ArticlePDF Available

The Impact of Poor Planning and Management on the Duration of Construction Projects: A Review

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The construction business is a noteworthy player in the economic sectors, creating both, wealth and employment. However numerous ventures encounter broad delays and time overruns leading to as surpass in starting time and cost estimations. Despite the fact that project management has demonstrated its accomplishment in construction as a procurement strategy, there are issues related with the way in which the projects have been planned or managed that have prompted venture postponements, cost overruns and delays with low client fulfillment. The aim of this paper is to review the impact of poor planning and management on the duration of construction projects. This research is based on a descriptive methodology, in which the researcher tends to review previous studies and literature that will help in identifying the relationship between the poor planning and management of project and the occurrence of delays in the construction projects. Literature analysis discloses that poor project planning and management is cited by several researchers as a delay factor in the construction projects. The researcher concludes that poor planning and management of the construction projects may lead to several negative effects on the duration and completion of projects. Construction delays and duration issues are frequently responsible of transforming productive ventures into loosing projects. These delays can be reduced or prevented by an increased pre-project planning and successful project management as they are one of the most critical success factors of the construction project accomplishment.
Content may be subject to copyright.
www.mecsj.com
Page | 1
The Impact of Poor Planning and Management on the
Duration of Construction Projects: A Review
Farah Jawdat Ibrahim Khalid
Email:faroo7khalid@gmail.com
Abstract
The construction business is a noteworthy player in the economic sectors, creating
both, wealth and employment. However numerous ventures encounter broad delays
and time overruns leading to as surpass in starting time and cost estimations. Despite
the fact that project management has demonstrated its accomplishment in construction
as a procurement strategy, there are issues related with the way in which the projects
have been planned or managed that have prompted venture postponements, cost
overruns and delays with low client fulfillment. The aim of this paper is to review the
impact of poor planning and management on the duration of construction projects.
This research is based on a descriptive methodology, in which the researcher tends to
review previous studies and literature that will help in identifying the relationship
between the poor planning and management of project and the occurrence of delays in
the construction projects. Literatures analysis discloses that poor project planning and
management is cited by several researchers as a delay factor in the construction
projects. The researcher concludes that poor planning and management of the
construction projects may lead to several negative effects on the duration and
completion of projects. Construction delays and duration issues are frequently
responsible of transforming productive ventures into loosing projects. These delays
can be reduced or prevented by an increased pre- project planning and successful
www.mecsj.com
Page | 2
project management as they are one of the most critical success factors of the
construction project accomplishment.
1. Introduction:
The construction sector consists of a range of activities related to buildings
and engineering constructions of all types, as well as maintenance, planning and
management. This sector is closely related to various other economic sectors, making
it an important and reliable indicator of the movement and trends of the national
economy (Sweis, Sweis, Hammad, & Shboul, 2008). However, there are many risks
that are encountering construction projects and threatening its operations. These risks
are caused mainly by poor planning and management that affect the progress of the
project and result in delayed delivery or increased cost, and sometimes poor
construction quality (Gajewska, & Ropel, 2011).
A construction project is normally recognized to be successful when it is
finished within its budget, on its planning time and according to its standards and
specifications Olawale and Sun (2012); (Frimpong, et al. (2003); Majid (2006). In the
development and construction business, contractual workers and engineers have a
tendency to limit the duration of their ventures and amplify their profit to increase
their construction market share and to provide this sector with successful progression
and development. To accomplish this tendency, it is vital for project managers to
deliberately recognize the schedules and plans of a project and measure their effects
before the implementation stage (Gunduz, Nielsen, & Ozdemir, 2013).
Construction projects are of a special nature and characterized by their long
period of time, which may lead to variations in conditions and possibilities. The long
duration of the projects and their multi-stage processes starting from the preparing and
beginning of the project to implementation and final delivery of it; lead to several
conditions, possibilities, uncertainties and the possibility of falling into the risk of
extending the duration of the project or incurred financial or other losses, which
www.mecsj.com
Page | 3
adversely affect the operation of the project and the economics of construction
(Gajewska, & Ropel, 2011). In spite of the similarity of construction projects in terms
of nature and purpose, the variation in their operating place or any other variable can
change the preparation process of project and the way to manage it. So, this requires a
good management and planning of the project in a way that avoids falling into
constructing and planning risks and guarantees success and achievement of its
objectives (Falqi, 2004).
Those projects may vary in duration, size, environment, complexity,
objectives, conditions, organization structures, deadlines, financial intensity,
uncertainty, and other different dimensions Keung and Shen (2012); Zou et al.
(2007). However, in a construction project where time really worth money, time
planning and management is vital (Duran, 2006). The delay in construction projects,
which means the non-completion and achievement of the project inside the predefined
construction contract's duration, is considered to be a standout amongst the most
repeating issues in the construction business (Mahamid et al. 2012). As indicated by
Duran (2006), the industry and business of construction has an awful notoriety for
familiarizing with delays and postpones. Postpone examination is either disregarded
or done subjectively by only including a contingency. Therefore, numerous
construction projects fail to meet the planning timetable's due dates (Duran, 2006).
One of the interested examples among many other countless examples is Indonesia, in
which Trigunarsyah (2004) recognized that 47% of the construction ventures were
finished within its timetable, only 15% of construction project were in front of the
timetable, and 38% were behind it which is a large percentage that requires to be
taken into account.
Indonesia is not the only country facing this delay and the postponement of the
construction project. On the contrary, most of the world's countries , specifically
developing countries face this specified problem in their construction sectors and it
becomes a common issue for the construction industry, which are primarily caused by
poor pre-construction planning and mismanagement of the project at its various stages
(Duran, 2006). Therefore, this research paper represents an investigation attempt to
www.mecsj.com
Page | 4
shed light on and review some of the prominent researches and literature that studied
the relationship between poor management and planning of the project and the delays
that result from it, as the construction delays has become a common bad phenomenon
associated with this sector.
1.1 Problem Statement and Study objectives:
Delays in construction ventures are common in the developing countries as well as
developed countries' industry (Falqi, 2004). Construction delays and duration issues
are frequently responsible of transforming productive ventures into loosing projects.
