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Abstract

Anthropogenic pressure and climate change can affect the structural and functional role of aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, human health can be directly or indirectly affected by environmental factors, due to exposure to contaminants. In central Italy, the summer of 2017 was characterized by high temperature (heat wave) and low rainfall that had an impact on the main reservoir of drinking water (a central Italian lake). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the environmental impact of water abstraction in a Tiber River tributary, as well as to increase knowledge of the link with human and environmental health. The experimental approach was based on the assessment of environmental parameters and ecological quality status through the analysis of biological communities (WFD 2000/60/EC). Furthermore, faecal indicator microorganisms were recovered to evaluate the potential risks for human health. Water and biological samples were collected at three sampling points along the river in different campaigns. The results showed that the sites generally have a good ecological status, although a slight change of boundary class was also observed. It is difficult to establish the cause of this lowering of quality, since it would require a longer period of observation of the communities to determine if it is a reversible process or not, or if it might depend on water abstraction. In conclusion, the ecosystem approach adopted in this study provided a full vision useful for the planning of prevention and/or protection measures for aquatic ecosystems and for human health.

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... Among them, we chose the Ichthyic Index by Forneris [10,11], hereafter indicated I.I., and the New Index of the Ecological Status of Fish Communities, or NISECI [9]. To our knowledge, NISECI application has officially occurred only once so far [12]. To test the improvements, comparison between outcomes obtained from ISECI [4] and NISECI [12] appeared crucial. ...
... To our knowledge, NISECI application has officially occurred only once so far [12]. To test the improvements, comparison between outcomes obtained from ISECI [4] and NISECI [12] appeared crucial. Moreover, to perform an appropriate evaluation we decided to make an independent comparison based on a blind expert-based opinion given by ichthyologists, whose extended knowledge of sampled watercourses allowed an effective and reliable evaluation of their ecological status. ...
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The ISECI (or F index) has been the first fish index to be recommended by the Italian Ministry of the Environment to assess the rivers ecological status with regard to fish communities, in accordance with the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 EC. In addition to ISECI, other fish indices have been developed such as the Forneris Ichthyic Index (I.I.) and a revised version of ISECI, the so-called NISECI. The latter is nowadays the reference Italian index in the framework of the Water Framework Directive. In this work, we analyzed 30 sampling sites along 18 watercourses in Northern Italy and computed the results of fish monitoring to evaluate the strength of ISECI and NISECI, as well as to assess weak points limiting their application. We detected several issues that undermine the ISECI effectiveness. The weakest point regarded the mismatch between the expected reference fish community and the sampled ones, which decreased the overall algorithm efficiency in the evaluation process. On the other hand, the results confirm the improvements introduced by NISECI. Although with some advancement, all three proposed indices revealed their weaknesses in the overall assessment of the ecological status of the water course, as also highlighted by a pioneering comparison with three expert-based blind judgements.
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... The sampling strategy ( Fig. 1) included 2 sites along the urban river stretch within Rome, in both the southern and the northern part of the city, and 1 sampling site located in the protected area of the tributary Farfa River (FA) where previous studies have been performed (Marcheggiani et al., 2019). Specifically, the upstream site Castel Giubileo (CG) is located in the northern part of Rome immediately before the city limit (this site is likely to be affected by leaching of waste, agricultural and zootechnical discharges as well as the presence of small and medium factories) while the downstream site Mezzocammino (MC) is located in the southern area of Rome, about 20 km from the estuary in the Tyrrhenian Sea and is located right after a sewage treatment plant. ...
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... For instance, the available rainfall data show that the summer of 2018 was much rainier than the summer of 2019, especially in the area of the Farfa River [23]. However, it interesting to notice that a recently published study [24] indicated that the ecological status in a small investigated portion of this stream should be considered as moderate instead of good, according to the definition provided by the WFD obligations. These data refer to the period of 2018. ...
