Article

Production of n-3-rich insects by bioaccumulation of fishery waste

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Abstract

Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae (Hermetia illucens) might be an advantageous option for recycling fish waste for obtaining n-3-fatty acid-rich foods. To investigate the effects of consuming fish waste (an n-3-fatty acid-rich by-product) on the fatty acid (FA) profiles of BSF, larvae were assigned to experimental feeding systems according to the time fish waste was eaten before slaughtering: BSFc-control (without eating fish) and BSF1d, BSF2d, BSF4d, BSF6d, BSF8d, BSF10d and BSF12d (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 days eating fish, respectively). The percentage of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increases significantly (P < 0.001) from 4.32 in BSFc to 14.8% in BSF12d. Larval biomass was notably enriched in both eicosapentaenoic (EPA) (up to 7.2%) (P < 0.001) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) (up to 4.9%) (P < 0.001) fatty acids, while the consumption time of fish waste increased, and the n-6:n-3 ratio and both the atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity (TI) indices were reduced (P < 0.001). The maximum percentage of EPA + DHA (12.2% of total fatty acids) (P < 0.001) was obtained at 12 days. The recommended daily intake of both n-3 PUFAs for humans could be satisfied with 150 g of a 12-day-feed larval meal.

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... The high fat content of larvae and prepupae (20-40%), as well as the high content of saturated fatty acids (SFAover 60% of FAME), are some of the factors limiting their use in animal feed [19][20][21]. In this regard, two alternatives are now available: meal defatting, or adjustment of the larvae fatty acid profile by dietary enrichment [21][22][23][24]. Defatting is known and involves a technological process with additional costs [25,26]. ...
... mg [16] or 10.53-12.23 mg [55]. The total number of eggs was comparable to that reported by Tomberlin et al. [16], namely, 603-689 eggs; by Barros et al. [23] (620-700 eggs); and by Bertinetti et al. [55] (412-1060) eggs. ...
... Oonincx et al. [36] found a correlation between the addition of flaxseed oil and the ALA level in larvae, obtaining for each percentage of flaxseed oil added in the diet of larvae a 2.3-2.7% increase of ALA, being higher than our findings (1.05-1.45%). The EPA and DHA fatty acids were not found in prepupae fat when they had not existed in the larvae diet [21,23,36]. Recently, Li et al. [35] have observed that the levels of oleic (C18:1 n-9), linoleic (C18:2 n-6), and α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3) acids in larvae are positively influenced by the level from the larvae diet. ...
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Edible insects such as the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens L. represent a potential and sustainable source of nutrients for food and feed due to their valuable nutritional composition, which can be modulated through dietary enrichment. The high content of saturated fatty acid (FA) of Hermetia illucens larvae fats can be modulated through dietary enrichment as a result of adding vegetable oils in the rearing substrate. Therefore, the present research aims to highlight the effects of a 10% addition of vegetable oils from five dietary fat sources (linseed oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, and hempseed oil) on the growth, development, reproductive performance, and the fat and fatty acids profile of H. illucens. Oil inclusion in the larval diet improved (p < 0.05) the weight of larvae, prepupae, pupae, and imago without influencing (p > 0.05) the egg clutch weight and the number of eggs in the clutch. In addition, the larvae fatty acid profile was different (p < 0.001) according to the oil type, because the unsaturated FAs (UFA) increased from 11.23 to 48.74% of FAME, as well as according to the larvae age, because the saturated FAs decreased from 85.86 to 49.56% of FAME. Linseed oil inclusion led to the improvement of the FA profile at 10 days age of larvae, followed by hempseed and rapeseed oil. These three dietary treatments recorded the highest concentrations in UFA (29.94–48.74% of FAME), especially in polyunsaturated FA (18.91–37.22% of FAME) from the omega-3 series (3.19–15.55% of FAME) and the appropriate n–6/n–3 ratio. As a result, the degree of the lipid polyunsaturation index increased (17.76–41.44) and the value of the atherogenic (3.22–1.22) and thrombogenic (1.43–0.48) indices decreased. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that enriching the larval diet with these oils rich in UFA can modulate the larvae FA profile, making them suitable sources of quality fats for feed and indirectly for food.
... To date, multiple studies have documented the use of different feeding substrate produce Hermetia larvae framed within variable goals, from the bioconversion of wa [44][45][46][47][48], to the production of biodiesel [37,[39][40][41][42][43], or the modulation of the nutritional To date, multiple studies have documented the use of different feeding substrates to produce Hermetia larvae framed within variable goals, from the bioconversion of wastes [44][45][46][47][48], to the production of biodiesel [37,[39][40][41][42][43], or the modulation of the nutritional profile of H. illucens [33,[49][50][51]. ...
... In the case of ALA, the most significant levels were obtained using chicken feed with a supplementation of 4% of flaxseed (9.7%) [64], and vegetables (5.8%) [53]. Relevant levels of EPA and DHA were recorded in H. illucens larvae supplied with fish discards (13.6% and 21.4%, respectively) [49], as well as when supplied with coffee silverskin with Schyzochytrium sp. (11% and 16%, respectively) [50]. ...