These delays can be reduced or prevented by an increased pre- project planning and
successful project management as they are one of the most critical success factors of
the construction project accomplishment (Yang et al., 2012). Construction projects'
managers ought to deliberately evaluate the likelihood of postponements and delays to
secure project achievement. Foreseeing and predicting the likelihood of
postponements and project preplanning play a crucial role towards the success and
achievement of project within its planned timeframe and budget (Kim et al., 2009).
Hence, this paper tends to explore and review "the impact of poor planning and
management on the duration of construction projects", which is achieved through
the following subdivided objectives:
1) To identify project planning and management process definitions.
2) To clarify construction projects situation in developing countries.
3) To identify delays, its types and responsibilities.
4) To review the relation between the project planning and management and the
duration of the projects.
1.2 Methodology
Research methodology can be defined as a subject that deals with how research or
study is carried out in a scientific way. The importance of research methodologies lies
in its ability to highlight and give essential training in the arrangement and collection
of material in a way that can be recognized in an easy way (Saunders, 2011). This
research is based on a descriptive methodology, in which the researcher tends to
www.mecsj.com
Page | 5
review previous studies and literature that will help in identifying the relationship
between the poor planning and management of project and the occurrence of delays in
the construction projects. Primary data will be collected from the literature, related
studies, cases and investigations which will help in identifying the impact of poor
planning and management on the duration of construction projects.
2. Literature Review:
Project Management Institute defines a project as a temporary activity that is
initiated to create a unique product, service or outcome that has a specific beginning
and end, and is reached when the project objectives are achieved or when the project
is terminated because its objectives cannot be achieved or when the need arises for
this project no longer exists. The term "temporary" does not necessarily mean
shortening the time period, nor does it generally apply to the service or product
produced by the project, since most projects have a result that is expected to continue
and last, for example: the project which includes the construction of a monument, will
produce a result that is expected to last for centuries. Also, the projects may have
social, economic or environmental impacts that are greater than the projects
themselves in continuity (Snyder, 2014).
The construction project, as defined by Gould and Joyce (2009), is an idea that is
defined by the owner and then developed by the designers and then produced by the
contractor, where the contractor returns it to the owner after implementation have
accomplished as required. This project requires many processes in order to be
successful such as, managing, planning, controlling, monitoring and many other
processes. The project management and planning process is an important process and
the negligence of it leads to many problems in the construction project, including
economic or time duration problems (Lester, 2006).
A literature investigation uncovers that poor venture planning and management is
cited by numerous researchers as a delay factor in the construction ventures (Hoseini,
www.mecsj.com
Page | 6
2015). Project planning and management have a wide range of aspects and this review
just addresses time aspect of this process; hence it would be important to clarify the
project planning and management process precisely.
Concept of Project Planning and Management
Project is characterized as succession of tasks and activities that have certain
targets with specific standards, recognized beginning and complete dates, budgetary
constraints, requires nonhuman and human assets and include different functions
(Kerzner, 2009). The essential challenge of venture management and administration is
to accomplish venture targets considering its constraints and limitations (Zidane,
2012). This requires applying skills, techniques, tools, knowledge to project tasks in
order to achieve project prerequisites (PMI, 2013, Westland, 2007). As indicated by
(PMI, 2013), project management includes:
1) Identifying of the Project requirements.
2) Addressing project stakeholder desires.
3) Correspondence administration between the partners.
4) Adjusting venture imperatives.
Project management must combine the following three components in order to
achieve those previous mentioned requirements (Westland, 2007):
1) Skills: experience and skills in order to minimize the risks within the
venture and in the same manner increase the probability of its success.
2) Processes: several techniques and process including ; cost management,
time management , risk management , quality management and other
processes that are required in order to control and monitor cost , time
,scope and quality of projects.
3) Tools: such as; financial software, planning software, review and audit
forms that are used by mangers in order to increase project success
probability.
www.mecsj.com
Page | 7
Figure (1): Project management components (Westland, 2007)
According to (PMI, 2013), "project time management is the processes required
to manage timely completion of the project". Indeed, time management is a process
that records and controls time spent to finish each activity (PMI, 2013).
It is impossible to satisfy the venture management necessities and apply its
parts without planning for the project (Zwikael et al., 2014). Indeed, project planning
is a proposition of how to do all the venture administration activities and tasks to
accomplish the project objectives. The essential function of time project management
is to serve the venture manager as a guide to demonstrate the path from venture
begins date to its complete date (Mantel, 2001). Without having the guide, venture
manager cannot achieve the project tasks which result in failure in achieving
objectives of venture (Mantel, 2001).
Several investigators identify list of the things and steps that must be followed
in order to have a good plan for the project. However, PMI introduces project
planning process as following steps: create project management plan, Gather
requirements, Describe scope, Make Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), Express
activities, order activities, Evaluate activity resources, Evaluate activity duration,
create schedule, evaluate costs, Decide budget, Plan quality, create human resources
Processes
Tools Skills
www.mecsj.com
Page | 8
plan, communication plan, Risk management Plan, clarify risks, Perform quantitative
and qualitative risk analysis, Plan risk Reponses and finally Plan procurement (PMI,
2013).
Project planning activities continue for the whole duration of the construction
phases. Those planning periods are described as in the following (Hoseini, 2015):
1) Initiation planning: The initiation planning process frequently incorporates
initial scope description and budget preparation from the proprietor
association's point of view (Lines et al., 2015)
2) Preconstruction planning: After the project budgetary and scope
clarification, the project move into the detailed planning phase. This
preconstruction period may include the design phase, the planning phase,
and the award phase (Lines et al., 2015).
3) Construction execution planning: planning may happen amid the execution
stage, which comprises of all exercises past activation and completion of
preconstruction planning (Lines et al., 2015).
