded posterior margin. Sternites II–VII smooth and shiny.
Supraanal plate very small and hardly visible in dorsal aspect. Cerci very prominent and nearly equal in length
to another, about as long as anal segment, triangular in cross-section and incurving (Fig. 2). Left cercus forked
at about two thirds the length, the dorsal branch directed somewhat dorsad and nearly as long as the other
branch which is produced horizontally; covered with minute pale setae. Right cercus like left cercus, but dor-
sal branch reduced to a very small blunt heap. Vomer dark brown, longer than wide, elongate and longitudi-
nally separated into two equal parts. Dextral appendix of sternite IX reduced to a very small conical apex, not
projecting the poculum. Poculum of moderate size and slightly pointed towards the apex (Fig. 1).
Legs: Generally as in female but more slender and mesofemora distinctly longer than mesonotum.
Mesofemora without lobes.
Pseudosermyle claviger n. sp.
(Figs. 4–5, 17)
HT, : Mexico, Veracruz, Santiago Tuxtla, Cerro del Vigia, 12.VI–9.IX.1964 (UNAM).
PT, : Mexiko, Veracruz, Cerro del Vigia, leg. Carlos, 1996 (coll. OC).
Distribution: Mexico: Veracruz.
Etymology: The specific name claviger (lat. = carrier of the club) refers to the club-shaped cerci of .
Differentiation: Closely related to P. to ltec a (Saussure, 1859) with which it has the club-shaped cerci and
elongate body in common. however differ by the distinctly incurving cerci and the distinctly shorter than
wide sternite IX which bears a distinct sinistral dorsolateral spine.
CONLE ET AL.
36 · Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Description: The following description of the is based on the dried and pinned types. Attention is to be
drawn to the colour, as the dried specimens are not in a very good condition and probably lost their original
colour. (Fig. 17): Large (body length 67.3–70.7 mm), very slender and elongate for the genus. Body smooth,
head with two minute, blunt tubercles between the eyes. General colouration of body and head pale to mid
brown with indistinct greenish longitudinal stripe along the lateral surfaces of meso– and metathorax. Termi-
nal three segments of abdomen of somewhat paler colouration than rest of body. Legs of same general colour
as body, but partly indistinctly yellowish annulated. Antennae uniformly pale to mid brown in basal half, very
indistinctly annulated with yellowish segments in apical half.
Head: Elongate, 1.5x longer than wide, slightly narrowed towards the posterior, oval in cross–section.
Vertex flat and smooth, between the eyes with two low blunt tubercles. Eyes small, circular and strongly con-
vex. Antennae distinctly longer than head and thorax combined, projecting over apex of abdomen. Antenno-
meres very short and decreasing in length towards apices of antennae; all densely setose. Scapus
dorsoventrally flattened, rectangular and about 2x longer than wide. Pedicellus cylindrical, broader than fol-
lowing antennomeres and about half the length of scapus.
Thorax: Meso- and metathorax round in cross-section and slightly constricted medially. Pronotum paral-
lel-sided, slightly shorter and more slender than head, 1.5 x longer than wide, slightly constricted medially.
Transverse median depression distinct, slightly curved and reaching to lateral margins of segment. Mesono-
tum elongate, about 8x longer and more slender than pronotum, at least 12–15x longer than wide, slightly
widened at the posterior and anterior margins. Metanotum about 8x longer than wide, about 2/3 the length of
mesonotum, slightly widened at the posterior and anterior margins. Pro- meso- and metapleurae as well as
sterna smooth and simple.
Abdomen: As long as head and thorax combined. Surface smooth. Transverse fissure between median
segment and metanotum distinct and almost straight. Median segment slightly longer than wide, 1/6 the length
of metanotum. Segments II–VI longest and most slender, parallel sided and of uniform length 4–5x longer
than wide. VII shorter than VI, 4x longer than wide. Tergite VIII widest, broader than VII, widened towards
the posterior margin, distinctly swollen in the posterior half and longer than wide. IX narrower than VIII and
X, constricted medially and transverse, being 2x wider than long. Anal segment narrower than VIII, about as
wide as long, strongly convex and moderately tapered towards a rounded, but medially incised posterior mar-
gin. Sternites II–VII smooth and shiny. Supraanal plate very small and not visible from dorsal aspect. Cerci
club-shaped, distinctly incurving, thickened apically and bearing a small blunt sub-apical tubercle at the inte-
rior surface (Fig. 5). Both round in cross-section, longer than anal segment and covered with many minute
pale setae. Sternite IX wider than long, as long as anal segment and bearing a distinct sinistral dorsolateral
spine with a flattened apex (Fig. 4). Poculum small and simple, cup-shaped, posterior margin slightly project-
ing over anal segment.
Legs: All long and slender, profemora slightly longer than mesonotum, mesofemora shorter than mesono-
tum, hind legs distinctly projecting over apex of abdomen. All distinctly carinated, destitute of teeth or spines
and with all carinae minutely bristled. Profemora considerably compressed and curved basally.
Pseudosermyle incongruens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907)
(Figs. 6–7, 18)
Bacunculus incongruens Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907: 336. LT [by present designation], : Atoyac, Vera Cruz, Schu-
mann; Collectio Br.v.W.; det. Br.v.W. Bacunculus incongruens; 23.861
(NHMW, No. 680). [not PLT’s from Guatemala (Teapa, Senahu & Purula) in NHMW and BMNH These are P. phalan-
giphora (Rehn, 1907)].
Shelford, 1908: 352.
Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press · 37
NOTES ON CERTAIN SPECIES OF PSEUDOSERMYLE
Pseudosermyle incongruens, Zompro, 2001a: 216.
Otte & Brock, 2005: 291 (in part).
Heteronemia phalangiphora, Hebard, 1932: 217. [invalid synonymisation with incongruens]
Brock, 1993: 19 (in part).
Brock, 1998: 34 (in part).
Material examined [1 ]: 1 : Mexico, Fortin, Veracruz, 9.VIII.1985, via T.W. Taylor, BMNH(E) 2005-98
(BMNH).
Distribution: Mexico (Veracruz).
Differentiation: differ from the three other species with forked cerci, P. phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907),
P. chorreadero n. sp. and P. clav i ger n. sp., by: anal segment distinctly wider than long; left cercus at best as
long as, but usually shorter than the right cercus; both cerci shorter than anal segment, and appendix of stern-
ite IX strongly incurving.
