ChapterPDF Available

Presence Is the Key to Understanding Immersive Learning


Abstract and Figures

Presence as the subjective feeling of ‘being there’ is one of the main psychological components in immersive virtual environments. Research shows that presence can have an effect on learning outcomes in educational virtual environments. As presence can be considered as an individual psychological variable, its crucial role in the process of immersive learning is influenced by numerous subjective and objective factors. On the basis of the Educational Framework for Immersive Learning (EFiL), we developed a research model including the factors presence, immersion, cognitive abilities, motivation, and emotion. The hypotheses of the research model have been examined in a study with 23 students testing three different immersive educational virtual environments for learning computer science. The results of 67 presence questionnaires could confirm the hypotheses of the research model deriving from the EFiL partly. The factors immersion, emotion, and cognitive abilities were predictors for presence. An assumed, predictive effect of intrinsic motivation towards learning computer science on presence could not be verified.
Educational Virtual Environments for Learning Computer Science (Components of a Computer, Asymmetric Encryption, Finite State Machines) motivation (four items, α = .79), and intrinsic motivation (five items, α = .84) on a 5-point Likert scale with a questionnaire evaluated by Hanfstingl et al. [7]. While the original survey asked for motivation towards an unspecified subject, the questionnaire used in the study was adapted so that it asked about the students' motivation towards the subject Computer Science. The questionnaire for assessing the emotions shame, enjoyment, anger, hope, pride, hopelessness, relief, anxiety, and boredom on a 6-point Likert scale was adapted from a survey used by Titz [24]. The emotions were categorized into the scales positive emotions (α = .83) and negative emotions (α = .35). The educational virtual environments cover contents from computer science education: Components of a Computer, Asymmetric Encryption, and Finite State Machines. The environments have been developed with Unity and display a game-like setting for learning about the subject contents. Information was presented using texts and images. The Components of a Computer environment let the user enter a computer and learn about its different parts by repairing it from the inside. The Asymmetric Encryption environment uses magic potions as a metaphor for public and private key encryption processes. The Finite State Machines environment uses a treasure hunt game on varying islands as a metaphor for the states (islands) and the transition functions (boats) of an automaton. The used immersive settings are a laptop, a mobile VR and an HTC Vive. Due to their characteristics of interaction and vividness, the HTC Vive was considered to be the most immersive setting; the laptop setting was considered to be the least immersive setting.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Presence Is the Key to Understanding Immersive
Andreas Dengel1and Jutta Mägdefrau2
1University of Passau, Innstr. 33, Faculty of Computer Science and Mathematics
2University of Passau, Innstr. 41, Faculty of Arts and Humanities
Abstract. Presence as the subjective feeling of ‘being there’ is one of
the main psychological components in immersive virtual environments.
Research shows that presence can have an effect on learning outcomes in
educational virtual environments. As presence can be considered as an in-
dividual psychological variable, its crucial role in the process of immersive
learning is influenced by numerous subjective and objective factors. On
the basis of the Educational Framework for Immersive Learning (EFiL),
we developed a research model including the factors presence, immer-
sion, cognitive abilities, motivation, and emotion. The hypotheses of the
research model have been examined in a study with 23 students testing
three different immersive educational virtual environments for learning
computer science. The results of 67 presence questionnaires could confirm
the hypotheses of the research model deriving from the EFiL partly. The
factors immersion, emotion, and cognitive abilities were predictors for
presence. An assumed, predictive effect of intrinsic motivation towards
learning computer science on presence could not be verified.
Keywords: Immersive Learning, Presence, Educational Virtual Envi-
ronments, Virtual Reality, Immersion
1 Introduction
Immersive Learning in virtual and mixed environments can be considered as
a new approach to learning in an active and engaging way. We can think of
Dewey’s popular approach of learning-by-doing as learning by being there, in an
immersive and engaging environment, perceiving it as an actual reality with the
possibility of interaction, uncertainty, and choice: “We hang on the lips of the
storyteller because of the element of mental suspense. [...] When an individual is
engaged in doing or making something (the activity not being of such a mechan-
ical and habitual character that its outcome is assured), there is an analogous
situation. Something is going to come of what is present to the sense, but just
what is doubtful. The plot is unfolding toward success or failure, but just when
or how is uncertain” [6]. Therefore, the feeling of being present somewhere or of
something being present in combination with engagement is crucial for an active
learning process.
2 Andreas Dengel, Jutta Mägdefrau
2 Presence Is Being There
When speaking about the feeling of ‘being there’, research in virtual and mixed
reality usually refers to the term presence. There are ongoing discussions about
terminology, especially concerning the distinction of terms presence and immer-
sion. According to similar approaches suggested by Biocca [3] and Lee [11], the
feeling of presence contains the subjective elements of physical, social, and self-
presence, referring to different domains of human experience. Presence can be
seen as “a psychological state in which virtual objects are experienced as actual
objects in either sensory or nonsensory ways” [11]. The framework from Witmer
and Singer describes immersion as a psychological state referring to the feeling of
being enveloped by the environment, as well as being included in and interacting
with it [26]. Jennett et al. widen this definition by describing immersion as the
degree of involvement with a game, distinguishing its three levels engagement,
engrossment, and total immersion (including presence) [9]. On the other side,
Slater suggests that immersion should be understood simply as a quantifiable
description of technology from an objective point of view which is independent
of the user’s perception [21].
By following Slater’s definition, it is possible to separate the aspect of human
experience from the technological aspect. Steuer distinguishes the technologi-
cal variables influencing (tele-)presence in vividness and interactivity. Vividness
refers to “the representational richness of a mediated environment as defined
by its formal features” [23] in terms of how the technological setting presents
information of the environment to the senses. This technological variable con-
sists mainly of the characteristics breadth (number of sensory dimensions which
are presented simultaneously) and depth (resolution of the cues within the per-
ceptual channels). Interactivity is “the extent to which users can participate in
modifying the form and content of a mediated environment in real time” [23].
The factors speed of interaction (response time), range of interactivity (num-
ber of attributes which can be manipulated including their possible variations)
and mapping (connection between human actions and actions within the envi-
ronment) contribute to interactivity [23]. We follow these approaches by seeing
presence as the subjective feeling of ‘being there’ in regards to the virtual or
mixed environment in its entirety, including its surroundings (physical presence),
its social actors (social presence), and its representation of the user’s self (self-
presence). Immersion, therefore, refers to an objective description of the used
technology, including the stimulus-driven variables vividness and interactivity.
