Chapter

Monoglot “Standard” in America: Standardization and Metaphors of Linguistic Hegemony

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... The target group of the study are Finnish-speaking Finnish parents. This is because Finnish-speaking Finns constitute the ethnic and linguistic majority, and are, thus, representative of a language community (Silverstein 1996) with a strong monolingual and mono-cultural self-image (Blommaert, Leppänen & Spotti 2012;Latomaa & Nuolijärvi 2005; grounded in the strong national identity of a relatively homogenous and young nation state (Blommaert et al. 2012, p. 10). Moreover, they also constitute an epistemic community holding shared true beliefs (Knowledge) as justified and ratified through the knowledge criteria of the epistemic institutions of Finnish society 4 ( van Dijk 2013). ...
... This makes parents' choice of English as a language of instruction for their children even more interesting, as it signals a break with the strong modernist language ideology. Nation states are polities that have standardised languages (Silverstein 1996(Silverstein , 2015. This means that their glossonym has been allocated a conventional system of writing 13 To quote Silverstein (2015, p. 8), "Denotation [...] is the linguistically mediated practice of representing or describing the universe, referring to entities and modally predication states-of-affairs as, by degree, true or false, about such entities". ...
... As a point of contrast, when I was at school in both England and Scotland, we had a subject called 'English' for our first language, not 'mother tongue'. and a prescribed normative grammar that are accepted by language community members as the denotational norm, which is then enforced and propagated by social institutions (Silverstein 1996(Silverstein , p. 286, 2000(Silverstein , p. 121, 2015Blommaert et al. 2006, pp. 37-39). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-61-2491-9 This monograph investigates English-medium education as a type of school choice and a distinctive form of sociolinguistic practice in the specific local context of Finnish basic education. It examines English and Content Integrated Learning (ECIL) as a specific form of school choice, or social practice that promotes a specific register of English, and investigates who the choosers of this particular form of schooling are in terms of their socioeconomic background, and what motivates their choice in terms of discourse and ideology, since parents are an underexplored group of stakeholders who, at least in the Finnish context, have been active in desiring and lobbying for the creation of bilingual programmes. One specific local context is presented as a small-scale ethnography study to elucidate the activities of parents as a community of practice. School choice in Finland is an interesting phenomenon because basic education is publicly funded and there are very few private schools. Moreover, most Finnish parents still appear to favour the traditional ‘civic duty’ approach of their child attending the local neighbourhood school over a ‘parentocracy’ or ‘consumer’ school choice discourse approach. This study used a cross-sectional survey design for which a 40-item survey instrument was devised with both quantitative and qualitative components. This facilitated the generation of both a holistic understanding of the phenomenon and a causal explanation for the parental choice of medium of education. The survey was exploratory, and the target population was identified non-randomly through parents’ connections with the ECIL schools. Parents from 24 schools from across Finland participated, and total population sampling was used. The primary inclusion criteria were Finnish nationality and Finnish as a mother tongue. The survey questionnaire was electronically administered between April and August 2013, and generated 914 responses. Organisation of the data set resulted in a target group of 812 respondents, of whom 535 were parents of children in English-medium programmes (the Enkku Group), and 277 were parents of children in the regular mainstream programme or other programmes at the same schools (the Non-Enkku Group). The results of the study show that a parent who is more highly educated, has a higher-level occupation and a higher income is more likely to choose ECIL as a form of schooling for his or her child. Generally, the Enkku Group parents tended to be from more advantageous socioeconomic backgrounds. Enkku Group parents believe that ECIL affords children the possibility to develop even better English skills than through regular mainstream education alone, and that English will broaden the worldview of the child and afford him or her greater access to the wider world, tolerance and acceptance of difference. Future potential opportunities are seen as enhanced and increased, since proficiency in English provides the children with the opportunity to become broad-minded, confident, cosmopolitan communicators in the contact zone, with all the advantages this may ultimately bring. Learning English at school and improved English skills, nevertheless, do not appear to be held as synonymous with bilingualism. The Non-Enkku Group appear to be more traditional and less internationally-minded, since they place greater emphasis on the local school and education in Finnish. Moreover, they may take the stance that good levels of English can be acquired almost as a matter of course in Finland, thus, they want to invest in something else for their child. Keywords: school choice, Finnish primary education, bilingual education, English
... Flores & Rosa 2015;Surtees, 2016;Verschueren, 2012). Of particular relevance are monoglossic ideologies, which encompass attitudes and beliefs that endorse monolingual competence in a national standard language and are implicated in the racialization of minoritized populations through language education (Silverstein, 1996;Flores & Rosa, 2015). These ideologies are rooted in a history of European ethnolinguistic nationalism and colonialism whereby standardized languages (e.g., Castilian Spanish) and their features (e.g., [θ]) have become signs of national identities that correlate with race and geo-political units linked to a territory (Bonfiglio, 2010;Sicoli, 2010:162). ...
... These ideologies are rooted in a history of European ethnolinguistic nationalism and colonialism whereby standardized languages (e.g., Castilian Spanish) and their features (e.g., [θ]) have become signs of national identities that correlate with race and geo-political units linked to a territory (Bonfiglio, 2010;Sicoli, 2010:162). Monoglossic ideologies are both learned and validated through a process of language socialization tied to schooling (Silverstein, 1996). Their mobilization in pedagogical materials, language instruction, and corrective feedback not only promotes a standard language's written form as a model for speech production but also reifies this variety by presenting it in terms of discreet linguistic practices that can be taught and evaluated objectively (Flores & Rosa, 2015). ...
... Their mobilization in pedagogical materials, language instruction, and corrective feedback not only promotes a standard language's written form as a model for speech production but also reifies this variety by presenting it in terms of discreet linguistic practices that can be taught and evaluated objectively (Flores & Rosa, 2015). By learning to interpret and practice language in relation to this normative variety, instructors socialize students into a national or other geographically-defined identity (Friedman, 2010;Silverstein, 1996). The prevailing nature of monoglossic ideologies in language education points to their relevance in how U.S. Spanish (Alpteken, 2002:58), sociolinguistic competence is operationalized as "NS norms" within this scholarship (Geeslin et al., 2018;Regan et al. 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article employs a language ideological framework to explore how particular language attitudes and beliefs shaped one group of U.S. students' choices to avoid producing a dialectal variant, Castilian Spanish [θ], in the context of an undergraduate Spanish pronunciation class. An analysis of ethnographic data points to the significance of three common beliefs that frame the appropriate use of [θ] in idealized monolingual terms that are incongruous with a U.S. national identity. The instructor mobilized these beliefs at key moments to establish normative expectations that discouraged learners from producing [θ]. Students also alluded to these beliefs and the consequences of being unable to use [θ] appropriately to explain their decisions to eschew this variant following the class. These findings suggest that language attitudes and beliefs shape learners' choices to adopt dialectal variants in production as an effect of language ideologies on the L2 development of phonology and sociolinguistic competence. Language attitudes and beliefs play an important role in the development of dialectal variation and sociolinguistic competence. How do they explain learners' choices to avoid specific dialectal variants in production? This article employs a language ideological framework to explore why one group of students chose to eschew Castilian Spanish [θ].
