Article

Partial characterization and antitumor activity of a polysaccharide isolated from watermelon rinds

Authors:
  • Faculty of Sciences of Monastir, University of Monastir, Tunisia
  • Unité de Recherche Analyses et Procédés Appliqués à l'Environnement UR17ES32 - Institut Supérieur des sciences Appliquées et de Technologie de Mahdia
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Abstract

As a health-beneficial fruit, watermelon is widely consumed by people around the world. However, components responsible for the health benefits are not yet determined. As watermelon contains a large amount of polysaccharides, these carbohydrates might play an important role in the health benefits. In this work, polysaccharide from watermelon rinds (PWR) was extracted by papain digestion, purified and characterized by GC–MS, SEC/MALS/VD/DRI, FTIR and 1D and 2D NMR which revealed the glycosidic linkages, their locations in branches and backbone. The monosaccharide composition revealed that the extracted polysaccharide was composed of galactose (38.26%), arabinose (26.12%), rhamnose (17.86%), mannose (9.94%), xylose (5.10%) and glucose (2.70%) with a percentage of uronic acid of 45%. A combination of CPG and NMR analysis showed that the extracted polysaccharide is arabinogalactan linked to type I rhamnogalacturonan. we notice that the arabinogalactan was formed by →6)-β-D-Galp-(1→ as backbone with short branching of arabinose linked in α 1 → 3, rhamnose linked in α 1 → 4, mannose linked in β 1 → 6 and galactose branches linked in β 1 → 3. Furthermore, PWR exhibited obvious cytotoxicity ability to human laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells in a dose-and time-dependant manner.

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... Simultaneously, the hexane extract of CLP was positive only for alkaloid, saponin, and terpenoid (Harith et al., 2018). As given in Table 28.1, the rind of CL contains glucose, sucrose, galactose, arabinose rhamnose, xylose, and mannose (Dammak et al., 2019). CLR also contains cellulose, citrulline, pectin, proteins, and carotenoids (Patra & Baek, 2015). ...
... In another study, CLR was extracted by the digestion method using a papain enzyme as biocatalysts. Data revealed that CL rind contained 45% uronic acid and monosaccharides i.e., glucose (2.7%), galactose (38.2%), arabinose (26.1%), rhamnose (17.8%), xylose (5.1%), and mannose (9.9%) (Dammak et al., 2019). In another work, CLR was extracted using the hot water extraction technique. ...
... Interestingly and although the sacristy of the studies, data points to the antitumor activity of the CLR extract. The rind polysaccharides; galactose (38.26%), arabinose (26.12%), rhamnose (17.86%), mannose (9.94%), xylose (5.10%) and glucose (2.70%) with a percentage of uronic acid of 45% that have been quantified in a previous study showed significant cytotoxicity against the human laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells, which was dose and time-dependent (Dammak et al., 2019). This finding should be a base for further in-depth studies on animals regarding the specific active ingredients and mechanisms responsible for the antitumor activities rather than the antioxidative properties of CLR. ...
... Simultaneously, the hexane extract of CLP was positive only for alkaloid, saponin, and terpenoid (Harith et al., 2018). As given in Table 28.1, the rind of CL contains glucose, sucrose, galactose, arabinose rhamnose, xylose, and mannose (Dammak et al., 2019). CLR also contains cellulose, citrulline, pectin, proteins, and carotenoids (Patra & Baek, 2015). ...
... In another study, CLR was extracted by the digestion method using a papain enzyme as biocatalysts. Data revealed that CL rind contained 45% uronic acid and monosaccharides i.e., glucose (2.7%), galactose (38.2%), arabinose (26.1%), rhamnose (17.8%), xylose (5.1%), and mannose (9.9%) (Dammak et al., 2019). In another work, CLR was extracted using the hot water extraction technique. ...
... Interestingly and although the sacristy of the studies, data points to the antitumor activity of the CLR extract. The rind polysaccharides; galactose (38.26%), arabinose (26.12%), rhamnose (17.86%), mannose (9.94%), xylose (5.10%) and glucose (2.70%) with a percentage of uronic acid of 45% that have been quantified in a previous study showed significant cytotoxicity against the human laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells, which was dose and time-dependent (Dammak et al., 2019). This finding should be a base for further in-depth studies on animals regarding the specific active ingredients and mechanisms responsible for the antitumor activities rather than the antioxidative properties of CLR. ...
Chapter
Watermelon or Citrullus lanatus (CL) fruit is a member of the family Cucurbitaceae. It is used in folk medicine to treat some diseases owing to its availability and cheapness. The rind and the seeds are usually discarded as solid wastes. Many researchers studied the usefulness of CL wastes in medical applications as a naturalistic low-cost alternative. Studies have reported that the seed oil possesses anti-inflammatory, in vivo and in vitro. The seed extract exerts antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. There are efforts provided by the researchers to maximize the uses of CL wastes in the industry. Studies have documented that seed oil is comparable to the standard oils in being edible and stable. Nevertheless, the seeds oil showed high acid and free fatty acids content. The use of Citrullus lanatus rind (CLR) in the adsorption of the toxic heavy metal “chromium” ion from wastewater has been documented. The CLR can be used as a cheap, eco-friendly biosorbent for methylene blue, crystal violet, and rhodamine B from solutions. CLR can be used to produce activated carbon under the optimum condition of temperature and chemical treatments. One of the exciting applications of CLR in the industry lies in its usage as a functional food. The CL wastes are worthy and valuable resources that should be incorporated in many applications due to their industrial and medicinal applications.
... Concerning other polysaccharides, Banerjee et al. (2019) reported a biorefinery scheme leading to high xylooligosaccharides yields (over 90%) using pineapple peels as a source of hemicelluloses. By contrast, when watermelon peels were extracted (Dammak et al., 2019;Romdhane et al., 2017), polysaccharides rich in galactose, arabinose and minor amounts of other neutral monosaccharides were obtained. However, uronic acid was the main component (45%) found by Dammak et al. (2019) in the extracted polysaccharide, indicating that this polymer is mainly made up of arabinogalactan linked to rhamnogalacturonan I. ...
... By contrast, when watermelon peels were extracted (Dammak et al., 2019;Romdhane et al., 2017), polysaccharides rich in galactose, arabinose and minor amounts of other neutral monosaccharides were obtained. However, uronic acid was the main component (45%) found by Dammak et al. (2019) in the extracted polysaccharide, indicating that this polymer is mainly made up of arabinogalactan linked to rhamnogalacturonan I. ...
... Biocatalysis-based extractions are considered environmentally friendly technologies for a sustainable valorisation, since they do not use organic solvents, require less energy and result in the recovery of high quality products (Dammak et al., 2019;Perussello et al., 2017). ...
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Nowadays, fruit and vegetable industries generate huge amounts of under-utilized by-products with a great economic potential. The processing by-products account from 25 up to 60% of the weight of the fruit and would be mainly made of skin and lower percentages of pulp and seeds. All their fractions present an interesting chemical composition and therefore, they could be considered as raw materials for the development of integrated biorefinery approaches. Since, several functional molecules and platform chemicals could be produced by sequential environmentally friendly processes with novel applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This review describes the current status of the research dealing with pineapple, melon, watermelon and pumpkin processing by-products, including aspects related to the technologies employed to obtain and isolate high added-value compounds from these by-products. Furthermore, a suitable biorefinery approach for their integral valorisation based on obtaining valuable multi-products is also proposed.
