ArticlePDF Available

AN INVESTIGATION ON THE CRYPTO CURRENCIES AND ITS FUTURE

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Crypto Currencies (CC) have recently become one of the most debated topics in the public opinion. One of the most fundamental reasons for this is that the fluctuations in transaction volumes and prices of CCs that emerged in 2009 have increased visibly in recent years. CCs have many direct and indirect effects on the global monetary system and the world economy. At this point, as well as the factors that lead to the emergence of CCs, the change and transformation process that CCs create in the world economy is also very important. One of the factors that will determine the degree of future expansion of CCs will be the functions of money. The degree of which CCs can fulfill the functions of the classical currencies will have a direct impact on the process of CC dissemination. CCs cannot fulfill the appraisal function at this time. The most basic reason for this is the excessive fluctuations in prices of CCs. This volatility prevents economic units from valuing any goods and services using CC and leads to preclude the spread of CCs. However, since this fluctuation will persist over time, CCs will begin to fulfill the function of appraisal and the spread will accelerate. The power of governments to direct economic and monetary policy will change and transform with the spread of CCs. The effect of this change and the extent to which the states will allow this change remain unclear. Besides, how CCs will affect the global reserve money system is also very important. It remains unclear whether the CCs will be used as reserve currency in the future and how the major central banks will react to it. CCs are also closely related to the seigniorage income. As the CCs become widespread, the seigniorage income which the major central banks obtained from the banknotes will also be jeopardized. The question of how states and central banks will react to this should also be discussed. Measures that are taken against crypto-currencies by the central banks, whose 70 seigniorage incomes decrease, will be determinant of the global reserve money system. The purpose of this study is to foresee the future of the global reserve money system with the emergence of CCs and how the seigniorage incomes of central banks will be affected from this process.
Content may be subject to copyright.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online) [pp. 69-88] Doi: 10.34111/ijebeg.20191115
Recieved: 27.01.2019 | Accepted: 09.06.2019 | Published Online: 17.06.2019
69
AN INVESTIGATION ON THE CRYPTO CURRENCIES AND ITS
FUTURE
Selim ŞANLISOY
Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0629-0905
selim.sanlisoy@deu.edu.tr
Tuğberk ÇİLOĞLU
İzmir Katip Celebi University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7387-3692
tugberk.ciloglu@ikc.edu.tr
ABSTRACT
Crypto Currencies (CC) have recently become one of the most debated topics in
the public opinion. One of the most fundamental reasons for this is that the
fluctuations in transaction volumes and prices of CCs that emerged in 2009 have
increased visibly in recent years. CCs have many direct and indirect effects on the
global monetary system and the world economy. At this point, as well as the
factors that lead to the emergence of CCs, the change and transformation process
that CCs create in the world economy is also very important. One of the factors
that will determine the degree of future expansion of CCs will be the functions of
money. The degree of which CCs can fulfill the functions of the classical
currencies will have a direct impact on the process of CC dissemination. CCs
cannot fulfill the appraisal function at this time. The most basic reason for this is
the excessive fluctuations in prices of CCs. This volatility prevents economic
units from valuing any goods and services using CC and leads to preclude the
spread of CCs. However, since this fluctuation will persist over time, CCs will
begin to fulfill the function of appraisal and the spread will accelerate. The power
of governments to direct economic and monetary policy will change and
transform with the spread of CCs. The effect of this change and the extent to
which the states will allow this change remain unclear. Besides, how CCs will
affect the global reserve money system is also very important. It remains unclear
whether the CCs will be used as reserve currency in the future and how the major
central banks will react to it. CCs are also closely related to the seigniorage
income. As the CCs become widespread, the seigniorage income which the major
central banks obtained from the banknotes will also be jeopardized. The question
of how states and central banks will react to this should also be discussed.
Measures that are taken against crypto-currencies by the central banks, whose
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
70
seigniorage incomes decrease, will be determinant of the global reserve money
system. The purpose of this study is to foresee the future of the global reserve
money system with the emergence of CCs and how the seigniorage incomes of
central banks will be affected from this process.
Key Words: Crypto Currency, Global Financial System, Monetary Policy,
JEL Classification: E42, E51, E58
INTRODUCTION
Crypto currencies have been one of the most debated issues both in the economy
and the public in recent years. Even though the crypto currencies that emerged in
2009 have a recent history, they have begun to draw attention rapidly with their
increasing transaction volume and usage areas. Crypto currencies, which are not
managed from a single center and can be produced with specific mathematical
solutions, are completely differentiated from today's classic money supply
methods. This situation brings with it important problems related to the externality
of money supply. In addition, the effectiveness of monetary policies which are
implemented by central banks may also be jeopardized with the widespread use of
crypto currencies. Besides, the issue of how the national and global monetary
authorities will react to the presence of future crypto currencies maintains its
importance. On the other hand, crypto currencies have various effects on the
world economy. These effects can be listed as commercial, financial, economic
and political, and tax effects. For this purpose, the historical process revealing
crypto currencies was analyzed in the first part of the study. While in the second
part of the study, the interaction between crypto currencies and the functions of
money were analyzed. The possible regulatory policies also were analyzed in this
part. The reactions of central banks and states against to the existence of crypto
currencies and the effects of crypto currencies on the world economy were
analyzed in the third part of the study.
1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CRYPTO CURRENCIES
While analyzing the historical background of crypto currencies, we have to
analyze the development process of classical currencies as well. Coins have
dominated for a long time in the history of the world, and paper money gradually
has begun to gain importance from the 17th century onwards. The banking system
has developed in this process as well. The central banking system was established
in parallel with the development of the banking system in this period. The main
reason for this is the willingness of the states for controlling the paper money
which has increasingly taken part at the center of the economic system.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
71
Along the period, the indexing of the paper money to the gold which is found in
the reserves of the central banks continued until the First World War. But after the
war, the gold standard was abandoned by many countries. Paper money has
become deposit money along with the development of banking system in
particular and disengaged from its representative status. The US dollar was
indexed to gold in 1944 together with the Bretton Woods system and the
currencies of the participating countries were indexed to the US dollar. Thus the
US dollar became the global reserve money. The indexing of the US dollar to the
gold ended together with quitting of this system by the US in 1971. Hence, the
golden money system came to an end.
As a result of technological progress and increasing global trade, the digitalization
process of money has also begun. This process started with the development of
EFT (Electronic Fund Transfer) system in USA. The use of ATM machines and
credit cards followed to this. Money transfer has increasingly become digital,
especially with the effect of the advancement in internet technology after 2000. As
a result of these, the transition to crypto currencies started (Dilek, 2018: 9).
It can be said that the 2008 Crisis had an impact on the process of transition to
crypto currencies. Having confidence in central banks and financial institutions
has declined considerably together with the 2008 Crisis. The distrust against to the
US dollar and Euro which are the global reserve currencies has also begun. Along
with the experiencing of global crisis, the crypto currency Bitcoin was firstly
mentioned in the article "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System" written
by Sathoshi Nakamoto.
In the relevant article, Bitcoin, the first crypto currency, is defined as an electronic
payment system based on the encryption and in which the two sides are directly
associated to each other. This study, describing Bitcoin, criticizes the intermediary
services provided by banks, and emphasizes that there is no need for banks to
realize the trade by considering the rising trend of electronic commerce. At the
same time, a new insight about how the trust problem can be solved through
technology after the global crisis, is tried to be given in the article. In this context,
the trust which is the most important feature of the crypto currencies and which
based on computer algorithms and mathematical rules reveals instead of the trust
against authorities which have the power to issue money.
