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A feeding strait: imaging a cross-border commons between Singapore and Malaysia

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The Straits of Johor, which forms the border between Singapore and Malaysia, has never ceased to be a site of power contestation, rendering the waterscape into terra nullius. In view of the fast-changing international geo-political environment, this study proposes that the border of separation can be transformed into a place for food production, a shared territory that can facilitate cooperation between Singapore and Johor, a state of Malaysia and achieve common economic growth, greater social cohesion, and higher competence of the region. This shared infrastructure is expected to contribute to tackling food security, a pressing challenge for both Singapore and Johor, and further help to address a series of bilateral issues arising from the separation, such as physical separation, territorial dispute, environmental pollution, economic imbalance, and social segregation. A phased masterplan is also proposed and discussed to show how the food production infrastructure can be planned and then turned into a catalyst for achieving the broader social objective-creating a cross-border commons.
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A FEEDING STRAIT: IMAGINING A CROSS-BORDER COMMONS
BETWEEN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA
Yann Herng YEOW, Ye ZHANG*
Department of Architecture, National University of Singapore
4 Architecture Drive, Singapore 117566; E0204871@u.nus.edu, akizy@nus.edu.sg
Abstract
The Straits of Johor, which forms the border between Singapore and Malaysia, has never
ceased to be a site of power contestation, rendering the waterscape into terra nullius. In view
of the fast-changing international geo-political environment, this study proposes that the
border of separation can be transformed into a place for food production, a shared territory
that can facilitate cooperation between Singapore and Johor, a state of Malaysia and achieve
common economic growth, greater social cohesion, and higher competence of the region. This
shared infrastructure is expected to contribute to tackling food security, a pressing challenge
for both Singapore and Johor, and further help to address a series of bilateral issues arising
from the separation, such as physical separation, territorial dispute, environmental pollution,
economic imbalance, and social segregation. A phased masterplan is also proposed and
discussed to show how the food production infrastructure can be planned and then turned
into a catalyst for achieving the broader social objective – creating a cross-border commons.
Keywords
Food production, border, The Strait of Johor, commons, design research
1 Introduction
Lying at the southernmost end of the Asia mainland is the Straits of Johor that separates two
nations which were once united – Malaysia and Singapore. In this territory of mere 1-
kilometre-wide (at its shortest width) and 50-kilometre-long, half-owned by each country,
numerous exchanges take place incessantly. Besides the 300,000 people and 145,000 vehicles
that cross the border every day through the Causeway, what lies behind the scene are power
contestations, economic competitions, and political disputes that constantly challenge the
bilateral relation.
Due to political division and physical separation, the Straits of Johor is now both a cause and
a host of the persisting disputes and rivalries between both sides. And the ruptured space
further resulted in a spatial estrangement that intensifies the unceasing political tension
between the two contiguous nation-states. Specifically, the waterscape has been rendered
into terra nullius — void of life and activities. In view of these conditions, this paper attempts
to explore the potentials of transforming the border of separation into a shared territory that
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operates as an urban commons to facilitate cooperation between Singapore and Johor
towards common economic growth, greater social cohesion and subsequently higher
competence of the region.
2 Border Separation and Resultant Bilateral Issues
According to C. Arbaret-Schultz, a border is "a spatial object that brings distance in
proximity".
1
The ambivalent notion of border being simultaneously excluding and including
2
results in a blurred and controversial border space in many contexts across the world. In most
cases, border spaces have become the venues where power being exercised, dispute being
intensified, and social control being exerted. The Straits of Johor is no exception. The bilateral
issues pertaining to the Strait of Johor are discussed in the following five aspects: physical,
territorial, economic, environmental and social.
Inefficient and inadequate physical connections
Physical connection is seen as the fundamental element in any border-crossing dynamic.
Currently, there are two existing border-crossing infrastructures across the straits. The first
one is a causeway completed in 1923 and is now one of the world’s busiest crossings. Often
cited as a direct result of stringent border control on both sides, the bad traffic congestion
during the peak hours has not yet been resolved despite being a subject of intense study and
review. Worse still, travellers are prohibited from crossing the causeway by foot after the
Johor Bahru Custom, Immigration and Quarantine complex (CIQ) was completed in 2008.
Spanning 1.05 kilometre connecting Johor and Singapore, it was designed as a rubble
causeway instead of bridge by then colonial authorities due to economic factor.