Project schedule is the output of venture time management and planning
process (PMI, 2013, Lines et al., 2015). This schedule enables the venture
administrator to control the measure of time spent by every action inside the project
(Westland, 2007). As specified previously, venture planning is a wide-ranging term
and comprises diverse perspectives. The Following figure demonstrates venture
planning is limited to project time management and the result of it is project schedule.
www.mecsj.com
Page | 9
Figure (2): project planning and management concept (Lines et al., 2015)
Construction Projects Situation in Developing Countries
Long et al (2004) state that performance of construction projects in developing
countries is influenced by many factors that results in project delays, poor quality,
safety issues and cost over runs. Problems in construction projects are evident across
the globe. However, there is a need to focus on factors based on geographical,
regional and country. Various factors that influence project performance are same in
different countries, but few are different in developing countries including
incompetent contractors or designers, poor quality of change management, social
constraints, challenges due to technological advancements, site specific issues, lack of
advanced tools and techniques, poor planning and estimation of project. All such
factors influence the performance of construction projects in developing countries and
results in delays. Frimpong, Oluwoye and Crawford (2003) state that cost over runs
and delays are very common in building projects. Developing countries have no
exception rather they have to face even greater number of problems causing delays
and cost overrun than developed countries. Different factors cause delays in
construction such as poor construction management skills of contractors, lack of
technical performance, increased material prices, and procurement of material and
disbursement difficulties from agencies. All these factors need to be identified
properly in projects and then proper planning and management is required to cope
with the challenges. Developing countries can overcome these problems by improving
their project planning, improving monitoring measures, establishing controls and
proper knowledge about the construction project management techniques and their
implementation. If managed properly, cost and delay problems can be controlled.
According to Enshassi, Mohamed and Abushaban (2009), construction
projects have to face many complex issues and problems due to the impact of certain
factors. The most important factors influencing the performance of construction
www.mecsj.com
Page | 10
projects in developing countries are lack of resources required for construction,
hindrances at borders or due to roads closures thus resulting in material shortage, lack
of leadership skills, appreciation of material prices, lack of qualified and experienced
personnel and poor quality of construction material and equipment. All these factors
influence the performance of project resulting in delays, claims and disputes.
Construction project managers can control delays and cost overruns by
focusing on these factors. Sambasivan and Soon (2007) stated that delay of
construction projects is a global phenomenon and the construction inductor in
developing countries is no exception. Delays in construction projects are caused by
improper planning of contractors, inadequate experience, poor site management,
inadequate finance, delayed payments, conflicts with subcontractors, lack of material,
lack of equipment, and communication gap between parties and errors in construction
methods. Such factors results in disputes, cost overrun, delays, litigation, arbitration
and total abandonment.
Delays, Its Types and Responsibilities
Delay in construction projects is defined as the time difference between the
date of termination of the project listed or specified in the contract and the actual date
of completion of the project (Falqi, 2004), or the time difference between the planned
time and the actual time of project activities (González et al., 2008). The delay in the
construction projects is also defined as the time beyond the completion date specified
in the contract or beyond the date agreed upon by the parties to hand over the project
whether or not the owner is allowed to extend the time or is subjected to a fine or
penalty or not (Al-Ghafly, 1995), and the delay was defined as something unexpected
and non-existent Planned occurred that cause a delay in the project schedule (Trauner,
2009). In another definition of Stumpf (2000), the delay is an act or event that results
in an extension of the time required to perform a specific task required by contract or
contract frame, where the delay appears in the form of additional days or late onset of
subsequent activity, which may or may not include changes in the scope of the
contract.
www.mecsj.com
Page | 11
Several studies and researchers like (Alaghabri et al., 2007); (Vidalis and
Najafi, 2002) have classified the delays faced by construction projects into several
major types, which are: Concurrent delay, Critical delay, Compensable delay, and
Excusable delay. Figure 3 represents the sequential relationships between those
different groups of delays (Vidalis and Najafi, 2002).
Figure (3): the sequential relationships between different groups of delays (Vidalis and
Najafi, 2002).
The project process is affected internally or externally by those previous types
of delays. The external causes of delay are due to outside construction project's
factors such as utilities, subcontractors, governments, labor unions, suppliers, nature,
etc. however, the internal causes of delays are resulted from the contractors ,
designers , owner and consultants (Vidalis and Najafi, 2002) .
The responsibilities of delay categorized by (Vidalis and Najafi, 2002) as following:
Neither party responsible: The cause of this delay is neither of the project's
parties, and occurs for reasons beyond the control of the parties to the
contract, or the so-called "acts of God". In this case, the contractor obtains an
extension of the period of execution as the owner deems appropriate and does
not receive compensation for the collateral damages. Also he shall not be
liable to pay fines or penal conditions.
www.mecsj.com
Page | 12
Owner responsible: this delay caused by the owner or one of his agents and
representatives, and here the contractor is entitled to claim compensation for
material damage suffered as well as the extension of the implementation time.
Contractor or subcontractor responsible: it is considered as a breach of the
contract by the Contractor. In this case, the Contractor shall not be entitled to
extend the period of implementation of the Project nor to receive
compensation. Also, the Owner shall also be entitled to impose delay
penalties on the contractor and deduct it from his dues.
Both parties are responsible: in this case the contractor gets additional time to
complete the work, but does not receive compensation and does not pay any
penalty or fines.
Furthermore, (Doloi et al., 2012) examined the critical key factors that cause the
delays in construction project, where they mentioned that the most critical ones are :
1. Absence of commitment .
2. Inadequate site management.
3. Weak and inadequate site management.
4. Unsuitable planning.
5. Absence of clearness in project scope.
6. Lack of communication.
And all of those previous causes are related to the improper and inappropriate
management and planning for the project, which its relation and impact will be
identified clearly in the following.
The Impact of Poor Planning and Management on the Duration of
Construction Projects
Several researchers and investigators identified causes of construction delays
based on the country in which they develop their study. One of the most common
delay factors that were mentioned by several researchers was "poor project planning
www.mecsj.com
Page | 13
and management". This factor was cited by several authors indicated in the following
table (Hoseini, 2015):
Table (1): poor project management and planning as common delay factor in
literature
Researcher
(Khoshgoftar et al., 2010), (Al-Kharashi
and Skitmore, 2009), (Faridi and El-
Sayegh, 2006), (Assaf and Al-Hejji,
2006), (Sweis et al., 2008), (Pourrostam
and Ismail, 2011), (Akogbe et al., 2013),
(Marzouk and El-Rasas, 2014), (Muya et
al., 2013) , (Toor and Ogunlana, 2008),
(Sambasivan and Soon, 2007)
Considering those previous mentioned researches , poor planning and
management was mentioned in their works as general term of delay and time overrun
, including : resource planning ,time planning, financial planning, equipment and site
management , etc. (Hoseini, 2015).