Blockchain technology, which appeared with Bitcoin in 2009, is seen as an
important revolution. Blockchain is a constantly growing distributed database
where records are linked to each other by cryptographic elements. The popularity
of Blockchain technology has significantly increased with Bitcoin. Bitcoin, whose
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
72
value has increased rapidly in terms of both trading volume and market value
since its emergence, has become phenomenon in recent years. Bitcoin is generally
described as a digital value that is derived from the idea of a utopian crypto
anarchist community and that is independent from states and has decentralized
and encrypted network. The biggest feature that makes Bitcoin different is that it
changes hands directly between the buyer and seller without need for an authority
in the digital field.
It is seen as a transfer and investment tool since the digital transaction costs
defined as crypto currency unit are very low and the transactions can be realized
very quickly. The reason of be in need of this type of digital / virtual coins is
having desire of people for being more free and for transferring their money in a
cheap, comfortable and safe way. Another important factor is that they seek to
compensate their lack of confidence against the banking sector with virtual
currencies (Dilek, 2018: 13).
The information about major crypto currencies is given in following table.
Table 1: Most Powerful Crypto Currencies (2018)
Crypto
Currencies
Symbols
Total Market
Value (USD)
Current Value
(USD)
Average
Trading
Volume
(Daily, USD)
Percentage in
Crypto
Currencies
Bitcoin
BTC
133925007
7947.6
11792800
35.36
Ethereum
ETH
78235387
802.71
5315660
20.66
Ripple
XRP
30129548
0.772
1907880
7.96
Bitcoin Cash
BCH
16426880
968.91
596955
4.34
Cardano
ADA
9780183
0.377
1246710
2.58
Litecoin
LTC
8166372
148.19
922754
2.16
Neo
NEO
7401810
113.87
724572
1.95
Stellar
XLM
6884729
0.373
418426
1.82
Eos
EOS
5515333
8.44
1184200
1.46
Nem
XEM
5400338
0.60
74682
1.43
Source: Dilek 2018: 13
At this point, we can classify crypto currencies.
There can be a matter of many different classifications related to crypto
currencies. The classification issued by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in
2016 is as follows. According to the classification herein, the assets that represent
a digital value are named the digital currency. E-currency and Paypal are given as
examples which are not defined as credit money in terms of digital currency units.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
73
Those which are not defined as credit money are named Virtual Currency (VC).
There are varieties of VCs that can be converted according to their link with
external world and that cannot be converted like online game money. The
convertible currencies are divided into two as centralized and decentralized.
Decentralized ones which use cipher science as a validation system are named
crypto currencies (Üzer, 2017: 15, 16). The classification is as follows:
Figure 1: Classification
Source: Üzer 2017, 16
As shown in the figure below, the present VCs are in different forms from the
centralized ones to the completely decentralized ones.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
74
Figure 2: Crypto Currencies According to Centers
Source: Üzer 2017: 17.
Third one is the figure which is most similar to the shape of today's crypto money
structure.. Decentralized VCs constitute a large part of the ecosystem. Therefore,
it is inevitable that such VCs are classified among themselves. The three basic and
technical aspects which play role in classifying decentralized VCs in their own are
as follows (ECB, 2015):
- Approval mechanism: The first examples of decentralized VCs such as
Bitcoin, Litecoin and Dogecoin have adopted the proof-of-work system. The
proof-of-work is a series of data that is both time consuming and costly to produce
but easy to be verified by other participants of the system. As the proof-of-work
process involves approval of transactions by reaching an algorithmic solution
through random trials, this process causes both too much error and high energy
expenditure. As an alternative to this, Peercoin developed the method of proof of
ownership. 7 In this system, the approval of the transactions takes place according
to the share of the user in the system.
- Algorithm: Algorithm is the set of rules that determine mathematical
processes such as calculating the speed at which data outputs are generated, and
the way in which new currencies are exported. There are basically two algorithms.
The SHA-2568 algorithm is used in VCs such as Bitcoin, Peercoin, Namecoin and
Mastercoin. In words of one syllable, special equipment is required to realize the
mining activities that can be called as VC production, and users should be
competent in mining. Litecoin, Dogecoin and Auroracoin use the Scrypt
algorithm, which can be defined as the extension of SHA-256, but require more
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
75
physical memory. Scrypt allows users doing mining to realize activities with
average computers.
- Supply: The supply of the currency is constant in many VC samples such
as Bitcoin, Litecoin, Namecoin. For example, currently around 16 million Bitcoin
is in circulation (Chart 1.1). According to the Bitcoin protocol, the final total will
be 21 million and it is expected to be reached to this number in 2040. There is no
supply limitation in some VC samples. For example, Peercoin supply is designed
to provide 1% annual inflation and have unlimited supply. (Üzer, 2017: 19).
2. THE FUTURE OF CRYPTO CURRENCIES
The digital values that allow cryptographic / ciphered safe transaction and
additional virtual money supply is called crypto currency. Crypto currencies are in
decentralized type unlike centralized electronic money and banking systems.
Control of this decentralized structure is performed by the Block-Chain
transaction databases. Crypto currencies are alternative currencies, they are digital
and they are also virtual money (Çarkacıoğlu, 2016: 8). Frequently, digital and
virtual money are mixed with Bitcoin and its derivatives. Digital and virtual
currencies other than Bitcoin and its derivatives are not the currency by
themselves. They are based on the national currency of the country that they
represent and can be regulated and controlled by the central authorities of that
country. Bitcoin is a spontaneous currency and cannot be regulated and controlled
by any central authority (Rotman, 2014: 1-2).
There are two important dimensions in discussing the future of crypto currencies,
which are the main purpose of the study. The first is whether the crypto currency
will fulfill the functions of money and the second is the attitude of the central
banks against the crypto currency in terms of the effectiveness of the monetary
policies. Therefore, these issues are discussed in this part of the study.
2.1 CRYPTO CURRENCIES AND FUNCTIONS OF MONEY
In order that any asset is considered as "money", it must be able to perform some
functions. The first of these functions is that it has to be a unit of account or a
common value tool. All economic activities are carried out on a common norm.
This norm is money or rather unit of currency. That the money is a good norm of
value depends on remaining its value as stable as possible. Otherwise, it shakes
confidence in money by affecting the general value norm of money negatively.
And over time, money becomes not to perform this function.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
76
The value of crypto currencies occurs at the point where demand and supply are
balanced, as in all other goods, products and money. Bitcoin's value is associated
with its geographic suitability, prevalence, acceptability, investor's confidence, its
ability to be the instrument of payment in real life and the current sensitivity of
the market (McDonnell, 2015).
The weakness of the legal infrastructure of the crypto currency, the excessive
fluctuations in its value, the value of losses or gains being experienced due to
speculative attacks, seem to be a problem. The main point which is sought by
economic units in the money that is used as payment instrument and unit of
account is stability. Therefore, crypto currencies have difficulty today at the point
of demand in terms of users. However, as Bitcoin users increase and Bitcoin use
prevails, the price volatility is expected to decline. The investors who think that
Bitcoin's price is cheaper can plan to buy it, and keep it for long-term, and sell
when it reaches to the target price.