3
However,
the causeway effectively cut off the passage of water carriage, eventually becomes the main
source of inexorable contestations, notably in the born of the infamous ‘crooked bridge’
mooted by Malaysia’s Prime Minister Mahathir.
4
In 1998, the second link bridging Gelang Patah and Tuas was constructed in a bid to divert the
traffic. However, it has not been used to full capacity due to its proximity to the main areas
with dense population. Actions have been taken to encourage the usage especially for goods
vehicle through the reduction Goods Vehicle Levy in 2018.
Apart from the road connections, the capacity of existing train service has been insufficient to
cater for the need with 26 trips of 320 passengers daily which only account for 0.02% of daily
commuters. This inefficiency is set to be replaced by the Rapid Transit System tentatively by
2024.
5
In 2016, another border crossing infrastructure — Kuala Lumpur-Singapore High Speed
Rail (HSR) project was inked. However, it is postponed following the formation of new
Malaysian government in May 2018, citing the great debt left by the previous regime.
Evidently, the new Malaysian government does not see substantial reason to build the HSR,
attesting to the crux of the matter — economic gain.
Continuous land reclamation and territorial dispute
Contrasting to the lacklustre efforts in addressing border-crossing issues, the two countries
have been zealous in exerting respective power over the territory through land reclamation,
starting from Tekong Island, Ubin Island to Forest City. However, disputes escalated when
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both protested to each other’s land reclamation work which even involved the international
arbitration.
6
Moreover, the urban development master plan of both territories across the straits are also
proven to be problematic as they are planned independently without considering the opposite
side. Ironically, the incongruous developments from across the straits have been greatly
affecting the opposite territory due to their proximity. The implications are not limited to
visual impact, but further extends to the biodiversity, water, sound and air contamination, as
seen in the example of toxic pollution from Pasir Gudang, Johor plaguing residents of Punggol,
Singapore.
7
For Singapore, the northern coastal area has always been the backwater,
primarily zoned as residential areas and nature reserves. For Iskandar Malaysia (development
region involving Johor Bahru metropolitan area), the coastal areas along the straits are
considered prime land, mostly earmarked for high revenue developments, including the
existing ports, administrative zone Nusajaya, high-end residential areas and megaprojects.
Environmental pollution and degradation
The rapid developments along the coastal area especially on the Johor side following the
inception of Iskandar Malaysia project have been detrimental to the water quality. Although
the water pollution due to oil spills and mass fish kills are constantly reported on local news,
serious actions are yet to be executed. Generally, mass fish kills are caused by the low oxygen
level in the water due to plankton and algae bloom which are attributable to the massive land
reclamation in the area. Besides, dead dugongs are also constantly spotted ashore.
8
The ironic
fact of the strait being co-owned instead of fully owned by any sides has caused many efforts
to improve the situation go futile when both do not see eye to eye.
Resource dependence and economic imbalance
Another persisting dispute arose from border separation is the disproportion of natural
resource endowment, in which water supply poses the biggest threat to the land-scarce
Singapore. Water security had been a contentious issue between the two sides and concerns
loomed large for decades in Singapore that Malaysia would cut supplies in retaliation over
bilateral differences. Under a 1962 Water Agreement, Singapore holds the exclusive right to
draw up to a maximum of 250 million gallons of water per day from the Johor River until 2061.
Approximately 40% of Singapore’s current water needs are met by Malaysia, though the island
republic has aimed to improve its domestic water supply, including the opening of desalination
plant.
9
On 13th August 2018, Malaysia’s Prime Minister Mahathir has revealed his intention
to increase the price of water supply by tenfold to reflect the higher cost of living.
10
Social segregation and discrimination
Socially, Malaysia and Singapore share some historical and cultural affinities, as both countries
are boasting multiracial societies comprising Malays, Chinese and Indians, albeit in a different
proportion. The separation of Singapore from Malaysia on 9th August 1965 was a result of
communal tensions and racial riots in 1964, mainly attributed to the political and economic
differences.
11
In present day, high economic interdependency and cross-border family ties of
the two sides have seen a high exchange of talents, labour and capital across the strait day in
day out. However, the difference in economic strength, development pace and average
educational levels have elicited anti-foreigner sentiments such as discrimination against and
superiority over Malaysians amongst some Singaporeans.