... Aside from its large number of consumptions, watermelon is known for its health benefits. As reported by Dammak et al. (2019), watermelon is known because of its low-calorie content, as well as its health benefits, thirst-quenching capacity, good nutritional value, and antioxidant properties. Besides, Romdhane et al. (2017) also reported that watermelon is an excellent source of mineral salts (Potassium, Sodium, Iron and Magnesium), vitamins (A, B, C and E), antioxidants such as phenolic compounds and carotenoids, and few specific amino acids such as citrulline and arginine. ...
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Fruit juice is an ideal medium in the production of a probiotic drink. Watermelon fruit is a suitable medium for the production of probiotic juice due to its nutritional content. However, its utilisation as a probiotic drink is underutilised. Experiments were conducted to determine the chemical (pH, Brix, titrable acidity) and microbiological changes (lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count) during fermentation of probiotic watermelon juice using different concentrations of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus acidophilus (2%, 5% and 10%) at 30°C for 72 hrs. The results indicated a significant drop in pH of the probioticated watermelon juice (2%, 5% and 10%) using various Lactobacilli strains during 24 hrs of fermentation. Interestingly, 2% probioticated watermelon juice in all their strains of probiotic were higher than 5% and 10% probioticated watermelon juice. The lactic acid content in probioticated watermelon juice was reduced significantly throughout 72 hrs of fermentation, but the watermelon juice without probiotic strains increased only within 24 hrs of fermentation. The LAB count in probioticated watermelon juice (2%, 5% and 10%) maintained a high population count (10 8 to 10 9 CFU/mL) for all probiotic strains throughout fermentation. Since all concentrations studied showed similar results in the chemical and microbiological analyses, 2% concentration is proven to be sufficient for probioticated watermelon juice regardless of the types of Lactobacillus strains used.
... The order of scavenging of hydroxyl radicals by different extraction methods, DPPH radicals, and reducing power from strong to weak was enzyme-assisted hot water extraction method > freezethaw assisted hot water extraction method > microwave-assisted hot water extraction method > ultrasonic-assisted hot water extraction method > hot water extraction method ( Figure 1C-E). Compared with other methods, the enzyme-assisted hot water extraction method had the advantages of mild reaction conditions, high extraction rate, less damage to polysaccharide structure, avoid changing the biological activity of polysaccharides, low cost, energy savings, and environmental protection [39]. Therefore, the PAP obtained by the enzyme-assisted hot water extraction method was selected for subsequent experiments. ...
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To investigate the structure of Arthrospira platensis polysaccharide (PAP) (intracellular polysaccharide) and the antioxidant activity of the first component of PAP (PAP-1) on pseudorabies virus (PRV) -infected RAW264.7 cells. The PAP was separated and purified by the Cellulose DE-52 chromatography column and Sephacryl S-200 high-resolution gel column to obtain PAP-1. The antioxidant activity and regulation of PAP-1 on PRV-infected RAW264.7 cells of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network were investigated by chemical kit, Q-PCR, and ce-RNA seq. The results indicated that the molecular weight (Mw) of PAP-1, which was mainly composed of glucose and eight other monosaccharides, was 1.48 × 106 Da. The main glycosidic bond structure of PAP-1 was →4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→. PAP-1 may be increased the antioxidant capacity by regulating the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network in PRV-infected RAW264.7 cells. This study provided a scientific foundation for further exploring the antioxidant activity of PAP-1 based on its structure.
... Al-Sayed and Ahmed (2013) incorporated watermelon rind powder in cake mixing, enhancing the antioxidant activity of the cakes, due to the presence of phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, and coumaric acid) and -carotene. Bioactives, polysaccharides (galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, mannose, xylose, and glucose) isolated from watermelon rinds by papain digestion gave antitumoral activity to human laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells in a dose-and time-dependant manner (Dammak et al., 2019). ...
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... One of the major contributors to the biomass wastes are fruit wastes. These wastes include banana peel or banana skin, orange peel, watermelon rinds, mango peel and seeds, pomegranate peel, lemon peel, apple seeds, papaya peel and seeds, grapefruit peel, peach peel and seed, avocado residual skin and seed, passion fruit peel, lychee peel, fig seeds, coconut husks, custard apple peel and seeds, pumpkin peel, melon residual skin and seed, date seeds, persimmon peel, tamarind husks and seeds, shaddock peel and seeds etc. (García et al., 2012;Rodríguez et al., 2008;Ö zsin and Pütün 2018;Lin et al., 2020;Siddiqui et al., 2019;Saleem et al., 2020;Hasanin and Hashem, 2020;Pathak et al., 2016;Dammak et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2020;Calabrò et al., 2016;Kabenge et al., 2018;Martínez-Ruano et al., 2018). The fruit waste derived adsorbents have actively been investigated for wastewater treatment applications. ...
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... Data from the literature shows that some acidic polysaccharides obtained from plants do not present cytotoxic activity in vitro. Some polysaccharides may have in vitro and in vivo biological activities against tumor cells, but most of them have only a considerable effect at high doses [28,29]. Yang et al. (2013) reported that the low or absence of polysaccharide cytotoxicity in tumor cells may be related to the size of the heteropolysaccharide chain and chemical groupings at the end of polymer, which is unable to penetrate the membrane cell. ...
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Background Agro-waste is of rising concern since they present social, economic and environmental challenges. Conversion of food waste is receiving an increasing attention towards the fact that these materials represent possible utilization sources for conversion into useful products and increasing the demand for natural bioactive compounds. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is consumed all over the world that contains a large number of seeds and rind, which is discarded and used as animal feed. These by-products contain phytochemical compounds with great nutritional and functional potential. Scope and approach This review article describes the scientific studies from the last five years regarding the nutritional and bioactive compounds present in the watermelon rind (WMR) and watermelon seeds (WMSs). This review also focused on their nutraceutical worth fully justified by the presence of functional active compounds, as well as their potential industrial application for future research concerning novel or functional, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical product development. Key findings and conclusion WMR is a rich source of fatty acids, minerals, and phenolic compounds and dietary fibers. It also contains soluble carbohydrates (45-65%), carotenoids, alkaloids, saponin, and phytates. WMSs are an excellent source of protein (15-50%) such as albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin. WMSs are also a good source of vitamin B-complex (B1, B2, B3, B6 B12), polyunsaturated fatty acids, essential and non-essential amino acids as well as phenolic compounds. Moreover. Watermelon by-products also present therapeutic properties including anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antitumor, hypocholesterolemic, hepato-, nephron- and neuro-protective effects and antibacterial properties fully evidenced from recently published literature. Therefore, the use of these byproducts to design and develop innovative functional food products with added value is important for sustainability across the food chain. Nevertheless, further research is needed on the clinical studies of WMR and WMSs to fully support the development of functional food products, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.