... This vignette captures the tension that I sought to address with my ethnographic study at Literacy High: What language ideologies-or shared set of beliefs about language that justify (and restrict) particular forms of language use (Silverstein, 1996)-are reflected in the co-constructed activities occurring in Literacy High classrooms between teachers and students? And in what ways do these various ideologies compliment, contradict, and/or complicate one another? ...
... And in what ways do these various ideologies compliment, contradict, and/or complicate one another? In response to the first question, I argue that Literacy High teachers' statements supporting a strict English-only policy represented a language ideology which held English as a linguistic standard (Silverstein, 1996), or a universal norm to which all speakers were expected to adhere. However, as attention to the second question illuminates, at the same time, a common political ideology prioritizing standardized test performance complicated the English-only language ideology. ...
... Because of their connection with power, the languages of instruction can hold hierarchical prestige even in the eyes of those who do not (yet) speak them (Hornberger, 1988). Often, students whose first language(s) are not the national or curricular standard (Silverstein, 1996) are marginalized by language ideologies that imply the inferiority of their first language(s) or dialect(s). Even when the dominant language is partially incorporated in student language use, it is still subjected to correction and stigma if it is intermingled with other languages, accents, or non-standardized variants of the dominant language. ...
... The local schools in Quiahije established and maintain the standardized written form of Chatino. Through writing Chatino, a language that is mostly oral, a standardization ideology has been introduced (Silverstein 1996). It is not just random that the local teachers created this translation; teachers have been pressured to create orthography rules for the Chatino language, so with this translation, they are accomplishing this task, as well. ...
... This alliance, as Rodriguez argues, is to make a better relationship with the State, while "indexing their indigenous identity", and the performance of indigenous people creates a stereotypic folklore about themselves (Rodriguez 2016). Further, the translation of the national anthem is to standardize the Chatino languages within a monoglot (Silverstein 1996) Mexican society. Analysis of the Chatino translation will shed light on both culture and language and their intersection (Sherzer 1987) in Quiahije. ...
... As Silverstein argues, "people who speak standardized languages usually see non-standardized languages as not being 'real' languages" (Silverstein 1996). It is possible that standardization could facilitate writing for indigenous languages, and writers could produce literature in their native languages. ...
Article
Full-text available
La traducción del himno nacional mexicano a las lenguas indígenas funge como una plataforma donde ocurren complejas intersecciones entre la educación, la expresión de la identidad indígena y el nacionalismo mexicano, generando un significado indicial que es objeto de disputa y negociación en las comunidades indígenas. La traducción de un himno nacional a una lengua indígena también suscita cuestionamientos en torno a las técnicas semióticas que han profesado el deseo de asimilar a los pueblos indígenas a la sociedad mexicana, y hace resal‑ tar tanto las ideologías lingüísticas como las dinámicas de poder. En este texto describo la traducción del himno nacional mexicano a la lengua chatina de San Juan Quiahije, Oaxaca, México. El himno traducido es desplegado en su totali‑ dad junto con un análisis textual comparativo de la traducción. De ahí procedo a examinar los nuevos significados culturales que emergen de la traducción mis‑ ma, así como el impacto y las implicaciones de entonar el himno nacional en las escuelas preescolares y primarias. El estudio de este caso demuestra que para que las lenguas indígenas sean genuinamente acogidas en la sociedad mexicana, el gobierno federal debe promover su uso en instituciones públicas como, por ejemplo, en las escuelas. No cabe duda que dichos proyectos serán más exitosos cuando sean dirigidos por integrantes de los mismos pueblos indígenas.
... The latter idea was traced back to Johann Gottfried von Herder's and Wilhelm von Humboldt's idea of language being a creation of the spirit of one people, which bears the worldview and the history of the people imprinted in the language and all products of those languages such as folk tales, songs and texts. These two ideas form an understanding of language as essentially unified across one whole society, in literature referred to as monolingualism or the "monoglot ideology" (Silverstein 1996, as quoted in Blommaert 2006). As they claim, this ideology so strong and even 'common-sense' that it is embedded in the school system and national language politics. ...
... These ideologies, as mentioned in the introduction, often go hand in hand, forming a "monoglot ideology", meaning "that a society is in effect monolingual…coupled with a denial of practices that point toward factual multilingualism and linguistic diversity" (Silverstein 1996, as cited in Blommaert 2006. ...
... Dominant discourse: These articles and interviews with experts exhibit one or more traits of the "monoglot ideology" (Silverstein 1996). The first belief will be called ethnic representation. ...
... The former is often associated with native English speakers (NESs) and serves as a touchstone, while the latter is attributed to nonnative English speakers (NNESs), of whom ELLs are a part. However, as has been argued by some scholars (Bacon, 2017;Parakrama, 1995;Rosa, 2016;Silverstein, 1996;Von Esch et al., 2020), the ideology of SE has an aura of myth about it: while it is assumed to exist, its actual speakers cannot be traced to and located at any point on a geolinguistic map. Neither can a geolinguistic center be located. ...
... But as is the case with SE, the notion of the native speaker has its own polemics, and it is a contested terrain. For instance, in one of its crudest manifestations, the native speaker construct engenders and thrives in the essentialized and racialized polar terms such as: native speakerism = Standard English speakerism = Whiteness versus nonnative speakerism = non-Standard English speakerism = non-Whiteness (Kubota & Lin, 2006;Silverstein, 1996;Von Esch et al., 2020). As argued earlier, these classical polar terms are predicated on Eurocentric metonymic logic. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper argues for revisiting ways in which English Language Learners (ELLs), and the learner labels attributed to them, are negatively, racially, and pathologically framed and constructed based on, putatively, their English language competence, or their lack of it. It contends that this framing tends to give rise to a raciolinguistic profiling of these learners, as they end up being classified by their race, pan-ethnicity, nationality, immigrant/refugee status, regionality, and at times, by their skin color, in addition to their language abilities. This raciolinguistic framing often engenders other framings such as White, deficit, and poverty framings, and sub-framings like an othering framing (e.g., the racial others and the linguistic others). These framings, together with the normative ways in which ELLs’ language problems are constructed, have been characterized in this paper as misframings. Additionally, employing southern decoloniality, the paper problematizes and critiques the way ELLs are constructed and labeled, and the appropriation of Standard English (SE) as the sole touchstone of acceptable English in the midst of the other varieties of SE and of pluriversal speakers of English. Finally, the paper calls for the provincialization/localization or the deparochialization of English in keeping with its southern decolonial approach.
... One source of standardizing different varieties is Monolingualization or, as Silverstein (1996) describes it, a "culture of monoglot standardization." This practice of neutralizing speakers of different varieties of Englishes is also captured by Kachru's aforementioned outer circle definition. ...