Description: The following description of the is predominantly based on the dried and pinned LT in
NHMW. The colour of live specimens may differ slightly from the description here given, although the speci-
men is very well preserved.
(Fig. 18): Medium-sized (body length 53.0 mm) and rather robust for the genus. Body smooth and
shiny. Head with two minute, blunt spines between the eyes. General colouration of head and body mid brown
with indistinct longitudinal greenish stripes along the lateral sides of the meso- and metathorax. Legs of same
general colour as body, but indistinctly annulated with pale yellow. Antennae uniformly pale to mid brown in
basal half, very indistinctly annulated with yellowish segments in apical half.
Head: Elongate, 1.5x longer than wide, slightly narrowed towards the posterior, oval in cross-section. Ver-
tex flat and smooth, without granules, between the eyes with two low blunt spines. Eyes of moderate size, cir-
cular and strongly convex. Antennae distinctly longer than head and thorax combined, probably projecting the
end of abdomen. Antennomeres very short and decreasing in length towards apices of antennae, all densely
setose. Scapus dorsoventrally flattened, rectangular and about 2x longer than wide. Pedicellus cylindrical,
broader than following antennomeres and about half the length of scapus.
Thorax: Complete surface smooth and partly shiny. Meso- and metathorax round in cross-section and
slightly constricted medially. Pronotum parallel-sided, slightly shorter and as broad as the head, 1.3–1.5x
longer than wide, slightly constricted medially. Transverse median depression distinct, slightly curved and
reaching to lateral margins of segment. Mesonotum elongate, 5–6x longer and more slender than pronotum,
6–7x longer than wide, slightly widened at the posterior and anterior margins. Metanotum 4–5x longer than
wide, about 2/3 the length of mesonotum and slightly widened at the posterior and anterior margins. Pro-
meso- and metapleurae as well as sterna simple and smooth.
Abdomen: As long as head and thorax combined. Entire surface smooth and partly shiny. Transverse fis-
sure between median segment and metanotum distinct and almost straight. Median segment hardly wider than
long, ¼ the length of metanotum. Segments II–VII longest and narrowest, parallel sided and 3–5 x longer than
wide. Tergite VIII broader than VII, slightly widened towards the posterior, about as long as wide. IX more
slender than VIII, medially constricted and hardly longer than wide. Anal segment broadest segment, dis-
tinctly wider than long, strongly convex and prominently widened towards a rounded posterior margin. Stern-
ites II–VII simple, smooth and shiny. Supraanal plate very small and not visible from dorsal aspect. Cerci very
prominent and broad, nearly of equal length and shorter than anal segment (Fig. 7). Both triangular in cross-
section, curved inwards, left cercus at best as long as right cercus. Cerci forked at about 2/3 the way off the
base, the dorsal branch directed somewhat dorsad and equal in length to the lower branch, which is produced
horizontally. Both covered with a few minute pale setae. Sternite IX on the right bearing a strongly incurving
appendix with a laterally flattened apex, which is longer than the anal segment and clearly projects over the
posterior margin of that segment (Fig. 6). Poculum of moderate size, pointed towards apex and projected by
the finger-like, incurved dextrolateral appendix of sternite IX.
CONLE ET AL.
38 · Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Legs: All rather long and slender, profemora slightly longer than mesonotum, mesofemora slightly longer
than mesonotum, hind legs distinctly projecting over apex of abdomen. All distinctly carinated, destitute of
teeth or spines and with all carinae minutely bristled. Profemora considerably compressed and curved basally.
Comments: Brunner v. Wattenwyl (1907: 336) described Bacunculus incongruens based on 11 from
four localities in the collections of NHMW and BMNH. Careful examination of the syntype-series has shown
this to consist of two distinct species and all specimens except the from Atoyac in NHMW to be typical P.
phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907). Consequently, and although the in NHMW does not match the body length
given by Brunner v. Wattenwyl (60.0 mm) this is here selected as the lectotype of B. incongruens in order to
fix Brunner v. Wattenwyl’s species. This solution appears more appreciable rather than synonymising B.
incongruens with P. phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907) and describing the from Atayoc as a new species. Hebard,
1932: 217 synonymized B. incongruens with P. phalangiphora but the synonym is invalid due to Hebard did
not select a lectotype and was obviously not aware of the type series to represent two distinct species.
Pseudosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907)
(Figs. 8–10, 19–20, 23–25)
Sermyle phalangiphora Rehn, 1907: 229. HT, : Belize, Br. Honduras; Sermyle phalangiphora Rehn; Type No. 5144;
Heteronemia phalangiphora (Rehn) det. Hebard 1931 (ANSP).
Hebard, 1932: 217.
Marquez, 1962: 280, fig.1 & 2. [Description of ]
Bacunculus phalangiphora, Shelford, 1908: 353.
Heteronemia phalangiphora, Brock, 1993: 19 (in part).
Brock, 1998: 34 (in part).
Pseudosermyle phalangiphora, Zompro, 2001a: 216.
Otte & Brock, 2005: 292.
Ocnophila crudis Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907: 312. HT, : Museum Paris, Mexique, Salle 97-5##;
Type; 24, Libethra crudis Brunner v. Wattenwyl (MNHN). n. syn.
Shelford, 1908: 346.
Heteronemia crudis, Hebard 1932: 217.
Otte & Brock, 2005: 158.
Dyme depressa Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907: 327. HT, (nymph): Las Mercedes, 3000ft., Champion;
Collectio Br.v.W.; det. Br.v.W., Dyme depressa Br.; 23.8636 (NHMW, No. 664). n. syn.
Shelford, 1908: 348 (in part).
Brock, 1993: 19 (in part).
Bacteria depressa, Brock, 1998: 25 (in part).
Otte & Brock, 2005: 63 (in part).
Bacunculus incongruens Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907: 337 (in part- only PLT’s). PLT, : Teapa, Tabasco, Feb., H.H.S.;
Collectio Br.v.W.; det. Br.v.W. Bacunculus incongruens (NHMW, No. 680); PLT, : Teapa, Tabasco, Feb., H.H.S.;
Collectio Br.v.W.; det. Br.v.W. Bacunculus incongruens; 23.860 (NHMW, No. 680); PLT, : Senahu, Vera Paz,
Champion; Collectio Br.v.W.; det. Br.v.W. Bacunculus incongruens; 23.857 (NHMW, No. 680); PLT, : Purula,
Vera Paz, Champion, Godman-Salvin Coll., 1908-168, B.C.A. Orth. II, Bacunculus incongruens, Brunn. (BMNH);
PLT, : Purula, Vera Paz, Champion; Godman-Salvin Coll., 1908-168, B.C.A. Orth. II, Bacunculus incongruens,
Brunn., 40 (BMNH); PLT, 4 : Senahu, Vera Paz, Champion; Godman-Salvin Coll., 1908-168, B.C.A. Orth. II,
Bacunculus incongruens, Brunn. (BMNH); PLT, : Teapa, Tabasco, Jan., H.H.S., 41, B.C.A. Orth. II, Bacunculus
incongruens, Brunn.; Godman-Salvin Coll., 1908-168 (BMNH); PLT, : Senahu,Vera Paz, Champion; 39, B.C.A.
