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Energy-Balancing with Sink Mobility in the Design of Underwater Routing Protocols

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In Underwater Linear Sensor Networks (UW-LSN) routing process, nodes without proper address make it difficult to determine relative sensor details specially the position of the node. In addition, it effects to determine the exact leakage position with minimized delay for long range underwater pipeline monitoring. Several studies have been made to overcome the mentioned issues. However, little attention has been given to minimize communication delay using dynamic addressing schemes. This paper presents the novel solution called Hop-by-Hop Dynamic Addressing based Routing Protocol for Pipeline Monitoring (H2-DARP-PM) to deal with nodes addressing and communication delay. H2-DARP-PM assigns a dynamic hop address to every participating node in an efficient manner. Dynamic addressing mechanism employed by H2-DARP-PM differentiates the heterogeneous types of sensor nodes thereby helping to control the traffic flows between the nodes. The proposed dynamic addressing mechanism provides support in the selection of an appropriate next hop neighbour. Simulation results and analytical model illustrate that H2-DARP-PM addressing support distribution of topology into different ranges of heterogeneous sensors and sinks to mitigate the higher delay issue. One of the distinguishing characteristics of H2-DARP-PM has the capability to operate with a fewer number of sensor nodes deployed for long-range underwater pipeline monitoring.
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Recently, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) has witnessed significant attention from both academia and industries in research and development, due to the growing number of applications for wide range of purposes including commercial, scientific, environmental and military. Some of the major applications include pollution monitoring, tactical surveillance, tsunami warnings and offshore exploration. Efficient communication among sensors in UWSNs is a challenging task due to the harsh environments and peculiar characteristics of UWSNs. Therefore, design of routing protocol for efficient communication among sensors and sink is one of the fundamental research themes in UWSNs. In this context, this paper proposes a location-free Reliable and Energy efficient Pressure-Based Routing (RE-PBR) protocol for UWSNs. RE-PBR considers three parameters including link quality, depth and residual energy for balancing energy consumption and reliable data delivery. Specifically, link quality is estimated using triangle metric method. A light weight information acquisition algorithm is developed for efficient knowledge discovery of the network. Multi-metric data forwarding algorithm is designed based on route cost calculation which utilizes residual energy and link quality. Simulations are carried out in NS-2 with Aqua-Sim package to evaluate the performance of RE-PBR. The performance of the proposed protocol is compared with the statof- the-art techniques: DBR and EEDBR. The comprehensive performance evaluation attests the benefit of RE-PBR as compared to the state-of-the-art techniques in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption, end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio.
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From the view of routing protocols in Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs), the presence of communication void, where the packet cannot be forwarded further using the greedy mode, is perhaps the most challenging issue. In this paper, we review the state of the art of void-handling techniques proposed by underwater geographic greedy routing protocols. To this, we first review the void problem and its negative impact on the category of the geographic greedy routing protocols, which does not entail any void recovery technique. It is followed by a discussion about the constraints, challenges, and features associated with the design of void-handling techniques in UWSNs. Afterwards, currently available void-handling techniques in UWSNs are classified and investigated. They can be classified into two main categories: location-based and depth-based techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique along with the recent advances are then presented. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison of these techniques and also discuss some possible future directions.
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In this paper, we devise and evaluate a new Grid-Based Priority Routing (GBPR) protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). GBPR utilizes a 3D logical grid view of the monitored area to deliver data packets to sink nodes. Particularly, data packets are forwarded on a cell-by-cell-basis using elected sensor nodes called cell-heads. The unique feature in GBPR is the classification of the neighboring cells in different priority levels according to their distances to the sink node. Cells closer to the sink are given higher priority to be selected as the next hop. This mechanism helps in reducing the number of hops; thus, reducing the energy consumption and end-to-end delay, and increasing the reliability. The protocol is evaluated and compared against EMGGR and EEF protocols available in the literature. Simulation results show that GBPR outperforms the other two protocols in terms of energy efficiency, average delay and packet delivery ratio.
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In this paper, to monitor the fields with square and circular geometries, three energy-efficient routing protocols are proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). First one is, sparsity-aware energy efficient clustering (SEEC), second one is, circular SEEC (CSEEC), and the third one is, circular depth based SEEC (CDSEEC) routing protocol. All three protocols are proposed to minimize the energy consumption of sparse regions. Whereas, sparsity search algorithm (SSA) is proposed to find sparse regions and density search algorithm (DSA) is used to find dense regions of the network field. Moreover, clustering is performed in dense regions to minimize redundant transmissions of a data packet. While, sinks mobility is exploited to collect data from sensor nodes with an objective of minimum energy consumption. A depth threshold (d th) value is also used to minimize number of hops between source and destination for less energy consumption. Simulation results show that our schemes perform better than their counterpart schemes (DBR, EEDBR) in terms of energy efficiency.
Conference Paper
Large scale underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have great applications in ocean exploration. The basic localization scheme is the recursive position estimation with hierarchical steps. To achieve accurate localization for each node and a rather high localization coverage, the localized nodes to be chosen as reference nodes are one of the critical steps. This paper proposed a new method to define the confidence value of a reference node based on covariance law. With the measured distance between nodes, the estimated position is more accurate throughout the network and can give a comprehensive localization error. Localization coverage and localization error are used to evaluate the performance. Compared with the previous methods, the simulation results show that the proposed method have great advantage in controlling error accumulation, it is suitable for high precision large scale UWSNs.
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Underwater wireless sensor networks have received increased attention in recent years due to its numerous applications in oil spills detection, ocean exploration, submarine detection and disaster avoidance. All these applications make use of a number of sensor nodes deployed in different depths in the ocean for data collection and communication. Efficient communication in the network of sensor nodes requires a dynamic routing approach. Most of the routing protocols proposed for traditional sensor networks cannot be used for underwater sensor networks due to its unique characteristics such as dynamic topology, limited bandwidth, high energy utilization and increased latency. Considering these unique features, efficient routing protocols are exclusively designed for underwater sensor networks. The latest opportunistic routing protocols proposed for underwater sensor network guarantees very high Quality of Service to all the applications. This research paper presents a survey and comparison of all the latest opportunistic routing protocols that has been designed for underwater sensor networks. We then discuss the issues and challenges with each of these opportunistic protocols with future research directions.