Article
Full-text available
Language attitudes inform social stereotyping, which in turn affects linguistic judgments (Fiske, Cuddy, & Glick 2007). Nonstandard varieties are particularly subject to negative stereotypes, being evaluated as “less friendly” and “hard to understand” (Giles & Watson 2013). In this study, we investigate attitudes towards Indian English, a variety of English spoken by one of the largest immigrant populations in the USA (approximately 2.4 million), to understand the roots of linguistic stereotyping towards this variety of English. We compared attitudes of American English speakers towards Indian English and British English. Our results show that while American English speakers do not explicitly indicate any communication problem with Indian English, they disfavor Indian English compared to British English. This disfavoring of Indian English aligns with Raciolinguistic theories, suggesting that post-colonialism, especially Whiteness, is a factor in language prestige and how different varieties are perceived.
... historical. The first category is close to what has been described as the modernist (Bauman & Briggs 2003) or monoglot (Silverstein 1996) ideology of language: real language is seen as the one that is "ethnically pure" and "correct" and is thus used to measure one"s loyalty to a nation-state and personal social status. In the theoretical model, it takes the form of ethnic (sometimes also geographical) representation, external expertise and culturalidentificational functions, as well as the complex notions formed by those beliefs (nationalelitist, monoglot, ethnolinguistic, normativist and prescriptivist). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article compares the language ideologies of language experts (both academic and non-academic) in online news media in Lithuania, Norway and Serbia. The results will reveal that language is understood in diametrically opposed ways amongst Lithuanian and Serbian academic experts on the one, and Norwegian academic experts on the other hand. Lithuanian and Serbian academic experts are influenced by modernist ideas of language as a single, homogenous entity, whose borders ideally match the borders of an ethnic group. Norwegian academic experts function in the public sphere as those who try to deconstruct the modernist notion of language by employing an understanding of language as a cognitive tool that performs communicative and other functions. On the other hand, non-academic experts in all the three countries exhibit a striking similarity in their language ideologies, as the great majority expresses modernist ideals of language.
... Bauman and Briggs 2003;Blommaert and Verschueren 1998;Jakobson 1960;Kroskrity 2009:190-191;Silverstein 1979:193). Silverstein and Woolard extensively study how particular linguistic practices and beliefs about languages buttress the legitimacy of speci c political arrangements (Silverstein 1996;Woolard 1992). Literary languages embody the complex relationship between the real historical e ects enacted by language ideologies and the writers' linguistic creativity (Anderson 2006;Daniel and Peck 1996;Herzfeld 1997). ...
... In linguistic scholarship, this association is often traced back to 18th century German philosophers such as Johann Gottfried von Herder (2002Herder ( /1772, who defends a three-fold association between peoples, cultures and languages (see for instance Lucy 1992:1;Foley 2005;Sidnell & Enfield 2012:304). As Foley (2005) (along with many others) points out, the language/culture equation in its raw form reflects a naïve conception of languages as unitary and stable -what Silverstein (1996) for instance called a 'monoglot ideology'; in reality, human languages are porous and constantly changing (Foley 2005;Di Carlo & Good 2014). On the other side of the language/culture equation, the word 'culture' runs into comparable and perhaps deeper conceptual and ideological flaws, as human communities are not uniform in their practices and beliefs either (see for instance Strathern 1995;Kuper 1999;Moore 2004;Muelhmann 2014 and Section 3). ...
... In the school system, the ideology of Standard is deeply ingrained and intertwined with the culture of white racism (Hill, 2008). This ideology is based on the ideas that: (a) only one variant of a form, variety or language is "correct," thus depicting correctness as a grammatical fact instead of a social and political decision; (b) ways of speaking can be ranked according to their correctness and prestige; (c) the status of the standard language can be explained with a set of convincing arguments to justify its prestige and correctness, although these arguments usually differ from what scholars and linguists would say on the matter; and (d) speaking the standard language opens doors to social and economic possibilities and benefits, and therefore learning to speak it is important (Hill, 2008;Milroy & Milroy, 1999;Silverstein, 1998). In the context of this dominant language ideology in the school system, I explore in this article a particular aspect of linguistic diversity in contemporary Portugal: the use of an African variety of Portuguese spoken by young Santomean immigrants, and how this variety is linked to their identity. ...
Article
This qualitative study investigates the discursive construction of Santomean identity grounded in the migratory experience of youths who moved to Portugal to pursue their studies. It is based on semistructured interviews with young Santomeans living in Central Portugal. Santomeans typically identify as both native speakers of Portuguese and Black Africans, but once in Portugal, this identity is challenged by Portuguese who may perceive them as linguistically deficient. This article focuses on the ways young Santomeans position themselves and others, and the identity choices they make in doing so. Findings suggest that the distance between Black and white youths is reinforced by the teachers’ and students’ practices in class. These young Santomeans navigate raciolinguistic ideologies, engage in processes of identification, and draw on linguistic, social, and racial categories to redefine their identities. Although the process of identity formation is multi-layered, the data indicate that the most fundamental category remains race.
... One clear example of power pressure from the center at the nation-state level is the process of language standardization that is imposed on speakers in the periphery. As pointed out by Wang et al. (2014: 36), "[i]n many countries, one finds a deeply entrenched language ideology that is built on the unquestioned principle that a nation-state should be linguistically uniform" (see also Milroy 2001: 531;Silverstein 1996). The process of language standardization in Limburg commenced right from the start of its integration into the Dutch nation-state. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter will focus on the linguistic and cultural effects of a historical language contact process in the city of Heerlen, which was the center of the Eastern Mine District in the Dutch province of Limburg. In the beginning years of the 20 th century, the expanding coal mining industry attracted numerous migrants and their language varieties from within the Netherlands and elsewhere in Europe (Italy, Poland, Germany, Belgium, Slovenia, Austria, and Hungary). As a result, a new language variety emerged in Heerlen which is called Heerlen Dutch (Cornips 1994). People characterize Heerlen Dutch-then and now-as neither dialect nor standard Dutch but something in between. Throughout the 20 th century speakers inside and outside Heerlen have thus become reflexive about ways of speaking in Heerlen; i.e., for a given population of speakers, Heerlen Dutch has become a register that is linked to speakers, place and social contexts, and its forms and values have become differentiable from the other dominant language varieties spoken in Heerlen, which are dialect and standard Dutch. This sociohistorical process is conceptualized by Agha (2007:168) as a process of enregisterment. This chapter will explore the effects of the sociolinguistic enregisterment of Heerlen Dutch in the carnivalesque summer song Naar Talië/Naar Talia 'To (I)taly', performed and uploaded onto YouTube by a band called the Getske Boys. The Getske Boys is a group of three male performers who, by selecting a particular set of linguistic forms such as dialect, Dutch, in-betweens, Italian and English, work to enregister these as local to Heerlen-Noord and the speech of the coal miners who once lived there. Their selection of specific co-occurring forms is based on perceived past patterns of co-occurrences: an experiential knowledge, accumulated over the years, of the indexical ties between linguistic forms, specific (groups of) people and a specific place.