Being a tool of change and payment is another function of money. When
economic units purchase any goods or services, they pay money to the seller in
exchange for the goods or services, and the transfer of money to the seller in
exchange for the goods bought points out function of money as medium of
exchange. International trade, financial movements and technological
developments have also brought some innovations for providing that money can
fulfill this function. Together with the establishment of the EFT system in US as
the first time in the world and the transfer of money in the electronic environment,
the digitalization process of the money has started. The bank card or credit card
applications following the EFT transactions also changed the people's money
usage habits and the use of electronic money gradually gained momentum.
Together with the widespread use of electronic money, the problem of
information security, the increased costs of transfers and the increasing profit
ambition of financial institutions, especially banks, caused the realizing of the
money transfers at high costs. This situation has increased the need for safe and
fast money transfers with low costs and crypto currencies were emerged. Satoshi
Nakamoto who sees the gap and the need in the system, introduced a payment
system based on bitcoin in his article "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash
System" in which he criticizes the high cost of money transfer transactions offered
by banks and reveals that there is no in need for banks. From this point of view, it
can be stated that the need for payment function of money is the factor in the
emergence of crypto currency.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
77
The most important feature that makes money valuable is the confidence of
people in money. One of the important elements behind this confidence is the
state authority behind it. The states have established trust by means of regulations
in the financial field together with the transition to the electronic money.
Blockchain technology in crypto currency is the element that provides trust in this
money phenomenon where there is no state authority. It is continuously stated that
the blockchain technology, which forms the infrastructure of crypto currencies,
has high security. On the other hand, the stock market and account books serving
to crypto currencies are one of the important aspects of the security problem. In
addition, since crypto currencies are not managed by any head office or
institution, when there is a loss of the account password or when crypto currency
is mistakenly transfer into someone's account there is no return of these
transactions and there is no institution to apply legally. Additionally, since it is
not regulated and audited by any authority, for instance, when an account in the
Bitcoin stock exchange is stolen, the issue of what are the legal obligations of the
stock exchange is still one of the controversial issues, and any legal legislation has
not been developed.
The fact that the withdrawal and transfer transactions are carried out
independently of the country's financial system increases the demand for crypto
currencies. Particularly, it is preferred in transferring money abroad in the case of
leaving a country for reasons such as a war or financial crisis.
In order that money can perform this function properly, its amount must be
sufficient to make the exchange of goods and services in the economy without
interruption. We can say that there will be some disruptions in performing this
function due to the amount of bitcoin to be produced is limited. However,
considering the increases in the amount and diversity of crypto currency, it can be
stated that such a problem will not occur.
Speed is increasingly gaining importance in the information economy and it is
becoming one of the most important areas of competition. Big fish can no longer
swallow small fish; instead, fast fish can swallow slow fish (Jennings and
Haughton, 2001: 22). One of the most important issues in money transfer is speed.
Transfer of international funds by traditional methods takes 3-4 days. The speed is
very high in crypto currencies and the speed difference between different crypto
currencies is one of the main components of the competition. The Central Bank of
Saudi Arabia has agreed with Ripple to make payments faster and safer. While
Ripple states that it can done cross-border money transfer in 4 seconds, this
transaction time for Ethereum is over 2 minutes. Another important difference of
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
78
Ripple is the presence of a head office and therefore presence of an addressee.
This example also gives a clue as to the future of crypto currencies. That Ripple is
more preferable in time due to this feature perhaps will pull other crypto
currencies in this environment.
One of the most important criticism, related to the payment or transfer function of
crypto currencies is about their use in illegal activities (World Bank, 2016: 98).
Since the crypto currencies are open to money laundering, the restrictions in their
use imposed by the states or the being asked that the accounts are named with real
identities may decrease the demand for these currencies and reduce their values
significantly. Many states and G20 have explanations on this issue.
When the status of the crypto currencies as a payment instrument is evaluated
related to the function of money, at least, it can be stated that it cannot fulfill this
function sufficiently for it has not been stabilized yet. In addition, the policies
which are implemented by states as a strategy against money laundering and the
use of illegal activities will reduce the demand for these currencies.
Another function of money is the saving. Undoubtedly, there are many assets
outside the money that have the feature of saving, but the money has an important
feature: The likelihood of losing value is close to zero. In fact, a security or real
estate can also be used as a savings tool, but they may experience serious
depreciation if they need to be quickly turned into cash. In other words, their
liquidity degrees are low. As to money, as it is already cash it can be turned into
cash without scarcely losing in its value. This feature makes money the most basic
and important saving tool. That the money is able to be a good saving tool
depends on its ability to maintain its value. The money whose value often changes
and especially which lose its purchasing power begins to lose function as a good
saving tool. Therefore, it is possible to state that crypto currencies may have
difficulty in fulfilling this function due to fluctuations in the present value. The
fluctuation experienced in the crypto currencies can be seen in figure 3.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
79
Figure 3: Fluctuations of Bitcoin
Source: https://tr.investing.com/charts/cryptocurrency-charts
Another point to be considered at this point is whether crypto currencies will be
classified as a currency unit or as an investment tool such as asset or commodity.
Considering its first emergence, bitcoin can be expressed as a means of payment.
In fact, the Nakamato does not mention anywhere in his article that bitcoin is an
investment tool. He only mentions that it is a means of payment facilitating
payment transactions at very low costs, and he explains its technological
infrastructure (Erdinç, 2017). In spite of these explanations, it is seen that a value
of crypto currency has been created in the market, even though an international
consensus has not yet been achieved and legal regulations have not been
sufficiently realized. In the current status, some countries regard crypto currency
as goods legally and others regard as financial asset (Dilek, 2018: 28). Moreover,
in some studies in which bitcoin is seen as a speculative investment tool or a
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
80
means of exchange or a wealth accumulation tool by some individuals who do not
know anything about its function, it is concluded that bitcoin is seen as investment
tool (Glaservd. 2014; Kristoufek, 2015; Back and Elbeck, 2015; Baur et al., 2017;
Dorfman, 2017). Crypto currencies in the crypto money market unless
identification problems and uncertainty are eliminated will continue to be
dependent on the speculative movements, and it will be discussed in terms of
clarity and security and in terms of financial stability continuity (Ceylan et al.
2018: 273).
In case crypto currencies are considered as an investment tool, it will be
appropriate to identify the factors affecting their demand. The two main factors
affecting the demand of an investment instrument are risk and return. Investors
decide to invest by considering these two variables. Crypto currencies do not yield
returns when considered in this respect. Bitcoin owners have control of all their
wealth. Their wealth is not entrusted to any bank or financial system. Those who
wish to earn interest yield from Bitcoin can transfer their Bitcoins to another
Bitcoin address and may earn interest yield. However, this is a highly risky
situation, and the sent Bitcoins are unlikely to be taken back except voluntary
basis. For example; https://www.bsave.io/ yields an annual interest of 2.51% for
Bitcoin. Bsave is operated by Coinbase, one of the world's largest and trusted
Bitcoin exchange and account operators. The purpose of interest yield is to
provide its own liquidity. Similarly, companies such as Bter, HaoBTC, BitBays,
Bitcoincryptobank also provides different interest rates and investment options
(Dean, 2015). However, if we pay attention the risk is very high in this area and it
is not rational to carry out such an operation in order to yield interest income.