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This study aimed to analysis the physicochemical properties of Polygonatum cyrtonema polysaccharide (PCP), and evaluated its effects in a high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced obese mice. Experimentally, PCP was established as a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide with both α‐ and β‐ configurations, and its estimated average molecular weight was ~5.1 kDa. Besides, we discovered its major monosaccharides, including galactose, mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, and glucose. PCP markedly decreased the obesity‐related parameters, and improved serum lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, and leptin levels, and reversed insulin resistance. It also reduced the hepatic infiltration of lipid droplets and the size of adipocytes in adipose tissues. Finally, PCP simulation significantly down‐regulated the mRNA expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein‐α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐γ (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element‐binding protein‐1c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). On the contray, it increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1) and uncoupling protein‐2 (UCP2) levels closely related to thermogenesis and glucolipid metabolism. Taken together, these findings have provided evidence ‐that PCP could be a potential anti‐obesity ingredient in preventing diet‐induced obesity.
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Flaxseed oligosaccharides (FGOS) were prepared by degradation of flaxseed gum (FG) using enzymatic method. Factors affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of FG were investigated by single factor and orthogonal tests. In the optimum hydrolysis conditions (reaction time 12 h, temperature 50 °C, pH 4.5, cellulase concentration 100 U/mL), the reducing sugar ratio and extraction yield of FGOS were 33.6 ± 0.35% and 56.8 ± 0.41%, respectively. The average molecular weight of FGOS was about 1.6 kDa, which consists of mannose, galactose, glucose, arabinose, glucuronic acid, xylose, rhamnose, ribose, galacturonic acid. Fourier-transform infrared spectra and NMR indicated that FG was successfully degraded to FGOS. FGOS exhibited better antioxidant activities than FG on scavenging hydroxyl, ABTS and DPPH radicals. In vitro cytotoxicities experiments reveal FGOS acquire the ability of antiproliferation against HepG2 and Hela cells in a dose-dependent manner.
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In this paper, the hydrolysis pods before its ultrasonic treatment for the internal macromolecular substances (mainly non-soluble dietary fiber) mechanical off button and increase the water-soluble dietary fiber content and enhance the extraction of two dietary fiber Rate.It mainly check on the ultrasound factors influence the yield of SDF and IDF,The result is that the ultrasonic time is 45 min, ultrasonic temperature is 45 °C and ultrasound intensity was800W,Liquid ratio of 1:60 when the maximize soluble dietary fiber is 8.9%,and insoluble dietary fiber is 77.35%.
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Water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from semen cassiae using water for extraction and ethanol for deposition. The optimized conditions for polysaccharide isolation by orthogonal experiments were a sample to liquid ratio of 1:30 at 80°C for 3.5 hours; the yield of polysaccharide from semen cassiae under these conditions was 5.46%. Different polysaccharides (SCPW-1, SCPW-2, SCPW-3, SCPW-4, SCPW-5, SCPS-1, SCPS-2) were obtained from the extract (i.e., crude polysaccharide) by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column chromatography. The polysaccharides obtained showed different structures by Fourier transform infrared therein the five elected. The antioxidant activities of the extract were evaluated. The scavenging rates of the present extract on hydroxyl and superoxide were 43.32% and 64.97%, respectively, at a concentration of polysaccharide of 94.03 μg/mL, which was better than vitamin C at the same concentration. The scavenging rate of the present extract on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was 13.33% at a polysaccharide concentration of 94.03 μg/mL, which was less than vitamin C at the same concentration.
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Extractions of apple pectins from apple pomace were performed using an experimental design with 2 2 factorial. The extractor agent was 5 % (w/v) citric acid and the variables were time (30, 50 and 80 min) and temperature (50, 75 and 100 °C). The best yield (16.8 %) was obtained using higher temperatures (100 °C; 80 min). Monosaccharide composition of the pectic fractions was similar to others already described.
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Increased demand for determinations of nitrogen (N), and hence crude protein (CP), has led to wider use of the Dumas method in place of the traditional Kjeldahl methods. Although Kjeldahl N (KN) and Dumas N (DN) represent different N fractions, published studies on infant formula, animal feed and meat products have indicated that DN could replace KN with little practical impact on the reliability of the N values obtained. This study was conducted to establish whether DN determination could replace that of KN in a broader range of foods for CP calculation. Statistical analysis was performed on in-house assayed KN and DN values together with published KN and DN values for selected food products. In the range 0·05–6·8% N, KN may be estimated from DN with the equation: KN=1·00(P<0·01)×DN-0·09(P=0·50) (n=101, R2=0·98, P-regression<0·01). Because N levels in individual groups of food did not span the entire range of N contents, KN: DN ratios were calculated for each food group. KN: DN ratios differed significantly (R2=0·25, P<0·01) from group to group. Ratios of 1·01 for dairy, 1·00 for oilseeds, 0·99 for feed, 0·98 for infant formulas, 0·95 for cereals, 0·94 for meats, 0·89 for vegetables, 0·80 for fish and 0·73 for fruits were valid for the estimation of KN and CP using DN data. CP was independently calculated as CP1=H×KN or CP2=H×KN: DN×DN, where H is the nitrogen to protein conversion factor for the food group. Mean differences between CP1 and CP2 values were 0% for dairy, oilseeds, feed, infant formulas and baby foods, cereals, meat and meat products, vegetables and vegetable products and fruit, and 1% for fish. These results suggest that DN may replace KN for the determination of N and CP in selected food groups when appropriate coefficients are used. © 1997 SCI.
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This investigation reports the variability of antioxidant components and antioxidant activities of six watermelon cultivars (cvs) (four commercial cvs Aramis, Crimson Sweet, Dumara, Giza, and two new selections P503 and P403 produced by the National Agricultural Research Institute of Tunisia) as influenced by sampling area. All cvs were simultaneously grown in an open-field and subjected to identical horticultural practices in order to minimize the effects of environmental conditions and maximize those related to genotype. Significant differences were found between watermelon cvs for lycopene, phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid (AsA), dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and total vitamin C (AsA + DHA) contents, as well as in the antioxidant activity of their hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. P503 cv showed the highest lycopene and flavonoid contents. Crimson Sweet and Giza cvs showed the highest HAA and LAA when TEAC was used as assay method, while the highest HAA and LAA were detected in Giza and Dumara cvs and in P503 cv, respectively, when FRAP assay was used. This study demonstrates that the amount of each specific antioxidant, as well as the HAA and LAA, were both influenced by genotype and sampling area, emphasizing the need to evaluate watermelon biodiversity in order to improve its nutritional value.
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This paper describes a program available for PC's for the evaluation of molecular weights from sedimentation equilibrium. This program, in its two forms – MSTARA for absorption optical records and MSTARI for interference optical records – requires no prior assumption of the nature of the system (ideal, non-ideal, monodisperse, polydisperse, self-associating etc.) and takes into consideration the whole solute distribution (i.e. from solution meniscus to cell base) in the ultracentrifuge cell rather than just a selected data-set. MSTARA or MSTARI are therefore recommended as a first analysis programme of sedimentation equilibrium data coming off an absorption or interference based analytical ultracentrifuge. These programmes are therefore particularly well suited if heterogeneity (polydispersity or interaction phenomena) or non-ideality is suspected. Their use is demonstrated for a series of data-set types (ideal, non-ideal, polydisperse and self-associating). Although MSTARA and MSTARI are model independent, they provide the basis for more detailed analysis of interactions, polydisperse distributions or non-ideality via easy export of ASCII datafiles to model dependent routines.