... A current example of raciolinguistic ideologies can be found in Indian call centers: many Indian English speakers in India are forced to go through accent neutralization training in order to be recruited by Western companies (Cowie, 2007;Chand, 2009). This process is referred to as monolingualization (Silverstein, 1996) and is the center of raciolinguistic ideologies. While English is one of the official languages of India, Indian English speakers are still perceived as "non-native speakers" affecting Indian English speakers' career and personal development, especially in North America (Ramjattan, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Listeners can access information about a speaker such as age, gender identity, socioeconomic status, and their linguistic background upon hearing their speech. However, it is still not clear if listeners use these factors to assess speakers’ speech. Here, an audio-visual (matched-guise) test is used to measure whether listeners’ accentedness judgments can be modulated depending on the type of face that they see. American and Indian English were used as different English varieties and presented with either a White female face or a South Asian female face. Results show that listeners’ accentedness judgments increased for Indian English compared to American English. Importantly, the increase in accentedness judgments was also observed when both American English and Indian English were presented with a South Asian face compared to a White face. These findings suggest that linguistic evaluations are modulated by non-linguistic factors and that speech perception is socially gated.
... Indexicality is built on the basic concept of an index that relies on the interactional context for its meaning (Silverstein 1996). It draws on semiotic connections between elements in a specific social situation and its linguistic form. ...
Thesis
There is a need for detailed and localised analyses of the management, role, and understanding of risk (Zinn 2017). Yet the organisational discourse and practices of African organisations working in the field of emerging infectious diseases remain largely unexplored. An improved understanding of the discursive patterns of African health organisations may lead to a more holistic understanding of the communicative processes of risk management crucial to effective outbreak response and preparedness. The present study explores how members of a pan-African health consortium draws on intersubjective practices to navigate the socio-cultural and professional intricacies they face locally and internationally. The study adopts a linguistic ethnography framework. The gathered data are comprised of ethnographic observations, interviews, documents, and recordings of organisational meetings, conference presentations, and public interviews. An investigation of social co- presence (Kang et al. 2008) and rapport (Spencer-Oatey 2005) in internal meetings shows how the professionally diverse and geographically dispersed members are able to ensure effective collaboration. Drawing on Bucholtz and Hall’s (2004) analytical framework for identity construction, the study explores how an organisational risk expert identity is locally constructed. Through the Appraisal Theory framework (Martin and White 2005), the analysis reveals how the members position their work nationally and internationally. The findings are both substantive and methodological. The members establish similarity and difference between themselves, the local people, and established authorities. They foster internal, local and international collaboration and cohesiveness to authenticate their risk expert identity and local embeddedness, while at the same time establishing difference, space, and appositeness for their work. The organisation positions itself as an intermediary African risk expert voice strategically aligning itself with both hegemonic authorities and the local population. The study demonstrates how to systematically map an organisation’s discursively constructed dynamic and multidimensional identity through the semiotic processes of practice, indexicality, ideology, and performance, and tactics of intersubjectivity (Bucholtz and Hall 2004). Additionally, it pioneers the use of the Appraisal Theory framework to identify the stance-taking practices constructing an organisational stance signature (Johnstone 2009). This linguistic ethnographic enquiry sets a precedent for future collaborative and mutually supportive academic explorations and partnerships of this kind between the Global South and North.
... Angolares and Cabo Verdeans have been stigmatized by Forros for their origin and linguistic practices since colonial times (Hagemeijer, 2018). São Tom e could be considered a culture of monoglot standardization (Silverstein, 1996) in which speaking Portuguese (and ideally, "a good Portuguese" with no creole influence) is more valuable than bilingualism (in creole and Portuguese). In practice, the creolespeaking Angolares and Cabo Verdeans deviate from the idealized monoglot speaker of Portuguese, and their creole-influenced Portuguese does not correspond to the idealized variety of Portuguese. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, I examine how scales are produced, stabilized, and challenged through communicative practices, and how these scales organize (since colonial times) the racial groups that form Santomean society. I argue that the historical distinctive status of the Forros and the prestigious status of the Portuguese language are influenced by different scaling practices that are intertwined and interrelated. I demonstrate that it is the Forros’ imagined and historical proximity to whiteness that bestow them racial privilege, and that allows them to maintain their position of social and political power in the country. In other words, their power results from proximity to Whiteness.
... Nation-state systems of control are built on monoglot ideologies of the standard, which exclusively favour standard languages as the legitimate resources for constructing a particular form of social solidarity and power. The monoglot standard conceptualises "language" as pure, grammatically well formed, absolutely stable, and self-contained (Silverstein 1996). The linguistic registers which are expected to embody these ideological ideals are the languages of the sciences and formal politics. ...
... historical. The first category is close to what has been described as the modernist (Bauman & Briggs 2003) or monoglot (Silverstein 1996) ideology of language: real language is seen as the one that is "ethnically pure" and "correct" and is thus used to measure one"s loyalty to a nation-state and personal social status. In the theoretical model, it takes the form of ethnic (sometimes also geographical) representation, external expertise and culturalidentificational functions, as well as the complex notions formed by those beliefs (nationalelitist, monoglot, ethnolinguistic, normativist and prescriptivist). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article compares the language ideologies of language experts (both academic and non-academic) in online news media in Lithuania, Norway and Serbia. The results will reveal that language is understood in diametrically opposed ways amongst Lithuanian and Serbian academic experts on the one, and Norwegian academic experts on the other hand. Lithuanian and Serbian academic experts are influenced by modernist ideas of language as a single, homogenous entity, whose borders ideally match the borders of an ethnic group. Norwegian academic experts function in the public sphere as those who try to deconstruct the modernist notion of language by employing an understanding of language as a cognitive tool that performs communicative and other functions. On the other hand, non-academic experts in all the three countries exhibit a striking similarity in their language ideologies, as the great majority expresses modernist ideals of language.