In this case it is possible to say that the purchase of crypto currencies for
investment purposes can be preferred to provide capital return with a speculative
purpose. Hence, there will be a return based on price increases. This makes crypto
currencies, especially bitcoin, be speculative and unstable. On the other hand,
another challenge for person who invest in crypto currency will be the
determining the exit price for the investment. In case of investing in a country's
financial instruments as traditional investment instruments, the economic and
political risk of the country in question affects the value of the financial
instruments and a price expectation is created with respect to this risk
environment. That the crypto currencies are not associated with any central
authority or intermediary institution eliminates this risk. However, that it is not
dependent on any central authority can make it dependent on all countries where
transaction volumes are high? Because the arrangements that different countries
will make related to crypto currencies at different times will have important
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
81
effects on their values. One of the important issues discussed will be on the
taxation of their returns if they are accepted as a goods or financial instrument.
The differences that will arise between the implementations of countries regarding
the taxation of the earnings depending on the both price change of the crypto
currencies, and regarding earnings depending on mining will cause the activities
related to this field to be different between countries. For example, the National
Tax Administration of Japan imposes a tax rate of 15% to 55% on earnings in the
crypto currency.
Another example related to differences in implementations of countries regarding
crypto currencies is perspectives of Muslim societies or states on such a financial
instrument. Although Saudi Arabia made an agreement with Ripple, the
agreement is related to the payment system. Considering as an investment
instrument, it is observed that fatwa institutions in Turkey, Egypt and Palestine do
not accept crypto currency impermissible (Kaya, 2018: 15-17). On the other hand,
Turkey Ministry of Religious Affairs, by pointing that money either should be
valued by state authority or should have inherent value such as gold, made a
statement that crypto currencies could not be considered as a currency.
The use of Bitcoin as currency, money transfer tool and digital payment system is
defined as Bitcoin 1.0. The creation of all financial and economic applications
technology such as bonds, bills or loans in the near future by using the Block-
Chain is defined as Bitcoin 2.0 (Swan, 2014). For now, Bitcoin only can be
bought, expended and saved in Bitcoin system. However, in Bitcoin 2.0, loans
will be able to be borrowed, interest will be able to be yielded or a variety of
rights will be able to be purchased in financial products. Companies can
theoretically issue their shares directly through the blockchain by using the
features of Bitcoin 2.0. These shares can then be purchased and sold in a
secondary market located above the block chain (Hayes, Date not specified, a and
b). Both banks and other financial institutions, which foresee these changes that
are expected to be experienced in the future, have not excluded themselves from
this technology; and they are increasingly investing in this area by showing their
interest in these areas (Adkins, Date Not Specified).
It is also very important whether crypto currencies will be accepted as investment
and debt instruments. In the context of this issue, it is also important to see
whether countries will gain a profit if they create their own crypto currencies. A
scenario analysis can be done via Turkey to clarify the issue at this point. For
example, suppose that creation of crypto currency within the boundaries of the
country is regulated by a legal arrangement and only Central Bank of Turkey
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
82
(TCMB) or another state authority supplies crypto-currency named Turkey-Coin.
At this point, what may motive foreign investors and global portfolio managers to
buy the Turkey-Coin? At this point, interest income comes to the fore. There is no
widespread interest pay in crypto currencies around the world. The main reason
for this is that crypto currencies are not used as the borrowing and lending tools.
Therefore, since it cannot be mentioned about interest income in the current
situation, the only motivation of investors for buying Turkey-Coin is to benefit
from difference between the purchase and sale price of crypto currency. At this
point, the benefit of Turkey which supplies the Turkey-Coin is to prevent decrease
in the seigniorage income of Central Bank stemming from crypto currencies that
are not in control of the state. In case any crypto currency outside government
control reduces the demand for TL and the seigniorage income of Central Bank,
Turkey-Coin may be engaged. Government entity which supplies Turkey-Coin
such as TCMB will also generate seigniorage income.
That the Turkey supplies its crypto currency will benefit in terms of the real
investments and economic growth / development. For example, many investment
projects that cannot be funded under normal conditions or can be funded at high
cost can be funded by bonds / bills issued in Turkey-Coin denominated. For
example, many Turkish companies seeking funding for project financing may be
able to issue bonds / bills in domestic crypto currency in the bond market. It can
be said that financing cost of borrowing in TL denominated will be lower than
borrowing in foreign currency, in case of financing with Turkey-Coin. At this
point, not only the companies but also the Undersecreteriat of Treasury may issue
in bills / bonds in Turkey-Coin denominated. This will give the Treasury a
separate borrowing alternative and an opportunity to reduce borrowing costs. In
addition, if the domestic crypto currency is used for borrowing purposes, the
profit which is as far as interest rate of the crypto currency will also be yielded
naturally. The providing of the Turkey-Coin interest return will also motive many
foreign investors to buy Turkey-Coin.
Crypto currencies have various effects on the world economy. These effects can
be listed as commercial, economic, financial political and tax effects. We talked
about commercial, financial, political and economic impacts. Crypto currencies
can be used for tax evasion. Tax evasion occurs unless the gains from the trading
of crypto currency are declared (Ağan ve Aydın, 2018: 6-10).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
83
2.2 CRYPTO CURRENCIES AND CENTRAL BANKS-MONETARY
POLICIES
The central bank generates a very important seigniorage income by banknotes that
it issued and noted. If the crypto currencies quickly supersede the banknotes in
economies, the seigniorage income of central banks will reduce. This will be on
the strategy practiced by both central banks and countries against crypto
currencies.
As crypto currencies become more widespread and increasingly began to use for
transaction purposes, there will be serious falls in the seigniorage income of
central banks. The widespread use of crypto currencies will seriously damage the
reserve money status of the global major currencies. As a result of this, there will
be a serious decline in the seigniorage income of the major central banks together
with using crypto currencies as reserve money in international and national
business transactions. The reaction of the central banks and states to these
decreases will be the determinant of the global monetary system.
A part of the seigniorage income created by the central banks depending on the
monetization will pass to the miners who produce crypto currency. Mining refers
to economic units that verify and record transactions. Miners ensure the security
of the blockchain system and the realization of crypto currency transfers. By the
cost that they bear and the transaction power that they provide, they get the crypto
currencies into circulation in exchange for the system verification and registration
service and thus they gain profit (Dilek, 2018: 18). The income obtained in this
way can be compared to seigniorage income. The most important cost that miners
bear is the cost of electricity. Since the most important element of the system is
security, the system consumes very high levels of electricity. Because the lack of
a central authority in crypto currency transactions requires the system to protect
itself against attack and corruption and this task is carried out by miners and thus
electricity consumption increases. This brings about the shifting of mining
activities and investments to countries such as China where electricity prices are
low. The fact that the activities related to crypto currencies increase the electricity
consumption reveals that there are also environmental and social costs. It is stated
that the increasing electricity consumption associated with crypto currency
activities may lose its attractiveness due to global warming and environmental
problems and even the system may collapse (Citigroup, 2017). However, it can be
said that the amount of energy required by the system may decrease due to the
changes in the technological area and the problem will decrease in time.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
84
As time progresses and the decisive power of crypto currencies on the economic
system increases, states will want to have control over crypto currencies. In other
words, after a while, the states will begin to issue their crypto currencies
themselves and will not allow other private institutions / individuals to issue
crypto currency. The trend is likely to be in this direction. This will most likely be
through either central banks or "Central Electronic Money Banks" established by
countries. For example, the British Royal Mint has released its gold-based crypto
currency. Thus, gold-backed crypto currency was put onto the market and steps
were taken to eliminate the criticism that they have no monetary equivalent.