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The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant activities, total phenolics, lycopene and ascorbic acid content of four commercial tomato cultivars (Excell, Tradiro, Flavourine and Campari) of New Zealand, grown under similar hydroponic conditions. The mean antioxidant activity of the four cultivars, as measured with the ABTS radical decolourization assay, ranged from 2329 to 3268 micromole TEAC/100 g dry matter (DM) in the hydrophilic extracts and from 178 to 303 micromole TEAC/100 g DM in the lipophilic extracts. The major antioxidant components per 100 g DM were phenolics (343-451 mg gallic acid equivalents in hydrophilic extract and 53-74 mg gallic acid equivalents in lipophilic extract), flavonoids (175-204 mg rutin equivalents), ascorbic acid (153-195 mg) and lycopene (33-54 mg). Ascorbic acid and flavonoids were found to contribute 28-38% and 29-34%, respectively, to the antioxidant activity of the hydrophilic extract of tomatoes. The results showed that the smallest cultivar (Campari) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher antioxidant activities, total phenolics and flavonoids than the larger sized cultivars (Excell, Tradiro and Flavourine). This could be attributed to the significantly (P < 0.05) higher surface area/volume ratio of the small cultivar (0.15) when compared with the large-sized cultivars (0.10-0.12). The tomato cultivar (Flavourine) with a brighter red colour (higher a*/b* value), had a higher lycopene content as well, which suggests that the a*/b* value of tomatoes can be used as an indicator of their lycopene content. The phenolics (r = 0.84**) and flavonoids (r = 0.88**) were significantly related to the antioxidant activity of the hydrophilic extract, which suggests that measurement of total phenolics or flavonoids can be used as indicators of the antioxidant activity of tomatoes.
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The conditions of wheat germ polysaccharide extraction were determined using the water extraction method. The gastric and intestinal digestion of wheat germ polysaccharide was analyzed in vitro. According to a single factor experiment and response surface experiment, the optimal extraction conditions of wheat germ polysaccharide were the following: liquid-solid ratio, 5:1 mL/g; extraction temperature, 69 °C; repetition of the extracting procedure, 3 times; extraction time, 44 min. Under such conditions, wheat germ polysaccharide yield was 8.89% ± 0.002%. In the in vitro gastrointestinal experiment, wheat germ polysaccharide was digested and the content of reducing sugar increased during the digestion period, indicating that this increase might be due to the breakdown of glycosidic bonds in the wheat germ polysaccharide. Furthermore, no monosaccharide was detected, demonstrating that the gastrointestinal digestion did not cause free monosaccharide released. These results show some preliminary characteristics of the wheat germ polysaccharide in vitro digestion, providing a theoretical basis for further understanding wheat germ polysaccharide properties.
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Extraction and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from cushaw were studied. The crude polysaccharide was extracted with the hot-water. It proved that the CaCl2 method was very suitable for deproteinization to cushaw polysaccharide. The cushaw polysaccharide contained α/β glycosidic bonds. Moreover, it proved that the cushaw polysaccharide exhibited better antioxidant activities.
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Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Allium sativum were investigated. The crude polysaccharide was obtained by the hot-water extraction method. The molecular weight of polysaccharide deproteinized with CaCl2was 7.35 × 103. It indicated that polysaccharide from Allium sativum consisted of three monosaccharides, namely fructose, glucose, and galactose by HPLC. The polysaccharide had the β-glycosidic bond. Moreover, it was proved that the polysaccharide had the potential scavenging ability to superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. So, it should be a potential antioxidant.
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A novel bioactive polysaccharide, GFP-22, was isolated from the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Structure of GFP-22 was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), methylation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-performance size exclusion chromatography-multi-angle laser light scattering-refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RI) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. The backbone of GFP-22 is composed of 1,4-β-d-Glcp, 1,3-β-d-Glcp, 1,6-α-d-Glcp, 1,6-α-d-Galp, 1,4,6-α-d-Manp and 1,3,6-α-d-Manp units. Molecular weight of GFP-22 is 2.72 × 104 Da. GFP-22 has a linear filamentous structure. The administration of GFP-22 could improve or reverse the CTX-induced immunosuppression, significantly enhance the spleen and thymus indices, spleen lymphocyte proliferation and cytokines production in splenocytes. These findings suggest that GFP-22 could be explored as a natural and potential immunomodulatory agent and as an alternative means of lessening chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression.
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Box-Behnken design (BBD) was performed via ultrasound-assisted system to optimize extraction yield and total antioxidant ability of polysaccharides from Suaeda fruticosa. Three independent variables were studied: temperature, time and pH with optimal settings 90 °C, 37 min and 2.9, respectively. Under these settings, isolation yield and total antioxidant activity were 34.0% and 31.8 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g material, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary structure study was carried out using UV–vis analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance (1D (¹H, ¹³C NMR) and 2D (¹H, ¹H COSY, ¹H/¹³C HSQC)) methods Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) determination revealed that polysaccharide extracted had an average molecular weight of 240 kDa. Chemical composition analyses showed that extracted polysaccharide was a pectin-like polysaccharide with uronic acid content (47.5%) and neutral monosaccharides (52.5%) constituted mainly of arabinose, mannose, galactose, rhamnose, glucose and xylose in the molar percentage of 48.63%, 5.85%, 29.42%, 7.96%, 6.54% and 1.60%, respectively. This sugar composition was typical of that of a galactoarabinan. Importantly, the optimum polysaccharide possesses significant potentials in antioxidant activity effect. Moreover, pharmacological investigation of extracted polysaccharide revealed a good anti-inflammatory effect and interesting peripheral as well as central antinociceptive activities.
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A growth-inhibitory polysaccharide (GIPinv) was purified using size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography from the fourth sodium hydroxide extraction step of a fungus found in British Columbia. The fungus was genetically identified as a member of the Paxillus involutus complex. GIPinv has an average molecular weight of 229. kDa and is a heteroglycan composed of glucose (65.9%), galactose (20.8%), mannose (7.8%), fucose (3.2%) and xylose (2.3%). GC-MS methylation analysis suggests that GIPinv has mixed linkages in the backbone containing (1. →. 6)-Gal (25.5%), (1. →. 4)-Glc (18.3%), (1. →. 6)-Glc (8.3%), (1. →. 3)-Glc (5.3%) and (1. →. 2)-Xyl (4.5%). GIPinv has branching points at (1. →. 2, 6)-Man (8.6%) and (1. →. 3, 6)-Man (4.9%) having unsubstituted fucose (8.3%) and glucose (16.3%) as terminal sugars. GIPinv had growth-inhibitory activity against several cancer cell lines and triggered apoptosis. GIPinv should be further explored as a potential anti-cancer agent and a unique polysaccharide.