Orth. II, Bacunculus incongruens, Redt., Godman-Salvin Coll., 1908-168; Bacunculus incongruens, Brunner, 1907
det. John Huxley, 1964 (BMNH).
Pseudosermyle incongruens, Otte & Brock, 2005: 291 (in part).
Material examined [47 , 47 , 1 (nymph), 5 (nymphs), eggs]: MEXICO: 1 , 1 , 2
(nymphs): Mexiko, Yucatan, Nähe Akumal, Aktun Chen, 2km von der Küste entfernt, 5–10m, 19.09.2002,
leg. Conle & Friede (coll. OC); 1 : Mexiko, Yucatan, Nähe Coba, km40 auf der Strasse von Tulum nach
Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press · 39
NOTES ON CERTAIN SPECIES OF PSEUDOSERMYLE
Coba, 5–10m, 22.09.2002, leg. Conle & Friede (coll. OC); 15 , 20 , 1 (nymph), 3 (nymphs): Mex-
ico, Veracruz, Santiago Tuxtla, Cerro del Vigia, 12.VI–9.IX.1964 (UNAM); 2 : Mexico, Veracruz, Los
Tuxtlas, Estación de Biología, 08.09.1977 (UNAM); 1 : Mexico, Veracruz, Los Tuxtlas, Estación de
Biología, 27.2.1969 (UNAM); 2 : Mexico, Tabasco, Teapa, coll. Noct., 26.07.1962 (UNAM).
BELIZE: 10 , 10 : Ex Zucht O.Conle 2002, Zuchtstamm aus Belize (coll. OC); 5 , 10 , eggs:
Ex ovo, B. Kneubühler 2006, Belize, Belmopan, leg. J. Meerman (coll. OC); 10 , 2 , eggs: ex Zucht: F.
Hennemann, urspr.: Belize (via A. Harman), 2002–2003, PSG 237 (coll. FH, No’s 0468-1 to 12 & E1); 1 :
Honduras, Middlesex, Stann Creek Dist., 125m, BMNH(E) 2005-98 (BMNH).
GUATEMALA: 1 : Guatemala, Tamahu, Alta Verapaz, 1100m, 25.XI.1966, via T. Taylor, BMNH(E)
2005-98 (BMNH); 1 : Guatemala, Baléu, Mplo, San Cristóbal, 1350m, 26.VIII.1966, via T. Taylor,
BMNH(E) 2005-98 (BMNH); 1 : Guatemala, Baléu, Mplo, San Cristóbal, 1350m, 30.VIII.1966, via T. Tay-
lor, BMNH(E) 2005-98 (BMNH).
Distribution: Mexico (Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Quintana Roo & Yucatan), Belize (all districts),
Guatemala (Baja Verapaz & Alta Verapaz).
Differentiation: Closely related to P. incongruens (Rehn, 1907) and P. chorreadero n. sp. with which
share the apically forked cerci. From the first differ by: the longer than wide anal segment; the left cercus
being distinctly longer than the right; and the less distinctly incurving appendix of sternite IX. From P. chor-
readero n. sp. it differs by: the prominent dextrolateral appendix of sternite IX which projects over the pocu-
lum of , and shorter mesofemora which are at best equal in length ( ) or distinctly shorter than the
mesonotum ( ), as well as the less distinct spines of the head and thorax and longer, apically rounded cerci
of .
Description: The following descriptions of the and are based on wild and captive reared specimens
from Mexico and Belize. The colouration is described from live specimens.
(Fig. 20): Medium-sized to large (body length 70.0–93.0mm), rather robust for the genus (maximum
body width 7.2 mm). Head bearing two small, black sharply pointed spines between the eyes. General colou-
ration of head, body and legs variable, ranging from uniformly dark green to pale or dark brown, sometimes
overlaid with indistinct black speckles and patches or longitudinal lines. Eyes pale brown to greyish marbled.
Antennae uniformly pale to mid brown in basal half, very indistinctly annulated with yellowish segments in
apical half.
Head: Elongate, 1.5 x longer than wide, parallel-sided, oval in cross-section; vertex flat, covered by many
indistinct rows of small granules. Between the eyes with two sharply pointed apices (length 0.5–1mm). Eyes
small, circular and strongly convex. Antennae distinctly longer than head and thorax combined, reaching to
posterior margin of terigte IV. Antennomeres very short and decreasing in length towards apices of antennae,
all densely covered with minute setae. Scapus dorsoventrally flattened, rectangular and about 2x longer than
wide. Pedicellus cylindrical, broader than following antennomeres and about half the length of scapus.
Thorax: Complete surface densely covered with small granules, longitudinal dorsomedian line very indis-
tinct. Some specimens may have two small blackish dorsal spines close to the posterior margins of the meso-
and metanotum. Meso- and metathorax round in cross-section and slightly broadened towards the posterior.
Pronotum slightly shorter and as wide as head, 1.3x longer than wide, slightly constricted medially. Trans-
verse median depression prominent, slightly curved and reaching to both lateral margins of segment. Mesono-
tum 4–5x longer than pronotum, 5x longer than wide and gently broadened towards the posterior. Metanotum
2.5x longer than wide, half as long as mesonotum, parallel sided. Pro-, meso- and metasternum simple and
structured like the dorsal surface.
Abdomen: Hardly longer than head and thorax combined. Surface less distinctly granulose than thorax,
with longitudinal dorsomedian carina being more distinct; this runs from the median segment to the anal seg-
ment. Tergites with several longitudinal carinae. Some specimens may have two small blackish spines close to
the posterior margin of the tergites I–VII. Transverse fissure between median segment and metanotum distinct
CONLE ET AL.