The advantages of pre-project planning incorporate expanded benefit, higher
quality and decreased hazard (González et al. 2008). The efforts used up in this early
venture stage influence the level of progress amid start-up and in the detailed outline
and development stages (Yang and Wei 2010). This finding is upheld by Thomas and
Ellis (2007), who utilized straightforward pre-project planning and management
techniques to diminish introductory construction duration by 30%. Hanna and
Skiffington (2010) contended that expanded construction management and arranging
enables the contractual worker to be more proactive than responsive with respect to
basic factors that influence a venture. As per Gibson et al. (2006), the beneficial
www.mecsj.com
Page | 14
outcomes of reasonable planning for expense and time before configuration, and also
amid the construction stage, are enhanced project result, more noteworthy client
fulfillment, and decreased venture duration and cost. Consequently, distinguishing
and testing for huge contrasts in the effects of the vital success factors on cost,
quality, and time are essential in managing these elements in pre-project arranging as
an approach to secure the best outcome of the venture.
As indicated by Dvir et al. (2003), there is a solid relationship between fruitful
project planning and management and the achievement of a venture from the point of
view of venture partners. These researchers likewise demonstrated that reasonable
definitions of useful and specialized details in venture planning can prompt more
viable execution of tasks. They additionally found a solid relationship between
effective usage of planning systems and advantages to construction project partners.
Such discoveries are affirmed in a later report which demonstrated that venture
success can be estimated in perspective of the quality of the project planning and
management; though poor management and planning implies uncontrolled changes in
the arranging factors of quality, time and cost (Dvir and Lechler, 2004). Zwikael
(2009) contended that numerous construction ventures will probably be liable to the
danger of poor project arranging when contrasted with ventures in non-construction
areas. Zwikael evaluated the significance and impact of project planning in
construction projects and found that the degree of utilization of proper venture
planning by venture managers and other project partners was not at the ideal level of
project prerequisites. He promote contended that a solid attention ought to be set on
characterizing the venture scope, venture exercises and expenses. With respect to
planning, the improvement of a good venture schedule is imperative to a
comprehension of project execution and control. Good scheduling demonstrates a
guide and map for venture chiefs, schedulers and planners in observing and following
basic milestones and activities amid the progress of venture (Baldwin and Bordoli,
2014).
www.mecsj.com
Page | 15
3. Conclusion:
The reason for construction project planning and management is to organize, plan,
coordinate, monitor and control the utilization of project goals in the best way as
indicated by project partners' needs. It includes numerous processes and sub-processes
and incorporates the identifying of venture scope, duties and responsibilities of the
project workers, cost evaluating, venture stakeholder management, and additionally
the use of arranging and control strategies and instruments. These require learning of
the essentials of project management keeping in mind the end goal to create fruitful
project schedules and plans, which are vital for the conveyance of the venture to time,
quality and cost destinations. Where there is an absence of knowledge, the application
of venture planning and management ideas will bring about fragmented and
incomplete venture plans or poor planning and, henceforth, loss of project's execution
efficiency and performance.
Due to this review of several researches and literature, the researcher can conclude
that poor planning and management of the construction projects may lead to several
negative effects on the duration and completion of projects. Construction delays and
duration issues are frequently responsible of transforming productive ventures into
loosing projects. These delays can be reduced or prevented by an increased pre-
project planning and successful project management as they are one of the most
critical success factors of the construction project accomplishment
Reference:
www.mecsj.com
Page | 16
1) Akogbe, R. K. T., Feng, X., & Zhou, J. (2013). Importance and ranking
evaluation of delay factors for development construction projects in
Benin. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 17(6), 1213-1222.
2) Alaghbari, W. E., Razali A. Kadir, M., Salim, A., & Ernawati. (2007). The
significant factors causing delay of building construction projects in
Malaysia. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 14(2),
192-206.
3) Al-Ghafly, M. A. (1995). Delay in the construction of public utility projects in
Saudi Arabia (Doctoral dissertation, King Fahd University of Petroleum and
Minerals).
4) AlKharashi, A., & Skitmore, M. (2009). Causes of delays in Saudi Arabian
public sector construction projects. Construction Management and
Economics, 27(1), 3-23.
5) Assaf, S. A., & Al-Hejji, S. (2006). Causes of delay in large construction
projects. International journal of project management, 24(4), 349-357.
6) Baldwin, A., & Bordoli, D. (2014). Handbook for construction planning and
scheduling. John Wiley & Sons.
7) Doloi, H., Sawhney, A., Iyer, K. C., & Rentala, S. (2012). Analysing factors
affecting delays in Indian construction projects. International Journal of
Project Management, 30(4), 479-489.
8) Duran, O. (2006). Current risk management applications in Turkish
construction industry, an unpublished Master thesis. Gaziantep University,
Gaziantep.
9) Dvir, D., & Lechler, T. (2004). Plans are nothing, changing plans is
everything: the impact of changes on project success. Research policy, 33(1),
1-15.
10) Dvir, D., Raz, T., & Shenhar, A. J. (2003). An empirical analysis of the
relationship between project planning and project success. International
journal of project management, 21(2), 89-95.
www.mecsj.com
Page | 17
11) Enshassi, A., Mohamed, S., & Abushaban, S. (2009). Factors affecting the
performance of construction projects in the Gaza strip. Journal of Civil
engineering and Management, 15(3), 269-280.
12) Falqi, I. (2004). Delays in project completion: a comparative study of
construction delay factors in Saudi Arabia and the United
Kingdom. Unpublished MSc. Thesis, School of the Built Environment, Heriot-
Watt University.
13) Faridi, A. S., & ElSayegh, S. M. (2006). Significant factors causing delay in
the UAE construction industry. Construction Management and
Economics, 24(11), 1167-1176.
14) Frimpong, Y., Oluwoye, J., & Crawford, L. (2003). Causes of delay and cost
overruns in construction of groundwater projects in a developing countries;
Ghana as a case study. International Journal of project management, 21(5),
321-326.
15) Gajewska, E., & Ropel, M. (2011). Risk Management Practices in a
Construction Projecta case study. Swedia, Chalmers University Of
Technology.
16) Gibson Jr, G. E., Wang, Y. R., Cho, C. S., & Pappas, M. P. (2006). What is
preproject planning, anyway?. Journal of Management in Engineering, 22(1),
35-42.
