Article

Acercamiento teórico al marketing sensorial: sentidos, experiencias de marcas y modelos

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Los clientes son cada vez más exigentes, buscan un producto y/o servicio exclusivo a sus necesidades. Es por ello que, este trabajo realiza un acercamiento teórico al marketing sensorial con que beneficiará tanto a la empresa como al consumidor, debido a que se analiza cuáles son los sentidos que pueden emplearse para comunicar la identidad del producto y/o servicio, lo cual genera una ventaja competitiva. En este sentido, se describe cómo los sentidos humanos son importantes para la experiencia individual de los diferentes procesos de compra y consumo. Con este fin, se revisaron documentos en español e inglés indizados en bases de datos como: Scopus, Springer Journals, Journal of Marketing, Google Académico, Microsoft Academic Search y Science Direct. Seguidamente, el análisis de la literatura permitió sustentar el objeto de estudio y consolidar las experiencias de marca de varios referentes del mercado. Finalmente, los modelos de Parasumann y Zeithaml, Broweus y Dijk, Schmitt y EPC (estimulo, proceso y consecuencia) inmersos en el marketing sensorial describen algunos parámetros para la medición de percepciones y expectativas del cliente. En conclusión, la investigación refleja la relevancia de herramientas tecnológicas como estímulo sensorial para el consumidor donde el marketing sensorial se convierte en una estrategia de diferenciación

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Article
Full-text available
El presente trabajo estudia los Doodles de la página principal de la plataforma de búsqueda de Google como un ejemplo de marketing sensorial y experiencial. Se centra concretamente en los Doodles publicados durante el confinamiento por el covid-19 que hicieron referencia de alguna forma a la pandemia. El objetivo es mostrar cómo Google con esta estrategia recupera las tres funciones tradicionales de los medios de comunicación masivos: formar, informar y entretener. Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio cualitativo a través de una herramienta de evaluación y medida de las comunicaciones experienciales de marca que utilizan medios digitales diseñada a partir de la Matriz Experiencial de Schmitt. El método combina la observación y sistematización de los Módulos Experienciales y el examen de los Expros o diferentes Proveedores de Experiencias que se utilizan para dar forma a cada acción experiencial, y que en el caso de los Doodlesson ocho: imágenes, textos, animaciones, sonidos, herramientas de interactuación, herramientas de compartición, herramientas para ampliar información y herramientas de intercambio de información o producción colectiva. Los resultados muestran una estrategia enfocada en dos direcciones: concienciar a la ciudadanía y mostrar agradecimiento a determinados sectores de la población. A pesar de simplificarse la intensidad de la estimulación sensorial de los Doodles con respecto a otros momentos estudiados, se afirma que pueden considerarse una experiencia donde se comparten sentimientos, sensaciones, pensamientos y actuaciones con la audiencia, y que además se hace de forma pedagógica, lúdica y emotiva.
Article
Frente a consumidores cada vez mejor informados y más exigentes, que también buscan que su compra se convierta en una experiencia y a la creciente importancia de los portales de compra onlinefrente al retailfísico, se hace necesario el desarrollo de estrategias en el punto de venta para atraer a los compradores y sigan acudiendo a las mismas, no sólo a realizar una compra, sino a pasar tiempo en la tienda. Y, en este sentido, una de las grandes diferencias (por no decir el punto fuerte) entre la tienda física y la onlinees la experiencia física de poder tocar y sentir el producto. La tienda no debe ser entendida solo como un punto de venta, sino que se debe configurar como un espacio donde vivir experiencias. Y es aquí, integrada dentro de la estrategia de trade marketing, donde cobra especial relevancia el marketing de los sentidos. Partiendo de esta premisa, la presente investigación se centra en el estudio del marketing sensorial utilizado por las tiendas de moda del grupo Inditex y, más concretamente, la influencia que el uso de dichas técnicas tiene en el comportamiento de compra de los consumidores y en cómo estos perciben la generación de experiencias. Para ello se aplicará la metodología cuantitativa de la encuesta a una muestra de la población cuyas respuestas se estudian a través del software estadístico SPSS. De los resultados se desprende que si bien el uso de estas técnicas tiene una influencia positiva en los consumidores desde el punto de vista de la experiencia de compra, realmente no les influyen en la decisión de compra final.