... Moreover, it creates a disposition of language learning as "monoglot" (Silverstein, 1996) that perceives contemporary society within a consumer culture of English monolingualism in their effort to seek capitalist linguistic values, coupled with the denial of multilingualism and linguistic diversity in education. The process of imagining resilient subjects can then lead to the subjugation of MTB education, and "valuable indigenous language and cultural resources as well as the potential for effective bilingual/multilingual education are being lost" (Caddle, 2007, p. 450). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Despite continued calls for the “multi/plural turn” (Kubota, 2016a; May, 2014) for instructional practices and “linguistic human rights” for education through mother tongue (Skutnabb-Kangas, 1988), there is currently a global surge of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in school education that situates English in a dominant position. This study is motivated by such a widespread of EMI in Nepal. Guided by the theory of “Critical Language Policy Studies” (Tollefson, 1991, 2006), this study explores the development and enactment of EMI policy at Nepal’s public schools and what they mean for diverse students along the lines of language, ethnicity, gender, and social class. I used “critical ethnography” (Anderson, 1989) and “critical policy analysis” (Diem et al., 2014) as research methods to provide a holistic and thick understanding of the EMI policy in Nepal. The data were gathered through participant observations of EMI lessons, interviews with policymakers, school administrators, teachers, parents, focus group interviews with students, field notes, and written artifacts. The findings demonstrated how EMI has evolved as a de facto medium-of-instruction policy through the state’s hidden agendas of envisioning education as a service industry, eventually creating privatization in public education that favors EMI. Aligning with the macrolevel discourses, meso-level policy agents (e.g., parents and students) have been socialized into “neoliberal imaginations” (Abbinnett, 2021) of EMI to enter the new middle-class identity, which has become a founding ideology to support the growth of EMI in Nepali public schools. At the micro-level, through the mechanism of EMI, the school has served as a reproducer of social class and language hierarchy. The results further showed how EMI practices without planning and prerequisites (e.g., qualified teachers) resulted in the poverty of content learning and, therefore, epistemic inequalities. The classroom discourse analysis further revealed how teachers carried an agentic role to scaffold the limited English proficiency of their students by using Nepali (a dominant national language) as a supplementary language, yet perpetuated unequal languaging in the absence of students’ mother tongue. Together, these findings indicate a caution against a rush to policy overhaul to EMI in low- and middle-income multilingual countries.
... In that sense, standardization amounts to creating or crafting what variety speakers and learners alike will ultimately deem to be the language. According to this perspective, language standards never fully exist except as projects, and standardization is an ever-ongoing, ideologically motivated endeavor, tied both to processes of societal hierarchization, to the monoglot standard ideologies of nation-states (Silverstein 1996), and to genealogies of language and people reaching as far back in time as possible. In that sense, standardization is part of the charter myth of modern nation-states. ...
... In the field of education, textbooks are traditionally bound to a fuṡḣ ā-based language ideology that tolerates little or no competition from the dārija. Thus, the attempt to inject dārija words in a fuṡḣ ā-bound domain is considered a kind of ontological transgression which must be resisted to maintain the existing monoglot, standard-based language policy (Silverstein 1996), thus restoring the equilibrium at the heart of the dominant diglossic language ideology (comments 2, 4, 5, 8, 12, 13). ...
... Irvine et al. (2009) described this process as erasure, wherein the existence of language practices that do not fit within the schema of a dominant language ideological narrative are ignored or explained away. Such erasure makes it possible to idealize monolingualism as a norm, even in pervasively multilingual contexts (Silverstein, 1996;Yildiz, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
After decades of restrictive U.S. language policies geared toward English-only education, recent years have seen a proliferation of dual-language programs, Seal of Biliteracy awards, and bilingual education programming more broadly. The demand for such programming ostensibly suggests growing consensus around the benefits of linguistic diversity—dubbed “The New Bilingualism” by The Atlantic in 2016. However, recent research suggests that the pivot to this New Bilingualism is largely taking place in contexts of privilege, disproportionately benefiting English-dominant, middle- and upper-class communities as compared with multilingual communities where demand for bilingual programming is not “new” at all.
... These ideologies are related to the enlightenment discourse that created the one language-one nation-one people myth (Bauman and Briggs 2003), which in turn helped political elites to imagine and build the modern nation-states. In the context of the United States, this "culture of monoglot standardization" (Silverstein 1996) is wildly spread, and English is considered the language that "ideally express[es] the spirit of [the] nation and the territory it occupies" (Gal 2006: 163). However, cultures of monoglot standardization not only promote the use of a single language; they also assign value to a particular standardized variety (Rosa 2016). ...
... Through official language policies or through the combined effect of legislation pertaining to citizenship, education, voting rights, etc., agents of the state may contribute to the valorization of some language varieties and the stigmatization others (e.g., Conklin and Lourie 1983: 225-260). But such official evaluations often correspond to language attitudes or ideologies that have emerged over time in situations characterized by both inequality and regional, ethnic, linguistic, or religious differences (Fishman 1968;Fishman, Ferguson, and Das Gupta 1968;Giglioli 1972;Labov 1972;Ferguson and Heath 1981;Conklin and Lourie 1983;Silverstein 1996;Silverstein and Urban 1996;Schieffelin, Woolard, and Kroskrity 1998;Bauman and Briggs 2003). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The authors propose a framework for the comparative analysis of collective identities and corresponding processes of identification. “Collective identities” are defined as representations containing normative appeals to potential respondents and providing them with the means of understanding themselves, or being understood, as members of a larger category or assemblage of persons. The term “processes of identification” refers to the ways in which actors respond to or engage with the appeals inherent in collective identities and to the combined effects of such responses or engagement. After a critical review of the secondary literature and brief comments on the social, cultural, and historical contexts of collective identities and processes of identification,the authors explicate the two central concepts and their interrelationship. Discussion of the concept of collective identity covers dimensions and markers of collective identity, the semantic relations among different collective identities within larger systems of classification, and the variable significance that collective identities may have for actors in diverse social situations and under changing circumstances. Processes of identification are examined in terms of three (sets of) concepts corresponding to major approaches in social and anthropological analysis: “structure and function, culture, and meaning”; “practice and power”; and “choice.” Rather than being mutually exclusive, the approaches based on these concepts throw identity variables into relief in different ways and to different degrees, and they highlight different processes of identification.
... Our primary aim is to explore the ideological ways in which the enduring historical struggles shaped the self-conception of individuals and their situated valuation of sociolinguistic complexity. Our argument here is that issues of ethnolinguistic vitality in Darfur should be understood from a conflict perspective as a form of resistance to the institutionalized Arabic 'monoglot ideology' (Silverstein 1996). We use the term 'language ideologies' to refer to cultural conceptions about sociolinguistic varieties articulated by historically positioned speakers (Gal and Irvine 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates dynamics adopted by nine ethnolinguistic communities affected by the current conflict in South Darfur State to construct their ethnic identities. Qualitative data were obtained via focus group discussions, interviews, posters from the landscape, and observation over a period spanning from 2012 to 2013. The findings show that, firstly, there were unprecedented micro-interethnic identity construction dynamics across the study area. Secondly, within these interethnic identities, there were also emerging intra-ethnic identities – all spurred by the wholesale community ethnicisation processes. Thirdly, revitalization of ethnolinguistic identity was found to be the major tool employed by the communities under study, with varying degrees, to establish their distinct identities. Fourthly, ethnolinguistic identities constructed varied from one group to another, ranging from ‘strong’ to ‘moderate’ and ‘weak’, depending on the community’s ethnolinguistic vitality. The paper concluded that the major factor in the emergence of these micro inter- or intra-ethnic identities was the current conflict in Darfur.