17) González, V., Alarcón, L. F., & Mundaca, F. (2008). Investigating the
relationship between planning reliability and project performance. Production
Planning and Control, 19(5), 461-474.
18) Gould, F. E., & Joyce, N. (2009). Construction project management. Upper
Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.
19) Gunduz, M., Nielsen, Y., & Ozdemir, M. (2013). Fuzzy assessment model to
estimate the probability of delay in Turkish construction projects. Journal of
Management in Engineering, 31(4), 04014055.
20) Hanna, A. S., & Skiffington, M. A. (2010). Effect of preconstruction planning
effort on sheet metal project performance. Journal of Construction
Engineering and Management, 136(2), 235-241.
www.mecsj.com
Page | 18
21) Hoseini, E. (2015). Project Time Planning in Norwegian Construction
Industry-An Empirical Study (Master's thesis, NTNU).
22) Kerzner, H., & Kerzner, H. R. (2017). Project management: a systems
approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
23) Keung, C. C., & Shen, L. Y. (2012). Measuring the networking performance
for contractors in practicing construction management. Journal of
Management in Engineering, 29(4), 400-406.
24) Khoshgoftar, M., Bakar, A. H. A., & Osman, O. (2010). Causes of delays in
Iranian construction projects. International Journal of Construction
Management, 10(2), 53-69.
25) Kim, S. Y., Van Tuan, N., & Ogunlana, S. O. (2009). Quantifying schedule
risk in construction projects using Bayesian belief networks. International
Journal of Project Management, 27(1), 39-50.
26) Lester, A. (2006). Project management, planning and control: managing
engineering, construction and manufacturing projects to PMI, APM and BSI
standards. Elsevier.
27) Lines, B. C., Sullivan, K. T., Hurtado, K. C., & Savicky, J. (2015). Planning in
construction: longitudinal study of pre-contract planning model demonstrates
reduction in project cost and schedule growth. International Journal of
Construction Education and Research, 11(1), 21-39.
28) Long, N. D., Ogunlana, S., Quang, T., & Lam, K. C. (2004). Large
construction projects in developing countries: a case study from
Vietnam. International Journal of project management, 22(7), 553-561.
29) Mahamid, I., Bruland, A., and Dmaidi, N. (2012). Causes of Delay in Road
Construction Projects. Journal of Management in Engineering, 28(3), 300-31.
30) Majid, I. A. (2006). Causes and Effects of delays in ACEH Construction
Industry (Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia).
31) Mantel, S. J. 2001. Project management in practice, New York, Wiley.
32) Marzouk, M. M., & El-Rasas, T. I. (2014). Analyzing delay causes in
Egyptian construction projects. Journal of advanced research, 5(1), 49-55.
www.mecsj.com
Page | 19
33) Muya, M., Kaliba, C., Sichombo, B., & Shakantu, W. (2013). Cost escalation,
schedule overruns and quality shortfalls on construction projects: The case of
Zambia. International Journal of Construction Management, 13(1), 53-68.
34) Olawale, Y., & Sun, M. (2012). PCIM: Project control and inhibiting-factors
management model. Journal of management in engineering, 29(1), 60-70.
35) PMI (2013). A Guide to the project management body of knowledge: (PMBOK
guide), Atlanta,Project Management Institute.
36) Pourrostam, T., & Ismail, A. (2011). Significant factors causing and effects of
delay in Iranian construction projects. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied
Sciences, 5(7), 450-456.
37) Sambasivan, Murali, and Yau Wen Soon. "Causes and effects of delays in
Malaysian construction industry." International Journal of project
management 25, no. 5 (2007): 517-526.
38) Snyder, C. S. (2014). A guide to the project management body of knowledge:
PMBOK (®) guide. Project Management Institute: Newtown Square, PA,
USA.
39) Stumpf, G. R. (2000). Schedule delay analysis. COST ENGINEERING-ANN
ARBOR THEN MORGANTOWN-, 42(7), 32-32.
40) Sweis, G., Sweis, R., Hammad, A. A., & Shboul, A. (2008). Delays in
construction projects: The case of Jordan. International Journal of Project
Management, 26(6), 665-674.
41) Thomas, H. R., & Ellis Jr, R. D. (2007). Contractor prebid planning
principles. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 133(8),
542-552.
42) Toor, S. U. R., & Ogunlana, S. O. (2008). Problems causing delays in major
construction projects in Thailand. Construction management and
economics, 26(4), 395-408.
43) Trauner, T. J. (2009). Construction delays: Understanding them clearly,
analyzing them correctly. Butterworth-Heinemann.
www.mecsj.com
Page | 20
44) Trigunarsyah, B. (2004). Constructability practices among construction
contractors in Indonesia. Journal of construction engineering and
management, 130(5), 656-669.
45) Vidalis, S. M., & Najafi, F. T. (2002, June). Cost and time overruns in
highway construction. In 4th transportation specialty conference of the
Canadian society for civil engineering, Canada (Vol. 5, No. 8).
46) Westland, J. (2007). The Project Management Life Cycle: A Complete Step-
By-Step Methodology for Initiating, Planning, Executing & Closing a Project
Successf. Kogan Page Publishers.
47) Yang, J. B., & Wei, P. R. (2010). Causes of delay in the planning and design
phases for construction projects. Journal of Architectural Engineering, 16(2),
80-83.
48) Yang, L. R., Chen, J. H., & Huang, C. F. (2012). Requirements definition and
management practice to improve project outcomes. Journal of Civil
Engineering and Management, 18(1), 114-124.
49) ZIDANE, Y. (2012). Project Change in Large Scale Engineering Projects.
50) Zou, P. X., Zhang, G., & Wang, J. (2007). Understanding the key risks in
construction projects in China. International Journal of Project
Management, 25(6), 601-614.
51) Zwikael, O. (2009). Critical planning processes in construction
projects. Construction Innovation, 9(4), 372-387.
52) Zwikael, O., Pathak, R. D., Singh, G., & Ahmed, S. (2014). The moderating
effect of risk on the relationship between planning and success. International
Journal of Project Management, 32(3), 435-441.
53) Saunders, M. N. (2011). Research methods for business students, 5/e. Pearson
Education India.