Article
Full-text available
A través de este estudio se pretende dar relevancia a los elementos que componen el marketing sensorial, destacando su potencial para la mejora de la experiencia de compra del usuario en el punto de venta. Para llevar la investigación a cabo, se ha adaptado el modelo de Hulten, Broweus y Van Dijk (2009) sobre el marketing sensorial con el objetivo principal de analizar la percepción y las actitudes de los consumidores ante distintos elementos sensoriales de comunicación propuestos por la tienda sevillana Blanco Número 1. El método que se utilizó fue, por un lado, una investigación documental y, por el otro, un estudio exploratorio causal-cuantitativo consistente en crear una estrategia sensorial. Los resultados obtenidos arrojan luz sobre la importancia del marketing sensorial, pues, en este caso real, existe un aumento considerable de las ventas, el tiempo de permanencia de los clientes e, incluso, la satisfacción de los mismos después de aplicar las estrategias pertinentes. Por ello, se ha concluido que el modelo de Hulten, Broweus y Van Dijk es válido y fiable para un establecimiento comercial pequeño como el que ha sido objeto de estudio.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the sensory marketing that wants to be a marketing tool which influences the mood and consumer behavior. The consumer is not looking only for buying a product or a service alone, but he is seeking an emotional and unique experience around what he buys. In line with previous studies, our survey study reveals how consumers evaluated the atmosphere of restaurants through the cognitive and emotional reactions. A synergy makes the internal response (cognitive and/or emotional) of the customer-facing the stimuli of the atmosphere, superposition of the four senses (sound, sight, touch, smell). According to our survey results, this research highlights the importance of recognizing that the stimuli of the atmosphere of the point of sales influence to emotional (feel more pleasure) and cognitive (perceive a better quality) responses of the customer through the experience of the sensory marketing.
Article
Full-text available
Sensory stimulation is used by various brands to induce desired behaviours among their customers. Although its effectiveness is recognised in business contexts, little research has been conducted on sensory marketing. In order to contribute to filling this gap, this study sought to build a model that explains how sensory stimulation influences intentions to purchase a brand. Brand experience and brand equity were expected to mediate this relationship. The empirical validation of the model was conducted by carrying out an online survey with a convenience sample of 302 customers of a brand of the catering industry. The data collected were processed using PLS-SEM methodology. The results reveal that sensory stimulation positively influences brand experience and brand equity, which, in turn, have a positive impact on intentions to purchase the brand in question. The relevant contributions that emerged from this study include not only bridging the aforementioned gap in the literature but also offering significant managerial implications.
Article
Full-text available
Tourism business executives should discover critical ways to create a memorable experience by appealing to consumers’ multi-sensory organs emotionally and rationally. From this point of view determining the most successful multi-sensory brand experience concept, which the customers fi nd most satisfying, is becoming a critical marketing strategy. So this study aims to fi nd the sensory based memorable tourism experiences, attributes/specifi c elements of the hotel business. With this aim, Adam&Eve Hotel, a themed hotel in Antalya, was chosen as the study sample. In this exploratory research, comments which were made electronically on Tripadvisor. com, known as the world’s most visited online social travel information channel about the holiday experience, constituted the search data and the data was subjected to content analysis via Nvivo Software and the critical multi-sensory organs that create memorable tourism experiences were defi ned. The analysis of the results has been performed on the basis of fi ve sensory stimuli: 1) tactile, 2) gustatory, 3) olfactory, 4) visual, and 5) auditory. The fi ndings also revealed that nearly 70 percent of the recalled emotions and feelings from sensations related to visual stimuli which were detailed with the components like decor, interior/exterior design, etc.
Article
Full-text available
Rev.esc.adm.negEl poder de los sentidos sobre percepciones y emociones de los individuos, ha sido tema de estudio dada la incidencia que ejercen sobre el comportamiento de compra y consumo de productos y servicios. De allí nació la aplicación de lo sensorial en el Marketing, la cual exige una adecuada gestión para sacar el provecho de los beneficios otorgados a la respuesta de la estimulación sensorial, que finalmente se traducirán en ventas rentables para la compañía. Así el objetivo general propuesto en esta investigación consistió en identificar y comprender los factores a tener en cuenta en una gestión de marketing sensorial, partiendo de diferentes propuestas usando los sentidos que se han desarrollado a la fecha en algunas partes del mundo y en Colombia. Como objetivos específicos se pretendió construir una línea de tiempo del estudio sobre los sentidos, identificar la relación de los sentidos con el proceso de compra, los objetivos y estrategias perseguidos con el marketing sensorial y determinar un modelo usado en su aplicación.
Article
Full-text available
Esta ponencia revisa y analiza algunas investigaciones sobre la ensenanza de la argumentacion en la escritura de textos multimodales digitales, tematica que se aborda en tres momentos a saber: 1) argumentacion y didactica de los anos 60 al 90, 2) ensenanza de la argumentacion desde una perspectiva cognitiva y epistemica desde los 90 al 2000; y 3) formas de argumentar apoyadas en recursos multimodales desde los anos 90 al 2013. Finalmente, se presentan las conclusiones enfocadas en develar algunas problematicas que abren el campo de discusion e investigacion.
