Transmission Gates Combined With Level-Restoring CMOS Gates Reduce Glitches in Low-Power Low-Frequency Multipliers
Various 16-bit multiplier architectures are compared in terms of dissipated energy, propagation delay, energy-delay product (EDP), and area occupation, in view of low-power low-voltage signal processing for low-frequency applications. A novel practical approach has been set up to investigate and graphically represent the mechanisms of glitch generation and propagation. It is found that spurious activity is a major cause of energy dissipation in multipliers. Measurements point out that, because of its shorter full-adder chains, the Wallace multiplier dissipates less energy than other traditional array multipliers (8.2 mu W/MHz versus 9.6 mu W/MHz for 0.18mum CMOS technology at 0.75 V). The benefits of transistor sizing are also evaluated (Wallace including minimum-size transistors dissipates 6.2 muW/MHz). By combining transmission gates with static CMOS in a Wallace architecture, a new approach is proposed to improve the energy-efficiency further (4.7 muW/MHz), beyond recently published low-power architectures. The innovation consists in suppressing glitches via resistance-capacitance low-pass filtering, while preserving unaltered driving capabilities. The reduced number of V <sub>dd</sub>-to-ground paths also contributes to a significant decrease of static consumption.
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