40 · Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press
and almost straight. Median segment transverse, at least 2x wider than long, and ¼ to 1/3 the length of metan-
otum. Segment II–III slightly increasing, IV–VII decreasing in width. II–VI slightly increasing in length II
1.2x, VI 1.6 x, VII 1.7–2.0x longer than wide. Tergites VIII and IX about quadrate, shorter than anal segment,
strongly convex and with a slight longitudinal median keel. VIII and IX the shortest and narrowest , III–V the
longest and widest segments. Anal segment with a distinct median carina, parallel sided and posterior margin
rounded with a wide median incision. Lateral margins with a faint concave excavation near the bases of the
cerci. Sternites II–VII simple and rugulose. VII with an indistinct preopercular organ formed by a medial
notch at the posterior margin. Supraanal plate short with an angulate apex, not reaching posterior margin of
anal segment. Subgenital plate small, flat and lanceolate, reaching posterior margin of segment IX, minutely
setose and apex sharply pointed. Cerci small, short, triangular in cross-section, lanceolate in dorsal and ventral
aspect, tapered towards a distinctly pointed apex and projecting over anal segment. Gonapophyses elongate,
slender, apically up-curving and in most specimens projecting over subgenital plate; not reaching to posterior
margin of anal segment (Fig. 10).
Legs: All rather long and slender, profemora slightly longer than mesonotum, mesofemora distinctly
shorter than mesonotum, hind legs distinctly projecting apex of abdomen. All distinctly carinated, destitute of
teeth or spines and with all carinae minutely bristled. Profemora considerably compressed and curved basally.
Mesofemora with a ± developed sub-basal lobe on the antero- and posteroventral carinae; this may be promi-
nent and foliaceous or completely absent.
(Fig. 19): Medium-sized (body length 53.5–67.0mm), moderately slender and elongated for the genus.
General colouration of body strongly variable, ranging from green, over straw to brown or even reddish-
brown. Along the lateral surfaces of meso- and metathorax with greenish or bluish green longitudinal stripes.
Legs of same general colour as body and with faint yellowish annulations. Antennae uniformly pale to mid
brown in basal half, very indistinctly annulated with yellowish segments in apical half (sometimes uniformly
brown).
Head: As in but smooth, without granules or spines. Between the eyes with two low blunt tubercles.
Eyes as in . Antennae as in , but longer and projecting over apex of abdomen.
Thorax: Completely smooth and partly shiny, except a few minute granules on the mesonotum in certain
specimens. Meso- and metathorax round in cross-section and slightly constricted medially. Pronotum slightly
shorter and as wide as head, 1.3–1.5x longer than wide, slightly constricted medially. Transverse median
depression distinct, gently curved and reaching to both lateral margins of segment. Mesonotum 5–6x longer
and more slender than pronotum, 6–7x longer than wide, slightly widened at the posterior and anterior mar-
gins. Metanotum 4–5x longer than wide, about 2/3 the length of mesonotum, slightly widened at the posterior
and anterior margins. Pro-, meso- and metapleurae and sterna simple and structured like the dorsal surface.
Abdomen: As long as head and thorax combined. Surface smooth and partly shiny. Transverse fissure
between median segment and metanotum distinct and almost straight. Median segment hardly wider than
long, ¼ the length of metanotum. Segments II–VII longest and narrowest, parallel sided, 3–5x longer than
wide. Tergite VIII wider than VII, slightly widened towards the posterior, about as long as wide. IX more slen-
der than VIII, medially constricted and hardly longer than wide. Anal segment widest, about as wide as long,
strongly convex and prominently widened towards the rounded posterior margin. Sternites II–VII simple,
smooth and shiny. Supraanal plate very small and hardly visible in dorsal aspect. Cerci very prominent, trian-
gular in cross-section, incurving and of unequal length. Left cercus longer than anal segment and 1.5x longer
than right cercus (Fig. 9). Both cerci forked about 2/3 of the base, the dorsal branch directed somewhat dorsad
and shorter than the lower branch which is produced horizontally; covered with minute black setae. Left cer-
cus of similar structure but more rudimentary forked. Vomer dark brown, longer than wide, elongate and lon-
gitudinally separated into two equal parts. Sternite IX on the right side bearing a slightly incurving, finger-like
appendix with a laterally flattened apex, which is longer than the anal segment and distinctly projects over that
segment. Poculum of moderate size and pointed tapered towards the apex, projected by the finger-like dextro-
Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press · 41
NOTES ON CERTAIN SPECIES OF PSEUDOSERMYLE
lateral appendix of sternite IX (Fig. 8). The shape of the poculum shows considerable intraspecific variation
and even differs slightly individually.
Legs: Generally as in but more slender and mesofemora nearly as long as mesonotum. Mesofemora
without lobes.
Eggs (Figs. 23 & 24): All eggs examined for the following description were laid by captive reared speci-
mens and were thus fully developed. The structure of the capsule surface and size shows considerable varia-
tion.
General colouration plain pale to mid brown, sometimes greyish. Micropylar plate somewhat darker and
surrounded by a broad blackish margin. Capsule barrel-shaped, about 1.7x longer than wide, oval in cross-sec-
tion, lateral surfaces convex in the centre. In lateral aspect the polar-area has an indistinct impression. Ante-
rior margin of capsule simple. Capsule surface strongly rugulose with many irregular, hump-like structures;
lower spaces in between densely granulose. Micropylar plate of moderate size, positioned in centre of dorsal
capsule surface, oval, slightly less than 1.5x longer than wide and covering almost 1/3 of capsule length.
Outer margin swollen, inner section smooth or at least less roughly structured than rest of capsule. Median
line very prominently swollen and reaching to polar-area. Micropylar cup small and strongly convex, posi-
tioned close to the posterior margin of plate. Operculum oval, nearly flat and with a roughly circular, slightly
elevated central region; otherwise structured like capsule but less distinct.
Measurements (in mm): length: 2.7–3.3, width: 1.6–2.0, height: 1.8–2.2, length of micropylar plate: 0.8–
1.0. Comments: Examination of the types of Ocnophila crudis Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 in MNHN and
Dyme depressa Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 in NHMW has proven both species to be synonymous with Pseu-
dosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907). Shelford, 1908: 348 lists three females of of Dyme depressa Brunner
v. Wattenwyl, 1907 from BMNH and considered one of them to be a type, but he did not refer to a unique
specimen of the series. Brock (1993: 19 & 1998: 25) and Otte & Brock (2005: 63) listed the specimens as syn-
types. In fact they are no types, as Brunner v. Wattenwyl described this species from a unique specimen from
“Las Mercedes” in NHMW and did not mention any material in BMNH. Only one of the specimens in BMNH
is labelled “Las Mercedes”, the other two specimens are from “Cerro Zunil” and “Purula, Vera Paz”, two loca-
tions not mentioned by Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907. Only the HT in NHMW matches with the measurements
given by Brunner v. Wattenwyl, the specimens in BMNH are distinctly smaller. The nymph from “Cerro
Zunil” in BMNH is most certainly a different species, as it has the posterior margin of the subgenital plate dis-
tinctly rounded (pointed in phalangiphora) and the apices of the meso- and metafemora obtusely swollen.