12
The deeply rooted prejudice and
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stereotype are believed to be highly related to the lack of deep understandings,
communications and social interactions.
3 Alternative View of Border: one entity based on
Connectography
Identifying border separation as the root of the perennial issues, a revisit on the notion of
border and its state-of-the-art viewpoints is thus of paramount importance. A border is an
ideological socio-cultural construct by which communities/nations define and defend the
notion of their territory. As noted by Nick Vaughan-Williams,
13
borders are constitutive of
political life. Border is produced, dynamic and politically charged. A look into the history
reveals that border is constantly being challenged and ever-changing. This then prompts the
question of what the border might be or changed to in the future.
In his seminal book ‘Connectography’, Parag Khanna posits an alternative perspective of
looking at our world atlas and border, i.e. highlighting the network and connection instead of
static lines as separation.
14
He also argues that functional geography is increasingly holding
more significance than political geography. In Khanna’s thesis, our world is and will continue
forming global network civilization through agglomeration of cities into mega city regions,
while political borders are losing its relevance, in which he summarized as ‘connectivity is
destiny’. In order to serve the one goal sustainable urbanization, he teased out the two
most salient points to focus on, which are infrastructure and supply chain. “We are moving
into an era where cities will matter more than states and supply chains will be a more
important source of power than militaries whose main purpose will be to protect supply
chains rather than borders.”14 To ensure continued economic openness, Khanna infers that
investing more heavily in the infrastructure for enhanced connectivity should be every
government’s priority in a world of super-low interest rates.
As discussed earlier, despite having active cross-border dynamics between Singapore and
Malaysia, the persisting border has caused many issues that hindered the growth and
collaboration of the two states. Seen from Khanna’s new perspective of borders, however, the
comparative advantages reveal high potentials for the two states to collaborate – that is, while
Singapore boasts a greater capital and advanced technology but facing land scarcity and
ageing population issue, Iskandar Malaysia, on the other hand, is in a dire need for more
capital investment albeit having more manpower and nature resource. Evidently, dissolving
the border and reconceiving the region as one economy is likely to warrant a win-win situation
to both based on the economic complementarities.
4 Proposal: Transforming the Strait of Johor into a commons for
food production
Taking infrastructure and supply chain from ‘Connectography’ as a basic framework and
tapping on the pressing challenge of food security in the region, this study hypotheses that
food production potentially offers an opportunity that can create a commons, based on many
complementarities between Singapore and Malaysia, in order to mitigate the
abovementioned bilateral issues.
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For the border to develop and evolve into a field of reconciliation and interaction, the space
has to be turned into a social space for interaction, a cultural space of assimilation, as well as
an ecological space of evolving nature, therefore agency has to be activated and steps have
to be taken towards transformation.
15
Unlike many political borders that are imposed on the
land through human agency, the Malaysia-Singapore border is defined by a natural strait
which is inherently a natural commons. However, as Garrett Hardin argues, such commons of
no man’s lands with no rules and open access are susceptible to the tragedy of commons. The
very antithesis to Hardin’s argument is Elinor Ostrom’s assertion that commoners would
naturally communicate, negotiate and establish rules amongst each other. In other words,
commons could be a social space that is defined and co-owned by a community. To that end,
this study attempts to devise a plan to ease the transition from the former to the latter forms
of commons.
4.1 The pressing challenge: Food Security
The fact that global food system in current world is getting more interconnected does not
guarantee a more resilient food supply. Paradoxically, it is vulnerable to political, natural
disaster and economic crises, where a disturbance may have snowball effect across the
globe.
16
For Singapore that imports 90% of its food, the crisis is ever looming and alarming,
which calls for a change in policy and consumer’s behaviour to adapt to the dynamic global
system.
17
As such, optimising local food production has been outlined as a core component of
Singapore’s Food Security Roadmap.
18
Despite being a net exporter of food, Malaysia has been
ranked at 40th in 2018 Global Food Security Index, due to the low affordability and quality. In
contrast, Singapore is ranked at first place for the first time in 2018, mainly attributable to the
stable economic environment and high gross domestic product per capita. However, its
availability of food is most susceptible to natural resource risks. Evidently, a collaboration
between the two exchange of technology and natural resources in food production
industry is beneficial to both in the event of catastrophe such as the food crisis in 2008.