Article
Full-text available
Starting from the idea that the destination represents a complex product, seen as the sum of multiple products, the destination branding process should concentrate on developing sensory experiences. In the end, this could lead to a five-dimensional destination brand. The main objective of this article is to identify some of the experiences, which are liable to become sensory signatures of the destination. Taking into consideration the perceptual elements that the tourists rely on when evaluating the destination and their information sources concerning that particular place, marketers should capture in the online communication the essence of the destination’s sensory experiences.
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to contribute to the conceptualization of the sensory dimension of tourist experiences by discussing its theoretical underpinnings. A multidisciplinary approach to the human senses shows their importance to the individual’s experience and perception of the surrounding world, recommending the appropriateness of a holistic analysis of sensescapes in tourism. A review of empirical studies conducted under the experiential paradigm of tourism on the five human senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch) evidences the use of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, which depends on research purposes, but also the practical implications of findings and data analysis to destination marketing and management. The paper discusses the role of the senses in designing tourist experiences, and identifies important topics regarding the study of the sensory dimension of tourist experiences, considering future research opportunities.
Article
Full-text available
Advance in food science depends on measuring the factors in human perception that influence eaters' activities with branded products. Assessed samples must include at least two levels of a sensed material characteristic (e.g. sucrose) or conceptual marketing attribute (e.g. “low fat”), minimally confounded by other features. Each feature needs to be measured for its effect on the individual's objective achievement of choosing among the samples for a familiar context of use. These influences interact, consciously and unconsciously. This theory of how a mind works has generated a wide range of scientifically illuminating and commercially practical examples, illustrated in this review.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Much of the literature on consumer empowerment focuses on consumers' efforts to regain control of their consumption processes from suppliers. The purpose is to argue that many suppliers achieve success by trying hard to empower consumers. The mechanism by which this takes place consists of researching and providing what consumers want. Consumers feel empowered when they are able to enjoy the consumption process. This is of particular note in shopping, which is not simply obtaining products but also experience and enjoyment. Design/methodology/approach – Research is examined into the links between firms' efforts to understand what consumers want, atmospheric stimuli, emotions and buying behaviour. Findings – The paper finds that successful firms' try hard to understand what consumers want and to improve consumer satisfaction and empowerment by providing pleasant marketing environments and apt, relevant information. Research limitations/implications – The approach is based on prior literature. The paper examines marketing to consumers in company locations, e.g. stores, malls, restaurants and banks to examine specific evidence of the effects of atmospheric stimuli such as aroma, music and video screen media. Practical implications – The paper contends that firms can and do become successful in a competitive arena by providing pleasant environments and information that people want. Originality/value – The paper shows how consumer empowerment is an important concept. This paper contributes since there is a dearth of writings specifically about consumer empowerment in the marketing literature. Far from the popular view of consumers being manipulated by firms, successful firms try hard to and succeed in empowering consumers in their marketing activities.
Article
Full-text available
El incremento de la competencia en los mercados y la existencia de una mayor competitividad entre las empresas, así como los cambios en el comportamiento de compra de los consumidores ha puesto de manifiesto la necesidad de adoptar una concepción del marketing más adaptada a la realidad actual del mercado y de las demandas de los consumidores (Palmer, 2010, Srinivasan y Srivastava, 2010). Así surge el denominado Marketing Experiencial, uno de los últimos avances de la disciplina del Marketing, que se dirige a ofrecer al consumidor una experiencia de consumo única, estableciendo una vinculación con la marca o empresa, basada en las emociones, sentimientos o pensamientos, entre otros aspectos, que despierta el producto en el consumidor. A pesar de encontrarse el desarrollo teórico y la aplicación del Marketing Experiencial en sus fases iniciales (Hosany y Witman, 2010; Tsiotsou y Ratten, 2010), el objetivo fundamental de este estudio se centra en conocer el estado actual de la investigación en torno al mismo, revisando las principales aportaciones existentes en la literatura, debido a las contribuciones y beneficios que la aplicación futura de esta nueva visión del Marketing puede aportar en el ámbito empresarial. Concretamente, nos centraremos en las contribuciones de Pine y Gilmore (1998) y de Schmitt (1999) por su gran incidencia en el desarrollo del Marketing Experiencial.
