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Abstract

Indian diets and national subsidy programmes are biased towards cereals, offering only limited quality protein. Promoting appropriate levels of production and consumption of high quality foods rich in protein is critical in India's attempts to enhance diet quality and resolve stubbornly high levels of undernutrition. Using nationally representative datasets, simulations were performed to assess the likely additional requirements of quality protein sources in the context of environmental stressors in India. Results suggest that policymakers need to pay much more attention to the drivers of protein supply via pulses and milk, whose demand is expected to rise sharply. For eggs, fish and meat, demand is not expected to increase significantly, thus efforts are needed to encourage consumer demand growth. Overall, to achieve enhanced dietary quality in coming decades agricultural and other food policies need to shift from a cereals only focus, to stronger investment in pulses, dairy and egg production.

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... Vilas et al. (2018) project the demand-supply gap for chickpea and pigeon pea widening from 4.8 million tonnes in 2025 to 11.5 million tonnes in 2030. Minocha et al. (2019) projected the economic demand for pulses to be about 26 million tonnes by 2026, and the availability to fall short by 2 million tonnes. Pulse production will have to grow at an annual rate of 2.2% to meet projected demand of 39 million tonnes in 2050 (Indian Institute of Pulse Research, 2015), although pulse production has been volatile in the period 2012-2017 with growth fluctuating between − 11% in -15 and + 40% in 2016-17 (Directorate of Pulses Development, 2017. ...
... As a result, India's National Institute of Nutrition (2011) recommends a daily pulse intake of 80 g per person/day. The risk of quality protein deficiency (based on Estimated Average Requirements for each age group) ranges from 4% to 26% for different age groups and sectors in India (Minocha et al., 2019). By 2026, projected availability would meet about 57-87% of pulse intake required to minimize the risk of dietary quality protein inadequacy to a very low level (Minocha et al., 2019). ...
... The risk of quality protein deficiency (based on Estimated Average Requirements for each age group) ranges from 4% to 26% for different age groups and sectors in India (Minocha et al., 2019). By 2026, projected availability would meet about 57-87% of pulse intake required to minimize the risk of dietary quality protein inadequacy to a very low level (Minocha et al., 2019). But this is not true for the whole of India because there is variability in production and consumption across the states as well as districts. ...
Article
Pulses (also known as legumes) are important in achieving nutrient adequacy in India due to their quality protein content. This study compared district-level pulse production and consumption across India, and household and district-level determinants of pulse intake, including availability, accessibility and affordability, using multi-level models in nationally representative datasets for 2011–12. The per capita consumption was about 50% of recommended intake (80 g/day), even in high-producing districts. District-level pulse production was associated with household pulse intake (2.73 × 10⁻⁸ [5.19 × 10⁻⁹, 4.94 × 10⁻⁸]) and market accessibility (−0.0077 [-0.0133, −0.0021]). Affordability (absolute price of pulse) was also associated with household intake. While agricultural policies relating to pulses have been oriented towards improving pulse output and productivity, forward-looking policies to improve pulse intake should focus on demand-side factors, such as improved market accessibility and the affordability of pulses relative to other foods.
... In the past two decades, a renewed interest in aggregation models and smallholder commercialization began. Population growth, globalization, and economic liberalization in many developing countries have resulted in income growth, urbanization, and changing food preferences toward a diversified higher-quality diet (Minocha et al., 2019;Pingali et al., 2019;Ortega & Tschirley, 2017;Pingali, 2007). While the urban population in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean stood at 50%, 43%, and 81% in 2018, it is expected to grow to 66%, 59%, and 88%, respectively, by 2050 (UN, 2019). ...