Immersion is one of the main factors influencing presence. Studies comparing
different immersive settings and their effects on presence show associations be-
tween differences in hard- and software and the feeling of self-reported presence:
Mikropoulos examined differences between the feeling of presence in egocentric
and exocentric perspectives [14]; Bailenson et al. investigated the effect of field of
view on presence in virtual environments [1]; Lee, Wong, and Fung investigated
how Virtual Reality (VR) features like presentational fidelity and immediacy of
control effect presence; they also emphasize the role of motivation for feeling
present in a virtual environment [10].
Presence Is the Key to Understanding Immersive Learning 3
Fig. 1. Objective and Subjective Factors Influencing Presence
Cognitive skills can also be regarded as a determinant for presence: Accord-
ing to Schubert, Friedmann, and Regenbrecht, the construction of a spatial-
functional mental model of a virtual environment induces a sense of presence
[20]. Constructing the representation of one’s own bodily actions as possible ac-
tions in the virtual world while suppressing incompatible sensory input are the
two cognitive processes involved for feeling present in the mediated world [23].
The idea of users willingly suppressing incompatible sensory inputs can be re-
ferred to as a “suspension of disbelief that they are in a world other than where
their real bodies are located” [22]. Such an understanding of cognitive activities
also corresponds with Biocca’s theory of presence being a labile psychological
construct oscillating between physical, imaginal, and virtual environments [3].
As the physiological measurement methods of presence show [15], emotional
variables that are connected to the purpose of the virtual experience, like anxiety
and fear for phobia treatments, also influence the user’s presence. Following this
idea, it can be assumed that positive emotions enhance presence in a pleasant
environment. On the other hand, presence can be regarded as a crucial factor
for triggering emotions in virtual and mixed realities [9, 17].
An adequate model for determining the effect of motivation on presence is
the self-determination theory of Deci and Ryan, distinguishing intrinsic moti-
vation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation [4]. Yeonhee found that intrinsic
motivation and perceived interactivity as a core component of presence were
moderately correlated (r= .46, p< .01) [27]. Similar effects for other internal
motivational constructs (i.e. identification) are expectable. A negative associa-
tion between the least autonomous constructs of extrinsic motivation (external
regulation/introjection) and presence could be assumed as well.
For examining presence further, we extend Steuer’s model of objective techno-
logical variables influencing (tele-)presence with individual subjective variables
affecting presence. We can assume that the psychological feelings of physical,
social and self-presence are influenced by objective technological variables given
4 Andreas Dengel, Jutta Mägdefrau
through immersive hard- and software as well as interacting with subjective
variables like motivational, emotional, and cognitive factors (Fig. 1). The level
of immersion is determined through stimulus-driven characteristics of the used
immersive material like vividness and interactivity. The model is not extensive
and there certainly are more factors that influence presence and are influenced
by presence, but the named factors have been identified to be crucial variables
in terms of Immersive Learning [5] and are therefore focused on in this paper.
3 Presence influences Immersive Learning Activities
The most interesting effects of presence to investigate in terms of Immersive
Learning include the learning activities and learning outcomes. Mikropoulos
notes that presence, deriving from different immersive settings, is a unique char-
acteristic in educational virtual environments and influences learning outcomes
[14]. Research examining such relations show diverse results. Bailey et al. in-
vestigated the effect of presence on recall performance and found a negative
association between presence and cued recall performance on pro-environmental
principles (r= -.45; p< .05) and no significant correlation between presence
and a corresponding free recall performance [2]. Roy and Schlemminger mea-
sured language learning performance in an educational virtual environment dur-
ing two weeks with three times of measurement. The results show that presence
can enhance learning performance over time (r= .365; p< .05; last point of
measurement) [19]. By comparing different immersive settings (varying fields of
view between 60and 180), Lin et al. verified a positive effect of presence on
memory structures related to the shapes, colors, relative locations, relative sizes,
and event sequences of virtual environments (r= .48; p< .01) [12]. Lee et al.
conducted a study on how desktop VR enhances and influences learning in the
subject Biology; they found a positive correlation between presence and learn-
ing outcomes (r= .64; p< .001) and between presence and perceived learning
effectiveness (r= .55; p< .001) [10].
On the basis of Helmke’s supply-use-framework for scholastic learning [8],
Dengel and Mägdefrau introduced the Educational Framework for Immersive
Learning (EFiL). According to the EFiL, Immersive Learning can be seen as
“learning activities initiated by a mediated or medially enriched environment
that evokes a sense of presence” [5]. Learning in immersive educational virtual
environments, therefore, does not happen automatically but the supplied learn-
ing materials have to be used actively by the learner. The perception of the
didactical, immersive and content quality of the instructional materials at a cer-
tain level of presence and the interpretation of these materials may initiate learn-
ing activities. The student’s (immersive) learning potential, including cognitive,
emotional, and motivational factors, influences the immersive learning process
interacting with and in the learning environment (context variables like school
form, social composition, and cohesion of the class, etc.). Other factors affecting
the process of Immersive Learning are the family and the teacher of the learner.
Dengel and Mägdefrau note that the factors influencing immersive learning are
Presence Is the Key to Understanding Immersive Learning 5
Fig. 2. The Educational Framework for Immersive Learning by Dengel and
Mägdefrau on the Basis of Helmke’s Supply-Use-Framework
interrelated; many factors influence each other mutually [5]. Presence is seen as
the central factor of perceiving and interpreting the supplied immersive material:
“The immersive content itself does not invoke learning activities directly as it
has to perceived by the learner first. A higher feeling of presence in terms of ac-
tually being in the immersive EVE [Educational Virtual Environment] enhances
the learning activities” [5]. The learner’s feeling of presence can be influenced
through his or her subjective motivational, cognitive, and emotional factors, as
well as through the level of immersion regarding the instructional material.
The EFiL’s cognitive factors “summarize all intraindividual cognitive charac-
teristics and skills that influence learning activities, including intelligence, learn-
ing strategies, and the ability of reflective thinking” [5]. The didactical and me-
thodical design of the immersive learning content can induce the activation of
some of the cognitive factors.
We assume that the emotional factors of the learner contribute as well to
the immersive learning activities as to presence. The EFiL’s understanding of
emotional factors follows the approach of Pekrun et al. distinguishing academic
emotions into positive activating emotions (e.g. enjoyment, hope, pride), positive
deactivating emotions (e.g. relief), negative activating emotions (e.g. anger, anx-
iety, shame), and negative deactivating emotions (e.g. hopelessness, boredom)
[17]. As a situational characteristic, emotional factors could be influenced by the
content quality of the immersive material. As we want to determine the predic-
tors for presence in educational virtual environments rather than determining
the factors influencing learning activities in general, we follow the approach of
distinguishing positive emotions and negative emotions as possible influences for
presence while not differentiating activating and deactivating emotions.