4.2 Food Production as New Urban Commons
The very first prerequisites in the quest of reconciliation are the genuine intents and
willingness to cooperate. Taking the alternative view of borders and its implications to the
relation between Singapore and Malaysia explained above, the proposal is built upon the
premise that the two governments have come together and decided to break the deadlock.
With a change of mindset, the straits can be regarded as a resource commons a shared
territory which allows the governments’ interventions to the no man’s land.
Upon studying the existing activities and potentials, this study proposes to capitalize on the
natural resources from Straits of Johor — water and marine life, to build a food supply chain
network. The strait is home to plenty of marine life and a number of sea-based aquaculture
fish farms. Through bilateral efforts, these natural and cultivated resources could be
multiplied into a shared resource, which potentially give rise to a new typology of commons
through a planned process. The governments would be the actor to initiate, curate and
choreograph the subsequent commoning process through policy-making and local
empowerment. A productive border would then redefine the site as an urban commons, from
both spatial and functional dimensions. Spatially, a cross-sectorial collaboration can be
initiated to build some shared infrastructures, for both food production and connections.
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Functionally, the shared spaces provide the place for food production activities, i.e.
aquaculture and agriculture, where the process itself would be a process of commoning
when agreements are established and rules are negotiated. Through a collective effort to
physically and programmatically enact an urban commons for food production, it is possible
to leverage on the positive externalities to address the multi-faceted bilateral issues.
4.3 Food Production Engenders Other Commons
In ‘Rebel Cities’
19
, David Harvey urges the need on examining the other forms of commons
and recognize the interaction of urban commons with other urban systems. Correspondingly,
the proposed urban commons as a field of food production entails and thus engender other
forms of commons (see Figure 1).
Figure 1. Food industry engenders commons
Food production need water supply for irrigation, thus also acts as a catalyst to accelerate the
desalination technology. A shared desalination plant is important to build the resilience in
response to the imminent climate change. The new ‘water tap’ become a new common
resource to be shared by the two states.
In Singapore, food waste accounts for approximately 10 percent of the total waste generated.
Provided the same proportion remains, more food produced also means more food wasted.
Currently, 84 percent of the food waste are incinerated at waste-to-energy (WTE) plants to
generate electricity. On-site food industry thus provides an opportunity to efficiently manage
the food waste and contribute to a common resource — energy.
Apart from food production, food education could also probably lend to the knowledge
commons. Programmes such as agri-talents by AVA and the burgeoning urban farming
movement involve sharing of knowledge on how to grow our own food are a form of
commoning. With the desirable settings and communities in place, an array of food-related
events or activities could be expected, which potentially contribute to the knowledge
commons. This empowerment of the people through education of common pool knowledge
is the key to the change towards food sovereignty.
5 How Commons Address the Bilateral Issues?
How then the above commons relate to the ultimate goals of the project — resolving bilateral
issues? Table 1 summarizes the relationship of food industry and bilateral issues.
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Table 1: Commons and Bilateral issues
Issues
How food industry intervene / improve
the situation?
Physical
Inefficient and inadequate
physical connections due to
border control
Food production and consumption
redefine border security checkpoint
Inefficient and inadequate physical
connections and crossing
Territory
Continuous land reclamation
and territorial dispute
Create shared food source, engender
one economy and interdependence -
change of mindset as a whole
Incompatible zonings and
environmental impacts due
to uneven development
Food production module as a gradient /
mediator to bridge the gap such as
algae and mussels farming
Environmental
Air and water pollution
Create needs on the water to monitor
the water quality
Economic
Resource dependence and
economic imbalance
A shared water desalination plant and
food digester - one economy
Social
Social tension
Create social platform through farming -
co-production + co-consumption
Vanishing fishing villages as
cultural heritage
Preserve fishing village and the
traditional fishing culture
Physical
The project proposes to address the traffic issues through a cross-border food network by
creating higher food interdependency. By reducing border control, a smoother crossing would
enhance food delivery — both raw food material or cooked meals — and further enrich the
current cross-border dynamic. While the main functions of the infrastructures are primarily
for food production, they should also be designed to double as border-crossing facilities.
Multiplying the crossing channels and expediting the process would address the insufficient
and inefficient physical connections issue.