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Introduction: Effect-based methods (EBMs), i.e. in vitro and in vivo bioassays, represent innovative tools for the effect detection of environmental chemical pollutants on living organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the water quality of a river ecosystem implementing two in vivo bioassays on target freshwater animal species: the crustacean Daphnia magna and the small fish Danio rerio, also known as zebrafish. Materials and methods: The methods applied in this study, i.e. the Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation assay and the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test, are commonly used in water quality research and their application in short-term ecotoxicity detection is suggested by recent European projects. Two sampling sites were chosen in the urban part of the Tiber River in Rome, while a third one was chosen as a reference site in the Farfa River, a tributary upstream of the city. The sites in the Tiber River are potentially affected by different pollution sources, including urban and industrial wastewater discharges, the pesticide release, livestock waste products, and waste dumps. Results and discussion: The results of the study showed wide differences between the two applied bioassays. The FET test was generally more sensitive in detecting even low effects in all the water samples, but the strongest statistically results were observed with the D. magna Acute Immobilisation test. The results of this research confirm the effectiveness of EBMs in investigating and monitoring water chemical pollution, and stress the need for performing further studies, e.g. chemical analyses and other bioassays, to improve the knowledge of the health status of the Tiber River basin. Conclusions: Further results will aim to support the local authorities in adopting measures to reduce and to eliminate the sources of chemical pollution in the study area.
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Environmental factors affecting the species composition of periphytic diatom assemblages were analyzed in the partly polluted Asa River, in Tokyo, Japan, using principal component analysis, individual differences scaling and direct gradient analysis. The effects of water pollution, seasonal change of temperature, and substrate were detected, among which pollution was the most influential in this river. Substrate had only a little effect. The existence of both direct and indirect effects (through water quality and temperature) was suggested.
Article
Consider a population in which sexual selection and natural selection may or may not be taking place. Assume only that the deviations from the mean in the case of any organ of any generation follow exactly or closely the normal law of frequency, then the following expressions may be shown to give the law of inheritance of the population.
Article
A typology of the main channel of the river Rhine according to its aquatic bryophyte and vascular hydrophyte assemblages is presented. The aquatic bryophytes are especially abundant in the main channel, having found stable, rocky habitats with variable water levels in the regulated river, and segregate longitudinally along a gradient of water quality. Conversely, the vascular hydrophytes are restricted to side channels with constant discharges and silt deposits, and segregate laterally along a gradient of connectivity with the main river. The hydrophytes have been affected by water eutrophication which became obvious in the 1960s–1970s. The oligotrophic groundwater-fed side-channels disconnected since the river canalization consequently include a relic reference flora. Important hydraulic works are currently in progress in order to protect the areas located downstream from the canalized Rhine from flooding by retaining the river waters in lateral systems during the discharge peaks and to recreate a functional alluvial floodplain by reconnecting the disconnected side-channels to the main river. The floodpulse caused by the suddent input of surface water in the disconnected brooks will probably wash out most of the hydrophytes and it is very likely that the rare species with their low recolonization strategies will disappear in these conditions. It is highly desirable to preserve from flooding the last oligotrophic brooks with their original hydrophyte assemblages. Those brooks which show a tendency to silt up can be re-dynamized by ecological engineering without disturbing the flowing drains of the watertable. In areas (including flowing drains of the watertable) that have already been designated for flood retention, the hydraulic works should allow, as far as possible, the preservation of the flowing oligotrophic streams by only permitting the input of surface water in the silted-up brooks. The disconnected side-channels could then continue their role as refugia from where the main channel, whose water quality has been improving for a decade, could be recolonized by its primary flora.
Article
River regulation can have various effects on the natural flow regime, however the most obvious and perhaps pronounced hydrological effect is the reduction of total water discharge. Whilst there has been an increasing number of studies investigating the impacts of river regulation on lowland rivers, few studies have specifically investigated the effects of water extractions on small upland streams. In this study, we experimentally examined the effects of short-term, summer water extractions from small, unregulated streams. Five 30 m reaches were experimentally manipulated to divert a proportion of the total stream flow, and another five 30 m reaches were designated as controls, in the Yea River catchment, Victoria, Australia. The percentage of total discharge diverted from each experimental reach varied through time and between creeks (28–97%), with discharge always significantly reduced compared to control locations. All sites were monitored for available habitat, biofilm, water quality and macroinvertebrate diversity and density, fortnightly during February and March 2004.