The EFiL includes Deci and Ryan’s concept of amotivation, extrinsic moti-
vation (external regulation, introjection, identification) and intrinsic motivation
6 Andreas Dengel, Jutta Mägdefrau
[4] with their occurrences of global, contextual and situational motivation [25].
Global and contextual motivation (e.g. academic motivation towards learning
in general or in a specific subject) are considered as relatively stable individual
characteristics which can only be changed slowly and partly [25]. In contrast,
the situational motivation of a learner refers to current activity and can be influ-
enced e.g. through the supplied immersive hard- and software or through other
situational characteristics of the learner.
The EFiL gathers numerous studies investigating one or multiple effects of
and between these variables in terms of immersive learning. Presence, as a central
variable which is influenced by factors like immersion, emotion, cognition, and
motivation seems to play a crucial role in immersive learning activities. However,
studies which include multiple objective, situational, and stable psychological
variables are rare. In order to explore the assumptions of the EFiL further, an
examination on what seems to be the central key to understanding Immersive
Learning is needed. Therefore, this paper focuses on extracting the subjective
feeling of presence by investigating its predictors.
4 Research Model
For this study investigating the objective and subjective variables influencing
presence, we use hypotheses deriving from assumptions underlying the EFiL. For
investigating the effect of immersion (IMM) on presence (PRES), different edu-
cational virtual environments have to be compared (effect of different immersive
software on presence) in different immersive technologies for each environment
(effect of different immersive hardware on presence). In order to assess cognitive
abilities, we assume that scholastic performance (SP) can map the overall cogni-
tive skills reasonably. Therefore, the scholastic performances in the core subjects
Math (SP_MA), the students’ native language (German, SP_GER), as well as
in the subject of the learning content of the educational virtual environment
(Computer Science, SP_CS) are assessed. Also, a composite score of the three
subjects is calculated (SP_OVR) to display a simplified overall scholastic per-
formance. In terms of the emotional factors, we assess the academic emotions
suggested by the EFiL: the positive activating emotions (enjoyment, hope, and
pride) and the positive deactivating emotion relief are aggregated to the factor
positive emotions (EMO_PO); the negative activating emotions (shame, anger,
and anxiety) and the negative deactivating emotions (hopelessness and bore-
dom) are aggregated to the factor negative emotions (EMO_NE). Regarding
the motivational factors, we assess the external regulation (MOT_EX), as well
as introjected (MOT_IJ), identified (MOT_ID), and intrinsic (MOT_IN) aca-
demic motivations towards learning computer science. In this study, we focus on
the variables influencing presence. Therefore, the research model does not cover
all relations noted in the EFiL. In particular, we want to focus on physical pres-
ence as this manifestation of presence is relevant to all EVEs (some EVEs might
not include social actors or a representation of the user’s self). The hypotheses
below result in the research model shown in Fig. 3.
Presence Is the Key to Understanding Immersive Learning 7
Fig. 3. Research Model for the Presence Study
1. A higher level of immersion predicts a higher sense of presence.
2. Higher previous scholastic performance predicts a higher sense of presence
(a: German, b: Math, c: Computer Science, d: Composite Scholastic Perfor-
3. The student’s emotional state predicts his or her sense of presence (a: positive
emotions increase presence, b: negative emotions decrease presence).
4. The student’s motivation towards learning Computer Science predicts his or
her sense of presence (a: intrinsic motivation enhances presence, b: identified
motivation increases presence, c: introjected motivation decreases presence,
d: external regulation decreases presence)
5 Method
5.1 Sample
23 (seven female) eighth grade students from an Austrian school took part in
the experiment. Their Computer Science teacher did not cover the topics of the
virtual environments prior to the study.
5.2 Instruments
As we wanted to focus on the role of physical presence, we used the Slater-
Usoh-Steed (SUS) questionnaire [22]. The questionnaire consists of six questions
assessed on a 7-point Likert scale (α= .88). Three different methods for the
calculation of the presence value have been suggested: the original SUS Count
method [22] counting all items with a value of 6 or higher with a maximum
of 6 points, the adapted method by Peck, Fuchs, and Whitton [16] counting
all items with a value 5 or higher with a maximum of 6 points and the SUS
Mean value [22] with a possible maximum of 7. We assessed external regulation
(six items, α= .81), introjected motivation (four items, α= .52), identified
8 Andreas Dengel, Jutta Mägdefrau
Fig. 4. Educational Virtual Environments for Learning Computer Science (Com-
ponents of a Computer, Asymmetric Encryption, Finite State Machines)
motivation (four items, α= .79), and intrinsic motivation (five items, α= .84)
on a 5-point Likert scale with a questionnaire evaluated by Hanfstingl et al. [7].
While the original survey asked for motivation towards an unspecified subject,
the questionnaire used in the study was adapted so that it asked about the
students’ motivation towards the subject Computer Science. The questionnaire
for assessing the emotions shame, enjoyment, anger, hope, pride, hopelessness,
relief, anxiety, and boredom on a 6-point Likert scale was adapted from a survey
used by Titz [24]. The emotions were categorized into the scales positive emotions
(α= .83) and negative emotions (α= .35).
The educational virtual environments cover contents from computer science
education: Components of a Computer,Asymmetric Encryption, and Finite State
Machines. The environments have been developed with Unity and display a
game-like setting for learning about the subject contents. Information was pre-
sented using texts and images. The Components of a Computer environment
let the user enter a computer and learn about its different parts by repairing
it from the inside. The Asymmetric Encryption environment uses magic po-
tions as a metaphor for public and private key encryption processes. The Finite
State Machines environment uses a treasure hunt game on varying islands as
a metaphor for the states (islands) and the transition functions (boats) of an
automaton. The used immersive settings are a laptop, a mobile VR and an HTC
Vive. Due to their characteristics of interaction and vividness, the HTC Vive was
considered to be the most immersive setting; the laptop setting was considered
to be the least immersive setting.