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Aggregation models where small farms jointly access credit, inputs, information, and product markets are not new to global agricultural systems. For over a century, agricultural cooperatives worldwide have tried rectifying small farm disadvantages in market access. In the last two decades, newer aggregation models such as farmer producer organizations, farmer groups, enterprises, and companies have increased. This scoping review assesses the taxonomy of aggregation models, identifies factors responsible for their re-emergence, analyzes their benefits to smallholders, and pinpoints the research gaps in the literature. The review finds that in erstwhile socialist economies, cooperatives emerged as a means of voluntary aggregation following decollectivization from the 1980s onwards. In countries that traditionally had cooperatives, newer aggregation models emerged as cooperatives faltered in adapting to market transformations. The new aggregation models focused on higher-value horticulture crops, livestock, dairy, and cash crops, in line with changing markets and demand. While identified qualitative and quantitative studies showed that aggregation models improved access to factor markets for credit, technology, and extension services, joint selling remained relatively low. Although many studies reported household welfare gains; studies assessing the organizational performance of aggregation models were fewer in number. The review's limitations were that it mainly identifies studies in English (and some Spanish) and evaluated only successful aggregation models, pointing to a survivorship bias in the literature. Long-term studies of aggregation models utilizing panel data and robust design to infer causation and multiple case studies to uncover the heterogeneity of aggregation models are crucial.
... Due to the demand for high-quality protein, the demand for high-quality meat is also increasing. Therefore, enhancing the amount and speed of muscle accumulation in livestock and poultry is the most crucial section in the development of animal husbandry (77). ...
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Guanidinoacetic acid is the direct precursor of creatine and its phosphorylated derivative phosphocreatine in the body. It is a safe nutritional supplement that can be used to promote muscle growth and development. Improving the growth performance of livestock and poultry and meat quality is the eternal goal of the animal husbandry, and it is also the common demand of today's society and consumers. A large number of experimental studies have shown that guanidinoacetic acid could improve the growth performance of animals, promote muscle development and improve the health of animals. However, the mechanism of how it affects muscle development needs to be further elucidated. This article discusses the physical and chemical properties of guanidinoacetic acid and its synthesis pathway, explores its mechanism of how it promotes muscle development and growth, and also classifies and summarizes the impact of its application in animal husbandry, providing a scientific basis for this application. In addition, this article also proposes future directions for the development of this substance.
... High fluctuations in prices of NDPFs could be attributed to seasonal supply (fruits and vegetables), irregular demand, lack of storage infrastructure as well as the impact of shocks like drought and flood (Sekhar et al., 2017). Studies have also noted other challenges such as lack of price monitoring and policy level challenges such as lack of inter-ministerial coordination, lack of understanding of the nutritional implications of agriculture policies, prioritization of nonnutritious foods, policy investment in a more calorie-oriented approach to nutrition and a gap between policy-making and implementation (Choudhury et al., 2018;Khandelwal et al., 2019;Minocha et al., 2019;Raghunathan et al., 2020;Thow et al., 2016;van den Bold et al., 2015). ...
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The triple burden of malnutrition in India is largely contributed by poor quality diets lacking adequate intake of nutrient dense perishable foods (NDPFs) - milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables. This is intriguing because India is one of the largest producers of NDPFs. This review examines possible reasons for this disparity. Poor post-harvest infrastructure, price volatility, unorganized supply chains, long-standing government policies favouring cereals and increasing consumer preference of convenience foods are identified as major reasons for the low intake of NDPFs. While nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions appear promising to improve intakes of NDPF, stronger evidence is needed to scale up these interventions.
... y t stands for predicted value of the signal at time t. y t−i stands for the value of the signal at a time ðt − iÞ and e t−j stands for error in the predicted value of signal as compared to the actual signal at a time ðt − jÞ: Since its inception it has been widely used for forecasting and modelling time-series data in areas of energy consumption and GHG emissions (Sen et al., Cocoa forecast through ARIMA and grey models 2016; Yuan et al., 2016), price of medium quality rice and its production (Bhavani and Singh, 2018;Ohyver and Pudjihastuti, 2018), fisheries (Stergiou, 1991), agriculture production (Praveen and Sharma, 2019), animal based protein sources (Minocha et al., 2019), among others. ARIMA forecast computation has been simplified in a forecast package in the R software to develop fitted models for data sequences. ...