... Contractor play an extreme vital role in execution of a project, hence it's important that s/he plans the project efficiently. A construction project is normally recognized to be successful when it is finished within its budget, on its planning time and according to its standards and specifications (Khalid, 2019). Project Management Institution introduces project planning process as following steps: create project management plan, Gather requirements, Describe scope, Make Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), Express activities, order activities, Evaluate activity resources, Evaluate activity duration, create schedule, evaluate costs, Decide budget, Plan quality, create human resources plan, communication plan, Risk management Plan, clarify risks, Perform quantitative and qualitative risk analysis, Plan risk Reponses and finally Plan procurement (Khalid, 2019). ...
... A construction project is normally recognized to be successful when it is finished within its budget, on its planning time and according to its standards and specifications (Khalid, 2019). Project Management Institution introduces project planning process as following steps: create project management plan, Gather requirements, Describe scope, Make Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), Express activities, order activities, Evaluate activity resources, Evaluate activity duration, create schedule, evaluate costs, Decide budget, Plan quality, create human resources plan, communication plan, Risk management Plan, clarify risks, Perform quantitative and qualitative risk analysis, Plan risk Reponses and finally Plan procurement (Khalid, 2019). Highrise Residential project involve Structural Complexity which needs to be efficiently pre planned to ensure smooth execution, there are various stakeholders involved which require a clear definition of who does what and who reports whom and it includes huge investment which needs to be planned well to ensure constant and unobstructed execution. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Indian cities are witnessing huge influx of migrating population from smaller towns and cities leading to population increase resulting in increase in property demand and land scarcity. As a result, High-rise residential project demand has been increasing in the Metropolitan Cities. The importance of construction industry in India has grown significantly but at the same time, construction projects in India have become infamous for delays and cost overruns. Construction delays are considered one of the most recurring problems in construction industry and has adverse effects on Project’s success in terms of cost, time and quality. There are many research works conducted to identify various causes of delay in construction and their mitigation measure, yet the problem of delay continues to prevail. Indian metro cities like Delhi and Mumbai include higher number of Residential High-rise projects that have been witnessing delay of over 5 years. While most of the projects are executed conventionally with an emphasis on solving the problems as and when encountered, which eventually leads to delay, most of the delays can be prevented, provided due consideration are adopted in pre-construction stage to mitigate the risk of delays encountered during execution stage. The research aims at identifying the reasons of delay in pre-construction stage that are the root cause of various delays encountered during execution phase of Residential High-rise project. The research also intends to identify mitigation measures for the root causes of delay identified to prevent delays in construction project before the execution begin to prevent the risk of schedule overrun.
... e most significant managerial delay factor is insufficiency in planning and scheduling (Table 19). Our findings are consistent with prior studies of Sambasivan and Soon [74] and Khalid [75], which identified improper scheduling/planning as one of the most major delay factors. e least significant managerial delay factor is poor communication and cooperation by the client and other partners. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of delays in road construction projects in the Benin Republic from the consultant, client, and contractor perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach. Through construction project reports, 20 factors that could cause delays in road construction projects were identified. The factors were arranged into a questionnaire, which was distributed to three separate experts. The fuzzy PIPRECIA (PIvot Pairwise RElative Criteria Relevance Assessment) method was used to calculate the independent importance of each delay factor. The Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to test the method’s consistency. Findings. The top five road construction project delays in the Benin Republic, according to the analysis of the 20 factors considered, are project funding, slowness during the client-endorsed payment process, scarcity of professional personnel, delay in indemnifying reimbursement (land-owners), and price escalation. This shows that of the various types of delays, the financial delay group is the most crucial. Originality/value. This study evaluates the causes of delays in road construction projects in the Benin Republic for the first time in literature. This study also examined the top 5 delay factors in road construction projects. This study is based on reports from road construction projects and a performed questionnaire survey. Based on the findings, measures have been formulated to aid project managers to alleviate the road construction delays in the Benin Republic. In addition, this study is practical for both scholars and road construction parties and provides a complete and verifiable analysis of the progress of a road construction project to make it easier and attain a competitive level of time, cost, and quality for successful road construction.
... Focusing by category (non-extensive list) the type of risk is following detailed: Financial risk including contract risk, delay caused by the contractors, increase of the price of the construction materials and the bank orders changing [12][13][14][15]. Management risk namely, poor, or improper planning and communication, external and internal collaboration, design errors and ineffective teamwork [16][17][18][19][20]. Technical risk namely, lack of training, low wages, inadequate safety measures in the execution, physical obstructions, frequent changes in the design, poor quality of materials [21][22][23][24]. ...
... It is necessary to create a proper plan and schedule to conduct construction activities in extreme field conditions. Since most road projects are scheduled during the rainy season, it is recommended that the government and contractors must consider what project activities are appropriate during such conditions [42]. • A significant number of contract modifications (even some unforeseen work) can be avoided during the pre-construction phase (planning and design stage) of a project's life cycle. ...
Article
Full-text available
Delays in road construction projects due to various reasons are a major problem facing construction professionals. The incapability of finishing projects punctually and within a given budget is a persistent issue worldwide. This study aims to determine the ten principal causes of delay in road construction projects in 25 developing countries across the globe. The study involves two steps. First, the authors compiled information regarding the most frequent delays in a road construction project. Second, they analyzed the intensity of each cause of delay in these projects. Being more accurate in the methodology, given the nature of the information, the researchers used a quasi-meta-analysis for processing the data. Half (50%) of the countries have similar causes of delay, and likewise, 50% of the countries identified the top ten primary causes of delay in road construction projects based on the intensity results. This study uses the results of the intensity. According to the results of the homologation, the lack of experience of the construction manager, inadequate planning/scheduling, and influence on people’s land alongside the road construction project (expropriation for the construction of the project) have more significant impacts than frequent changes in the design (which was listed as the most frequent cause of delay).