At this point, we can say that states and central banks have two options as
response. The first option is the prohibition of crypto currencies. We can consider
this option as "first best" if the prohibition attempt is successful. Because,
provided that the prohibition attempt is successful, the crypto currencies will be
eliminated and danger regarding seigniorage income loss of central banks will
end. However, it is controversial whether this prohibition attempt will be
successful in today's information age. If the prohibition attempt is unsuccessful,
crypto currency will continue to be used in the global system and as a result, the
state's monetary policy effectiveness will reduce. In addition, if a country
prohibits crypto currency, the capital will began to flow towards the countries that
do not prohibit them and these countries will gain advantage.
Monetary policy is the most commonly used instrument in economic policy
(Doğan, 2005: 26). The effectiveness of monetary policy is very important for the
stability of economies. The monetarists point out that money supply plays an
important role in determining economic performance (Düzgün, 2010: 230).
Maintaining price stability and financial stability are one of the most important
goals of monetary policy. However, apart from the currencies that the central
banks have officially released, the effectiveness of central banks on monetary
policy will be largely lost if crypto currencies are widely used in the economy.
Since Bitcoin cannot expand the monetary base, there are also claims that this
currency may cause serious deflation when used widely (McDonnell, 2015).
However, this situation can be seen as a problem that can be overcome, or even is
not expected to emerge due to the entry of new crypto currencies into the market.
The second option that can be applied by the state against crypto currencies is that
the state supplies its own crypto currencies. In this case, even if there is a
significant increase in the use of crypto currency, the state will be able to maintain
its effectiveness on the monetary policy by taking it under its control.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
85
When analyzing the future of the changes in the prices of crypto currencies, it
would not be correct to disregard the policies of major central banks. Crypto
currencies are competitors of classic banknotes. This means that the money supply
decisions of major central banks will have a direct impact on the value of crypto
currencies in the coming period. For example, there is a negative correlation
between gold, silver and other precious commodities and US dollar. Besides, there
is also causality between the dollar and the goods. The source of this correlation is
the causality in question. Since the precious metals and other goods such as gold,
silver are bought and sold with the US Dollar today, the price of these goods
increases as the supply of the Dollar increases and its value decreases. When the
supply of the dollar decreases and its value increases, prices of goods fall, except
for the times when there is a risk of global war and conflict. While a similar
causality and correlation may change over the long term, it will be valid at least
for crypto currencies in short and medium term. That is, as the major central
banks make monetary expansion and the supply of banknotes increases, the price
of crypto currency will increase, because the crypto currencies are currently
traded with these banknotes and as a more fundamental reason, they are rivals to
these banknotes. While in times of monetary tightening, since the trust in the
major banknote currencies will increase, the price of the crypto currencies will
decrease.
CONCLUSION
Crypto currencies will be discussed in public and economic literature for a long
time, because, it is an issue that will affect all the global monetary system due to
its structure. Crypto currencies have various effects on the world economy. These
effects can be listed as commercial, economic, financial political and tax effects.
The existence of crypto currencies will have a significant impact on the global
reserve money system as well as on the monetary policy effectiveness. In this
case, the reaction of states to this process will be the determinant of global
monetary system as analyzed in our study. Under the assumption that attempts to
prohibit crypto currencies in today's technology age will most likely fail, there are
high possibility to supply their own crypto currencies for states and central banks.
Thus, states will be able to maintain their effectiveness on economy and monetary
policy. It is difficult for Bitcoin and others, whose legal infrastructure is not yet
established, to supersede the legally equivalent currencies in the short term. In the
medium and long term, it seems that non-state actors who can shake up the
monopoly power of central banks in monetization, will have the strategies to
become partners of sovereignty of nation-states and then to implement their own
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
86
political forces. As a concluding remark, crypto currencies are seen as the future
money.
REFERENCES
Adkins, Troy. (Tarih Belirtilmemiş) Bitcoin Innovations And Obstacles,
https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/020914/bitcoin-innovations-and-
obstacles.asp. [Accessed 29.03.2018].
Ağan, Büşra, Üzeyir Aydın. (2018) “Kripto Para Birimlerinin Küresel Etkileri:
Asimetrik Nedensellik Analizi”, Uluslararası Katılımlı 22. Finans Sempozyumu,
Mersin: Mersin Üniversitesi. pp. 797-816.
Aslan, M. Hanifi. (2009) Para Teorisi ve Politikası. Bursa: Alfa Aktüel.
Atik, Murat, Yaşar Köse, Bülent Yılmaz and Fatih Sağlam. (2015) “Kripto Para:
Bitcoin ve Döviz Kurları Üzerine Etkileri”, Bartın Üniversitesi İ.İ.B.F. Dergisi,
Vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 247-261.
Baek, C. and M. Elbeck (2015) “Bitcoins As an Investment or Speculative
Vehicle? A First Look”, Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 30-34.
Baur, D. Dirk, KiHoon Hong and Adrian D. Lee. (2016) “Bitcoin: Currency or
Asset?”. Financial Institutions, Regulation & Corporate Governance (FIRCG)
Conference. https://mbs.edu/getattachment/fircg/FIRCG-2016/Papers/8-Adrian-
2c-KiHoonBitcoin-Baur-et-al-2015-P.pdf. [Accessed 21.03.2018].
Ceylan, Fatih, Ramazan Ekinci, Osman Tüzün, and Hakan Kahyaoğlu. (2018)
Determination Of Bubbles In Cryptocurrencies Market: Bitcoin And Ethereum”,
Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, Vol. 6, No.3. pp. 263-
274.
Citigroup. (2017) Citigroup: by 2022 Bitcoin Mining Can Become Unprofitable.
https://hype.codes/citigroup-2022-bitcoin-mining-can-become-unprofitable.
[Accessed 20.03.2018].
Çarkacıoğlu, Abdurrahman. (2016) Kripto-Para Bitcoin, Yer Belirtilmemiş: SPK.
Dilek, Şerif (2018). Blockchain Teknolojisi ve Bitcoin. SETA.
https://setav.org/assets/uploads/2018/02/231.-Bitcoin.pdf. [Accessed 20.03.2018].
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
87
Doğan, Çetin. (2005) “Para Politikasının Etkinliği: Türkiye Açısından Bir
Değerlendirmesi”. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler
Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 25-42.
Dorfman, Jeffrey. (2017) “Bitcoin Is An Asset, Not A Currency”, Forbes,
https://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffreydorfman/2017/05/17/bitcoin-is-an-asset-not-
a-currency/#4f5e41532e5b [Accessed 20.03.2018].
Düzgün, Recep. (2010) “Türkiye Ekonomisi'nde Para ve Maliye Politikalarının
Etkinliği”, Journal of International Social Research Vol. 3No. 11, pp. 230-237.
ECB. (2015) Virtual Currency Schemes - A Further Analysis. Frankfurt.
Erdinç, Yaşar. (2017) Adım Adım Bitcoin!,
https://www.bilgeyatirimci.com/2017/12/14/adim-adim-bitcoin/. [Accessed
20.03.2018].