5.3 Procedure
Three days prior to the study, the students completed the motivation ques-
tionnaire and learning objective examinations for the three learning topics. The
participants used an individual code for these pre-questionnaires which they
would also use again later for the questionnaires in the study. In order to secure
confidentiality, the students’ teacher noted their scholastic performance in the
subjects German, Math, and Computer Science on the pre-questionnaire without
noting down the individual code. For the study itself, the class was randomly
Presence Is the Key to Understanding Immersive Learning 9
divided into three groups (two groups with eight members, one group with seven
members). One student in a group of eight did not finish the study because of mo-
tion sickness after the mobile VR experience for the Components of a Computer
environment. The participants of each group experienced all three software pro-
totypes, but each group was provided a different technological setting for every
program (Tab. 1). Within each group, the participants were handed a sheet with
the task to collect stamps for all the technological settings (one stamp) and the
filling out of the related questionnaires for presence and learning outcome (an-
other stamp). The questionnaires had to be filled out immediately after the VR
experience. The six stamps could be collected for the completion of the laptop
experience, the mobile VR experience, the completion of the HTC Vive experi-
ence and, respectively, the related questionnaires. This resulted in 67 datasets
in total (one for each presence questionnaire). Doing so, it was possible to ran-
domly mix the order of the programs among the students as well as the benefit
that each student could take his or her own time in completing the VR expe-
riences and the questionnaires without being pressured by peers who may have
already finished. After the students were divided into groups and lead to their
rooms, they were asked to fill out the emotion questionnaire. After all students
finished their stamp cards, they took part in a short presentation explaining the
metaphors used in the different games as well as the desired learning objectives.
As this learning outcomes can not be considered as predictors of presence, their
relation to presence was not investigated in this paper.
Table 1
Technological settings for the groups
Group A Group B Group C
Components of a Computer Mobile VR HTC Vive Laptop
Asymmetric Encryption HTC Vive Laptop Mobile VR
Finite State Machines Laptop Mobile VR HTC Vive
6 Findings
The different methods of measurement showed high correlations among each
other. In order to map the students’ heterogenous manifestions of their feeling
of presence as good as possible, we used the SUS Mean value for the further
analyses (r= .95, p< .01 for counting method ‘5 and above’ with mean value; r
= .88, p< .01 for counting method ‘6 and above’ with mean value). Because of
the small sample of this pilot study, we decided in favor of analyzing the different
factors separately rather than using structural equation modeling.
10 Andreas Dengel, Jutta Mägdefrau
Table 2
ANOVA showing the Variation between Presence Means in the three different
N mean sd Sum of Squares df F p
Laptop 23 3.22 1.17
4.759 2 15.27 .01Mobile VR 23 4.54 1.39
HTC Vive 21 5.29 1.20
An ANOVA measuring variation between the students’ presence means in the
three different immersive settings (Tab. 2) showed significant differences between
the settings laptop, mobile VR and HTC Vive [F(2, 64) = 15.27, p< .01, η2
= .32]. A higher level of immersion lead to a higher sense of presence.
Table 3
Correlations between Presence and Previous Scholastic Performance
1 2 3 4
1. German
2. Math .57**
3. Computer Science .63** .75**
4. Composite Score .83** .90** .89**
5. Presence .40** .15 .12 .25
Note. **p<.01
The previous scholastic performance in the subjects German, Math and Com-
puter Science showed significant correlations among the subjects (Tab. 3). The
subject German showed a significant correlation with the presence mean value
(r= .40, p< .01). A better scholastic performance in the subject German,
therefore, lead to a higher sense of presence.
We found a significant correlation between the positive emotions and presence
(r = .26, p< .05). Stronger positive emotions lead to higher presence. A possible
effect of negative emotions on presence could not be examined due to a poor scale
reliability value (see 5.2).
The motivational constructs intrinsic motivation and identified motivation
were strongly correlated (r= .68, p< .01). There were no significant correla-
tions found between the motivational constructs (intrinsic motivation, identified
motivation, external regulation) and presence. The relation between introjected
motivation and presence was not investigated further due to the poor scale reli-
ability value mentioned above.
Presence Is the Key to Understanding Immersive Learning 11
7 Discussion
The study was designed to explore the determinants of presence. The effects of
the level of immersion as well as of the learner’s scholastic performance, emo-
tional state, and motivation towards learning the subject associated with the
learning environments on presence were investigated. By following Slater’s defi-
nition of immersion as a quantifiable description of the used technology, it was
possible to separate the supply-side of the EFiL (a teacher can choose to supply
a certain immersive technology, including hardware and software) from the use-
side of the framework (the learner’s perception of the virtual world at a certain
level of presence, his or her emotions, cognitive abilities, and motivation).
H1 (a higher level of immersion predicts a higher sense of presence) can be
maintained: An ANOVA between the technologies showed significant differences
with the HTC Vive inducing the highest sense of presence and the laptop setting
inducing the lowest sense of presence. These results relate to the characteristics
of immersion postulated by Slater [21]: The mobile VR can be seen as more
immersive than the laptop setting deriving from a higher level of interactivity due
to the head tracking in the mobile VR; the head-mounted-display setting can be
regarded as the most immersive setting (increased speed of the interactivity and
better resolution/vividness in terms of the perceptual depth) compared to the
mobile VR. With regards to this hierarchy of immersive systems, the correlation
analysis shows that a higher level of immersion predicts higher presence.
As for the students’ previous scholastic performance, the performance in the
subject German was found to be predictive for presence. This could be explicated
by the high amount of German texts in the VR environments which may have
made feeling present dependent to a certain level of reading skills, represented
through the grade in the subject German. Another possible explanation is that
a higher interest in reading, especially fictional texts, could possibly lead to an
increased fantasy, accompanied by an increased cognitive ability to create mental
models. With the data collected, it is not possible to explore this idea further.
While we have to decline hypotheses H2b(Math), H2c(Computer Science), and
H2d(Composite Scholastic Performance), and therefore a generalization of H2
(higher previous scholastic performance predicts a higher sense of presence.),
maintaining hypothesis H2a(German), the predictive effect of scholastic per-
formance in the subject German on presence, indicates that cognitive abilities
which are related to the manner of how knowledge is acquired in the learning
environment may influence the feeling of presence. The absence of a connection
between Maths/Computer Science and presence could be related to the design
of the software: The game-based learning environment used metaphors and the
learning objectives were not really apparent to the user.
The positive emotions (combining positive activating emotions and positive
deactivating emotions) were found to be predictive for presence. As neither
the laboratory nor the programs were designed to induce or increase negative
emotions, the absence of significant associations between presence and negative
emotions, activating or deactivating, is not surprising. H3a(positive emotions
increase presence) can be maintained: The student’s sense of presence correlates
12 Andreas Dengel, Jutta Mägdefrau
with his or her emotional state regarding positive emotions. H3 (the student’s
emotional state predicts his or her sense of presence) cannot be generalized as an
investigation of H3b(negative emotions decrease presence) was not appropriate
due to poor scale reliability for the negative emotions. A possible explanation
for this could be that the negative emotions which are addressed by the virtual
environment might not necessarily be the same emotions associated with learn-
ing processes. Further research on what emotions influence presence in neutral
or pleasant virtual environments is needed.