... Agha 2005;2007b); to patterns of everyday narratives (De Fina et al 2006); to lay and institutionalized concepts of language, including sociolinguistic hierarchies and attributed speaker identities (e.g. Silverstein 1996Silverstein , 1998Agha 2003) and the politics of language at nation-state level and in more specific institutional contexts (e.g. Jaffe 1999;Blommaert 1999;Philips 2000;Haviland 2003); on intertextual processes of meaning-making and resemiotization (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
The general election of 2014 is considered a milestone in political history. Political Historians has compared the said election with 1957,1971 and 1984 general elections as it witnessed ‘majority’ governments. The noteworthy aspect of the 2014 general election is the extensive use of ICT based social media. ICT based social media allowed parliamentarians to reach out to individuals directly. Parties indulged in campaigning used highly cynical information & multimedia across social media platforms. Major national parties contesting for election used either misinformation or miss interpreted information to counter each other. The study focuses on the usage and application of rumours (unverified stories) through media as a tool to counter rival parties during the election campaign.
... In the data drawn on for the present study, the key arguable property is breaking the "rule" that only English should be used in public spaces in the United States. While of course no such "rule" or "law" exists in the U.S.-and indeed the U.S. does not even have a de jure official language at the federal level-the hegemonic and de facto 'official' status of English is recognizable in that speakers of languages other than English are routinely cast as "un-American" in various ways, and through various intersecting discourses and ideologies (see, inter alia, Anderson 1983;Baugh 2017;Bonfiglio 2002;García 2014;Lempert and Silverstein 2012;Lippi-Green 2012;Santa Ana 2002;Silverstein 2015Silverstein , 2018Zentella 1995Zentella , 2014. In the encounters we examine in this study, a "challenger" in some way takes issue with a "target" for the target's use or endorsement of a language other than English (LOE) in a public place, such as a store or restaurant. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the body’s role in grammar in argument sequences. Drawing from a database of public disputes on language use, we document the work of the palm-up gesture in action formation. Using conversation analysis and interactional linguistics, we show how this gesture is an interactional resource that indexes a particular epistemic stance—namely to cast the proposition being advanced as obvious. In this report, we focus on instances in which participants reach what we refer to as an ‘impasse’, at which point the palm up gesture becomes a resource for reasserting and pursuing a prior position, now laminated with an embodied claim of ‘obviousness’ that is grounded in the sequentiality of the interaction. As we show, the palm up gesture appears with and in response to a variety of syntactic and grammatical structures, and moreover can also function with no accompanying verbal utterance at all. This empirical observation challenges the assumption that a focus on grammar-in-interaction should begin with, or otherwise be examined in relation to, ‘standard’ verbal-only grammatical categories (e.g., imperative, declarative). We conclude by considering the gestural practice we focus on alongside verbal grammatical resources (specifically, particles) from typologically distinct languages, which we offer as a contribution to ongoing discussions regarding an embodied conceptualization of grammar—in this case, epistemicity.
... 373). This often serves to reinforce a monoglot standard, which denies and suppresses the actual practices of multilingualism and linguistic diversity (Silverstein, 1996), and also legitimises linguistic discrimination that uniquely affects minority language speakers (Phillipson, 1992). As such, not only do language ideologies in official settings serve the interests of those already wielding institutional authority, but they continue to reflect and legitimise broader social hierarchies that position minoritised language speakers as subordinate. ...
... There are many different English lingua franca contexts in the world, but they are all marked by various levels of competencies in the language among speakers. Language ideological frameworks position one variety, most commonly the 'Standard' as superior and hegemonic (Silverstein 1996). The co-occurrence of such a Standard English vis-à-vis non-Standard and lingua franca forms creates complex power dynamics which are often racialized. ...
... The United States has always been a nation of immigrants and continues to be one to this day. However, American language ideology often excludes non-native English speakers from the narrative (Silverstein, 1996). The work presented in this dissertation represents a first investigation into how children use conversational factors like Foreigner Talk to learn about nonnative speakers. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
A growing literature suggests accent serves as an important social category for infants and young children. Children show early social preferences for native over non-native speakers; this tendency may lay the foundation for future accent prejudice observed in adulthood. However, children do not hear non-native accents in a vacuum. Children’s experiences with accent take place within a broader communicative context, including how others respond to non-native accents. One factor that may be of particular importance is the speech register typically associated with native speakers talking to non-native speakers, a register known as Foreigner Talk. By exploring how Foreigner Talk may be used as social information by children, we can better understand how children learn about non-native speakers. This dissertation examined how and when children (5-10-year-olds; N = 424) and adults (N = 514) use registers as social information regarding addressees and/or speakers in native/non-native speaker interactions. Study 1 investigated the role of registers (Foreigner Talk, Baby Talk, Teacher Talk, and Peer Talk) in providing social information about addressees. Study 2 investigated how social information about an addressee (appearance, language, origin) is integrated with Foreigner Talk to inform evaluations. These studies provide evidence that children’s evaluations of addressees are informed by Foreigner Talk by 5.5 years and by an integration of both Foreigner Talk and other social information after 7. Like older children, adults incorporated register and social group information into their ratings. In Studies 3a and 3b, I investigated whether children use register as social information about speakers. In Study 3a, I examined a maximal contrast (i.e., Baby Talk vs. Teacher Talk), and found children (by age 5) evaluated speakers based on their register use, giving lower ratings to speakers who used Baby Talk; after 6, they began to use addressee social group membership to inform evaluations (e.g., lower ratings for a speaker who used Baby Talk with a teacher). In Study 3b, I studied whether Foreigner Talk use informs evaluations of speakers and found that, after 7, children gave higher ratings to speakers when their register mapped onto their addressee’s social group (e.g., Foreigner Talk to a foreign peer). In contrast, adults provided lower ratings to speakers who used Foreigner Talk. Study 4 brought together the elements examined in the previous studies by asking participants to evaluate both native and non-native speakers in conversations in which Foreigner Talk was or was not used to repair communication. Children (ages 5-10) did not account for the need for communication repair or non-native accent in their ratings of interlocutors, instead providing lower ratings to both speakers and addressees when Foreigner Talk was used than when it was not. In contrast, adults only provided lower ratings to native speakers who used Foreigner Talk. Together, these studies provide a first investigation into how register is used by children to learn about others. In all studies presented here, children’s evaluations of interlocutors (speakers and addressees) were affected by register use. Furthermore, the presented studies speak to the potential social ramifications of Foreigner Talk, highlighting that children often have negative evaluations of those who are the recipients of Foreigner Talk and those who use it. This provides future avenues of research for understanding how the interactions children observe between native and non-native speakers may reinforce their biased attitudes against non-native speakers.
Chapter
In this chapter, I summarize the core challenges that have been identified in the literature on immigrant and refugee resettlement, not only in Anglophone countries but also in other countries in Europe and elsewhere. I discuss how the economic motives of receiving countries tend to overshadow and underfund programs and services for refugees and other immigrants seeking better lives. The effects of proficiency in an official language in Canada (English or French) are discussed, along with other factors identified in the research literature, that tend to be associated with professional de-skilling, resulting in underemployment, as well as lower rates of labor market participation among various groups of refugees and immigrants, often leading to downward socioeconomic mobility.