Article
Purpose In the current study, two grey prediction models, Even GM (1, 1) and Non-homogeneous discrete grey model (NDGM), and ARIMA models are deployed to forecast cocoa bean production of the six major cocoa-producing countries. Furthermore, relying on Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and Doubling Time (D t ), production growth is analyzed. Design/methodology/approach The secondary data were extracted from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) database. Grey forecasting models are applied using the data covering 2008 to 2017 as their performance on the small sample size is well-recognized. The models' performance was estimated through MAPE, MAE and RMSE. Findings Results show the two grey models fell below 10% of MAPE confirming their high accuracy and forecasting performance against that of the ARIMA. Therefore, the suitability of grey models for the cocoa production forecast is established. Findings also revealed that cocoa production in Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana and Brazil is likely to experience a rise with a growth rate of 2.52, 2.49, 2.45 and 2.72% by 2030, respectively. However, Nigeria and Indonesia are likely to experience a decrease with a growth rate of 2.25 and 2.21%, respectively. Practical implications For a sustainable cocoa industry, stakeholders should investigate the decline in production despite the implementation of advanced agricultural mechanization in cocoa farming, which goes further to put food security at risk. Originality/value The study presents a pioneering attempt of using grey forecasting models to predict cocoa production.
... Indian diets and national subsidy programs are biased toward cereals, offering only limited quality protein. Promoting appropriate levels of production and consumption of high-quality foods rich in protein is critical in India's attempts to enhance diet quality and resolve stubbornly high levels of under-nutrition (Minocha et al., 2019). ...
Article
In the present study, wheat flour was blended with varying proportions of flaxseed flour (0%–25%) for the formulation of supplementary food (Panjiri) with better nutritional characteristics. This will also add variety to supplementary foods being given to malnourished children. The ash, fat, protein, and fiber contents of Panjiri made from flour composites were 0.82–1.27, 1.60–8.32, 8.76–9.81, and 1.18%–2.54%, respectively. Nutritional components enhanced significantly (p ≤ .05) with increasing addition of flaxseed flour and Panjiries became darker in color with decreased yellowness. Zn and Cu concentration increased with an increase in flaxseed flour in Panjiri. Heavy metals (Cr and Cd) were detected in very low concentrations. Antioxidant activity, reducing power, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of Panjiries ranged between 14.73%–21.08%, 982–1,259.11 µg AAE/g, 205.45–452.73 µg FAE/g, and 17.95–448.72 µg CE/g, respectively. Sensory evaluation scores revealed that flaxseed flour can be incorporated upto 15% in Panjiri to achieve better nutritional attributes and good acceptability scores. Supplementary food is necessary to overcome malnutrition and related complications. Many types of supplementary foods, which are available are quite expensive and the parents belonging to middle and lower income groups are unable to afford them. Hence, children in these families have to consume the foods that adults eat. Preparation of supplementary foods such as Panjiri on home‐scale provides a better option in combating malnutrition problems. These foods may be formulated with oilseeds (flaxseed), which can enhance their nutritional qualities to desired levels. The nutraceutical components found in different cereals and oilseeds might be helpful in curing chronic health problems and other related co‐morbidities. In addition, home‐scale formulations of Panjiri can also be easily afforded by middle class and low‐income families.
... For instance, the universal adoption of affluent high-meat diets by the Indian population would increase GHG emissions, water footprints, and land by 19-36% [80]. Even though the dietary guidelines issued by the National Institute for Nutrition (NIN) of India are among the most sustainable in the world [81], they call for an increase in meat and fish intake, which is seen as beneficial from a lens of food security [82], but has the aforementioned unintended environmental consequences. These unintended consequences heighten the need for interconnected public policies, as noted by Springmann, Wiebe, Mason-D'Croz, et al. [56], to meet both health and environmental objectives. ...