Detailed examination of the original syntype-series of Bacunculus incongruens Brunner v. Wattenwyl,
1907 in NHMW and BMNH has shown all paralectotypes to represent P. phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907) ( see
comments on P. incongruens above).
Biology & breeding: P. phalangiphora (Rehn) is apparently common in the tropical parts of the Yucatan
Peninsular and surrounding districts, undoubtedly being the most common species of the order in that region.
It may be rather abundant in certain localities but never occurs in locally concentrated masses like species of
the related Diapheromera Gray, 1835, often do.
P. phalangiphora has been cultured in Europe since the mid 1990’s from stock originating in Belize and
was subsequently included on the Phasmid Study Group culture-list as culture No. 237 “Pseudosermyle sp.”.
In 2006 new stock was imported from Belmopan, Belize by Dr. B. Kneubühler (Switzerland). These speci-
mens are remarkable for being distinctly larger than those of the first stock, but do not differ in any other
aspect. P. phalangiphora is easy to rear in humid conditions and temperatures between 22–26 °C. Wet ground
should be avoided and plenty of ventilation provided. Alternative food-plants accepted in captivity in Europe
include bramble (Rubus fruticosus, Rosaceae), rose (Rosa spp., Rosaceae) and oak (Quercus robur & Q.
petraea, Fagaceae).
CONLE ET AL.
42 · Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Pseudosermyle procera n. sp.
(Figs. 11–12, 21)
HT, : Mexico, Veracruz, Santiago Tuxtla, Cerro del Vigia, 12.VI–9.IX.1964 (UNAM).
PT (7 ): 5 : Mexico, Veracruz, Santiago Tuxtla, Cerro del Vigia, 12.VI–9.IX.1964 (UNAM); 1 : Mexiko, Ver-
acruz, Cerro del Vigia, leg. Carlos, 1996, (coll. OC); 1 : Mexico, Veracruz, Los Tuxtlas, Estación de Biología,
01.02.1978 (UNAM).
Distribution: Mexico (Veracruz).
Etymology: This new species is named “procera” (lat. = slender, elongate) referring to it’s very slender
habitus.
Differentiation: Closely related to P. phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907), P. chorreadero n. sp. and P. inco ngru-
ens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) with which it shares the forked cerci. It is however easily distinguished
from these three species by the much more slender body and characteristically pipe wrench-like left cercus
(Fig. 12).
Description: The following description is based on the dried and pinned types. Hence care must be taken
with the description of the colouration below, due to this may differ from live specimens.
(Fig. 21): Medium-sized (body length 56.3–63.0 mm) and very slender for the genus. Body smooth;
head with two minute, blunt spines between the eyes. General colouration of head and body dark-brown. Legs
dark brown and sometimes reddish, very indistinctly annulated with drab-yellow Antennae uniformly pale to
mid brown in basal half, very indistinctly annulated with yellowish segments in apical half.
Head: Elongate, 1.5x longer than wide, slightly narrowed towards the posterior, oval in cross-section. Ver-
tex flat and smooth, without granules between the eyes with two low blunt spines. Eyes small, circular and
strongly convex. Antennae slightly longer than the body. Antennomeres very short and decreasing in length
towards apices of antennae, all densely covered with minute setae. Scapus dorsoventrally flattened, rectangu-
lar and about 2x longer than wide. Pedicellus cylindrical, broader than following antennomeres and about half
the length of scapus.
Thorax: Completely smooth. Meso- and metathorax round in cross-section and slightly constricted medi-
ally. Pronotum shorter and narrower than the head, 1.5x longer than wide and slightly constricted medially.
Transverse median depression distinct, slightly curved and reaching to lateral margins of segment. Mesono-
tum elongate, 5–6x longer and more slender than pronotum, about 10x longer than wide, slightly widened at
the posterior and anterior margins. Metanotum 6x longer than wide, about 2/3 the length of mesonotum,
slightly widened at the posterior and anterior margins. Pro-, meso- and metapleurae and sterna simple and
structured like the dorsal surface.
Abdomen: As long as head and thorax combined. Surface smooth. Transverse fissure between median
segment and metanotum distinct and slightly down-curving. Median segment about as wide as long, 1/5 the
length of metanotum. Segments II–VII longest and narrowest, parallel sided and 4–5x longer than wide. Terg-
ite VIII widest, broader than VII, widened towards the posterior and longer than wide. IX narrower than VIII,
medially constricted and hardly longer than wide. Anal segment wider than IX but narrower than VIII, hardly
longer than wide, strongly convex and slightly widened towards a rounded, medially broadly excavated poste-
rior margin. Sternites II–VII simple and smooth. Supraanal plate very small and not visible in dorsal aspect.
Cerci prominent, long, slender and unequal in length. Left cercus almost 1.5x longer than right cercus but
shorter than anal segment, covered with a few minute pale setae (Fig. 12). Triangular in cross-section, moder-
ately incurving and forked at about 2/3 off the base. Left cercus conspicuously pipe wrench-like, right cercus
lacking the outer branch. Sternite IX on the right bearing a moderately incurving, finger-like appendix with a
pointed apex, which is longer than the anal segment and distinctly projects over the posterior margin of that
segment (Fig. 11). Poculum of moderate size, slightly tapered towards the apex and projected by the finger-
like dextrolateral appendix of sternite IX.
Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press · 43
NOTES ON CERTAIN SPECIES OF PSEUDOSERMYLE
Legs: All rather long and slender, profemora slightly longer than mesonotum, mesofemora slightly shorter
than mesonotum, hind legs distinctly projecting over apex of abdomen. All distinctly carinated, destitute of
teeth or spines and with all carinae minutely bristled. Profemora considerably compressed and curved basally.