Article
Previous research has shown the relevance of studying consumers’ emotional response to products for product development and as a marketing tool to attract the widest range of consumers. This study aims (1) to explain the relationship between emotional and sensory traits of wine products and (2) to understand the effect of gender and age in wine preferences and evoked emotions. Six different commercial wines with very different sensory properties were selected. Sensory analyses performed by a trained panel of 11 assessors were used to describe wines. Degree of liking and emotional response were rated by a consumer panel (n = 208) drawn from different age segments using a modified version of EsSense25. The results showed that EsSense25 was able to measure emotional response in the set of studied wines. Also, sensory and emotional profiles of the same set of wines revealed a relationship between attributes like fruity and floral and positive emotions, and liquorice, clove and vanilla and neutral and negative emotions. Differences in emotional response by gender and age were found: in general, men reported higher scores on significant emotions than women for all the wines, but women, although they gave generally lower ratings than men, reported greater differences between the wines and were able to discriminate among the wines regarding emotions such as joyful. Also, regarding age segments, all of the wines evoked significantly higher scores in older adults than in middle-aged and young adults for most emotional terms. However, young adults showed higher discrimination between wines than the other age groups, in terms of emotional responses towards the set of wines tested in this study.
Article
Knowing consumer's behaviour, his/her preferences and reactions provides company with better chance to establish itself in trade. While doing research, it is very important to analyse and search for answers to questions why customers do the shopping, what they buy, when, where and how often they do the shopping. The decision to buy a product or service is influenced by many factors, including not only cultural, social, psychological but also personal factors. Sensory marketing itself is coming to the foreground and more and more people are realising its position. This document is dedicated to issue which is useful not only for companies but also for consumer himself. It deals with involvement of sensory and tries to clarify their importance in business communication. The aim of research document was evaluation of senses and their influence on consumer's behaviour in shopping area. The comparison of generations and their buying habits during shopping behaviour was also important. Primary data were gained through a questionnaire which was realised on sample of 312 respondents. The impact of sensory marketing was generally aimed on factors which influence consumers while doing shopping. In questionnaire, respondents were divided into three groups/generations according to their age (young, middle aged and elder). The questionnaire research confirmed that sight was the most influenced sense when doing shopping (62%). Irrational consumer's behaviour was also confirmed. There were some differences shown among generation groups. Research confirmed that the sensory perception of these generations is different. More assumptions were formulated for a deeper analysis and their relations were verified by means of statistical test (Pearson Chi-kvadrat goodness-to-fit test). On the basis of required results was confirmed that most of customers do not realise the impact of individual senses on shopping behaviour. © 2017 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, License.
Article
This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of the Association for Consumer Research reviews basic approaches to embodied cognition and sensory marketing and provides an overview of the contributions to the issue.
Chapter
Although the definition of a ‘luxury’ brand is open for debate, the natural evolution of luxury, with luxury brands first being adopted by the affluent and wealthy before inevitably being translated and reinterpreted down to mass markets, raises new challenges for marketing strategists. Luxury brands need to stay in front of luxury consumers, through the discovery of new and different ways to give expression to their desires. This chapter discusses the fundamental difference between communication and connection, and identifies a means of assuring the greatest long-term success for luxury marketers by connecting with the luxury consumer using brand-related experiences
Article
Consumers often touch products before reaching purchase decisions, and indeed touch improves evaluations of the given product. The present research investigates how touching a given product influences perception and choice of other seen products. We show that grasping a source product increases the visual fluency of a haptically similar product, thereby increasing the likelihood of choosing that product, but not the willingness to pay for it (Study 1). We also show that visually crowded rather than sparse product displays increase the effect of touch on choosing other haptically similar products, and that individuals' instrumental need for touch further modulates this effect (Study 2). Our results suggest that by manipulating or mimicking the haptic features (e.g., shape and size) of objects that consumers grasp while shopping, marketers can develop packaging that facilitates consumers' visual processing of their products, thereby increasing choice of those products.
Book
What is sensory marketing and why does it matter? This book offers a global view of the use of senses in marketing strategy based on consumers' perception and behavior. Integrating the company constraints and classical approaches of branding and communication, the author presents sensory marketing as an emergent marketing paradigm in theory and practice. With a comprehensive historical introduction, this book will be an important contribution that will provide useful Reading for marketing scholars and consumer psychologists across the World.
Article
The article explores experiences and expectations of organic producers regarding consumer-relevant information pertaining to the sensory properties of organic products. Individual interviews of ten prominent Italian organic producers were conducted and analysed, using both a qualitative and quantitative content analysis, and conceptual mapping. Results reveal that organic producers generally perform sensory analyses in a non-systematic and non-standardised way. However, despite high costs and lack of expertise associated with such tests, producers expressed the necessity to increase the use of these analyses on their products and to improve their reliability in order to better identify and meet the needs of consumers. The undesirable variation in sensory features of organic products during the shelf life was highlighted, and the need for training initiatives to improve consumer's sensory knowledge and awareness was also expressed. From these findings, suggestions for further future research are provided.