Territorial
Conceiving the straits as a shared food source and supply chain would redefine the
neighbouring states as one economy, further fostering the interdependence. Apart from
meeting the food demand, farming would also yield positive externalities to negotiate the
incompatible zonings by alleviating the environmental pollution. Algaeculture requires carbon
dioxide and nutrients from the sewage to accelerate the growth; while mussel and oyster
farming are proven natural water purifiers as the bivalves take in bacteria, chemicals and
pathogens in the water. To that end, well-designed architecture is required to maximize the
efficiency of food production infrastructures to also serve as biofilters, especially near the
areas affected by pollution such as Punggol-Pasir Gudang and Danga Bay-Sungei Buloh.
Environmental
It is the human nature to sustain our environment when/where we need them most. Human
only strive to achieve the sustainability of nature when human need the natural resources to
survive. Sustainability is defined as the process of maintaining change in a balanced fashion,
in which the exploitation of resources is in harmony and enhance both current and future
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potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
20
By creating the needs on the food resources
at the strait, the water quality will be constantly being monitored. This is vividly illustrated by
the case “when (our) farmers along the Straits of Johor were devastated by a massive loss of
fish stock in February 2014, we immediately rolled out appropriate initiatives to help them
during this ordeal.”
21
Economic
Since 2005, Singapore has been investing in the desalination technology dubbed the Fourth
National Tap, aiming to double the capacity by 2030 and triple it by 2060 which means more
acre of lands are needed (PUB n.d.). Food production need water supply for irrigation, thus
also acts as a catalyst to accelerate the desalination technology. By maximizing comparative
advantages, Singapore can contribute its technology input and R&D while Johor has vast land
to host the land-intensive plant. A shared desalination and waste-to-energy plant is important
to build the resilience in response to the imminent climate change, which also define the
region as one economy.
Social
The border space is turned into a production area that does not only yield food crop, but also
doubles as a culture cauldron that aim to produce social cohesion through serendipitous
encounters and interaction. As argued by Sennett, a limited sense of fraternity with others
arises when people do something together rather than being together.
22
In a similar vein, the
new space for production are designed to ensure colocation, copresence, and collaboration.
The governments could anticipate a more efficient use of the urban and natural resources
while constructing a common regional identity for collective gain. Bilateral collaboration in
lieu of contestation also means that solidarity between the two nations could be built, natural
surveillance could be promoted, making the border space less vulnerable to global threats.
6 Design ImplicationsSystems and Architecture
This section will discuss some of the possible design strategies in terms of managerial systems
and its architecture. As suggested in section 4, the project would not be a one-off design but
rather a long-term project that might span for decades, and this requires continuous
assessment and adjustment. Therefore, it is important to take into account the fourth
dimension in the design time. Through a phased comprehensive master plan, the
architecture is employed as the means and process to engender commons. In this paper, we
would sequence the investigation in 4 phases to further discuss the spatial indications in each
phases and scales.
Phase 1: Master plan and Infrastructure
To kickstart the project, the two governments would collaboratively come up with a joint
master plan. A thorough site study is important to carefully pinpoint the specific locations of
each bilateral issues as most of the issues are site-specific. Subsequently, a scientific study on
the marine and ecology system would help to further inform the potential sites that are
suitable for any interventions, especially fish farming which is the primary activity to initiate
the system. With the preparatory works done, the planning authorities from both states can
then come together to negotiate and lay out a land use plan to address the bilateral issues.
This is to ensure that consensus can be reached and none of any side’s interests are
compromised, meanwhile effectively avoiding the current situation — conflicting land use and
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uneven developments. A governments-led cooperative could be formed to act as the people’s
representatives to convene, organize and engage the locals in the decision makings.
Phase 2: Infrastructure
When the agreement is reached, it is important to engage professional design consultants
including urban planners, architects and engineers, as an innovative and unconventional
urban system is required in this ‘greenfield’ project. To allow for future changes in programs
and users, adaptable architectures do not only set the stage but instead play an active role to
facilitate the transformation. A future-ready design allows evolution through varying spaces
and changing occupancies in response to ever-changing realities. Through prudent provisions
in the spatial design and architectural details, adaptability and flexibility could be incorporated
up front. Thereafter, the governments could appoint private developers to construct the
infrastructure through open tenders. A cross-sectorial collaboration does not only increase
the efficiency and quality of works, but also opens up the possibility to tap on private sectors
for more capital investment.