To the surprise of the authors, none of the motivational constructs were
found to be significantly correlated to presence; H4 (the student’s motivation
towards learning Computer Science predicts his or her sense of presence) has to
be declined. This could possibly be explained by a lacking connection between
the motivation towards learning computer science and the students’ engagement
in the software as the programs were designed as games which did not require
any previous knowledge about the topics. Thus, the students possibly did not
connect the contents to the subject, encouraging them to impartially engage with
the environment. As the scale reliability for introjected motivation was low, we
could not test H4b. This may be an indicator that the questionnaire used for the
study was not fully applicable for the subject Computer Science and may have
to be revised for further investigations.
8 Implications for Immersive Learning in Educational
Virtual Environments
This study could contribute as well to presence research as to the research realm
of immersive learning clarifying the role of technological and person-specific vari-
ables for developing a sense of presence in EVEs. Not all assumptions of the EFiL
regarding presence could be verified. For some of the effects found, it is not yet
clear, why and how they influence presence. In order to explore these factors
further, larger studies would be needed. Also, while the EFiL hypothesizes mu-
tual relations between the subjective factors, we focused on predictive effects of
certain subjective and objective variables on presence. Long term studies with
broad use of immersive educational technology would be needed in order to de-
termine whether there are long term effects of presence on cognitive abilities,
emotional states, and motivational attitudes.
Even though Jennett et al. argue that presence is only a small part of a user’s
gaming experience [9], the current study could verify the localization of presence
as a central factor in the process of Immersive Learning: Objective variables like
the level of immersion, given through the design of software components and the
used technology, as well as subjective variables like cognitive abilities and emo-
tional capability, predict presence. As the person-specific variables also influence
learning processes in general, understanding the concept of presence, how pres-
ence is induced and how it influences learning is indispensable for understanding
learning processes involving immersive technology. After consolidating the cru-
cial role of presence in Immersive Learning, further research in terms of learning
Presence Is the Key to Understanding Immersive Learning 13
activities and learning outcomes is needed: While it was possible to resolve some
central questions on the determinants of presence, the results differing from the
theoretical framework raise even more interesting and yet unresolved questions
on the details of how presence interacts with the factors involved in the process
of Immersive Learning. In a next step, a design for a larger study will be devel-
oped to investigate the effects of immersion, presence, cognition, emotion, and
motivation among each other as well as on learning outcomes.
Presence as the subjective feeling of being physically in an environment,
actually interacting with the social actors of this environment, and connecting
one’s self with the avatar representation inside the environment seems to be
crucial for immersive learning. Together with influences from the supply side as
well as from the individual use-side of the learner, presence is connected to many
subjective constructs influencing learning processes in immersive educational
virtual environments; it might be the key to understanding Immersive Learning.
9 Acknowledgements
The SKILL project is part of the “Qualitätsoffensive Lehrerbildung”, a joint
initiative of the Federal Government and the Länder which aims to improve the
quality of teacher training. The programme is funded by the Federal Ministry
of Education and Research. The authors are responsible for the content of this
1. Bailenson, J.N., Beall, A.C., Blascovich, J., Loomis, J., Turk, M.: Transformed social
interaction, augmented gaze, and social influence in immersive virtual environments.
Human Communication Research, vol. 31, 511–537 (2005)
2. Bailey, J., Bailenson, J.N., Won, A.S., Flora, J.: Presence and Memory: Immersive
Virtual Reality Effects on Cued Recall. Proceedings of the International Society for
Presence Research Annual Conference October 24-26 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
USA (2012)
3. Biocca, F.: The Cyborg’s Dilemma Progressive Embodiment in Virtual Environ-
ments. Humane Interfaces: Questions of Method and Practice in Cognitive Tech-
nology (Human Factors in Information Technology, vol. 13), Amsterdam, 113–144
4. Deci, E.L., Ryan, R.M: Intrinsic motivation and Self-Determination in Human Be-
havior, New York: Plenum Press (1985)
5. Dengel, A., Mägdefrau, J.: Immersive Learning Explored: Subjective and Objective
Factors Influencing Learning Outcomes in Immersive Educational Virtual Environ-
ments. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Teaching, Assessment, and Learning
for Engineering (TALE), Wollongong, Australia, 608-615 (2018)
6. Dewey, J.: Observation and Information. How We Think. Lexington, Mass: D.C.
Heath. 188–200 (1910)
7. Hanfstingl, B., Andreitz, I., Thomas, A., Müller, F.H.: Evaluationsbericht Schüler-
und Lehrerbefragung 2008/09. Interner Arbeitsbericht. Klagenfurt: Institut für
Unterrichts- und Schulentwicklung (2010)
14 Andreas Dengel, Jutta Mägdefrau
8. Helmke, A., Weinert, F.: Bedingungsfaktoren schulischer Leistungen. Max-Planck-
Inst. für Psychologische Forschung (1997)
9. Jennett, C., Cox, A.L., Cairns, P., Dhoparee, S., Epps, A., Tijs, T., Walton, A.: Mea-
suring and Defining the Experience of Immersion in Games. International Journal
of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 66, no. 9, 641–661 (2008)
10. Lee, E.A.-L., Wong, K.W., Fung, C.C.: How Does Desktop Virtual Reality En-
hance Learning Outcomes? A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Computers
& Education, vol. 55, no. 4, 1424–1442 (2010)
11. Lee, K.M.: Presence, Explicated. Communication Theory, vol. 14, 1, 27–50 (2006)
12. Lin, J.-W. Duh, H., Parker, D.E., Abi-Rached, H., Furness, T.A.: Effects of Field
of View on Presence, Enjoyment, Memory, and Simulator Sickness in a Virtual
Environment. Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality 2002, Los Alamitos, California, USA,
164–171 (2002)
13. Mania, K., Chalmers, A.: The Effects of Levels of Immersion on Memory and
Presence in Virtual Environments. A Reality Centered Approach. Cyberpsychology
& Behavior, vol. 4, no. 2, 247–264 (2001)
14. Mikropoulos, T.A.: Presence: A Unique Characteristic in Educational Virtual En-
vironments. Virtual Reality, 10(3-4), 197–206 (2006)
15. Nichols, S., Haldane, C., Wilson , J. R.: Measurement of Presence and its Conse-
quences in Virtual Environments. International Journal of Human Computer Stud-
ies, 52, 471–491 (2000)
16. Peck, T. C., Fuchs, H., Whitton, M. C. (2009). Evaluation of Reorientation Tech-
niques and Distractors for Walking in Large Virtual Environments. IEEE transac-
tions on visualization and computer graphics, 15(3), 383-94 (2009)
17. Pekrun, R.: A Social-Cognitive, Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions.
Motivational Psychology of Human Development, J. Heckhausen, Ed. Oxford: El-
sevier, 143–163 (2000)