Article
Despite considerable research on the topic of ‘tourist experience’, its contribution to tourism theory and its exploitation for the purpose of creating practical benefits for marketing practices, remain unclear. The present study reviews the existing literature and then presents a novel approach to interpreting experience in tourism by: (a) integrating the space and time dimensions into the ‘tourist experience’ concept, thereby shedding light on its nature and significance; and (b) examining tourists' spontaneous annotations on their travel experiences. Marketing implication and suggestions are provided for the benefit of tourism practitioners.
Article
In this article, I contrast traditional marketing with a new approach to marketing called Experiential Marketing and provide a strategic framework for Experiential Marketing. Traditional marketing views consumers as rational decision-makers who care about functional features and benefits. In contrast, experiential marketers view consumers as rational and emotional human beings who are concerned with achieving pleasurable experiences. Five different types of experiences, or strategic experiential modules (SEMs), that marketers can create for customers are distinguished: sensory experiences (SENSE); affective experiences (FEEL); creative cognitive experiences (THINK); physical experiences, behaviours and lifestyles (ACT); and social-identity experiences that result from relating to a reference group or culture (RELATE). These experiences are implemented through so-called experience providers (ExPros) such as communications, visual and verbal identity, product presence, electronic media, etc. The ultimate goal of experiential marketing is to create holistic experiences that integrate individual experiences into a holistic Gestalt. The paper concludes with an examination of strategic issues and a discussion about how to create the experience-oriented organization.
Article
The evaluation processes are widely used for quality inspection, design, marketing exploitation and other fields in industrial companies. In many of these fields the items, products, designs, etc., are evaluated according to the knowledge acquired via human senses (sight, taste, touch, smell and hearing), in such cases, we talk about sensory evaluation, in it an important problem arises as it is the modelling and management of uncertain knowledge in the evaluation process, because the information acquired by our senses throughout human perceptions always involves uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision.The decision analysis techniques have been utilized in many evaluation processes, hence this paper proposes and shows the application of the linguistic decision analysis to sensory evaluation and its advantages, particularly based on the linguistic 2-tuple representation model, in order to model and manage consistently the uncertainty and vagueness of the information in this type of problems.
Admosfera: agencia de marketing sensorial
  • M Amorós
de noviembre de 2013)
  • M Barresi
Marketing de la Experiencia: principales conceptos
  • M Barrios
Marketing Sensorial. Influencia y evolución en el sector hotelero. España: CET
  • C González
Sensory marketing aspects: priming, expectations, crossmodal correspondences & more. The Journal for Decision Makers
  • P Lintelle
Marketing emprendedor
  • F Montero
El Marketing Sensorial en el punto de venta
  • S Rieunier
26 de junio de 2011)
  • A Stalman
Marketing y estrategia conductual
  • F Torreblanca
The fashion FMC Marcom Case
  • A Flores
Industria de la tecnología
  • J Garzón
Propuesta de modelo de gestión basado en el marketing experiencial para la generación de brand equity en el contexto Peruano
  • L Herrera
  • F Bardales
Las 6 apps que te ayudan a combinar
  • Prensa Ibérica Media
Comunicación experiencial y sensorial: algunos ejemplos de aplicación
  • J Alcaide
  • M Merino
Aceite de oliva argentino: determinación de estrategias para su comercialización
  • J Alderete
  • G Maraulo
  • M Ugarte
Persuasión a través del marketing sensorial y experiencial
  • R Garcillán
Marketing sensorial: comunicar a través de los sentidos
  • D Gavilán
  • R Manzano
  • T Serra
Marketing sensorial: la importancia de los sentidos en las vinotecas. España: Universidad de la Rioja
  • C Íñiguez
Un estudio de la evolución del Marketing. El Marketing sensorial y el Street
  • L Monge
Marketing de experiencias: herramienta para la fidelización del consumidor
  • T Montoya
31 de diciembre de 2006)
  • J Penalva
El poder de los sentidos: Marketing sensorial en Desigual
  • E Subirós
Aplicación del modelo de marketing sensorial de Hulten, Broweus y Van Dijk
  • V Valencia
  • I Arias
Arquitectura sensorial: la atmósfera del espacio comercial
  • C Fernández
Marketing Sensorial BMW: análisis de las campañas y percepción de los usuarios
  • L Vierna
Servicio de información comunitario sobre investigación y desarrollo
  • Cordis
26 de junio de 2011). Branding
  • A Stalman