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Microwave-assisted extraction was employed for the isolation of polysaccharides from Posidonia oceanica (PPO). The extracting parameters were optimized adopting response surface methodology. The highest polysaccharide yield (2.55 ± 0.09%), which is in concordance with the predicted value (2.76%), was obtained under the following conditions: extraction time 60 s, liquid–solid ratio of 50:1 (mL/g) and power of 800 W. This polysaccharide, with molecular weight of 524 KDa, characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry showed that PPO was mainly composed of galactose, glucose, and arabinose with molar percentages 25.38, 24.37, and 21.64%, respectively. The pharmacological evaluation of PPO using animal models at the dose of 100 mg/kg indicated a significant anti-inflammatory activity with a percentage of inhibition of edema of 54.65% and a significant antinociceptive activity with 78.91% inhibition of writhing for peripheral analgesic activity and an increase in the hot plate reaction time for central analgesic activity.
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The isolation, purification and ozone depolymerization of polysaccharides from Arthrocnemum indicum as well as the evaluation of their antiproliferative capacities were investigated. The ozone treatment for various reaction times (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min) was employed as degradation method in order to attain lower molecular weight product with stronger antiproliferative property. According to FTIR, ¹H NMR and UV-vis analysis, the main chain of ozonolytic degraded polysaccharides could be preserved. The monosaccharide composition, which was determined via GC/MS analysis, showed that extracted polysaccharides were of type of arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides. Macromolecular characteristics as well as intrinsic viscosity of the degraded polysaccharides were performed by size exclusion chromatography before and after ozone treatment. These experiments showed that intrinsic viscosity and molecular weight (Mn and Mw) of degraded samples decreased with increase in reaction time. Furthermore, preliminary antiproliferative tests indicated that degraded polysaccharide for 1 h showed even better antiproliferative capacity.
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Tuber aestivum is one of the important edible mycorrhizal truffle having unique flavor and texture. It is known to contain approximately 5.23% of polysaccharide. The present work was focused on extraction and characterization of the polysaccharide from fruiting body of T. aestivum. The polysaccharide was extracted using complex enzymes viz. papain, trypsin and pectinase. Taguchi orthogonal array experimental design and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the factors involved in the extraction process. The optimal factors for the extraction of polysaccharide from T. aestivum were 1.0% trypsin, 2.0% pectinase, 1.0% papain, temperature 50 °C, pH 6.0 and extraction time 90 min. Under these optimum conditions the polysaccharide extraction yield was found to be 46.93% of total polysaccharide. Polysaccharide so obtained was characterized for its structure, chemical composition, thermal analysis and bioactivity. The monosaccharides present in the extracted polysaccharides were glucose (>90%), rhamnose, galactose and mannose. The polysaccharide extracted from T. aestivum possessed the significant in vitro antioxidant capability.
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Sulfated polysaccharide (SP) from the eggs of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, extracted by papain digestion, was characterized by size exclusion chromatography coupling on-line with light scattering and viscosity detectors (SEC/MALS/VD/DRI), gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The native molecular mass of the extracted polysaccharide is high (≥22 000 KDa) and it is composed mainly of arabinose, accompanied by other monosaccharides (mostly galactose, glucose and fucose), significant amounts of uronic acids (18.4%) and relatively high proportions of sulfate (22.4%). The pharmacological evaluation of SP showed a significant in vivo anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.001), 3h after injection, the edema inhibition was 75.8% at the dose of 100mg/Kg; a significant peripheral analgesic activity (p<0.001), with 64.9% of writhing inhibition, and a significant significant increase in the hot plate reaction time in mice indicating central analgesic activity. In addition, an interesting gastroprotective effect was observed with this polysaccharide; the gastric ulcer inhibition was 69.7%, at the dose of 100mg/Kg.
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Fresh and lyophilized watermelon rinds were treated with boiling ethanol for pigment removal and then used to extract pectins giving rise to fractions FW and LW, respectively. The pectins were characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Both pectins had a galacturonic acid content higher than 65%, meeting the commercial requirement. However, FW had a higher yield (19.3%) than LW (14.2%). The protein contents were 3.9 and 3.6% for FW and LW, respectively. FW and LW had a high degree of methyl-esterification (∼60%) and low molar mass, 34,510 g/mol for FW and 40,390 g/mol for LW. The viscosity of 5% (w/w) aqueous solutions of watermelon rind pectins at 25 °C showed shear thinning behavior with a low shear Newtonian plateau of ∼30 Pa s for FW and ∼10 Pa s for LW. Mechanical spectra of FW and LW at 5% (w/w) at 25 °C showed a weak gel like behavior for both pectins. The dynamic surface tension, foaming ability and emulsifying properties of FW and LW were evaluated and compared with gum Arabic. FW and LW showed lower dynamic surface tension and higher foaming ability than gum Arabic at the same concentration. Emulsions were prepared with polysaccharides at concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 4% (w/w). The droplet size decreased for both pectins as the concentration increased. Values of surface weighted mean diameter D[3,2] and volume weighted mean diameter D[4,3] obtained for emulsions prepared with FW and LW were found to be similar to gum Arabic, which is well known for its emulsifying properties.
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In the present work, optimization of hot water extraction, structural characteristics, functional properties, and biological activities of polysaccharides extracted from watermelon rinds (WMRP) were investigated. The physicochemical characteristics and the monosaccharide composition of these polysaccharides were then determined using chemical composition analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). SEM images showed that extracted polysaccharides had a rough surface with many cavities. GC-FID results proved that galactose was the dominant sugar in the extracted polysaccharides, followed by arabinose, glucose, galacturonic acid, rhamnose, mannose, xylose and traces of glucuronic acid. The findings revealed that WMRP displayed excellent antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. Those polysaccharides had also a protection effect against hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Functional properties of extracted polysaccharides were also evaluated. WMRP showed good interfacial dose-dependent proprieties. Overall, the results suggested that WMRP presents a promising natural source of antioxidants and antihypertensive agents.
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In this study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (PLP1-I) was purified from _Phellinus__linteus_ mycelia through hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and chromatography on DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-400 HR columns. PLP1-I was characterized as a neutral heteropolysaccharide composed of glucose and galactose at a molar ratio of 8.9:1.0, with an average molecular weight (_Mw_) of ∼290,000 kDa. The structure of PLP1-I consists of a (1→4)-α-D-glucopyranose backbone, whereas the (1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl residues formed branches at the O-6 position with 1-linked-α-d-glucopyranosyl terminal residues. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity _in vivo_ showed that PLP1-I administration significantly increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the levels of malondialdehyde in the serum and liver of aging mice induced with D-galactose. PLP1-I also effectively stimulated the immune system of aging mice. This study demonstrated that PLP1-I exhibited strong antioxidant activities _in vivo_ and could be explored as a potential antioxidant for functional food and medicine. A novel polysaccharide namely PLP1-I isolated from _Phellinus linteus_ mycelia exhibited significant antioxidant activity _in vivo._
Article
In this study, the enzyme-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (LEPs) was optimized by response surface methodology, and a preliminary characterization of the extracted LEPs and their anti-proliferative activities were investigated. An orthogonal assay was constructed to determine the optimal amounts of cellulase, papain and pectinase, which were 15, 20 and 15 g/kg, respectively. Then effects of extraction conditions were evaluated and optimized using a Box-Behnken design. The results showed that the highest polysaccharides yield of 15.65% was achieved with an extraction temperature of 54 °C, pH 5.0, enzymatic treatment time of 93 min and a liquid/material ratio of 29:1 mL/g, which correlated well with the predicted yield of 15.58%. Subsequently, the crude LEPs were further purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex-100 chromatography to obtain two fractions, which were designated as LEP-1 and LEP-2 and their monosaccharide compositions were characterized by GC. Fourier-transform infrared spectra demonstrated that LEP-1 and LEP-2 were distinct from each other regarding their chemical structures. In addition, the LEPs exhibited inhibition of cell proliferation on HCT-116 and HeLa cells in vitro. In summary, this study provides an efficient enzyme-assisted extraction for LEPs, which can be used as natural antitumor agents in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.