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Little is known about the consumer preferences of next-generation plant-based and cell-based meat alternatives, two food technologies that offer a demand-side solution to the environmental, nutritional, and other societal concerns associated with animal-intensive agriculture. To address this gap, this paper estimates consumers’ willingness to pay for four sources of protein (conventional meat, plant-based meat, cell-based meat, and chickpeas) in a developing country with rising demand for meat—India. A latent class model of a discrete choice experiment conducted in Mumbai identifies four heterogeneous segments in the Indian market. Aggregating across all four segments, respondents are willing to pay a premium for plant-based meat and a smaller premium for cell-based meat over the price of conventional meat. However, our main findings show that these premiums strongly differ across the four consumer-class segments. The results offer important insights into future price points and policy options that might make these meat alternatives commercially successful, and therefore, a viable option in addressing societal concerns.
... Most effective among these is ASF, where the addition of 200 or 50 g milk or egg improves the DIAAS of the daily diet of children aged <3 y to 100% and can reduce the risk of quality protein inadequacy from 29 to <10% (14). However, this requires an adequate production and supply of such quality protein foods (15), which is not trivial in low-and middle-income countries, when due consideration to the environment is given. ...
... Millets fulfil about 30% of fibre and zinc, 40% of iron and 60% of calcium daily requirements through a single staple diet. As such, economic demand models based on secondary level analysis of food expenditure and consumption patterns in India predict negative income elasticity and a declining intake of coarse grains (Minocha et al 2019;Mittal 2010). This is not surprising given the historical notion of millets as a poor man's food. ...
Article
Millets can play a role in providing nutrition security as they are rich in various macro and micronutrients, and can help to fight various non-communicable diseases. Hence, a suggestion was made to include them in the basket of goods provided through the public distribution system. The findings of this article suggest that, with the present level of production, millets can be provided in some states of India which have culturally grown as well as consumed them. However, scaling this policy to the national level may not be possible unless rigorous measures are undertaken to improve production as well as consumer acceptability.
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Enriching cereals-based products with bioactive compounds is a valuable strategy to improve product quality. We studied carotenoid bioaccessibility and intestinal uptake from a pumpkin-enriched porridge, cookies and sponge cakes by using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2 cell uptake. Among the carotenoids recovered in different products, α-carotene was the most important one. However, lutein displayed a significantly higher bioaccessibility compared to α-carotene and β-carotene in baked products (up to 10.28% compared to 1.22% and 0.88%, respectively). α-Carotene was the only carotenoid recovered in Caco-2 cells after micelle incubation. Cookie micelles led to the highest percentage of α-carotene cell uptake (2.33% and 1.38% for cookies with butter and cookies with vegetable oil, respectively) compared to the other baked products, followed by dry pumpkin puree micelles (1.31%). Overall, our data showed that both bioaccessiblity and cell uptake of carotenoids from cereal-based products were variable and highly depend on food formulation and structure.
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In recent times, there has been an increased international interest in India's food systems. There is a concern that, with rising population and incomes, India's adoption of unsustainable dietary patterns could have disastrous consequences not only for public health but also for the environment, locally and globally. This in turn can seriously threaten the progress toward achievement of the United Nations global Sustainable Development Goals. Identifying and informing stakeholders of sustainable dietary behaviors is thus essential. Here, using a non-linear optimization algorithm, we identify a sustainable diet for each of India's 35 states. These diets meet daily recommendations for 29 nutrients, exist within five environmental planetary boundaries, including greenhouse gas emissions, freshwater use, cropland use, nitrogen, and phosphorus application, and satisfy several cultural acceptability constraints. Results reveal that, while such a sustainable diet is possible, it will cost 50% more than current diets in most Indian states. Our results offer optimistic news that India's nutrition problem can be solved without jeopardizing the environment.
Chapter
Hindi and English are India’s official languages, but there are also 17 regional languages that are considered official. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services and software workers India has several cities that have undergone place name changes, such as Bombay being renamed Mumbai. These changes were mainly done in an effort to return the city names to local dialects instead of British translations. This chapter follows the dominant values and beliefs according to the 12 domains of the Purnell Model of Cultural Competence: overview/heritage, communication, family roles and organization, workforce issues, biocultural ecology, high-risk behaviors, nutrition, pregnancy, death rituals, spirituality, health-care practices, and health-care practitioners.