18. Price, M., Anderson, P.: The Role of Presence in Virtual Reality Exposure therapy.
J. Anxiety Disorders, vol. 21, 742–751, (2007)
19. Roy, M., Schlemminger, G.: Immersion und Interaktion in virtuellen Realitäten:
Der Faktor Präsenz zur Optimierung des geleiteten Sprachenlernens. Zeitschrift
für interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Didaktik und Methodik im Bereich
Deutsch als Fremdsprache, vol. 19, no. 2, 187–201 (2014)
20. Schubert, T., Friedmann, F., Regenbrecht, H.: The Experience of Presence: Factor
Analytic Insights. Presence, vol. 10, no. 3, 266–281, (2001)
21. Slater, M.: A Note on Presence Terminology. Presence Connect, vol. 3, 1–5 (2003)
22. Slater, M., Usoh, M., Steed: Depth of Presence in Virtual Environments. Presence:
Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 3, 130–144 (1994)
23. Steuer, J.: Defining Virtual Reality. Dimensions Determining Telepresence. J. Com-
munication, vol. 42, no. 4, 73–93 (1992)
24. Titz, W.: Emotionen von Studierenden in Lernsituationen: explorative Analysen
und Entwicklung von Selbstberichtskalen (367). Münster; New York; München;
Berlin: Waxmann (2001)
25. Vallerand, R.J., Pelletier, L.G., Blais, M.R., Brière, N.M., Senécal, C., Vallières,
E.F., The Academic Motivation Scale: a Measure of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Amo-
tivation in Education, Educ. & Psychological Measurement, 52, 1003–1017 (1992)
26. Witmer, B.G., Singer, M.J.: Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: a Pres-
ence Questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 7, no.
3, 225–240 (1998)
27. Yeonhee, C.: The Impact of Interaction in Virtual Reality Language Learning as
Active Learning. Korean Educational Research Association: NY (2018)
... Indeed, most studies agree to say presence is influenced by the intensity of emotions [5,6,14,43,60,90,124,146] and cognitive load [83]. Emotional content [14,15] and stories which are emotionally powerful and richly narrated [146] could contribute more to presence than technological factors (i.e., the degree of immersion [15,146] and stereoscopy [14]). ...
... Valence and arousal were found to have a positive relationship with presence [11,105], and relaxation, a negative relationship with presence [105]. Some studies also found that presence is influenced by cognitive abilities [5,43] and personality traits such as trait anxiety [5]. ...
... Combining ACS and VR has advantages in several application fields. Among the 63 studies retained in this survey, most focused on global VR applications to understand how users felt in a VR context and how to enhance VR application using the user's mental state (i.e., 37 studies) [5,11,13,14,15,16,19,20,29,32,34,36,37,46,47,48,49,55,56,58,60,74,79,83,86,88,89,90,91,98,105,108,113,117,124,140,143]. 10 focused on artificial intelligence (AI) applications by training ACS recognition models in VR [2,21,24,92,93,96,100,121,126,150]. 5 were done in a gaming context [1,62,82,109,112], 3 in a military context [114,115,154], 2 in a sport context [8,145], 2 were applied in an educational context [39,43], 2 were done to improve immersive training [38,87], 1 targeted an aerospace application [6], and 1 focused on the benefits of immersion for journalism [146]. The measured ACS in the 63 studies are summarized in Fig. 4. ...
In Virtual Reality (VR), users can be immersed in emotionally intense and cognitively engaging experiences. Yet, despite strong interest from scholars and a large amount of work associating VR and Affective and Cognitive States (ACS), there is a clear lack of structured and systematic form in which this research can be classified. We define "Affective and Cognitive VR" to relate to works which (1) induce ACS, (2) recognize ACS, or (3) exploit ACS by adapting virtual environments based on ACS measures. This survey clarifies the different models of ACS, presents the methods for measuring them with their respective advantages and drawbacks in VR, and showcases Affective and Cognitive VR studies done in an immersive virtual environment (IVE) in a non-clinical context. Our article covers the main research lines in Affective and Cognitive VR. We provide a comprehensive list of references with the analysis of 63 research articles and summarize future works directions.
... In order to further understand learning with VR, the concepts of immersion and presence are important [33]. Immersive VR simulation requires the use of a head-mounted display [16]. ...
... We found no consensus regarding the effect of presence on educational outcomes in the literature. Based on the assumption that learners most effectively gain knowledge in practical situations, as argued by learning theories, one assumption is that the sense of presence learners experience in a VR simulation plays an important role in the learning process and directly influences educational outcomes positively [33]. Another theory, in contrast, speculates that highly immersive VR environments are more likely to distract and overload users and their memory capacity, resulting in lower levels of learning [38]. ...
... On one hand, users who generally feel more present in VR simulations than others might focus more on the environment than the actual task and receive a cognitive overload [38]. On the other hand, simulations that generally convey a higher sense of presence could lead to more imprinting experiences and therefore positively affect increase of knowledge [33]. ...
With an ever-increasing need of skilled healthcare workers, efficient learning methods like Virtual Reality (VR) are becoming increasingly important. We developed and tested a VR simulation for endotracheal suctioning. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the VR simulation’s acceptance and increase of knowledge among participants. Furthermore, the effects of presence on acceptance and increase of knowledge were investigated. A total of 51 students participated in the pilot study, using a quasi-experimental pre-post-test design. A modified Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and the Igroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ) were used. Correlation and regression analyses were performed. Pre- and post-tests showed a significant increase of knowledge (p < 0.001). The correlation between presence and behavioural intention was highly positive (r = 0.52, p < 0.001). Performance and effort expectancy are dominant effects on behavioural intention of using the VR simulation as an educational tool. The results indicate that a simulation which conveys a higher sense of presence is more likely to be accepted by learners. Regarding outcomes of presence on increase of knowledge, we found no significant correlation. Based on our study, we propose a design for a future mixed reality simulation with haptic elements and a plan on how to assess skills improvement.
... Immersive learning technologies are characterized by offering a sense of immersion, understood as a degree of subjective involvement of users with digital technology and/or computer-generated environments (Jennett et al., 2008). Immersive learning technologies, systems and environments afford a set of learning activities, interactions and experiences that can lead to autonomous, self-determined and experiential types of learning (De Freitas et al., 2010;Dengel et al., 2019). Immersive learning tools and systems can support realistic, simulated and/or artificial authentic learning experiences tailored to learners' backgrounds and needs across educational sectors, providing unique opportunities not found elsewhere (Dunleavy et al., 2009;Freina & Ott, 2015). ...