Chapter
Full-text available
The ICC's working language policy conforms to the mold of many other international legal institutions. All staff members must be proficient in at least one of its working languages, English and French. As in other comparable institutions, however, the reality is that English has become the Court's lingua franca. What does the dominant role of English mean for the ICC's ability to further the international criminal justice project? How does the status of English at the Court privilege those professionals for whom it is a native language, as well as the legal framework they bring with them? What kinds of conceptual limitations does dependence on a single language create for an institution aiming to promote what it considers globally applicable principles? Does the ICC's objective of delivering global justice enable, in fact, the dominance of the contemporary worldwide lingua franca without too much pushback? This chapter, based on a multi-year ethnographic project on how the ICC addresses diverse language challenges, explores the impact of the uneven status of the Court's working languages on those who work at and with the ICC, as well as on what the Court conveys to the world through the communications of its top officials, its judgments, its outreach activities, and its everyday language choices. It is shown that English-language hegemony is not only entrenched but has detrimental effects for the ICC in both practical and symbolic spheres, rendering the Court less efficient while also undermining its mission as a global institution.
Article
This article examines how Russian speakers in Ireland delimit and describe (their/the) Russian language in relation to representations of standard Russian. It is based on analysis of discussions conducted between speakers of Russian living in Ireland, facilitated by the Our Languages (2008–2011) research project, investigating multilingualism and sociolinguistic dispositions amid Ireland’s Russian-speaking population. Three metalinguistic orientations are foregrounded: (1) participants affirm the naturally and normatively discrete identity of ‘the’ Russian language; (2) despite this unitary identity, participants distinguish between registers and levels of relative purity in Russian; (3) participants relate generalised linguistic form to a concept of community. The interplay of these orientations – toward an essentially unitary and unifying Russian language, away from ‘improper’ forms of that language, and into reflection on collective identity – reveals a model culture of standard language within the polyglossic context of Irish society, combining the routinely claimed characteristics of generality and authenticity. The article interprets the contradictory dynamic between these characteristics in relation to a Bakhtinian concept of monolingualism and a critical conceptualisation of language community. Participants configure Russian as one among ‘our languages’ through the iterative negotiation of a tension between ideological monolingualism and actual heteroglossia.
Book
This edited volume consists of chapters celebrating the career of scholar Sjaak Kroon, who has produced ground-breaking work in the field of ethnography of education, immigrant minority language teaching and language politics. The chapters cover the use of immigrant minority languages in education and the development of policies at all levels and across the globe in this sometimes over-policed field. It particularly focuses on language policy analysis in which both the top-down institutional and the bottom-up ethnographic dimensions are blended, and in which globalization is the main macro-perspective. The chapters describe sensitive tools for investigating, unravelling and understanding the grey space connecting formal language policies to informal politics and practices of language on the ground.
Chapter
This chapter surveys prescriptive activity and discourse in Modern Hebrew from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives. The first prescriptive efforts in the pre-Mandate period (up to 1918) were part of an intensive language planning process aimed at creating a uniform functional national language based on classical Hebrew sources. After the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the nationalistic tone of public discourse in Israel increased, and with it prescriptive activity, up until the 1970s. At a very early stage in the formation of the speech community, even prior to World War 1, two types of ideal (hegemonic) Hebrew began to emerge: institutional (planned), reflecting a nationalistic and puristic stance grounded in the Jewish past, and native (unplanned), reflecting a contrasting anti-institutional stance. Both types are still active in contemporary public discourse in Israel, and together constitute a complex approach to prescriptivism and the concept of correct language.
Thesis
Borders are loci of language contact that have been understudied. Mexico and the Unites States share a border that is 1,954 miles long. Along this border we find two major languages, namely English and Spanish, and their various dialects representing two nation states and a diverse population; in addition, border economic interdependence promotes transnational flows of a diverse nature. The municipality of Tijuana, along with San Diego County, forms one of the largest cross-border conurbations with five million inhabitants. This study explores linguistic practices reflected in Tijuana’s linguistic landscape. Of the languages spoken there, English and Spanish play a principal role with Asian, other European and Amerindian languages playing a minor role that nevertheless adds to the city´s diversity. In particular, this work seeks to explore translanguaging in the linguistic landscape of Tijuana’s most renowned avenue, Avenida Revolución , and in other city areas from working-class to upscale to analyze how speakers engage in linguistic practices, and in doing so, to contribute to other works in border studies and sociolinguistics. The hard data consist of a corpus of 2,000 digital images, which were collated by relying on critical discourse analysis and on current research in translanguaging and the linguistic landscape. The guiding research questions for this study were the following: (1) What happens to linguistic practices on borders and how can these be observed through understanding the border’s linguistic landscape? (2) How are languages used in Tijuana’s landscape? and (3) How is translanguaging performed through the local linguistic landscape? The findings of the study suggest that Tijuana’s landscape shows that Tijuanans perform translanguaging in several ways: their linguistic repertoires reflect, on the one hand, contact between Baja California Spanish and other Mexican Spanish dialects on a lexical level that gives rise to lexical alternation and enrichment. On the other hand, its LL also evidences contact between English and Spanish, which gives form to lexical creativity and hybrid forms that also reflect on social practices resulting from the city’s condition and adaptation as part of the borderlands.
Chapter
Sociolinguistic stratification – the fact that language diversity is turned into inequality through processes of normative judgment – has been central in the development of modern sociolinguistics and has kept researchers’ attention for many decades. The online-offline nexus in which we have learned to live and organize our social lives in online as well as offline spaces, each carrying different normative standards, has become a lab for manifest sociolinguistic restratification. An analysis of Donald Trump’s orthographic errors on Twitter, and how such errors went viral, shows how multiple audiences apply very different indexical vectors to the errors, each of them iconicizing a more general set of perceived social and political divisions. The outcome is a complex, polycentric sociolinguistic system, far less stable than that imagined in earlier sociolinguistics. This system requires renewed attention.
Book
Full-text available
In the context of migration policies in Belgium in the 1990's, this book analyses the discourse of the 'tolerant' majority, as found in news reporting, policy statements, social-scientific research reports, anti-racism campaigns and training programs. The analysis reveals what the authors call a 'homogeneistic' ideology, fundamental non-acceptance of diversity.
