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... In addition, frequencies more than 8-16 kA.m -1 lead to eddy current, which is harmful for healthy tissues [158,159]. Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles, due to their supermagnetic properties, biocompatibility, high specific area, proper nano-sized particles, and low toxicity, are one of the best candidates for magnetic-responsive systems [160,161]. Coating iron oxide NPs with suitable polymers would improve the drug loading capacity, increase the carrier's stability, and make further functionalization possible [149,. Yan et al.  combined Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and showed dose-dependency of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation (Fig. 7a). As shown in Fig. (7b), Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles have magnetic responsiveness, raising the magnetic fluid temperature about 7°C due to their absorption capability. ...
According to the interaction of nanoparticles with biological systems, enthusiasm for nanotechnology in biomedical applications has been developed in the past decades. Fe2O3 nanoparticles, as the most stable iron oxide, have special merits that make them useful widely for detecting diseases, therapy, drug delivery, and monitoring the therapeutic process. This review presents the fabrication methods of Fe2O3-based materials and their photocatalytic and magnetic properties. Then, we highlight the application of Fe2O3-based nanoparticles in diagnosis and imaging, different therapy methods, and finally, stimulus-responsive systems, such as pH-responsive, magnetic-responsive, redox-responsive, and enzyme-responsive, with an emphasis on cancer treatment. In addition, the potential of Fe2O3 to combine diagnosis and therapy within a single particle called theranostic agent will be discussed.
... The therapeutic beneficial properties of MNPs are attractive and also interesting, counting their surface charge, charge density, chemical conformation, shape, inner morphology, size, degradation, and sensitivity to stimuli for the treatment of diseases. 68,136 Chertok et al. effectively transported polyethylenimine (PEI) magnetic nanoparticles to have a saturation of 93 emu g −1 to cancer cells of the brain with low cellular toxicity. 137 A magnetic drug-delivery composite was designed with DOX chemically attached to Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. ...
... Alginate has been introduced for use in MRI to aid in cell tracking and to act as a negative control contrast agent 167]. Cellular therapies and labeling are now being implemented with MNPs in conjunction with polysaccharides and proteins to improve medicine . ...
The combination of protein and polysaccharides with magnetic materials has been implemented in biomedical applications for decades. Proteins such as silk, collagen, and elastin and polysaccharides such as chitosan, cellulose, and alginate have been heavily used in composite biomaterials. The wide diversity in the structure of the materials including their primary monomer/amino acid sequences allow for tunable properties. Various types of these composites are highly regarded due to their biocompatible, thermal, and mechanical properties while retaining their biological characteristics. This review provides information on protein and polysaccharide materials combined with magnetic elements in the biomedical space showcasing the materials used, fabrication methods, and their subsequent applications in biomedical research.
Rosmarinic acid (RS) is as the nonflavonoid polyphenols in the phenolic acid subgroup was cross‐linked with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) to obtain (p[RS‐co‐STMP]) particles with the size distribution of 2.992 ± 659 nm. The zeta potential values of p(RS‐co‐STMP) particles were measured between pH 2–10, and the isoelectric point was determined as pH 2.66. Fe(II) chelating capability test was done for RS and p(RS‐co‐STMP). At 800 μmol/ml concentrations, p(RS‐co‐STMP) particles chelated 95.06 ± 5.18% Fe(II), while RS molecule did not chelate Fe(II), whereas STMP chelated only 41.8 ± 5.9% Fe(II). The effects of RS and p(RS‐co‐STMP) particles on α‐glucosidase enzyme activity were investigated and were found to inhibit the α‐glucosidase enzyme by 55.7% and 89.6%, respectively. Furthermore, p(RS‐co‐STMP) particles were modified with polyethyleneimine as m‐p(RS‐co‐STMP) to improve antimicrobial properties and found effective against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The interaction of fibrinogen with RS, p(RS‐co‐STMP) and m‐p(RS‐co‐STMP) were studied via the change in intensity of corresponding fluorescence spectra. It was found that p(RS‐co‐STMP) particles interacted lesser with fibrinogen than RS and changed the fluorescence property of fibrinogen protein slightly. On the other hand, m‐p(RS‐co‐STMP) particles did not change the fluorescence intensity of fibrinogen suggesting no influence on the blood clotting.
The development of smart stimuli-responsive materials for drug delivery offers new opportunities for precise drug release and cancer chemotherapy. A combination of more than one stimuli is highly desirable to further maximize the therapy by taking the advantages of various unique merits. Herein, we employed polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized γ-Fe2O3 particles (γ-Fe2O3/PEG) as a novel magnetic drug carrier for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. The results showed that the γ-Fe2O3/PEG exhibited excellent thermal effects under alternating magnetic field (AMF), high magneto-thermal stability, and large DOX loading capacity. Furthermore, the effects of pH and AMF on the DOX drug release were studied. It was discovered that DOX loaded γ-Fe2O3/PEG carriers were highly responsive to both AMF and pH, resulting in significantly improved cancer cell killing capability over a single stimulus. The magnetic and pH responsive drug delivery system provided a new opportunity to minimize the side effects and maximize the therapeutic efficiency of lung cancer treatment.
Design, research, and development of new and improved smart multifunctional devices is one of the main topics in the advanced functional materials agenda for the next decade. Smart materials that can be triggered by external stimuli are seen with high potential for innovative treatments and improved drug delivery systems by regulatory agencies like the FDA and EMA. The incorporation of magnetic nanostructures into complex systems produces multifunctional devices that can be spatiotemporally controlled by an external magnetic field. These magneto-responsive devices can be used for a multitude of biomedical applications, from diagnostic to the treatment of tumors, and are actively being developed and tested for cancer theranostics. Herein, we review the development of magneto-responsive devices for cancer theranostics, starting from the most straightforward architecture, single nanoparticles. We give some theoretical concepts about the design and production of such systems while providing a critical review of applications in clinical practice. Naturally, the review evolves to more complex architectures, from one-dimensional to three-dimensional magneto-responsive systems, demonstrating higher complexity and multifunctionality, and consequently, higher interest for clinical practice. The review ends with the main challenges in the design and engineering of magneto-responsive devices for cancer theranostics and future trends in this biomedical field.
Biomineralization is a common process in organisms to produce hard biomaterials by combining inorganic ions with biomacromolecules. Multifunctional nanoplatforms are developed based on the mechanism of biomineralization in many biomedical applications. In the past few years, biomineralization‐based nanoparticle drug delivery systems for the cancer treatment have gained a lot of research attention due to the advantages including simple preparation, good biocompatibility, degradability, easy modification, versatility, and targeting. In this review, the research trends of biomineralization‐based nanoparticle drug delivery systems and their applications in cancer therapy are summarized. This work aims to promote future researches on cancer therapy based on biomineralization. Rational design of nanoparticle drug delivery systems can overcome the bottleneck in the clinical transformation of nanomaterials. At the same time, biomineralization has also provided new research ideas for cancer treatment, i.e., targeted therapy, which has significantly better performance. Biomineralization is a common process in organisms to produce hard biomaterials by combining inorganic ions with biomacromolecules. In the past few years, biomineralization‐based nanoparticle drug delivery systems for cancer treatment have gained a lot of research attention due to the advantages including good biocompatibility, degradability, and targeting. This work aims to promote future researches on cancer therapy based on biomineralization.
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