... Immersive technologies can provide compelling realistic and simulated learning experiences configured upon authentic and real-life situations, which in turn can lead to unique learning outcomes (Herrington et al., 2007). The key to immersion is the notion of presence, or the feeling of "being there" in virtual environments, containing physical, social and self-reference subjective elements, along with emotional, motivational and cognitive factors becoming part of human experience (Dengel et al., 2019;Lee, 2004). Some immersive environments can also incorporate real-life elements and instances, and non-digital affordances, along with digital tools, providing rich sensorial and esthetic open-ended, exploratory and self-determined learning experiences (De Freitas & Neumann, 2009), where learners can drive their learning, creating their own content and contexts (Herrington et al., 2007;Aguayo et al., 2017). ...
Full-text available
Mixed reality (XR) environments combining real-to-virtual immersive experiences provide unprecedented potential for reframing educational pedagogy and practice. XR environments provide scaffolded learning points accommodating individual needs, while enhancing sensorial and embodied experiences. XR environments can facilitate self-determined (heutagogical) experience-based learning and esthetic visualization of wicked problems, making complex knowledge more accessible. Here we report on a study exploring the design of mobile learning with education outside the classroom (EOTC), heutagogy, and free-choice learning to enhance marine ecological literacy, based on a bring your own device (BYOD) XR intervention at a marine educational center in Aotearoa New Zealand. Findings indicate that XR affordances can enhance the understanding of complex marine conservation science, facilitating ecological literacy knowledge, attitudes and behavior change. Implications include pedagogical rethinking of EOTC with self-determined mobile learning; haptic, sensorial and embodied XR design considerations for environmental education; and epistemological speculation on learning phenomena in real-to-virtual immersive environments.
... Finally, as indicated in definitions of immersion, how we perceive our presence influences our learning engagement and focus, with the interaction between learning technology and ourselves. The presence theory is conceptualised in any virtual learning environment [40]. ...
Full-text available
Immersive technology is a growing field in healthcare education—attracting educationalists to evaluate its utility. There has been a trend of increasing research in this field; however, a lack of quality assurance surrounding the literature prompted the narrative review. Web Of Science database searches were undertaken from 2002 to the beginning of 2022. The studies were divided into three mixed reality groups: virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), 360 videos, and learning theory subgroups. Appraising 246 studies with the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) indicated a gap in the validation of measures used to evaluate the technology. Although, those conducted in VR or those detailing learning theories scored higher according to MERSQI. There is an educational benefit to immersive technology in the healthcare setting. However, there needs to be caution in how the findings are interpreted for application beyond the initial study and a greater emphasis on research methods.
... Moreover, leadership VR training has traditionally used non-immersive 2D graphical stimuli, characterised by flat graphics that limits the transferability of learned skills to the real world (Kato and de Klerk, 2017). It has been shown that immersive learning using immersive 3D virtual environments for training skills is more effective than 2D, due to the higher sense of presence that 3D VR offers (Dengel and Mägdefrau, 2019). ...
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of a new selection procedure based on machine learning (ML) and virtual reality (VR). Specifically, decision-making behaviours and eye-gaze patterns were used to classify individuals based on their leadership styles while immersed in virtual environments that represented social workplace situations. The virtual environments were designed using an evidence-centred design approach. Interaction and gaze patterns were recorded in 83 subjects, who were classified as having either high or low leadership style, which was assessed using the Multifactor leadership questionnaire. A ML model that combined behaviour outputs and eye-gaze patterns was developed to predict subjects’ leadership styles (high vs low). The results indicated that the different styles could be differentiated by eye-gaze patterns and behaviours carried out during immersive VR. Eye-tracking measures contributed more significantly to this differentiation than behavioural metrics. Although the results should be taken with caution as the small sample does not allow generalization of the data, this study illustrates the potential for a future research roadmap that combines VR, implicit measures, and ML for personnel selection.
... Looking forward, aspects of immersion theory and the evidence from the present study permit that system immersion occurs as soon as the senses are stimulated. This leads to greater interaction and imagination within the VE, supporting a sense of embodiment, which leads to psychological immersion, where a sense of presence likely occurs as an effect of the preceding stimuli (Dengel & Mägdefrau, 2019;Slater, 2009Slater, , 2017. Therefore, the III model would be improved by incorporating the plurality of immersion, and the concept of presence. ...
This article reports on a study that investigated user acceptance of a high-immersion virtual reality learning environment to learn English paragraph writing structure. 134 undergraduate university students participated in the study by using a high-immersion virtual reality system combined with an in-house developed virtual reality learning environment program for the purpose of learning paragraph structure. A post-session questionnaire was used to collect data. A partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) analysis was then conducted to test an extended technology acceptance model conceptualized from a priori theoretical deduction and previous empirical findings. The extended model featured the constructs of Imagination, Immersion, and Interaction as exogenous variables with Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness in mediating roles leading to the endogenous construct of Behavioral Intention to Use. Results of the confirmatory PLS-SEM analysis revealed inherent problems with the model’s application to the high-immersion virtual reality system and program used. Considering these findings, a PLS-SEM exploratory model optimization analysis was conducted which saw the variable of Immersion best relocated to be a predicator for both the Interaction and Imagination constructs. This exploratory model showed superior predictive relevance and improved significance of the relevant construct paths. Based on these results, this paper provides new theoretical reasoning that is in line with these statistical findings, namely that the construct of Immersion is best positioned as a singular external exogenous variable impacting Interaction and Imagination for the high-immersion virtual reality technology acceptance model used in this study.
In online learning the positive effect of using multimedia continues to grow gradually with the use of interactive video and interactive multimedia. Parallel to virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality, and extended reality, known as immersive technologies, are becoming popular, and the point of view for online learning has been improved and expanded. This context opened an opportunity to the concepts like immersive learning, immersive learning environments, and immersive scenarios to emerge. What are the model implementations of immersive technology use? What kind of studies have been conducted by using which immersive technologies? In order to answer all of these questions, it is aimed to systematically review the literature in the SCOPUS database between the years 2018-2022 and analyze the applied research. Thus, it will be possible to create an insight directed to the immersive learning scenarios in immersive learning environments and design the learning environments of the future in online learning.