Article
Considered to be the oldest Croatian diaspora, Molise Croatian speakers settled in the Italian region of Molise in the early 16th century. Only much later and on the basis of primarily linguistic analysis was it concluded that Croatia was their original homeland. This paved the way for the (re)construction of their new ethnolinguistic identity, which has been intensified in recent decades. The aim of this paper is (a) to provide insight into the discursive construction of ‘diaspora’ in the context of the Molise Croatian community, and (b) to analyze the ways and resources the speakers of Molise Croatian use to construe their linguistic self and what they consider their ‘true’ homeland. The analysis is based on an ethnographic study that comprised (participant) observation and thirty individual and focus-group interviews. The forging of ‘diaspora identity’ is reflected and/or created in linguistic practices of some of its members, but the community is marked by heterogeneity in terms of ideological positioning towards viewing Croatia as an ascribed ‘true’ homeland. The reliance on the language as a key marker of Molise Croatian identity, but also a point of contestation in the process of diasporization, thus renders this speech community an emblematic example of a ‘linguistic diaspora’.
Article
This study examines how 9- to 13-year old African American students in a Washington, D.C. after-school program use an African American discourse practice called marking to voice adults performing acts of discipline. Using audio-recorded data collected during nine months of ethnographic fieldwork, it shows how students used marking to resemiotize the prestige value of African American Language (AAL) relative to so-called “standard” American English, which is imagined in relation to whiteness as an objectively correct set of linguistic practices. As part of an intersectional raciolinguistic perspective, this study foregrounds how students recruit gender stereotypes to challenge hegemonic ideas about racial and linguistic difference. It also attends to the contradictory nature of everyday acts of resistance: while students transformed hegemonic raciolinguistic ideologies of “articulate” and “appropriate” language in the after school space, they relied on racial and gender stereotypes in order to do so.
Article
This essay offers an overview of language and gender research as it unfolded in a particular ‘Place’: Japan. In the past thirty years, Japanese language and gender/sexuality relations have been characterised both domestically and globally as special, sometimes as unique, due to the existence of distinct joseigo ‘women’s language’ and danseigo ‘men’s language’. A preferential focus on the surface-segmentable forms (pronouns, sentence final particles, etc.) over discursive features and a limited focus on Standard Japanese in the early years of Japanese language and gender research has led to a tendency to view ‘the’ Japanese language as a homogeneous unity and to the reification of the three critical categories, ‘Japan’, ‘language’ and ‘gender’. In this essay, I discuss the problematic nature of the three critical terms, and suggest ways in which Japan-as-Place might profitably be renarrated as the complex place it is and Japanese language, gender and sexuality relations revisited as they operate within that complexity.
Article
In promoting social equality in the name of democratic citizenship, counseling discourses on social justice are largely disconnected from their U.S. colonial heritage. As history is typically erased from theoretical developments and research in counseling generally speaking, this essay mobilizes multiple disciplines in order to establish a conjuncture between the way counseling discourses on social justice address inequality and the way they inadvertently sustain the inequalities they seek to abolish. By grounding into U.S. colonialism as a form of imperial pragmatism in empire building, this essay explicates counseling as another technology of social control for which intimacy and care become categorically encased.
Article
Full-text available
Linguistic racism explores the varied ideologies that may generate and endorse monolingual, native, and normative language practices, while reinforcing the discrimination and injustice directed towards language users whose language and communicative repertoires are not necessarily perceived as standard and normal. This article, thus, investigates linguistic racism, as a form of existing, but newly defined, racism against unconventional ethnic language practices experienced by Eastern-European immigrant women in the Australian workplace. Our ethnographic study shows that, once these women directly or subtly exhibit their non-nativism, through a limited encounter with local expressions, non-native language skills, and ethnic accents, they become victims of covert and overt linguistic racism in the form of social exclusion, mockery, mimicking, and malicious sarcasm in the hierarchical power environment of the workplace. As a result, these migrants can suffer from long-lasting psychological trauma and distress, emotional hurdles, loss of credibility, and language-based inferiority complexes. We, as researchers, need to highlight the importance of combatting workplace linguistic racism and revealing language realities of underprivileged communities. In that way, we can assist them in adapting to host societies and help them regain some degree of power equality in their institutional environments.
Article
Full-text available
El artículo se propone, desde un enfoque glotopolítico, repasar, en primer lugar, la gestión de discursos de regulación lingüística monocéntrica en vínculo con razones estatales y trasnacionales, así como las políticas que habilitan la coexistencia de un control monocéntrico y un discurso pluricéntrico de la lengua española En especial, atenderá al impacto del solapamiento de discursos monocéntricos y pluricéntricos en la enseñanza escolar argentina y en las estrategias implementadas por esta institución para perpetuar representaciones desprestigiantes de las variedades y lenguas de la región. Luego, dará cuenta de algunas condiciones teórico metodológicas para el estudio del español como lengua pluricéntrica, y de las representaciones de los estándares regionales (variedades no dominantes), su descripción y su estatus relativo. Finalmente, mostrará alternativas de trabajo escolar que, apoyadas en las pedagogías críticas, permitan visibilizar en el aula tanto los aspectos políticos entrañados por las lenguas/variedades como la capacidad del aparato metalingüístico para validar la lengua en uso.
Chapter
This chapter demonstrates that metalinguistic communities can draw on language ideologies about non-group members to construct their own social identity. Drawing on data from an ethnographic study of parents and legal professionals in a California child welfare court, López-Espino argues that social workers, judges, and attorneys routinely use the category of “Spanish speakers” in ways that implicitly emphasize their own English-dominant language practices as standard and normative. Building on existing scholarship on raciolinguistic ideologies (Flores and Rosa 2015), López-Espino argues that legal professionals conflate being Spanish-dominant as indicative of lacking “sophistication,” lacking legal status, being passive, and having deficient cultural practices of child-rearing. The chapter concludes that the circulation of such raciolinguistic ideologies can negatively affect racialized and minoritized persons’ access to a fair and equitable legal experience.
Article
Writing activities can function as powerful teaching tools in science education – but are their benefits realised equitably? The answer may depend in part on how teachers interpret and respond to student writing in light of societal stereotypes that link scientific competence, linguistic competence, and racial, ethnic, or gender identity. In this experiment, high school biology teachers (n = 70) in a U.S. state evaluated and gave feedback on a purported student writing sample. No main effect of student writer’s racialised/gendered identity was found; however, non-Hispanic White teachers gave lower ratings when the writing sample was attributed to a Latina female student rather than a non-Hispanic White male student. The reverse pattern was apparent in the ratings of Hispanic teachers and other teachers of colour. All teachers wrote generally similar feedback, but non-Hispanic teachers of colour and White teachers wrote shorter feedback to a Latina student when ‘her’ score was low, a relationship which did not appear in feedback written to a non-Hispanic White male student. Although most of these disparities did not exhibit statistical significance, many effect sizes were relatively large and may merit further study. Practical implications for equity in science education are discussed.
Article
Urban schools are becoming increasingly linguistically diverse. However, principals are not adequately prepared to address linguistic variation, and in particular, issues related to African American Language (AAL). This study explores the language ideological voices of urban school administrators. Focus group sessions were conducted with 15 administrators of predominantly African American schools about the function of AAL in their students’ lives. Participants demonstrated variation in views toward AAL and struggled to name the language. These discussions were mediated by multiple, even competing, language ideologies, as they attempted to converse about the use of AAL in schools.