Glaser, Florain, Kai Zimmermann, Martin Haferkorn, Moritz Christian Weber and
Michael Siering (2014). “Bitcoin -Asset or Currency? Revealing Users’ Hidden
Intentions”. Twenty Second European Conference on Information Systems,
https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=9840940840820311190990051221
230910681020800210610100490730121071180780050221161060980160590270
590300170441001101170030941180180430270460410380641170971201250830
880240950490461130960900710930290280961160260920730670020990971260
06072091099101101083113007&EXT=pdf. [Accessed 21.03.2018].
Hayes, Adam. (Tarih Belirtilmemiş, a) Bitcoin 2.0 Applications (AMZN, EBAY),
https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/042015/bitcoin-20-
applications.asp. [Accessed 29.03.2018].
Hayes, Adam. (Tarih Belirtilmemiş, b) How Will Bitcoin 2.0 Change The World?
(MSFT, OSTK), https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/041315/how-
will-bitcoin-20-change-world.asp. [Accessed 21.03.2018].
IMF. (2016) Virtual Currencies and Beyond: Initial Considerations. Washington
DC.
Jennings, Jason and Laurence Haughton. (2001) Büyük Balık Küçük Balığı Değil,
Hızlı Balık Yavaş Balığı Yutar, Çev. Şefika Kamcez, İstanbul: Koç Sistem
Yayınları.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF eBUSINESS AND eGOVERNMENT STUDIES
Vol 11, No 1, 2019 ISSN: 2146-0744 (Online)
88
Kaya, Süleyman. (2018) Kripto Paralar ve Fıkhi Açıdan Değerlendirilmesi,
Sakarya: İSEFAM Rapor.
Kristoufek, Ladislav. (2015) “What Are the Main Drivers of The Bitcoin Price?
Evidence from Wavelet Coherence Analysişs”, Plos One, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 1-
15.
Mc Donnell, Patrick “PK”. (2015) What Is The Difference Between Bitcoin,
FOREX & Gold? ‘A Tripod Theory’ [Revised].
https://www.newsbtc.com/2015/09/09/what-is-the-difference-between-bitcoin-
forex-gold-a-tripod-theory-revised/. [Accessed 29.03.2018].
Nakamoto, Satoshi. (2008) Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
http://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf. [Accessed 21.03.2018].
Rotman, Sarah. (2014) Bitcoin Versus Electronic Money World Bank.
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/18418/881640BRI
0Box30WLEDGENOTES0Jan02014.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. [Accessed
29.03.2018].
Swan, Melanie. (2014) Bitcoin 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0: Currency, Contracts, and
Applications, Beyond Financial Markets.
https://ieet.org/index.php/IEET2/more/swan20141110. [Accessed 29.03.2018].
Üzer, Betül. (2017) Sanal Para Birimleri, Ankara: Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez
Bankası Ödeme Sistemleri Genel Müdürlüğü.
Walsh, Dean. (2015) How to Earn Interest on Bitcoin 5 Different Ways.
http://cryptorials.io/how-to-earn-interest-on-bitcoin-5-different-ways/,
http://cryptorials.io/how-to-earn-interest-şon-Bitcoin-5-different-ways/. [Accessed
29.03.2018].
World Bank. (2016) Digital Dividends.
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/896971468194972881/pdf/102725-
PUB-Replacement-PUBLIC.pdf. [Accessed 29.03.2018].
Investing, Canlı Kripto Para Grafiği,
https://tr.investing.com/charts/cryptocurrency-charts [Accessed 01.04.2019].
... NEO firms' expenditure productivity is shaped by macroeconomic trends and firm-specific characteristics. Furthermore, the empirical findings reinforce the idea that clean energy companies will have a positive impact on the economy (Şanlisoy and Çiloğlu 2019;Li et al. 2021a, b, c, d). With unpredictable government regulations, the investment potential for renewable energy sources is restricted. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article measures renewable energy firm-level pure innovation efficiency, green productivity, technical efficiency, scale efficiency and total investment efficiency from micro input–output factors using Banker, Charnes and Cooper’s (BCC) data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. Its main novelty is that it clearly explores the effective impacts of government subsidies and tax rebate policies on renewable energy firms’ investment efficiency using China’s renewable energy firm-level panel data. Our observational findings indicate that between 2001 and 2018, the aggregate degree of total investment performance from renewable energy firms rose steadily before declining. Renewable energy firms had larger ranges of total investment efficiency and size efficiency, and their levels of pure technological efficiency were both greater than 0.457%. At the 16% trust mark, current government subsidies and taxation rebates had dramatically positive effects on pure technological efficiency and total investment efficiency; additionally, government subsidies have a stronger positive impact on total investment efficiency and pure technical efficiency than taxation rebates. Furthermore, the ownership concentrations of renewable energy companies greatly encourage pure technological efficiency, size efficiency and total investment efficiency, and asset returns will significantly increase their average degree of total investment efficiency and pure technical efficiency.
... NEO firms' expenditure productivity is shaped by macroeconomic trends and firm-specific characteristics. Furthermore, the empirical findings reinforce the idea that clean energy companies will have a positive impact on the economy (Şanlisoy and Çiloğlu 2019;Li et al. 2021a, b, c, d). With unpredictable government regulations, the investment potential for renewable energy sources is restricted. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article measures renewable energy firm-level pure innovation efficiency, green productivity, technical efficiency, scale efficiency and total investment efficiency from micro input-output factors using Banker, Charnes and Cooper's (BCC) data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. Its main novelty is that it clearly explores the effective impacts of government subsidies and tax rebate policies on renewable energy firms' investment efficiency using China's renewable energy firm-level panel data. Our observational findings indicate that between 2001 and 2018, the aggregate degree of total investment performance from renewable energy firms rose steadily before declining. Renewable energy firms had larger ranges of total investment efficiency and size efficiency, and their levels of pure technological efficiency were both greater than 0.457%. At the 16% trust mark, current government subsidies and taxation rebates had dramatically positive effects on pure technological efficiency and total investment efficiency; additionally, government subsidies have a stronger positive impact on total investment efficiency and pure technical efficiency than taxation rebates. Furthermore, the ownership concentrations of renewable energy companies greatly encourage pure technological efficiency, size efficiency and total investment efficiency, and asset returns will significantly increase their average degree of total investment efficiency and pure technical efficiency.