Phase 3: Food Production
Dividing the long stretch of straits into parcels or precincts would ease the management
through decentralization of command and control. Each of the parcels can be superintended
by a food cooperative which consists of local farmers and stakeholders. They are responsible
to produce the fresh food to serve the local markets, gaining profit to sustain the system
footing the overheads cost — instead of accumulating wealth.
In terms of architecture, studies on the farming systems are done to provide some suggestions
for design implications. This study suggests the employment of aquaponics system that
integrates aquaculture and hydroponics farming. It is essentially a closed-loop system that
involves recycling of fish waste to fertilize the vegetable farming; the hydroponics farms in
return cleanse the water to complete the cycle. This helps to reduce the environmental
impacts of water pollution while cyclical water consumption also reduces the loss of water.
The agriculture could take the form of vertical farming towers which significantly decrease the
land use. When the infrastructure stretches across the straits, it is inevitable to have travellers
crossing and inhabiting the border. Hence, an innovative architecture to reimagine the border-
crossing is required. The border could house food consumption spaces such as on-water
eateries and food market, which redefines the security checkpoints when augmented with
latest technology including radio-frequency identification (RFID), multi-biometric screening
and drones. Besides, auxiliary spaces such as food waste digester and desalination plants are
integral parts in the system. An open and transparent design for such infrastructure could turn
them into accessible and educational spaces for the public. Multipurpose architecture allows
the facilities to not only produce food, energy and water as main resource commons, but also
provides a platform for knowledge and social production. In short, phase 3 would see the
straits transformed into an urban commons and prepare the site to further give rise to other
commons in later stage.
Phase 4: Space Conversion into Commons
Phase 4 focuses on commons as a social space to allow different forms of participation, sharing
and collaboration. Everyone that comes to the sites, including residents, farmers, workers and
visitors is seen as potential participant in the aforementioned events and activities who
produces sharing through co-production, co-consumption and collective interaction.
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In this scenario, transformability of the architecture is the key feature in producing commons.
Together with the power of social media and education, transformable architecture could
empower the people to re-appropriate the spaces for other usages. The process could be seen
as a production and re-production of commons, which along the process slowly gravitates the
focus from physical resource production to social condenser. In other words, food production
in the earlier stages becomes the catalyst to multiply the spaces, which could then be
transformed into social grounds. The final vision of the site is cast as an ecologically-based
symbiotic social structure that creates resilient spaces and communities which are
empowering and inclusive, allowing different facets of every day occurrences and needs to
take place.
7 Conclusion
Despite that the design is still under investigation, the study explored the possibility of an
evolving urban common as the architecture response to the manifold bilateral issues. By
reimagining the border as a production site of food, the paper attempts to demonstrate how
the commons can be enacted in relation to the convoluted conflicts. While the investigation
only presents one of the many possibilities on this site, the approach is meant to be
speculative and open-ended, wishing to evoke more conversations and inspirations for a
prosperous future to the region.
Acknowledgements
This study is supported by the Ng Teng Fong Charitable Foundation Fund.
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Article
Trade plays an important role in economic growth. Thence, a smooth cross-border transaction between Thailand-Malaysia-Singapore provides a significant implication in international trade. Currently, cross-border transactions face several issues during the crossing of borders between countries and, specifically, happens during the transactions of cargo. A very rigid documentation process within the custom clearance and theresulting severe congestion will affect the trade flow in this particular zone. Inconsistency of freight transaction documents at the cross-border also makes the transaction procedure more complicated and affects the performance of the manufacturer’s competitiveness. Thus, this paper explores the current issues at the borders involving Thailand-Malaysia-Singapore. This paper also initiates to figure out the challenges and some key success factors in modelling efficiency for cross-border transactions amongst these countries. A qualitative approach has been adapted to answer the proposed research questions. The initial results stressed that congestion, thorough and repetitious documentation procedures, involvement of many documents, as well as the time-consuming clearance of documents are key issues encountered during cross-border freight movement. This situation has caused several issues such as delays in freight delivery, losses in tax collection due to delays, reluctance to share information, and effects on the competitiveness of the freight supply chain. Development in infrastructure, information sharing, regulations, logistics performance, and customs clearance procedure can overcome the problems during cross-border Thailand-Malaysia-Singapore activities. The model outcome is expected to be smoother for the administrative process during customs clearance and it is expected to be able to efficiently reduce costs.
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Tuas Desalination Plant Opens, Another Milestone in Singapore's Water Quest
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