... Those construction delays and duration issues are frequently responsible of transforming productive projects into complex loosing projects. So, these delays can be reduced or prevented by an increased pre-project planning and through successful project management as they are one of the most critical success factors of the construction project accomplishment [16]. Hence, this led the study to explore on developing a Kuwaiti PMSF that would solve the problems of complexity and delay that encounter the projects in Kuwait and increase the performance of project managers in a manner that improves project management and avoids delays and complications that may occur in projects due to lack of experience and skills of project managers. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to establish the conceptual of project manager’s skills framework (PMSF) that is required in improving complex construction projects in Kuwait. The knowledge, skills, and experiences of the project managers in handling the various resources and processes related to project management had direct impact on the outcomes of the project. Large and complex construction project in Kuwait have been facing delayed deadlines. These escalate the cost of the project, and also negatively impact the quality of the project. The study uses mixed methodology in collecting the empirical data. The objective is to collect empirical data through survey, followed by interviews. The survey will be designed as closed-ended and using 5-point Likert scale and distributed to the project managers. The responses will then be used to carry out in-depth personal interviews with project managers currently involved in complex projects. The role of project manager as one of the most important is also understood from the findings. The literature and empirical findings are used to achieve the aim of developing the PMSF. The conceptual of Project Manager’s Skills Framework (PMSF) development is also presented.
Article
Many risks have adverse consequences for construction projects’ objectives such as quality, schedule, and cost. As engineering procurement construction (EPC) contracts gradually become one of the most common types used in implementing major large-scale construction projects, identifying common risk types and analyzing their root causes is important for developing measures to decrease and eliminate future risks in these types of contracts. The information about the main causes of risks was collected via well-structured questionnaires addressed to construction sector professionals and preparing lists of main potential risks in EPC/construction projects through reviewing literature studies, books, and articles related to this topic. The findings indicate that several causes of risks are more critical for the project including causes related to contract, design and execution, subcontractors, systems, and equipment. The study’s results revealed that the absence of risk management implementation in the EPC construction project is a root cause of the lack of planning and control of the project.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Work delivery has been one of the effective avenues for appreciating value for money in this current economic situation, especially in the construction industry. Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDA's) are mandated by legislative and executive functions to also develop local infrastructure. This thus prompted the introduction of the District Assemblies Common Fund (DACF) as one of the major funding sources for infrastructure project delivery at the various MMDA's. However, the recognition of DACF by the MMDA's in this respect on construction project delivery over the years seems to have been stifled as a priority has been given to other sectors other than how these projects should be delivered. The study sought to investigate the factors affecting the delivery of building construction projects funded by DACF. This was achieved by employing a cross-sectional survey in the design from participants in Ashanti, Greater Accra, and Bono East regions in Ghana. The outcome of the study revealed that contractor, project funding, supply chain, site, and client-related factors are the 5 main factors affecting the delivery of building construction projects. The findings again identified 7 major effects of these factors; which were cost and time overrun, poor quality standard work, unexploited completed project, contractor bankruptcy or liquidation, accident/disaster, loss of workers, and profit and loss of stakeholders 'trust and confidence. It was concluded that MMDA's building construction project delivery funded by DACF efficiency stands a chance to be improved. It is therefore recommended for the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (MLGRD) to review DACF guidelines for utilisation and introduce a project charter in MMDA's building construction project delivery.
Article
Construction risk management plays an important role in the area of buying and selling irrespective of measure, activity and organisation. Risk management is a field of ideology and uncertainty which depends on significant projects which vary from nation to nation. It is essential to decrease the losses faced by the firm and to increase the profit, which can be done to forecast and calculate the risk factors relevant to the construction practices on time. Therefore, the research aims to identify and categorise the types of risk factors associated in the Chennai construction industry by developing a cumulative value using Risk management procedural index. The methodology of the study is to examine and rank the types of risk factors disturbing the construction projects by distributing a questionnaire survey administered to participants such as consultant, contractors and client/developers in the major parts of Chennai. In the result, the proposed RMPI method gives a cumulative value which shows the percentage of risks contributed by the various factors and they are ranked in order of the weighted value. The conclusion of this paper gives a clear forecast to reduce the cost and times overrun, which improves the quality of the construction project. The top three risk factors identified by the RMPI for the Chennai sector are listed as management (∼15%), financial (∼12), and environmental (10%). Keywords Risk managementRisk assessmentRMPIRisk indexThe construction sector
Thesis
Full-text available
If you question yourself what may be the only certainty that you will face in the near or far future, you will find a simple answer, which is “Change”; it is the only certainty, endless and constant in life. Projects are also one of the sources of change in this world; however, they are not safe from it. Project change is unavoidable, whether that change is motivated from a strategic perspective or in response to an operational imperative, the delivery mechanism for the project change is the same, and that is project management. During the last twenty years there has been intensive research about project change. There exist now several results that describe and classify these changes based on project characteristics, the causes and the effects. Most researches indicate that change should always be avoided and project team should be proactive in dealing with it. However, change is not always deleterious; some changes are beneficial and can also lead to new opportunities. The focus in this thesis is more about change in large scale engineering project. These projects are known for their large scope, high cost, long duration, with high complexity and uncertainty; those are the reasons why also they are exposed to continuous change in their scope, cost, plan, etc.; also they are open to dynamic environment that makes them more vibrant and exposed to change. Most of these projects are famous for their bad efficiency (cost overrun, time delays, and quality defect) and even occasionally fail to meet the desired outcomes measured in their effectiveness. Frequent changes often lead to that bad efficiency; however, to meet the desired effectiveness, changes are more than needed. A number of scholars have argued that flexibility is necessary to face the change and uncertainty to be able to adjust projects as they gain knowledge about their needs and changes in the project context. Others argue that underestimating projects complexity is also the reasons for failure. In addition to that uncertainty increases the project complexity and vice versa. It seems all the concepts are twisted in this system called project, where also the stakeholders are main actors of it, contributing in its complexity; the reason why in this report all aspects are considered to understand their contribution in project change.
Article
Full-text available
The construction industry is one of the main sectors that provides important ingredients for the development of an economy. However, many projects experience extensive delays and thereby exceed initial time and cost estimates. Construction delay is considered to be one of the most recurring problems in the construction industry and it has an adverse effect on project success in terms of time, cost, quality, and safety. This study is conducted to investigate the time performance of road construction projects in the West Bank in Palestine to identify the causes of delay and their severity according to contractors and consultants through a questionnaire survey. The field survey included 34 contractors and 30 consultants. A total of 52 causes of delay were identified during the research. The survey concluded that the top five severe delay causes are political situation, segmentation of the West Bank and limited movement between areas, award project to lowest bid price, progress payment delay by owner, and shortage of equipment. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000096. (C) 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Article
Full-text available
Planning is known to enhance construction project performance in terms of cost, schedule, and quality. Yet, project teams oftentimes do not incorporate effective planning methodologies, typically citing a lack of time or capability to conduct detailed planning. This article proposes a brief yet rigorous project planning method, known as the pre-contract planning model, which is uniquely implemented between the owner and selected contractor project teams prior to contract award with the intent of increasing project team alignment and facilitating greater risk transfer from owner to contractor. Results from a multi-case longitudinal study documented the impact of the pre-contract planning model in terms of three success criteria: cost growth, schedule growth, and owner satisfaction, where cost and schedule growth were measured as percent increase of initial contract values. Projects that implemented the pre-contract planning model were compared with a control group that operated via a traditional project delivery process where the selected contractor directly proceeded to contract award without a formal planning process. Analysis revealed that the pre-contract planning model reduced cost and schedule growth by as much as 54% and 70% percent, respectively, indicating that pre-contract planning may be a viable planning mechanism to be implemented in the construction industry.