Book
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
The study was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of local tax revenues, especially entertainment tax in the city of Bandung. Research period 2014-2018. This type of research is a quantitative descriptive study with a descriptive statistical analysis approach. The results of the analysis show that the average effectiveness of entertainment tax revenue is very effective, but when viewed annually from 2014-2018 the effectiveness of entertainment tax revenue has fluctuated. From moderately effective, effective to very effective. The causes of fluctuation include entertainment tax deposits not according to the rules, and an online tax payment system is enforced. Recommendations given to increase socialization or counseling about the benefits of tax collection, online payment systems, take firm action by providing fines and sanctions for negligent taxpayers, rescheduling the number of entertainment taxpayers.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
2009 yılında ortaya çıkan ve hızlı bir şekilde dünya ekonomisini derinden etkileyen kripto para birimleri, iktisat literatüründe sıkça tartışılmaktadır. Sayıları giderek artan kripto para birimleri, zaman ilerledikçe dünya çapında daha çok kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Kripto para birimlerinin dünya çapında kullanımına etki eden önemli faktörler; kripto para birimlerinin kullanım amacı, piyasa hacmi ve risk durumudur. Bu noktada, kripto para birimlerinde türev piyasaların önemi ortaya çıkmaktadır. Türev piyasaların en önemli işlevlerinden biri, spot piyasaların işlem hacmini artırmaktır. Çünkü türev piyasası olan bir finansal emtia, yatırımcılar tarafından gelecekteki fiyat değişimi riskleri büyük oranda minimize edildiği için spot piyasada daha fazla ve daha istikrarlı bir şekilde talep edilecektir. Bu da, söz konusu finansal emtianın finansal piyasalardaki gücünü ve etkinliğini giderek artıracaktır. Kripto para birimlerinde türev piyasaların giderek yaygınlaşması ve güçlenmesi durumunda da, kripto para piyasalarının spot piyasası zaman içerisinde derinlik ve istikrar kazanacaktır. Bu derinlik ve istikrar ise kripto para birimlerinin çok daha fazla "işlem güdüsü" ile talep edilmesini sağlayacak bu da kripto para birimlerindeki spekülatif fiyat dalgalanmalarının şiddetini büyük oranda azaltacaktır. Tüm bunlar, kripto para birimleri ile çok daha fazla borç-alacak işlemlerinin yapılmasına imkan verecek ve bu da genel anlamda finansal piyasalardaki finansal enstrüman sayısını artıracaktır. Bütün bu gelişmeler nihai olarak finansal piyasaların temel işlevi olan fon fazlası ve açığı olan ekonomik birimleri bir araya getirme özelliğini kuvvetlendirecek ve gerek ulusal gerekse de küresel çapta reel ekonomiye ciddi pozitif katkısı olacaktır. Bu bağlamda çalışmanın amacı, kripto para birimlerinde türev piyasaların durumunu ve gelişim olanaklarını analiz etmek, buna bağlı olarak kripto para birimlerinin borç-alacak işlemlerinde ve finansal işlemlerde daha etkin kullanımı için öneriler geliştirmektir. Buna ek olarak, gerek reel gerekse finansal ekonomi bakımından kripto para birimlerinde türev piyasaların desteğiyle ortaya çıkacak olan yeni fırsatları değerlendirmeye çalışmak da bu çalışmanın amaçları arasındadır.
Chapter
Full-text available
Kripto para birimleri, ortaya çıkmış olduğu 2009 yılından bu yana küresel ekonomik sistem ve paradigmaları önemli ölçüde etkilemeye başlamıştır. Dünya para sisteminde yepyeni bir dönemin habercisi olan kripto paralar, etkisini sadece ticaret alanında değil uluslararası parasal ilişkiler alanında da göstermiştir ve hâlen de göstermektedir. Henüz gelişim aşamasında olan ve kitlesel kullanım düzeyine henüz ulaşmamış olan kripto paraların, gelecekte geniş kitleler tarafından kullanıldığında uluslararası ilişkiler açısından çok daha büyük ve köklü etkiler doğurması beklenmektedir. Ayrıca, gelecekte kripto paraların kitlesel kullanımı durumunda bugünkünden çok daha farklı nitelikte kur savaşlarının yaşanması olasıdır. Kitabın bu bölümünde, söz konusu etkiler öngörülmeye ve analiz edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda, çalışmanın birinci bölümünde kripto para birimlerinin gelişim süreci, ikinci bölümünde kripto para birimlerinin paranın işlevleri açısından durumu incelenecektir. Üçüncü bölümde ise öncelikle kur savaşları ele alınacak ardından da gelecekte kripto paralar, kur savaşları ve uluslararası parasal ilişkilerin nasıl bir etkileşim içerisinde olacakları farklı senaryolar oluşturularak değerlendirilmeye çalışılacaktır. Çalışmanın son kısmında ise elde edilen bulgulara ve bu bulgular çerçevesinde politika önerilerine yer verilecektir.
Chapter
Full-text available
Teknolojik gelişmeler insanlık tarihinin seyrini değiştirmiştir. İnsanlık, öncesinde tarım sonrasında sanayi toplumu olmak üzere teknolojik gelişmeler doğrultusunda birikimli olarak ilerleyen bir süreçte gelişmiştir. Bu süreç ekonomik yapıyı da etkilemiş ve şekillendirmiştir. 1960’lı yıllara gelindiğinde ise toplumsal yapıda bir dönüşüm yaşanmaya başlamış ve bu toplumsal yapı bilgi toplumu olarak isimlendirilmiştir. Bu toplumun ekonomik yapısı ise bilgi ekonomisi ya da yeni ekonomi olarak adlandırılmıştır. Yeni ekonomi kısaca, bilginin toplandığı, üretildiği ve bunların ekonomik yapı içerisinde aktif olarak kullanıldığı bir ekonomik yapı olarak tanımlanabilir. Teknolojik gelişmeler birey ve toplumlarda da değişmelere neden olmuştur. Yeni ekonominin ortaya çıkması ile bireylerin çağın gereklerine uygun şekilde kendilerini geliştirmeleri önemli hâle gelmeye başlamıştır. Bu gerekleri yerine getirebilen toplumlar, ekonomilerinde daha yüksek katma değerli üretim yapabilen ve bu sayede dış ticaretten daha yüksek paylar alabilen konuma gelme şansı yakalamışlardır. Küreselleşmenin ortaya çıktığı 1980’li yıllardan itibaren ise yeni ekonominin önemi daha da artmaya başlamıştır. Özellikle soğuk savaş sonrasında liberal görüş dünya ekonomilerine hâkim olmuş ve dünya ticaretinin serbestleşmesi eğilimi hızla artmaya başlamıştır. Bu durum ülkelerin ihracata yönelik büyümelerine neden olurken aynı zamanda aralarındaki rekabetin de artmasını beraberinde getirmiştir. Bu rekabette üst sıralara yükselmek ancak katma değeri yüksek ürünler üreterek ve küresel değer zincirine katılarak başarılabilecek bir olgudur. Küreselleşme öncesinde arz zinciri, mal zinciri, küresel tedarik zinciri gibi isimler verilen ve üretim için gerekli olan hammaddenin tedarik edilmesi olarak tanımlanan süreç, küreselleşme ile üretimin farklı aşamalarının farklı üretim noktalarında gerçekleştirilmesi ve daha sonra birleştirilerek nihai malın elde edilmesi şeklinde bir üretim yöntemine dönüşerek küresel değer zinciri adı verilen kavramı ortaya çıkartmıştır. Küresel değer zinciri ile özellikle gelişmekte olan ülkelerin dünya ticaretine entegrasyon düzeyleri artmıştır. Bunun nedenleri olarak; küreselleşme öncesi ithal ikameci politikalara ağırlık vermiş olan gelişmekte olan ülkelerin, küreselleşme sonrasında ihracata dayalı büyüme stratejisine ağırlık vermeleri ve bu ülkelerde bulunan ucuz işgücünün küresel değer zincirine katılım konusunda kendilerine sağladığı avantajlı durumdan söz edilebilir. Konunun öneminden hareketle bu çalışmanın amacı, yeni ekonomi çerçevesinde küresel değer zinciri kavramını açıklamak ve analiz etmektir. Çalışmada UNCTAD-Eora GVC veri seti kullanılmıştır. Bu veri setinden 1991-2018 dönemi için 190 ülke ve 26 endüstrinin verileri alınmıştır. Bahsi geçen veri seti ile KDZ Katılım Endeksi (GVC Participation Index) hesaplanmıştır. IMF’nin gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülke ayrımı baz alınarak analiz gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmanın birinci bölümünde, bilgi toplumu ve yeni ekonomi kavramları tanıtılmış, ikinci bölümde küreselleşme ve küresel değer zincirleri konularına yer verilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde ise gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerin küresel değer zincirlerindeki yeri endeksler yardımıyla analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonuç kısmında ise çalışmada elde edilen bulgular ışığında politika önerilerinde bulunulmuştur.