Article
The extraction of carbohydrates from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes at different pH was carried out by ultrasound followed by ethanol precipitation and dialysis. The extraction yields ranged from 4.6 to 24.5%. The highest content in galacturonic acid was observed for the acidic extract (37.4%). On high-performance size exclusion chromatography, the average molecular weight of all extracts ranged from 7,500,000 to 9,610,000g/mol. The antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides was tested by three assays (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil radical scavenging assay, Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay and Linoleic acid peroxidation). The glucose-induced advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation of all extracts was also carried out using in vitro galactose-bovine serum albumin assay. Results showed that the acidic extract exhibited even better antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of AGE formation. Practical Applications: Plant extracts containing polysaccharides are widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of skin and epithelium wounds and of mucous membrane irritation. In this case, polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, which is a plant native to South America and cultivated in dry regions as an important nutrient and food source, also are used in traditional medicine for their antiulcer and wound-healing effects. Thus, Opuntia ficus indica cladodes could be a natural candidate for research of herbal complement to the treatment of many diseases. The results found in this study reveal that the extraction under acidic conditions may enhance the antioxidant and antiglycated potential of polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes.
Article
The water-soluble bioactive polysaccharides can contribute to the health benefits of Lycium barbarium fruit. However, the structure characteristics of these polysaccharides remain unclear yet. An important polysaccharide (LBPA) was isolated and purified from L. barbarium in this work. It was identified by chemical and spectroscopic methods as arabinogalactan with β-D-(1→6)-galactan as backbone, which was different to any reported polysaccharides from this species before. This arabinogalactan was comprised of Araf, Galp, GlcpA and Rhap with a molar ratio of 9.2:6.6:1.0:0.9. The side chains, including α-L-Araf-(1→, α-L-Araf-(1→5)-α-L-Araf-(1→, β-L-Araf-(1→5)-α-L-Araf-(1→ and α-L-Rhap-(1→4)-β-D-GlcpA-(1→6)-β-D-Galp-(1→, were linked to β-D-(1→6)-galactan at O-3. The putative structure was drawn as below. The molecular weight was determined to be 470,000g/mol by gel permeation chromatography.
Article
HighlightsExtraction of polysaccharides from foxtail millet with alkali solution.Response surface methodology was used.The antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides was investigated in vitro.Model was set up to optimize extraction of polysaccharides.The best extraction conditions were alkali concentration 0.83 mol/L, liquid–solid ratio 20.9:1 mL/g, extraction time 1.1 h and extraction temperature 72.7C.AbstractResponse surface methodology was employed to obtain the best possible combination of alkali concentration, liquid–solid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature for maximum polysaccharide yields in the experiment of alkali extraction of polysaccharides from foxtail millet. The antioxidant activity of the obtained polysaccharides was meanwhile investigated in vitro. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The optimum extraction conditions were alkali concentration 0.83 mol/L, liquid–solid ratio 20.9:1 mL/g, extraction time 1.1 h, and extraction temperature 72.7C, the experimental yield was 46.21 mg/g, which was well in close agreement with the model's predicted value (45.60 mg/g). The polysaccharides of foxtail millet have better capacity of radical-scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity. The mathematical model had high correlation (P < 0.01) and could be greatly employed to optimize polysaccharide extraction technology. Polysaccharides of foxtail millet can be used as a potential antioxidant agent.Practical ApplicationsThis study can be considered as the first report on the extraction of polysaccharides with alkali solution from foxtail millet. Compared with the traditional hot water extraction method, it can improve efficiency, shorten extraction time, reduce extraction temperature and has great potential in large-scale extraction of polysaccharides from foxtail millet.
Article
In the present study, an efficient procedure for ultrasound-assisted compound enzymatic extraction of polysaccharides from blackcurrant fruits was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize the effects of enzyme concentration (X1), pH (X2) and ultrasonic time (X3). The statistical analysis indicated that the independent variables (X1) and the quadratic terms (X1(2) and X3(2)) had significant effects on the yield of blackcurrant polysaccharides (BCP). The optimal conditions were: enzyme concentration 1.575%, pH 5.3, and ultrasonic time 25.6min. The experimental yield of BCP was 14.28±0.06%, which was closely matched with the predicted yield of 14.31%. After preliminary purification, BCP I was obtained and characterized by GC, HPLC, and IR. BCP I comprised rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.818:1.362:0.377:0.501:1.581:1.722 and its molecular weight was 8146kDa. BCP I showed notable α-amylase inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
The extraction of pectin from seed watermelon peel could reduce environmental problem and offer a way to upgrade byproducts. In this study, variables of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and conventional heating extraction (CHE) were tested in order to recovery pectin from seed watermelon peel. After the test of single factor experiments, orthogonal experiments were employed to obtain optimum conditions for pectin extraction from seed watermelon peel. The satisfactory conditions for MAE were as follows: power of 500W, pH of 1.5, time of 7min and SLR of 1:20, and the optimum CHE conditions were temperature of 90°C, pH of 1.0, time of 150min and SLR of 1:20. Proof tests were replicated three times and the products were characterized of their qualitative and quantitative characteristics. The yield of 17.4-17.6%, ash content of 1.6-1.9%, GalA content of 78.3-82.8%, DE of 38.2-41.2% and molecular weight of 110600-128000 of pectin extracted by CHE were obtained. The pectin extracted by MAE achieved a higher yield (19.1-19.6%), and has a higher content of DE (44.3-48.7%), higher molecular weight (143400-154300), lower content of GalA (74.6-76.1%), and almost equal ash content ( average value of 1.7% and 1.6%, respectively).