Pseudosermyle tolteca (Saussure, 1859)
(Figs. 13–14, 22)
Bacteria tolteca Saussure, 1859: 62. HT, : Bacunculus mexicanus Sauss., Montes Mexicani, M. H.de.Saussure,
(MHNG). Saussure, 1869: 367. [Description of ]
Kirby, 1904: 348. [as synonym of Heteronemia mexicana Gray, 1835]
Zompro & Brock, 2003: 25. [as synonym of Heteronemia mexicana Gray, 1835]
Otte & Brock, 2005: 159. [as synonym of Heteronemia mexicana Gray, 1835]
Heteronemia mexicana, Saussure, 1870: 152, pl. 3: 10, 11 & 11a ( & ). [Erroneous synonymisation of Bacteria tolteca
Saussure]
Bacunculus mexicanus, Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907: 333.
Pseudosermyle sp., Zompro, 2001b: 222.
Material examined [6 ]: 1 : Coll. Br.v.W.; Mexico, Deyrolle; det. Br.v.W. Bacunculus mexicanus; 6002;
Pseudosermyle sp. det. O. Zompro IX.1999 (NHMW, No. 683); 1 : Coll. Br.v.W.; Mexico, Deyrolle; det.
Br.v.W. Bacunculus mexicanus; 23/6002 (NHMW, No. 683); 1 : Coll. Br.v.W.; Mexico, Saussure; det.
Br.v.W. Bacunculus mexicanus; 8672 (NHMW, No. 683); 1 : Coll. Br.v.W.; Mexico, Saussure; det. Br.v.W.
Bacunculus mexicanus (NHMW, No. 683); 1 : Coll. Br.v.W.; Mexico, Deyrolle; det. Br.v.W. Bacunculus
mexicanus; 6002 b (NHMW, No. 683); 1 : Bilimek, Mexico, 1883; Collectio Br.v.W.; det. Br.v.W. Bacuncu-
lus mexicanus (NHMW, No. 683).
Distribution: Mexico (Cordillère orientale, Mextitlan & Bilimek).
Differentiation: Closely related to Pseudosermyle claviger n. sp. with which it shares the club-shaped
cerci and very slender, elongate body of . differ from P. clavige r n. sp. by: the more or less straight
cerci; distinctly longer than wide sternite IX and lack of the sinistral dorsolateral spine of sternite IX.
clearly differ from P. phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907) and P. chorreadero n. sp. by the distinct spination of the
head and thorax, and presence of four prominent spines on the pronotum.
Description: As no were at hand only a brief characterization is given below, based on the illustration
of Saussure (1870: fig. 10).
: Large (body length 85.0–89.0 mm) for the genus. General shape of body similar to that of P. phalan-
giphora (Rehn, 1907). Head and complete thorax dorsally covered with numerous spines of variable size. Two
prominent spines between the eyes. Four distinct spines on the pronotum. Cerci short, not projecting over pos-
terior margin of anal segment. Saussure (1869: 367) mentioned the general colouration of the body to be green
in live specimens.
(Fig. 22): Large (body length 71.0–85.0 mm), very slender and elongate for the genus. Body smooth;
head with two minute blunt tubercles between the eyes. General colouration of head and body pale to mid
brown with indistinct greenish longitudinal stripes along the lateral surfaces of the meso- and metathorax.
Legs of same general colour as body, but partly with faint yellowish annulations. Antennae uniformly pale to
mid brown in basal half, very indistinctly annulated with yellowish segments in apical half.
Head: Elongate, 1.5x longer than wide, slightly narrowed towards the posterior, oval in cross-section. Ver-
tex flat and smooth, without granules, between the eyes with two low blunt tubercles. Eyes small, circular and
strongly convex. Antennae longer than body. Antennomeres very short and decreasing in length towards api-
ces of antennae, densely covered with minute setae. Scapus dorsoventrally flattened, rectangular and about 2x
longer than wide. Pedicellus cylindrical, broader than following antennomeres and about half the length of
scapus.
CONLE ET AL.
44 · Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Thorax: Completely smooth. Meso- and metathorax round in cross-section and slightly constricted medi-
ally. Pronotum slightly shorter and more slender than head, 1.5x longer than wide and slightly constricted
medially. Transverse median depression distinct, slightly curved and reaching to lateral margins of segment.
Mesonotum very elongate, about 8x longer and more slender than pronotum, at least 12–15x longer than wide
and slightly widened at the anterior and posterior margins. Metanotum 8x longer than wide, about 2/3 the
length of mesonotum, slightly widened at posterior and anterior margins. Pro-, meso- and metapleurae and
sterna simple and structured like the dorsal surface.
Abdomen: As long as head and thorax combined. Surface smooth. Transverse fissure between median
segment and metanotum distinct and almost straight. Median segment slightly longer than wide, 1/6 the length
of metanotum. Segments II–VII longest and most slender, parallel sided and 4–5x longer than wide. Tergite
VIII wider than VII, distinctly swollen in posterior half and widened towards the posterior, longer than wide.
IX more slender than VIII and X, medially constricted and at least 2x wider than long. Anal segment widest,
distinctly wider than long, strongly convex and tapered towards a rounded, medially incised posterior margin.
Sternites II–VII simple, smooth and shiny. Supraanal plate very small and not visible in dorsal aspect. Cerci
club-shaped, more or less straight, conspicuously thickened apically, round in cross-section and slightly
shorter than anal segment; covered with a few minute pale setae (Fig. 14). Sternite IX forming a simple tube
lacking any appendix or spine, distinctly longer than wide and longer than anal segment. Poculum small and
simple, posterior margin slightly projecting over anal segment (Fig. 13).
Legs: All long and slender, profemora slightly longer than mesonotum, mesofemora shorter than mesono-
tum, hind legs distinctly projecting over apex of abdomen. All distinctly carinated, destitute of teeth or spines
and with all carinae minutely bristled. Profemora considerably compressed and curved basally.
TABLE 1. Measurements of Pseudosermyle chorreadero n. sp., Pseudosermyle claviger n. sp., Pseudosermyle incon-
gruens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) and Pseudosermyle procera n. sp. [mm]
* The measurements of the largest specimen belong to the holotype.
Comments: Saussure (1859: 62) originally described Bacteria tolteca from a single in MHNG and sub-
sequently, (1869: 367) described the . Saussure (1870: 152) provided illustrations of both sexes (pl. 3: 10, 11
& 11a) and erroneously synonymised B. tolteca with Heteronemia mexicana Gray, 1835, which is clearly a
distinct species. The described by Saussure (1869) are unique for Pseudosermyle Caudell due to having
P. chorreadero n.
sp. HT,
(UNAM)
P. chorreadero n.
sp. PT, (UNAM) P. claviger n. sp.