Article
Full-text available
Technological developments have always led to changes in all aspects of our lives. Crypto currency is one of those changes. As a result of those changes, thousands of currencies such as bitcoin, ripple, litecoin and ethereum have evolved and have found a use in business. The present study focuses upon Ripple and tries to explain its effects on banks and business theoretically. It has been stated that the money transfer performed through Ripple is faster and more economical when compared to present systems. Additionally, it has been realised that the present SWIFT system has been influenced by that speed and economy, and therefore taken considerable technologic steps with an effort to improve its system.
Preprint
Full-text available
The initial purpose of the study is to search whether the market exhibits herd behaviour or not by examining the crypto-asset market in the context of behavioural finance. And the second purpose of the study is to measure whether the financial information stimulates the herd behaviour or not. Within this frame, the announcements of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), Governing Council of European Central Bank (ECB) and Policy Board of Bank of Japan (BOJ) for interest change, and S&P 500, Nikkei 225, FTSE 100 and GOLD SPOT indices data were used. In the study, the analyses were made over 100 cryptocurrencies with the highest trading volume by the use of the 2014:5 - 2019:12 period. For the analysis, the Markov Switching approach, as well as loads of empiric models developed by Chang et al. (2000), were used. According to the results obtained, the presence of herd behaviour in the crypto-asset market was determined in the relevant period. But it was found that interest rate announcements and stock exchange performances had no effect on herd behaviour.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Özet: Günümüzde özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde harcamaların büyük oranda dijital paralarla gerçekleştirilmesi kağıt para kullanımı gün geçtikçe azaltmaktadır. İlk olarak 2008 yılında dünyada küresel çapta başlayan ekonomik ve finansal krizin ardından uçtan uça kodlama ve aracı kurumları kaldıran, el konulamayan transferi yapılabilen mübadele aracı olarak kripto para birimleri kavramları ortaya çıkmıştır. Söz konusu kripto para birimleri gerek kullandığı teknoloji gerek yarattığı küresel etkiler gerek diğer para birimleri ile girdiği hegemonya savaşları nedeniyle son yıllarda en çok tartışılan konulardan biri olmuştur. Bu çerçevede çalışmada Bitcoin ile seçili çapraz döviz kurları arasındaki asimetrik nedensellik ilişkisi Hatemi-J (2012) yöntemiyle araştırılmaktadır. Çalışmanın sonucunda asimetrik nedensellik analizine göre Bitcoin ile Yen, Yuan, Kanada Doları ve Amerikan Doları arasında tek yönlü şokların etkisine rastlanırken; Euro ve İngiliz Sterlini arasında tek veya çift yönlü bir nedensellik ilişkisine rastlanmamıştır. Abstract: Nowadays, particularly in the developed countries, of the expenditure substantially make real with digital currencies, the use of fiat currencies is gradually decreased day by day. First, in 2008, after the economic and financial crisis that started on the global scale in the world, crypto-currency concepts emerged as a means of exchange that could transfer unencumbered transfers and removes intermediary institutions from the extremes. In fact, cryptographic currencies have been one of the most debated topics in recent years due to the technology they are using and the hegemony wars they have entered into with global currencies and other currencies. In this framework, asymmetric causality relation between Bitcoin and selected cross exchange rates is being investigated by Hatemi-J (2012) method. As a result of this study, asymmetric causality analysis shows that one-way shocks between Bitcoin and Yen, Yuan, Canadian Dollar and American Dollar are affected; but there is no one or two-way causality relationship was found between Euro and British Pound.
Article
Full-text available
Digital currencies are a globally spreading phenomenon that is frequently and also prominently addressed by media, venture capitalists, financial and governmental institutions alike. As exchange prices for Bitcoin have reached multiple peaks within 2013, we pose a prevailing and yet academically unaddressed question: What are users' intentions when changing their domestic into a digital currency? In particular, this paper aims at giving empirical insights on whether users' interest regarding digital currencies is driven by its appeal as an asset or as a currency. Based on our evaluation, we find strong indications that especially uninformed users approaching digital currencies are not primarily interested in an alternative transaction system but seek to participate in an alternative investment vehicle.
Article
Full-text available
Bitcoin has emerged as a fascinating phenomenon of the financial markets. Without any central authority issuing the currency, it has been associated with controversy ever since its popularity and public interest reached high levels. Here, we contribute to the discussion by examining potential drivers of Bitcoin prices ranging from fundamental to speculative and technical sources as well as a potential influence of the Chinese market. The evolution of the relationships is examined in both time and frequency domains utilizing the continuous wavelets framework so that we comment on development of the interconnections in time but we can also distinguish between short-term and long-term connections.
Article
We use Bitcoin and S&P 500 Index daily return data to examine relative volatility using detrended ratios. We then model Bitcoin market returns with selected economic variables to study the drivers of Bitcoin market returns. We report strong evidence to suggest that Bitcoin volatility is internally (buyer and seller) driven leading to the conclusion that the Bitcoin market is highly speculative at present.
Article
A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
Kripto Para: Bitcoin ve Döviz Kurları Üzerine Etkileri
  • Murat Atik
  • Yaşar Köse
Atik, Murat, Yaşar Köse, Bülent Yılmaz and Fatih Sağlam. (2015) "Kripto Para: Bitcoin ve Döviz Kurları Üzerine Etkileri", Bartın Üniversitesi İ.İ.B.F. Dergisi, Vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 247-261.
Bitcoin: Currency or Asset?
  • D Baur
  • Kihoon Dirk
  • Adrian D Hong
  • Lee
Baur, D. Dirk, KiHoon Hong and Adrian D. Lee. (2016) "Bitcoin: Currency or Asset?". Financial Institutions, Regulation & Corporate Governance (FIRCG) Conference. https://mbs.edu/getattachment/fircg/FIRCG-2016/Papers/8-Adrian-2c-KiHoonBitcoin-Baur-et-al-2015-P.pdf. [Accessed 21.03.2018].
  • Fatih Ceylan
  • Ramazan Ekinci
  • Hakan Osman Tüzün
  • Kahyaoğlu
Ceylan, Fatih, Ramazan Ekinci, Osman Tüzün, and Hakan Kahyaoğlu. (2018) "Determination Of Bubbles In Cryptocurrencies Market: Bitcoin And Ethereum", Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, Vol. 6, No.3. pp. 263-274.
Blockchain Teknolojisi ve Bitcoin
  • Şerif Dilek
Dilek, Şerif (2018). Blockchain Teknolojisi ve Bitcoin. SETA. https://setav.org/assets/uploads/2018/02/231.-Bitcoin.pdf. [Accessed 20.03.2018].
Para Politikasının Etkinliği
  • Çetin Doğan
Doğan, Çetin. (2005) "Para Politikasının Etkinliği: Türkiye Açısından Bir Değerlendirmesi". Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 25-42.