Article
The occurrence of families of macroinvertebrates has recently been used as the basis for the BMWP (Biological Monitoring Working Party) system of assigning scores to lotic sites. In this study the performance of the system across 268 sites on 41 rivers providing a wide range of physical and chemical features has been appraised. Changes in score and ASPT (average score per taxon) with respect to season and sampling effort have been examined. Seasonal variations were relatively slight and it is concluded that samples taken in any of the three seasons, spring, summer or autumn, were likely to provide consistent estimates of score and particularly ASPT. Sample replication led to substantial accretion of scores but had little effect on ASPT and therefore more information was obtained for less effort when ASPT was used. Data are presented on score and ASPT values for 8 groups of sites derived by multivariate classificatory techniques. Considerable variability in achievable score and ASPT was observed in the different groups of unpolluted sites. In general, scores were highest in the group at the middle of the range of environmental features and lowest in groups at the bottom of the range (lowland areas). ASPT in contrast showed a relatively steady decline in values between groups at the top (mainly upland rivers) and bottom of the range of environmental features. Attempts were made to predict score and ASPT from physical and chemical data, or physical data alone using multiple regression. Equations used to predict ASPT explained on average a higher proportion of the variance (65%) than those predicting scores (22%). It is suggested that predictive equations for ASPT will enable theoretical ASPT to be calculated, thus providing target values against which observed values can be compared. Recommendations to facilitate use and interpretation of the BMWP score system are presented.
Managing Abstraction and the Water Environment, Department of Environment and Rural Affairs, Welsh Government
  • Aa
  • Vv
AA.VV, Report 2013 Managing Abstraction and the Water Environment, Department of Environment and Rural Affairs, Welsh Government, December 2013 Available on line at: https://consult.defra.gov.uk/water/abstraction-reform/ supporting_documents/abstractreformconsultmanage20131217.pdf, Accessed date: 15 February 2019.
Istituzione della riserva naturale di Nazzano, Tevere-Farfa, 1979 (B.U. 30 aprile 1979
  • Regional Italy
  • Law
Italy, Regional Law 4 April 1979, n. 21, Istituzione della riserva naturale di Nazzano, Tevere-Farfa, 1979 (B.U. 30 aprile 1979, n. 12).
Graph of Pearson correlation coefficient r between the second component (shape) loadings or scores of PCAs applied to (a) diatoms and macroinvertebrates and (b) physico-chemical parameters and microbiological indicators
Fig. 5. Graph of Pearson correlation coefficient r between the second component (shape) loadings or scores of PCAs applied to (a) diatoms and macroinvertebrates and (b) physico-chemical parameters and microbiological indicators. CE in Italia, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, 2006(Rapporti ISTISAN 06/37).
Quinto Elenco Aggiornato Dei Siti di Importanza Comunitaria per la Regione Mediterranea
  • Italy
Italy, Ministerial Decree del 7 Marzo 2012. Quinto Elenco Aggiornato Dei Siti di Importanza Comunitaria per la Regione Mediterranea. (G.U. Della Repubblica Italiana N. 79 del 3/04/2012), (2012).
Bacillariophyceae 5 Teil: English and French translation of the keys
  • K Krammer
  • H Lange-Bertalot
Krammer, K., Lange-Bertalot, H. Bacillariophyceae 5 Teil: English and French translation of the keys. In: Ettl H. (Ed.) Suβwasserflora von Mitteleuropea Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer-Verlag; 2000.
Manuale per il Riconoscimento dei Macroinvertebrati delle
  • S Campaioli
  • P F Ghetti
  • A Minelli
  • S Ruffo
S. Campaioli, P.F. Ghetti, A. Minelli, S. Ruffo, Manuale per il Riconoscimento dei Macroinvertebrati delle Acque Dolci Italiane, Vol. I e II Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Trento, 1994.
Macroinvertebrati dei corsi d'acqua italiani
  • G Sansoni
G. Sansoni, Macroinvertebrati dei corsi d'acqua italiani, Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Trento, 1988.