HT* & PT,
(UNAM & OC)
P. incongruens LT,
(NHMW) P. procera n. sp.
HT* & PT,
(UNAM & OC)
Body: 60.2 70.3 67.3 – 70.7 53.0 56.3 – 63.0
Pronotum: 2.5 3.9 2.6 2.6 2.9 – 3.5
Mesonotum 15.5 16.6 19.7 – 21.1 14.4 16.6 – 18.1
Metanotum: 8.4 7.8 10.4 – 12.0 9.0 8.7 – 10.2
Median seg-
ment: 2.3 3.0 2.4 – 2.9 1.7 1.7 – 1.9
Profemora: 22.2 19.1 22.9 – 23.6 20.0 21.1 – 21.7
Mesofemora: 18.5 17.5 16.7 – 19.0 15.5 15.7 – 16.7
Metafemora: 22.5 22.2 16.0 – 23.0 19.3 19.5 – 21.1
Protibiae: 26.5 22.8 27.3 – 27.8 22.0 23.6 – 25.3
Mesotibiae: 21.0 19.4 20.4 – 21.1 19.3 15.8 – 16.7
Metatibiae: 31.1 26.9 26.3 – 27.5 27.6 24.9 – 26.6
Antennae: >44.0 >31.0 >49.8 >30.0 >60.0
Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press · 45
NOTES ON CERTAIN SPECIES OF PSEUDOSERMYLE
numerous, prominent spines on the head and thorax but appear to be the corresponding sex, as Saussure
(1870: 154) stated to have collected 11 and 15 many of which were in copula in the Cordillère orien-
tale near Mextitlan.
TABLE 2. Measurements of Pseudosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907) and Pseudosermyle tolteca (Saussure, 1859)
[mm]
* after Saussure, 1870: 152.
Acknowledgements
The following curators are thanked for access to the corresponding collections, loan of specimens and provid-
ing required data or photos: Dr. Enrique Mariño Pedraza (UNAM University, Colección Nacional de Insectos,
Ciudad de Mexico), Dr. C. Amedegnato & S. Poulain (MNHN), Dr. U. Aspöck (NHMW), Dr. G. W. Beccaloni
& J. Marshall (BMNH) and J. Weintraub (ANSP).
Furthermore, the authors would like to thank Dr. Bruno Kneubühler (Switzerland) who kindly provided
live eggs and specimens of Pseudosermyle phalagiphora (Rehn, 1907) from Belmopan, Belize.
We also want to thank Dr. Patricia Lucero Garcia Garcia for her support and cooperation during the expedi-
tions in 2004–2006.
References
Brock, P.D. (1993) List of stick and leaf-insects (Phasmatodea = Phasmida) type material in the Natural History
Museum, published since Kirby’s 1904 Catalogue. Phasmid Studies, 2(1), 17–24.
Brock, P.D. (1998) Catalogue of type-specimens of Stick- and Leaf-Insects in the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien
(Insecta: Phasmida). Kataloge der wissenschaftlichen Sammlungen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 13(5),
72 pp.
Brunner v. Wattenwyl, C. (1907) Die Insektenfamilie der Phasmiden, II. Phasmidae Anareolatae (Clitumnini, Lonchod-
ini, Bacunculini). Verlag Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig. Pp. 181–340, pls. 7–15.
Caudell, A.N. (1903) The Phasmidae, or walkingsticks, of the United States. Proceedings of the United States National
P. phalangi-
phora HT,
(ANSP)
P. phalangiphora
PLT’s of incon-
gruens (BMNH &
NHMW)
P. phalangi-
phora P. phalangi-
phora P. tolteca
* P. tolteca
* P. tolteca
(NHMW
)
Body: 62.1 54.5–60.5 53.5–67.0 70.0–93.0 77.0–85.0 85.0–89.0 71.0–
76.5
Pronotum: 2.8 2.5–2.9 2.8–3.2 3.4–4.8 21.0–23.0 22.0–24.0
Mesonotum 15.1 13.7–17.2 12.6–16.2 19.4–22.2 14.5–16.0 13.0–14.0
Metanotum: 8.7 8.2–10.1 7.9–10.2 9.2–11.7 26.0–29.0 25.0–26.0
Median segment: 1.8 1.7–2.0 1.9–2.5 2.1–3.2
Profemora: 18.8 18.3–21.1 18.7–21.5 18.3–24.5
Mesofemora: 15.0 15.2–16.0 14.2–17.8 14.0–18.4
Metafemora: 19.9 18.9–21.2 18.6–22.7 18.5–25.6
Protibiae: 23.5 23.8–25.7 20.1–27.5 19.4–25.7
Mesotibiae: 18.2 17.1–19.7 15.4–19.9 13.7–18.3
Metatibiae: 26.4 21.2–26.6 20.5–28.4 19.9–28.5
Antennae: >52.0 57.0–62.0 47.0–64.0 51.0–63.0
CONLE ET AL.
46 · Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press
Museum, 26, 863–885, pl. 56–59.
Hebard, M. (1932) New species and records of Mexican Orthoptera. Transactions of the American Entomological
Society, 58, 214 ff, pl. 17.
Kirby, W.F. (1904) A Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera. British Museum, London, Vol. I, 501 pp.
Marquez, C.M. (1962) Contribución al estudio de los Orthopteros de Mexico II. Anales del Instituto de biologia de Mex-
ico, 32, 227–294.
Otte, D. & Brock, P.D. (2005) Phasmid Species File. Catalog of Stick and Leaf Insects of the World. The Insect Diversity
Association and the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. CafePress.com. 414 pp.
Morrone, J.J. (2006) Biogeographic areas and transition zones of Latin America and the Caribbean Islands based on pan-
biographic and cladistic analyses of the Entomofauna. Annual Reviews of Entomology, 51, 467–497.
Rehn, J. A. G. (1907) A new walking-stick (Phasmidae) from British Honduras. Entomological News, 18, 229–230.
Saussure, H. de (1859) Orthoptera Nova Americana (Diagnosis praeliminares). Revue et magazin de Zoologie, (2)11:
59–63.
Saussure, H. de (1868) Phasmidarum novarum species nonullae, auctore. Revue et magazin de Zoologie pure et appli-
quée, (2)20, 63–70.