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Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 major cancers and for all cancers combined for 2012 are now available in the GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We review the sources and methods used in compiling the national cancer incidence and mortality estimates, and briefly describe the key results by cancer site and in 20 large “areas” of the world. Overall, there were 14.1 million new cases and 8.2 million deaths in 2012. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (1.82 million), breast (1.67 million), and colorectal (1.36 million); the most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (1.6 million deaths), liver cancer (745,000 deaths), and stomach cancer (723,000 deaths). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
A water-soluble pectic polysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from the hot water extract of the pods of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by successive purification through dialysis, centrifugation and Sepharose-6B gel filtration was found to consist of methyl ester of d-galacturonic acid, d-galactose, and l-arabinose in a molar ratio of nearly 2:2:1. This molecule showed splenocyte, thymocyte activation as well as antioxidant properties. Structural studies of PS-I was performed using acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation studies along with NMR analysis (1H, 13C, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC) and the repeating unit of PS-I was established as:
Article
Here, we report the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) extracts prepared from 25 cultivars from South Korea. Four cultivars of sorghum were extracted with methanol, then further fractioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water. The RC50 (the concentration of antioxidant required to achieve absorbance equal to 50% that of a control containing no antioxidants) value of the DPPH method and reducing power showed higher efficiency in the BuOH layer of all selected cultivars except Neulsusu. The various fractions were then examined for antimicrobial activity by a serial two fold dilution assays using the paper disc method. The methanol extracts showed higher levels of antimicrobial activity than the other fractions. Our results indicate that sorghum extracts could be used as a source of antioxidant and antimicrobial ingredients in the food industry.
Article
The behaviour of a hydrolytic enzyme (pullulanase) towards its substrate (pullulan) in the presence of a non-substrate (alginate), both below and above the critical entanglement concentration (C*), was studied. The hydrolysis kinetics were studied with the enzyme and alginate concentrations varied using two main methods: a colorimetric assay of the reducing extremities (RE), which allowed the number-average molar masses (Mn) of the oligosaccharides to be determined, and Size Exclusion Chromatography with on line multi -angle light scattering, viscometer and differential refractive index detectors, which allowed the average molar masses, Mn and Mw, of the oligosaccharides during hydrolysis to be determined. Free pullulanase acts via an "endo" process. The presence of alginate slows the hydrolysis kinetics, particularly when the alginate concentration is greater than the C*. These results were confirmed by the evolution of the kinetic parameters (KM, Vmax) obtained via isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The amount of oligosaccharides produced is not dependent on the alginate concentration, and the endo enzyme behaviour is not modified by the entanglement in the medium. These observations were also confirmed by ITC analysis in the presence of degraded alginate (without entanglement). Our results correlated with the substrate diffusion in entangled media. The pullulanase reaction in the presence of alginate is shown to be diffusion-dependent.
Article
A water-soluble polysaccharide obtained from Acanthopanax senticosus leaves (ASL), was fractionated by DEAE-Sepharose fast-flow column chromatography, and purified by Sephadex G-75 gel-permeation column chromatography. The characteristics of ASP-2-1 were determined by chemical analysis, high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), high-performance gel-permeation chromatography (HPGPC). The results show that ASP-2-1 contained 89.47% carbohydrate, 7.45% uronic acid, 2.16% protein and seven kinds of monosaccharides including rhamnose, xylose, glucose, mannose, arabinose, galactose and glucuronic acid in a molar ratio of 7.45:18.63:25.15:0.93:8.35:2.79:5.69, with an average molecular weight of about 14,573Da. Furthermore, the immunobiological and antioxidant activities, in vitro, of ASP-2-1 were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH()), superoxide radical (()O(2)(-)) and hydroxyl radical (()OH) free radical-scavenging assay, respectively. The results showed that ASP-2-1 exhibited significantly higher immunomodulatory activities against the lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, pronounced reductive power (FRAP value: 785.1μM at 0.2mg/ml), strong hydroxyl radical (89.56% at 1mg/ml) scavenging activity, moderate superoxide radicals (65.32% at 1mg/ml) and DPPH radicals (68.9% at 1mg/ml) scavenging activities. ASP-2-1 should be explored as a novel and potential natural antioxidant and immunostimulating agent for use in functional foods or medicine.
Article
The structure of the pectic polysaccharide (ASP3) isolated from roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels was investigated using partial acid hydrolysis, enzymic digestion combined with methylation analysis, and further supported by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy techniques. The results indicated that ASP3 contained a backbone of linear homogalacturonan fragments as “smooth regions” and rhamnogalacturonan fragments as “hairy regions” with repeating unit of [→ 4)-α-d-GalpA-(1 → 2)-α-l-Rhap-(1 →]. A total of 58.8% rhamnopyranose residues in the backbone were substituted at O-4 position by the side chains. The side chains contained mainly β-1,6- and β-1,4-galactopyranan bearing 3,6- and 4,6-substituted β-d-galactopyranose residues as branched points and short α-1,5-arabinofuranan possessing 3,5-substituted α-l-arabinofuranose residues as branching points. In addition, β-1,6-galactopyranan side chains were highly branched with α-1,5-arabinofuranan carrying 3-O-substituents (1,3,6-Gal) and terminated by the α-arabinofuranose residues which form arabinogalactan.
Article
Polysaccharides were isolated from nopals mucilage pulp and peel of Opuntia Ficus Indica (OFI) and Opuntia litoralis (OL) by aqueous extraction and purified by ultrafiltration. Studying the glycosyl residue composition, these polysaccharides were assumed to be rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I). The macromolecular features of these compounds have been characterized by SEC/MALLS and by low shear viscosimetry. In the present work, we have undertaken a comparative study about different polysaccharides resulting from OFI and OL growing in different area. This comparison is to see the influence of the geographical area in which these two plants push on the mechanism of retention of water by the different polysaccharides extract. The polysaccharides resulting from the nopal peels of the two plants are highly methylated (>70%), thus they are much more hydrophobic especially for peels of OFI growing in the desert area than those resulting from pulps. Consequently, they probably prevent the evaporation of water in nopals by increasing their water retention capacity. Prickly pear nopals of OFI and OL contain a significant amount of water (>80%), carbohydrates (75% compared to the soluble matter), proteins (8% compared to the soluble matter) and salt (17% compared to the soluble matter). Thus, they represent an important source of water and alimentation especially in the arid and semi-arid areas. KeywordsWater retention-Polysaccharides- Opuntia Ficus Indica - Opuntia Litoralis
Article
A sulfated polysaccharide purified from a brown alga Ecklonia cava, having high anticoagulant activity was investigated for its antiproliferative effect on murine colon carcinoma (CT-26), human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U-937), human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60), and mouse melanoma (B-16) cell lines. The sulfated polysaccharide isolated and purified from an enzymatic extract of E. cava had a good selective tumor cell growth inhibition effect; its effect on HL-60 and U-937 was especially promising. The IC50 value for the sulfated polysaccharide from E. cava (ECSP) on U-937 was 43.9μg mL−1. The presence of the sample in the cell culture media stimulated the induction of apoptosis, revealed by nuclear staining with Hoechst 33342. The apoptosis induction was confirmed by the cell cycle analysis, while pronounced sub-G1 phase arrests of 9.5% and 13.8% were also clearly observed when the cells were treated at 15 and 30μg mL−1 of ECSP in the U-937 cell line, respectively. After a 24-h incubation period, ECSP dose-dependently enhanced the DNA fragmentation on the U-937 cell line as observed in the agarose gel electrophoresis assay. To rule out the action mechanism of ECSP for its anticancer activity, some western blot analyses were conducted with several antibodies (caspase-7, caspase-8, Bax, Bcl-xL, and PARP) and ECSP had a clear effect on the caspase -7 and 8 which cleave protein substrates, including PARP, an inducer of apoptosis responsible for DNA cleavage. Moreover, ECSP controlled the cellular transmembrane molecules like Bax and Bcl-xL. Taken together, the above results demonstrate that the apoptosis for antiproliferative effect of ECSP was clearly induced on U-937 cells.