Article
Delays on construction projects cause financial losses for project stakeholders in developing countries. This paper describes how Bayesian belief network (BBN) is applied to quantify the probability of construction project delays in a developing country. Sixteen factors were identified through a questionnaire survey of 166 professionals. Eighteen cause-effect relationships among these factors were obtained through expert interview survey to develop a belief network model. The validity of the proposed model is tested using two realistic case studies. The findings of the study revealed that financial difficulties of owners and contractors, contractor’s inadequate experience, and shortage of materials are the main causes of delay on construction projects in Vietnam. The results encourage practitioners to benefit from the BBNs. This approach is general and, as such, it may be applied to other construction projects with minor modifications
Article
Covering the principles and techniques you need to successfully manage an engineering or technical project from start to finish, Project Management, Planning and Control is an established and widely recommended project management handbook. With clear and detailed coverage of planning, scheduling and control, which can pose particular challenges in engineering environments, this sixth edition includes new chapters on Agile project management and project governance, more real-life examples and updated software information. Ideal for those studying for Project Management Professional (PMP) qualifications, Project Management, Planning and Control is aligned with the latest Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) for both the Project Management Institute (PMI) and the Association of Project Management (APM), and includes questions and answers to help you test your understanding. It is also updated to match the latest BS 6079 standard for project management in construction. © 2014 Albert Lester. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Delays are one of the main problems in construction projects in developing countries, as cause a negative effects on the projects. Delays can be minimized only when their causes are recognized. The aim of this paper is to identify the main causes and consequences of delay in Iranian construction projects. The literature related the field of causes and effects of delay in construction projects has been reviewed from 2000 onwards. A questionnaire survey was conducted to solicit the causes and consequences of delay from consultants and contractors' viewpoint. This study identified 10 most important causes of delay from a list of 27 different causes of delay and 6 different effects of delay. It was found the predominant causes of delay are poor site management and supervision, delay in progress payment by clients, change orders by client during construction, ineffective planning and scheduling of project by contractor, financial difficulties by contractor, slowness in decision making process by client, delays in producing design documents, late in reviewing and approving design documents by client, poor contract management by consultant and problems with subcontractors. The results showed delay can lead to many negative effects such as time and cost overrun, disputes, arbitration, total abandonment and litigation. The paper forecasts some future trends and suggests certain areas in which future research on construction projects could focus on. Although the research is devoted to Iran's specific case, the findings of construction management problems are common to developing countries.
Article
This article attempts to show that delay does matter and that different methods of analyzing schedule delay will lead to different results for the owner and the contractor. A delay is an act or event that extends the time required to perform tasks under a contract. It usually shows up as additional days of work or as the delayed start of an activity, and may or may not involve a change in the scope of the contract.
Article
The construction industry is recognized as being project-based and is fragmented in nature. Problems such as poor communication, mistrust, lack of cohesion, and adversarial relationships among project stakeholders are often found in construction projects. Previous studies have explored the formation of successful interfirm networks in construction and investigated how to solve the aforementioned problems by means of a networking approach. It is therefore important to gain a clearer understanding of whether such a built network is effective and can contribute to construction management. Investigation of parameters for measuring the performance of interfirm networks has attracted the interest of many researchers and practitioners in industry and business fields. However, seldom has similar research been conducted in the field of construction management. This paper presents key parameters for measuring networking performance within the construction context. Five parameters are applied in the formation of the measurement model, including information exchange between project members, project communication system, knowledge-sharing for collaboration, corporate culture for promoting networking, and learning capability in intra- and inter-organizational settings. The empirical results of this study enable contractors to realize what items determine the performance of interfirm networks, and what aspects of construction management practices should be emphasized to improve the networking performance effectively. (C) 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Article
The aim of this paper is to propose a decision support tool for contractors before the bidding stage to quantify the probability of delay in construction projects in Turkey by using the relative importance index (RII) method incorporated into fuzzy logic. For this purpose, 83 delay factors were identified, categorized into 9 major groups through a detailed literature review process as well as interviews with experts from the construction industry. The relative importance of these delay factors and groups was quantified by using the relative importance index method. The ranking of the factors and groups was demonstrated according to their level of effect on delay. A delay assessment model was proposed using the fuzzy set theory by taking into account the delay factors characterized in construction projects. The assessment model was developed using a commercial software product. The proposed methodology was tested in a real case study; and the probability of the delay of the project was evaluated by means of the assessment model after the required inputs were entered into the software. The factors and groups that contribute most to the probability of delays were discussed depending on the case study results. The assessment model results were found to be satisfactory. Finally, some recommendations were made in order to minimize and control delays in construction projects.
Article
Cost and time overruns have been common problems in every construction project. Numerous factors such as utility and weather damage delays can cause the costs of construction to exceed the budget and extend project schedule. Understanding the specific causes of cost and time overruns due to design or changed conditions can help control cost and time extension on projects. They may be related to external or internal factors that may cause the construction of a project to delay. The main objective of this paper is to present the current status on the causes of overruns in Florida Department of Transportation highway projects. Literature review and personal contact have been focused on completed projects from the department to determine the types of delays that have caused cost and time overruns. Results from various Florida Department of Transportation highway projects over the past two fiscal years indicated that cost and time overruns, expressed as a percentage of the original contract amount are mostly caused by designs and changed conditions. The results of this study will provide the parties involved in highway construction projects with a checklist that can assist highway officials in their design, overall planning, scheduling, and project implementation prior to project start up.