Guida alle macrofite acquatiche del Friuli Venezia Giulia I -Piante vascolari, ARPA Friuli Venezia Giulia -Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita
  • P L Nimis
  • A Borgo
  • A Macor
  • A Moro
  • A Pavan
  • E Pittao
  • A Sinesi
  • D Virgilio
  • E Zanut
P.L. Nimis, A. Dal Borgo, A. Macor, A. Moro, A. Pavan, E. Pittao, A. Sinesi, D. Virgilio, E. Zanut, Guida alle macrofite acquatiche del Friuli Venezia Giulia I -Piante vascolari, ARPA Friuli Venezia Giulia -Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Trieste, 2011 Available online at: http://dbiodbs.units.it/carso/ chiavi_pub21?sc=479, Accessed date: 15 February 2019.
  • E Rott
  • P Pfister
  • H Van Dam
  • E Pipp
  • K Pall
  • N Binder
  • K Ortler
E. Rott, P. Pfister, H. van Dam, E. Pipp, K. Pall, N. Binder, K. Ortler, Indikationslisten für Aufwuchsalgen in Österreichischen Fliessgewässern, Teil 2: Trophieindikation Und autökologische Anmerkungen Bundesministerium für Land-Und Forstwirtschaf, Wasserwirtschaftskataster, Wien, 1999.
Metodo per la valutazione e la classificazione dei corsi d'acqua utilizzando la comunità delle macrofite acquatiche
  • M R Minciardi
  • C D Spada
  • G L Rossi
  • R Angius
  • G Orrù
  • L Mancini
  • G Pace
  • S Marcheggiani
  • C Puccinelli
M.R. Minciardi, C.D. Spada, G.L. Rossi, R. Angius, G. Orrù, L. Mancini, G. Pace, S. Marcheggiani, C. Puccinelli, Metodo per la valutazione e la classificazione dei corsi d'acqua utilizzando la comunità delle macrofite acquatiche, Enea, Roma, 2009 (RT/2009/23/ENEA).
Nuovo indice dello stato ecologico delle comunità ittiche, Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale
  • S Macchio
  • G L Rossi
  • G Rossi
  • S De
  • S Bonis
  • C Balzamo
  • Martone
S. Macchio, G.L. Rossi, G. Rossi, S. De Bonis, S. Balzamo, C. Martone, Nuovo indice dello stato ecologico delle comunità ittiche, Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, Roma, 2017 (Manuali e Linee Guida 159/2017).
Problèmes et méthodes de la classification et de la zonation écologique des eaux courantes, considerées surtout du point de vue faunistique
  • J Illies
  • L Botosoneanu
J. Illies, L. Botosoneanu, Problèmes et méthodes de la classification et de la zonation écologique des eaux courantes, considerées surtout du point de vue faunistique, Mitt. Int. Ver. Theor. Ang. Limnol. 12 (1963).
Chimica dell'ambiente, 6 Edizione, Piccin, Padova
  • S Manahan
S. Manahan, Chimica dell'ambiente, 6 Edizione, Piccin, Padova, 2000.
Diatomee bentoniche del corso superiore di alcuni fiumi centro-appenninici
  • Torrisi
M.C. Torrisi, A. Dell'Uomo, Diatomee bentoniche del corso superiore di alcuni fiumi centro-appenninici, Studi Trent. Sci. Nat. 84 (2009) 139-151.
Analisi della comunità diatomica, Caratterizzazione delle comunità diatomiche e macrofitiche degli ecosistemi fluviali laziali del bacino del Tevere Relazione finale
  • V Della Bella
  • C Puccinelli
  • G Pace
  • S Marcheggiani
V. Della Bella, C. Puccinelli, G. Pace, S. Marcheggiani, Analisi della comunità diatomica, Caratterizzazione delle comunità diatomiche e macrofitiche degli ecosistemi fluviali laziali del bacino del Tevere Relazione finale, 2007, pp. 18-29.
Manuale di applicazione: Indice Biotico Esteso (I.B.E.). I macroinvertebrati nel controllo della qualità degli ambienti di acque correnti, Agenzia Provinciale per la Protezione dell'Ambiente Provincia Autonoma di Trento
  • P F Ghetti
P.F. Ghetti, Manuale di applicazione: Indice Biotico Esteso (I.B.E.). I macroinvertebrati nel controllo della qualità degli ambienti di acque correnti, Agenzia Provinciale per la Protezione dell'Ambiente Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Trento, 1997.