Article
A polysaccharide was extracted with hot HCl from the endocarp of Citrus depressa grown in Okinawa, Japan. The yield was 4.1% on a fresh weight basis. Composition of the polysaccharide was 89.3% total carbohydrate, 79.2% uronic acid, 4.1% ash and 8.8% moisture. The degree of methoxylation was estimated to be 66.2%. The polysaccharide was composed of d-GalA, d-Gal, l-Ara and l-Rha in the ratio of 100:10.3:1.53:0.94, respectively. The molecular mass was estimated to be approximately 4.1 × 104. NMR spectra indicated that the polysaccharide was mainly composed of (1→4)-linked α-d-GalA and (1→4)-linked β-d-Gal. Methylation analysis results identified 1→2 and 1→2,4 linked Rha, 1→4, 1→3, 1→6 and 1→3,6 linked Gal. The results indicated that the polysaccharide was a pectin, which was relatively simpler than other pectins. The polysaccharide was classified as high-methoxyl pectin. The pectin turned into a gel by the generalised method.
Article
Simple sugars, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and their derivatives, including the methyl ethers with free or potentially free reducing groups, give an orange-yellow color when treated with phenol and concentrated sulfuric acid. The reaction is sensitive and the color is stable. By use of this phenol-sulfuric acid reaction, a method has been developed to determine submicro amounts of sugars and related substances. In conjunction with paper partition chromatography the method is useful for the determination of the composition of polysaccharides and their methyl derivatives.
Article
A tetrazolium salt has been used to develop a quantitative colorimetric assay for mammalian cell survival and proliferation. The assay detects living, but not dead cells and the signal generated is dependent on the degree of activation of the cells. This method can therefore be used to measure cytotoxicity, proliferation or activation. The results can be read on a multiwell scanning spectrophotometer (ELISA reader) and show a high degree of precision. No washing steps are used in the assay. The main advantages of the colorimetric assay are its rapidity and precision, and the lack of any radioisotope. We have used the assay to measure proliferative lymphokines, mitogen stimulations and complement-mediated lysis.
Article
A modification of Dische's carbazole reaction for uronic acid in the presence of borate is described. The advantages of the procedure are: 1.(1) There is an approximately twofold increase of sensitivity. The OD is a linear function of concentration between 4 and 40 μg/ml.2.(2) Maximum color develops immediately.3.(3) The color is stable for at least 16 hr.4.(4) There is greater reproducibility and reduction of interference by chloride ion and oxidants.It has been found possible to distinguish between heparin, heparin derivatives, and other polyuronides of connective tissue by comparing the effect of chlorides on the color yield in both procedures.
Article
The objective of the present study was to determine the optimal culture conditions for the production of four groups of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) in Phellinus gilvus by submerged culture and to investigate their molecular properties by multi-angle laser-light scattering (MALLS) analysis. The optimal temperature and initial pH for the production of both mycelial biomass and EPSs in P. gilvus by submerged flask cultures were found to be 30 degrees C and pH 9.0, respectively. Glucose and corn steep powder were the most suitable carbon and nitrogen source for both mycelial biomass and EPS production. Optimal medium composition was determined to be glucose 30 g l-1, corn steep powder 5 g l-1, MgSO4 1.23 g l-1, KH2PO4 0.68 g l-1, and K2HPO4 0.87 g l-1. Four groups of EPSs (Fr-I, II, III, and IV) were obtained from the culture filtrates by gel filtration chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B and characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with MALLS. The weight average molar mass (Mw) of Fr-I, Fr-II, Fr-III and Fr-IV were determined to be 8.628 x 106 (+/-129 420), 1.045 x 106 (+/-19 855), 61.09 x 104 (+/-1244), and 33.55 x 104 (+/-134) g mol-1, respectively. Under optimal culture conditions, the maximum EPS production in a 5-l stirred fermenter indicated 5.3 g l-1 after 11 days of fermentation. The SEC/MALLS analysis revealed that Fr-I, which has extremely high molecular weight, was presumably an aggregate of complex polysaccharides forming a compact globular shape; whereas Fr-II was nearly spherical, Fr-III and Fr-IV were rod-like chains in an aqueous solution. This is the first report on the production of high amounts of EPSs from liquid-culture of the basidiomycete, P. gilvus. The SEC/MALLS approach used in this study could be useful in providing greater insight into the characterization of the mushroom polysaccharides without carrying out elaborate fractionation procedures prior to analysis.
Article
Many polysaccharides obtained from natural sources are considered to be biological response modifiers and have been shown to enhance various immune responses. Here, we investigated the immunomodulating effects of arabinogalactan (AG) and fucoidan (FU) in vitro. Mouse spleen lymphocytes became cytotoxic to tumor cells after culture with AG and FU at concentrations of 10-100 microg/mL. Also, AG and FU were mitogenic in spleen lymphocytes and peripheral macrophages. Macrophages treated with AG and FU (10-100 microg/mL) exhibited induced tumoricidal activity and increased phagocytosis, lysosomal enzyme activity, and production of nitrite, H2O2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-6. However, AG and FU had little effect on the level of IL-1beta. Thus, the tumoricidal effect of AG- and FU-activated macrophages appeared to be mainly mediated by production of free radicals (NO and H2O2) and cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6). These data suggest that AG and FU are activators of lymphocytes and macrophages. This property may contribute to their effectiveness in the immunoprevention of cancer.
Article
The structure of the repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide of the enterobacterium Raoultella terrigena was determined by means of chemical and spectroscopical methods and was found to be a linear tetrasaccharide containing a cyclic acetal of pyruvic acid (Pyr) as depicted below.[Carbohydrate structure: see text].
of Ecklonia cava on the U-937 cell line
of Ecklonia cava on the U-937 cell line, J. Appl. Phycol. 21(3) (2009) 307-314.
Extraction of pection from watermelon rind. Thesis
  • M Campbell
M. Campbell, Extraction of pection from watermelon rind. Thesis. Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma (2006).
  • A C C E P T E D M A N U S C R I P T Terrigen
A C C E P T E D M A N U S C R I P T terrigen, Carbohydr. Res. 342(11) (2007) 1514-1518.
Structure elucidation of an immunoenhancing pectic polysaccharide isolated from aqueous extract of pods of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L
  • P Patra
  • D Das
  • B Behera
  • T K Maiti
  • S S Islam
P. Patra, D. Das, B. Behera, T.K. Maiti, S.S. Islam, Structure elucidation of an immunoenhancing pectic polysaccharide isolated from aqueous extract of pods of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Carbohydr. Polym. 87(3) (2012) 2169-2175.
  • Terrigen
terrigen, Carbohydr. Res. 342(11) (2007) 1514-1518.