Full-text available
In this thesis, the author presents three studies that deal with the effects of an augmented reality escape room game on learning outcomes and immersion experience. Augmented reality, AR, is a relatively new visualization technology that extends the real environment with virtual elements. AR allows completely new possibilities for the design of educational escape room games. For example, AR simulates authentic situations, enables interactions between players and virtual avatars as well as real and digital objects, and engages learners into physical activities. The combination of AR and the game-like narrative environment creates a learning space that involves learners cognitively and emotionally in the simulated situation leading to the experience of immersion. However, the influence of immersion experience on learning outcomes is contradictory. For example, the lower levels of immersion (engagement, engrossment), described in the immersion continuum, turned out to promote learning, while the highest level of immersion, total immersion, tends to inhibit learning. Research that has addressed this challenge to learning with AR escape room games has been lacking. In this thesis, the author addresses this research gap by first exploring in Study 1 whether learning can occur with an AR escape room game. To be able to explain possible successes or failures, the Cognitive Affective Theory of Learning with Media (CATLM) serves as a theoretical framework. As the results show, the used AR escape room game Escape Fake can enhance learning: The learners in the study were able to significantly increase their knowledge on fake news, were better able to assess simulated postings from social networks as true or false news and increased their willingness to check online information on the Internet for accuracy. Study 2 addresses the challenge of immersion as a possible distracting variable in the learning process. In study 2, the author developed scaled-down marker images to ensure playing Escape Fake in a seated position. The author hypothesized that a lower experience of total immersion would occur in the seated condition, which should then have a positive impact on learning outcomes. As the results from Study 2 show, the lower physical involvement had no effect on the experience of total immersion. As a result, the learners neither differ in their performance on a knowledge test and an application task, nor their willingness to check online information on the internet for accuracy. Significant differences were found for the immersion level of engrossment, which learners in the seated condition perceived as more intense. To reduce the immersion experience, Study 3 combined the generative learning strategy of summarizing with playing Escape Fake in the experimental condition. Learners in this group summarized the content of the game in their own words after playing. The results show that adding the learning strategy can significantly reduce the experience of total immersion. As a result, learners in the experimental group were significantly better at applying their knowledge to the evaluation of simulated postings from the social networks. No effect was found for knowledge acquisition and the affective learning outcome. The second goal of Study 3 was also met: adding the generative learning strategy of summarizing had no negative effect on the experience of the two immersion levels that are productive for learning (engagement and engrossment). In summary, the Escape Fake AR escape room game proved to be an effective and meaningful educational resource. The use of the game in the context of fake news education is recommended. Further empirical, theoretical, and practical implications and the development of future AR escape games are discussed in the course of this work.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent studies in Immersive Learning show that different factors influence the learning outcomes in Educational Virtual Environments (EVEs). An underlying theory about learning in EVEs from an educational perspective is yet lacking. To enhance immersive learning research, a systematic framework of immersive learning processes as a theoretic foundation is required in order to appropriately discuss these processes. This paper summarizes the factors influencing learning in EVEs and introduces their localization in the Helmkes’ pedagogical supply-use-model. Presence as the subjective feeling of “being there” is emphasized as the central criterion influencing immersive learning. Presence is influenced by objective and subjective factors. The objective factors which are provided by the technology are summarized under the term immersion; the subjective factors consist of the motivational, cognitive, and the emotional factors. They are summarized as (immersive) learning potential. The localization of these predictor variables of learning outcome in Helmke’s supply-use-model results in the educational framework for immersive learning (EFiL), which provides an educational understanding of immersive learning as “learning activities initiated by a mediated or medially enriched environment that evokes a sense of presence”. It constitutes a first educational reflection of immersive learning processes which has to be pursued and evaluated by empirical research.
Full-text available
This note addresses the confounding of the term 'presence' with several different distinct aspects of experience. Distinctions should be made between immersion, presence, involvement, emotional response, degree of interest. An analogy with colour science is pursued, specifically the difference between wavelength distribution and perception of colour-where the former is like 'immersion' the latter is like 'presence' (a human response). On top of this colours may be experienced as interesting, emotion-producing and so on. Just as the emotional experience engendered by a colour is not the same as the perception of the colour, which is not a simple function of the wavelength distribution, so involvement, interest or emotional response in a virtual reality is not the same as presence, which is not the same as immersion.
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Conference Paper
Effects of field-of-view (FOV) in a virtual environment (VE) on presence, enjoyment, memory, and simulator sickness (SS) were studied. A refined scale designed to assess subjects' engagement, enjoyment, and immersion (E(2)I) was developed. Items to examine subjects' memory of the VE were included. SS was examined using the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). Using a within subjects design, data were collected from 10 subjects at four FOVs (60degrees, 100degrees, 140degrees, and 180degrees). The VE, Crayolaland, was presented in a driving simulator. Results indicated that presence, enjoyment, and SS varied as a function of display FOV. Subjects exhibited higher SSQ and presence subscale scores with increasing FOV. SSQ and presence values approached asymptotes for FOVs beyond 140degrees. Presence and SS were positively correlated; enjoyment and SS were negatively correlated.
This article reviews previous literature on presence, with a particular focus on its conceptualization and typologies. It first compares various types of presence-related terms (e.g., telepresence, virtual presence, mediated presence, copresence, and presence) and suggests that of those terms the term presence works best for the systematic study of human interaction with media and simulation technologies. After an extensive explication process, presence is newly defined as “a psychological state in which virtual objects are experienced as actual objects in either sensory or nonsensory ways.” Three types of presence—physical, social, and self presence—are defined based on the general definition of presence and the corresponding domains of human experience. Finally, implications of the current explication to the study of presence are discussed.
Immersive collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) are simulations in which geographically separated individuals interact in a shared, three-dimensional, digital space using immersive virtual environment technology. Unlike videoconference technology, which transmits direct video streams, immersive CVEs accurately track movements of interactants and render them nearly simultaneously (i.e., in real time) onto avatars, three-dimensional digital representations of the interactants. Nonverbal behaviors of interactants can be rendered veridically or transformed strategically (i.e., rendered nonveridically). This research examined augmented gaze, a transformation in which a given interactant's actual head movements are transformed by an algorithm that renders his or her gaze directly at multiple interactants simultaneously, such that each of the others perceives that the transformed interactant is gazing only at him or her. In the current study, a presenter read a persuasive passage to two listeners under various transformed gaze conditions, including augmented gaze. Results showed that women agreed with a persuasive message more during augmented gaze than other gaze conditions. Men recalled more verbal information from the passage than women. Implications for theories of social interaction and computer-mediated communication are discussed.
A sense of presence is one of the critical components required by any effective virtual environment (VE). In contrast, side effects such as sickness may be produced in some virtual environments, detracting from the enjoyment or usefulness of the VE and from subsequent performance of the participant. Both presence and sickness in virtual environments are multifactorial phenomena not easily amenable to understanding or measurement. The first experiment reported here compares use of direct performance measures and rating scales to assess presence, whilst varying the VE display medium (head mounted and desktop displays) and whether or not sound was used in the VE. The second experiment addresses associations between presence, sickness and enjoyment of virtual environment participation. There was enough comparability between a reflex response within the VE and the rating scales to justify future exploration of the former measure of presence. A number of explanations are given for the partial association found between presence and sickness.