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In this study, the co-pyrolysis characteristics of cow manure (CM) and Meihuajing bituminous coal (MHJ) blends were investigated in detail. The mass loss behavior and gas evolution characteristics of the blends were analyzed online by thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry (TG–MS), and kinetic analysis was performed. The results demonstrate that the addition of CM to the MHJ increases the reactivity of blends, indicating that interaction between the CM and MHJ occurred during co-pyrolysis. For conventional gases, the release order of gases during CM and MHJ blend pyrolysis is H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, H2. For sulfur-containing gases, with increasing proportion of CM, the emissions of H2S, COS, and C4H4S increase and that of SO2 decrease, and the release temperature interval shifts to lower directions. The Coats & Redfern model was used, an increase of activation energy with CM addition was observed. The optimum blending ratio based on the lowest activation energy is CM:MHJ = 1:3 and the activation energy is 41.9 kJ/mol.
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The daily energy requirements are now based on replacing the measured daily energy expenditure (WHO/FAO/UNU 1985). When energy expenditure is equal to energy intake, energy balance is achieved, and is best indicated by weight stability. The specific energy requirement (expenditure) of a population is calculated using a factorial method that is based on the product of estimates of the basal metabolic rate (BMR), and the physical activity level (PAL). Some calculations also consider additional energy expenditure due to the thermic effect of food (TEF) which is typically about 10% of BMR. During pregnancy, and in childhood energy cost of deposition of tissues and optimal growth and during, lactation, energy cost of milk secretion is added. However, the factorial method is potentially problematic, as errors in any one factor propagate through to the final estimate of the requirement. For example, BMR is predicted from age and gender specific equations provided by the FAO/WHO/UNU, but these equations overestimate BMR of adult Indians by 5 to 12%. The PAL used for sedentary activities may also be wrong. In the latest recommendation of the Indian Council of Medical Research, the PAL is taken to be 1.53 for sedentary adults; this may need to be revised to a lower value as studies indicate that PAL of sedentary adult Indians is generally lower in this context, the current energy recommendation may be overestimated in Indians, and should be reconsidered in the context of the dual burden of nutritional disease.
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Lysine requirements of well-nourished children from developing regions have been found to be similar to those of children from developed regions (33.5 mg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)). However, intestinal parasites have been shown to increase lysine requirements in undernourished adults, and it is not known if a similar phenomenon occurs in undernourished children from poor and unsanitary environments. Our objective was to measure the lysine requirement of moderately undernourished school-aged Indian children by the indicator amino acid oxidation technique before and after successful treatment for intestinal parasites. Twenty-one undernourished school-aged children (∼8 y of age) with z scores between -2 SD and -3 SD for height-for-age or weight-for-age, who tested positive for intestinal parasites, were studied before and after successful antiparasite treatment. Children were fed any 2 of 7 levels of lysine intakes (5, 15, 25, 35, 50, 65, and 80 mg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) in random order. The lysine requirement was determined by applying a 2-phase linear regression crossover analysis on the fractional oxidation rate of the tracer L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine in response to the graded lysine intakes. The lysine requirement of undernourished children with intestinal parasite infestations was determined to be 42.8 mg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) (95% CI: 32.6, 53.1), and after successful antiparasitic treatment it was determined to be 35.5 mg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) (95% CI: 25.5, 45.5). The results were significantly different (P < 0.05), although the 95% CIs overlapped. The lysine requirement in undernourished children is similar to that of well-nourished children, and intestinal parasitic infestation increased the lysine requirement by ∼20%. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
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Indian diets derive almost 60 % of their protein from cereals with relatively low digestibility and quality. There have been several surveys of diets and protein intakes in India by the National Nutrition Monitoring Board (NNMB) over the last 25 years, in urban and rural, as well as in slum dwellers and tribal populations. Data of disadvantaged populations from slums, tribals and sedentary rural Indian populations show that the protein intake (mainly from cereals) is about 1 gm/kg/day. However, the protein intake looks less promising in terms of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), using lysine as the first limiting amino acid, where all populations, particularly rural and tribal, appear to have an inadequate quality to their protein intake. The protein: energy (PE) ratio is a measure of dietary quality, and has been used in the 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report to define reference requirement values with which the adequacy of diets can be evaluated in terms of a protein quality corrected PE ratio. It is likely that about one third of this sedentary rural population is at risk of not meeting their requirements. These levels of risk of deficiency are in a population with relatively low BMI populations, whose diets are also inadequate in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, while the burden of enhancing the quality of protein intake in rural India exists, the quality of the diet, in general, represents a challenge that must be met.