Saussure, H. de (1870) Études sur les insectes Orthoptères. Famille des Phasmides. In: Edwards, Recherches zoologiques
pour servir à l´histoire de la faune de l´Amérique centrale et du Mexique, pp. 125–201, plates 3–4.
Shelford, R. (1908) Family Phasmidae. In: Biologia Centrali-Americana; or, Contributions to the knowledge of the fauna
and Flora of Mexico and Central-America, Insecta. Orthoptera, vol. 2, 343–377, pl. 5–8.
Zompro, O. (2001a) A generic revision of the insect order Phasmatodea: The New World genera of the stickinsect subfa-
miliy Diapheromeridae: Diapheromerinae = Heteronemiidae: Heteronemiinae sensu Bradley & Galil, 1977. Revue
Suisse de Zoologie, 108(1), 189–255.
Zompro, O. (2001b) Redescription and New Synonymies of Heteronemia Gray, 1835 (Insecta: Phasmatodea) Trans-
ferred to the Suborder Areolatae. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 36(3), 221–225.
Zompro, O. & Brock, P. D. (2003) Catalogue of type-material of stick-insects housed in the Muséum d´histoire naturelle,
Geneva, with descriptions of some new taxa (Insecta: Phasmatodea). Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 110(1), 3–43.
Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press · 47
NOTES ON CERTAIN SPECIES OF PSEUDOSERMYLE
FIGURES 1–7. [scale = 1 mm] 1. Pseudosermyle chorreadero n. sp. , terminal abdominal segments (lateral view). 2. Pseudosermyle
chorreadero n. sp. , cerci (dorsal view). 3. Pseudosermyle chorreadero n. sp. , terminal abdominal segments (lateral view). 4.
Pseudosermyle claviger n. sp. , terminal abdominal segments (lateral view). 5. Pseudosermyle claviger n. sp. , cerci (dorsal view).
6. Pseudosermyle incongruens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) , terminal abdominal segments (lateral view). 7. Pseudosermyle incon-
gruens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) , cerci (dorsal view).
CONLE ET AL.
48 · Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 8–14. [scale = 1 mm] 8. Pseudosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907) , terminal abdominal segments (lateral
view). 9. Pseudosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907) , cerci (dorsal view). 10. Pseudosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn,
1907) , terminal abdominal segments (lateral view). 11. Pseudosermyle procera n. sp. , terminal abdominal segments
(lateral view). 12. Pseudosermyle procera n. sp. , cerci (dorsal view). 13. Pseudosermyle tolteca (Saussure, 1859) ,
terminal abdominal segments (lateral view). 14. Pseudosermyle tolteca (Saussure, 1859) , cerci (dorsal view).
Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press · 49
NOTES ON CERTAIN SPECIES OF PSEUDOSERMYLE
FIGURES 15–20. [scale = 10 mm] 15. Pseudosermyle chorreadero n. sp. , HT, (UNAM). 16. Pseudosermyle chor-
readero n. sp. , PT, (UNAM). 17. Pseudosermyle claviger n. sp. , HT, (UNAM). 18. Pseudosermyle incongruens
(Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) , LT, (NHMW). 19. Pseudosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907) , (coll. OC). 20. Pseu-
dosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907) , (coll. OC).
CONLE ET AL.
50 · Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 21–24. Fig. 21–22: [scale = 10 mm]; Figs. 23–24: [scale = 1 mm] 21. Pseudosermyle procera n. sp. , PT,
(UNAM). 22. Pseudosermyle tolteca (Saussure, 1859) , (NHMW). 23. Pseudosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907)
egg (dorsal view), (coll. OC). 24. Pseudosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907) egg (lateral view), (coll. OC).
Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press · 51
NOTES ON CERTAIN SPECIES OF PSEUDOSERMYLE
FIGURE 25. Pseudosermyle phalangiphora (Rehn, 1907) live and .
52 · Zootaxa 1496 © 2007 Magnolia Press
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Track and cladistic biogeographic analyses based on insect taxa are used as a framework to interpret patterns of the Latin American and Caribbean entomofauna by identifying biogeographic areas on the basis of endemicity and arranging them hierarchically in a system of regions, subregions, dominions, and provinces. The Nearctic region, inhabited by Holarctic insect taxa, comprises five provinces: California, Baja California, Sonora, Mexican Plateau, and Tamaulipas. The Mexican transition zone comprises five provinces: Sierra Madre Occidental, Sierra Madre Oriental, Transmexican Volcanic Belt, Balsas Basin, and Sierra Madre del Sur. The Neotropical region, which harbors many insect taxa with close relatives in the tropical areas of the Old World, comprises four subregions: Caribbean, Amazonian, Chacoan, and Parana. The South American transition zone comprises five provinces: North Andean Paramo, Coastal Peruvian Desert, Puna, Atacama, Prepuna, and Monte. The Andean region, which harbors insect taxa with close relatives in the Austral continents, comprises three subregions: Central Chilean, Subantarctic, and Patagonian.
List of stick and leaf-insects (Phasmatodea = Phasmida) type material in the Natural History Museum, published since Kirby's 1904 Catalogue
  • P D Brock
Brock, P.D. (1993) List of stick and leaf-insects (Phasmatodea = Phasmida) type material in the Natural History Museum, published since Kirby's 1904 Catalogue. Phasmid Studies, 2(1), 17-24.
Catalogue of type-specimens of Stick-and Leaf-Insects in the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (Insecta: Phasmida). Kataloge der wissenschaftlichen Sammlungen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien
  • P D Brock
Brock, P.D. (1998) Catalogue of type-specimens of Stick-and Leaf-Insects in the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (Insecta: Phasmida). Kataloge der wissenschaftlichen Sammlungen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 13(5), 72 pp.
Die Insektenfamilie der Phasmiden
  • C Brunner V. Wattenwyl
Brunner v. Wattenwyl, C. (1907) Die Insektenfamilie der Phasmiden, II. Phasmidae Anareolatae (Clitumnini, Lonchodini, Bacunculini). Verlag Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig. Pp. 181-340, pls. 7-15.
The Phasmidae, or walkingsticks, of the United States
  • A N Caudell
Caudell, A.N. (1903) The Phasmidae, or walkingsticks, of the United States. Proceedings of the United States National Body: 62.1
New species and records of Mexican Orthoptera
  • M Hebard
Hebard, M. (1932) New species and records of Mexican Orthoptera. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 58, 214 ff, pl. 17.
A Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera
  • W F Kirby
Kirby, W.F. (1904) A Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera. British Museum, London, Vol. I, 501 pp.