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In the literature, a variety of approaches have been used to calculate demand elasticities in almost ideal demand system (AIDS) models of demand. It is common to estimate the linear approximate almost ideal demand system (LA/AIDS) instead of the AIDS. When the LA/AIDS is estimated, all of the previously reported approaches to compute elasticities are theoretically incorrect. This paper presents correct formulas for LA/AIDS elasticities and illustrates the potential errors from using incorrect computing formulas.
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This paper extends and improves the author's earlier work on measuring own- and cross-price elasticities from spatial variation in prices using household survey data. Double-logarithmic demand functions are replaced by functions that relate budget shares to the logarithms of prices and incomes, and zero expenditures are treated appropriately. Formulae are developed for estimation and for the calculation of standard errors. Limited Monte Carlo evidence suggests that the asymptotic approximations work well in practice. An eleven–commodity system of food demands is estimated using Indonesian data from 1981.
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A randomized, controlled school feeding study was conducted in rural Embu District, Kenya to test for a causal link between animal-source food intake and changes in micronutrient nutrition and growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Children in Standard I classes received the local plant-based dish githeri as a midmorning school snack supplemented with meat, milk, or fat added to equalize energy content in all feedings. The Control children received no feedings but participated in data collection. Main outcome measures assessed at baseline and longitudinally were 24-h food intake recall, anthropometry, cognitive function, physical activity, and behaviors during school free play. For cognitive function, the Meat group showed the steepest rate of increase on Raven's Progressive Matrices scores and in zone-wide school end-term total and arithmetic test scores. The Plain githeri and Meat groups performed better over time than the Milk and Control groups (P < 0.02-0.03) on arithmetic tests. The Meat group showed the greatest increase in percentage time in high levels of physical activity and in initiative and leadership behaviors compared with all other groups. For growth, in the Milk group only younger and stunted children showed a greater rate of gain in height. The Meat group showed near doubling of upper midarm muscle area, and the Milk group a smaller degree of increase. This is the first randomized, controlled feeding study to examine the effect of meat- vs. milk- vs. plant-based snacks on functional outcomes in children.
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The aim of this paper is to assess the importance of using micro-level data in the econometric analysis of consumer demand. To do this we utilize a time series of repeated cross sections covering some 4,000 households in each of 15 years. Employing a number of different aggregation procedures, we conclude that aggregate data alone are unlikely to produce reliable estimates of structural price and income coefficients. However, once certain "aggregation factors" as well as trend and seasonal components are included, an aggregate model is not necessarily outperformed across all demand equations in terms of forecasting ability.
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The mean lysine requirement of healthy Indian subjects was estimated from short-term experimental diet periods to be 29 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), which is higher than the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU upper requirement of 12 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1). Our objective was to confirm our proposed requirement of 29 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) by extending the diet period to 21 d and by using 4 test lysine intakes (12, 20, 28, and 36 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) and a 24-h indicator amino acid oxidation and balance approach. During two 21-d diet periods, 18 healthy Indian men were randomly assigned to receive 12 and 28 or 20 and 36 mg lysine x kg(-1) x d(-1) as part of an L-amino acid diet. At 1800 on days 6 and 20, [(13)C]leucine was infused over 24 h to assess leucine oxidation and daily leucine balance at each test intake. Leucine oxidation, balance, and flux did not differ significantly between days 7 and 21. Twenty-four-hour leucine oxidation was lower at lysine intakes of 28 and 36 mg than at 12 and 20 mg. Leucine balances at lysine intakes of 12 and 20 mg were negative and significantly less than equilibrium (P < 0.01) and lower (P < 0.02) than balances at 28 and 36 mg lysine. Two-phase regression analysis indicated a breakpoint at 31 mg lysine x kg(-1) x d(-1) in the relation between lysine intake and 24-h leucine oxidation and balance. Full adaptation to a low lysine intake occurs within 7 d. The previously proposed tentative mean lysine requirement for Western subjects of 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) is confirmed for healthy Indian adults.
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We show that immigrant managers are substantially more likely to hire immigrants than are native managers. The finding holds when comparing establishments in the same 5-digit industry and location, when comparing different establishments within the same firm, when analyzing establishments that change management over time, and when accounting for within-establishment trends in recruitment patterns. The effects are largest for small and owner-managed establishments in the for-profit sector. Separations are more frequent when workers and managers have dissimilar origin, but only before workers become protected by EPL. We also find that native managers are unbiased in their recruitments of former co-workers, suggesting that information deficiencies are important. We find no effects on entry wages. Our findings suggest that a low frequency of immigrant managers may contribute to the observed disadvantages of immigrant workers.
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This paper develops and implements a method for estimating price elasticities of demand using cross-sectional household survey data. Geographically clustered households report unit values, which when corrected for quality effects and for measurement error, indicate the underlying spatial variation in prices, and can be matched to variation in demand patterns. A simple model of quality choice is proposed, while the correction for measurement error exploits the clustered design of such surveys. Data from a 1979 household survey from the Ivory Coast are used to estimate price elasticities for beef, meat, fish, cereals, and starches. Copyright 1988 by American Economic Association.
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Ever since Richard Stone (1954) first estimated a system of demand equations derived explicitly from consumer theory, there has been a continuing search for alternative specifications and functional forms. Many models have been proposed, but perhaps the most important in current use, apart from the original linear expendi- ture system, are the Rotterdam model (see Henri Theil, 1965, 1976; Anton Barten) and the translog model (see Laurits Christensen, Dale Jorgenson, and Lawrence Lau; Jorgen- son and Lau). Both of these models have been extensively estimated and have, in addition, been used to test the homogeneity and symmetry restrictions of demand the- ory. In this paper, we propose and estimate a new model which is of comparable gener- ality to the Rotterdam and translog models but which has considerable advantages over both. Our model, which we call the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS), gives an ar- bitrary first-order approximation to any de- mand system; it satisfies the axioms of choice exactly; it aggregates perfectly over consumers without invoking parallel linear Engel curves; it has a functional form which is consistent with known household-budget data; it is simple to estimate, largely avoid- ing the need for non-linear estimation; and it can be used to test the restrictions of homogeneity and symmetry through linear restrictions on fixed parameters. Although many of these desirable properties are possessed by one or other of the Rotterdam or translog models, neither possesses all of them simultaneously. In Section I of the paper, we discuss the theoretical specification of the AIDS and justify the claims in the previous paragraph. In Section II, the model is estimated on postwar British data and we use our results to test the homogeneity and symmetry re- strictions. Our results are consistent with earlier findings in that both sets of restric- tions are decisively rejected. We also find that imposition of homogeneity generates positive serial correlation in the errors of those equations which reject the restrictions most strongly; this suggests that the now standard rejection of homogeneity in de- mand analysis may be due to insufficient attention to the dynamic aspects of con- sumer behavior. Finally, in Section III, we offer a summary and conclusions. We be- lieve that the results of this paper suggest that the AIDS is to be recommended as a vehicle for testing, extending, and improving conventional demand analysis. This does not imply that the system, particularly in its simple static form, is to be regarded as a fully satisfactory explanation of consumers' behavior. Indeed, by proposing a demand system which is superior to its predecessors, we hope to be able to reveal more clearly the problems and potential solutions asso- ciated with the usual approach. I. Specification of the AIDS
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