... In the case of ALA, the most significant l obtained using chicken feed with a supplementation of 4% of flaxseed (9.7% vegetables (5.8%) [53]. Relevant levels of EPA and DHA were recorded in H. illu supplied with fish discards (13.6% and 21.4%, respectively) [49], as well as whe with coffee silverskin with Schyzochytrium sp. (11% and 16%, respectively) [50] For the present review, 148 fatty acid profiles of H. illucens larvae (Tabl allocated to 148 different feeding substrates. ...
Article
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The replacement of fish meal and fish oil by insect-based ingredients in the formulation of marine aquafeeds can be an important step towards sustainability. To pursue this goal, the modulation of the lipid profile of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) has received great attention. While its nutritional profile can shift with diet, the ability to modulate its lipidome is yet to be understood. The present work provides an overview of the lipid modulation of H. illucens larvae through its diet, aiming to produce a more suitable ingredient for marine aquafeeds. Marine-based substrates significantly improve the lipid profile of H. illucens larvae, namely its omega-3 fatty acids profile. An improvement of approximately 40% can be achieved using fish discards. Substantial levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two essential fatty acids for marine fish and shrimp species, were recorded in H. illucens larvae fed on fish discards and coffee silverskin with Schyzochytrium sp. Unfortunately, these improvements are still deeply connected to marine-based bioresources, some still being too costly for use at an industrial scale (e.g., microalgae). New approaches using solutions from the biotechnology toolbox will be decisive to make H. illucens larvae a feasible alternative ingredient for marine aquafeeds without having to rely on marine bioresources.
... Nowadays, due to environmental and nutritional advantages, insects are considered as a potential source of protein for humans and livestock. Nevertheless, the fatty acid profile of terrestrial insects is poor in healthy fatty acids, n−3 LCPUFAs, and rich in n−6 PUFAs and saturated fatty acids [30,44,45]. However, the nutritional values can be modified through the diet of the insects [46], specifically, the modification of the fatty acid profile of insects has been studied in order to increase n−3 LCPUFA levels, mostly EPA and DHA [24,44,47]. ...
... Despite the accumulation of EPA and DHA described by various authors [24,30,47], the percentage of accumulation is low regarding diet. In insects fed with oil rich in EPA and DHA, the percentage of retention is correlated with n-3 LCPUFA content of the diet, although levels were always relatively low, less than 20% in T. molitor and M. configurata [49] or 12.1% in H. illucens [30]. ...
... Despite the accumulation of EPA and DHA described by various authors [24,30,47], the percentage of accumulation is low regarding diet. In insects fed with oil rich in EPA and DHA, the percentage of retention is correlated with n-3 LCPUFA content of the diet, although levels were always relatively low, less than 20% in T. molitor and M. configurata [49] or 12.1% in H. illucens [30]. The natural diet of terrestrial insects is usually very specific and poor and, as suggested by Colombo et al. [49], there has not been strong selection pressure to highly retain n−3 LCPUFAs, which results in low retention efficiencies. ...
Article
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Fish discards are organic waste with high and good-quality protein levels, as well as a fatty acid profile rich in n−3 LCPUFAs, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. These discards can be used as food for Tenebrio molitor (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, thus increasing the nutritional value of this insect. This study focused on increasing larval acceptance of fish through different pre-treatments of the diets provided, as well as increasing the accumulation of EPA and DHA in fish-fed larvae. Four different diets were prepared: control (broiler feed), DGF50: 50% dried ground fish (Pagellus bogaraveo, Brünnich, 1768) + 50% broiler feed, for different periods, FGF100: 100% fresh ground P. bogaraveo and DUF100: 100% dried whole unground P. bogaraveo. Growth, mortality, proximate composition, fatty acid profile and lipid nutritional indices were determined. Larvae fed with FGF100 displayed better results among treatments, doubling the initial weight, as well as increasing their protein level and decreasing fat levels. Regarding fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in larvae fed with a fish-based diet for a period longer than 5 days. These results show that pre-treatment of fish-based diets causes changes in the growth and compositional parameters of T. molitor larvae.
... Fifteen articles reported on rearing substrates that contained fruit and vegetable ingredients [19][20][21]23,25,[29][30][31][32][33][35][36][37][38][39]. Six articles reported on rearing substrates that contained animal-based ingredients [24,25,28,[39][40][41], four articles reported on rearing substrates that contained a generic food or kitchen waste description, with no further details regarding included ingredients [24,38,39,41], and one article reported on a rearing substrate that contained seaweed as an ingredient [26]. ...
... The rearing duration of the BSF larvae in the experimental trials varied with a reported range between one day [40] and 52 days [37]. Details on larvae feeding frequency were provided by 19 articles, as shown in Table 1 [19][20][21][22][24][25][26][27][28][29][31][32][33][34][36][37][38][39][40]. ...
... The rearing duration of the BSF larvae in the experimental trials varied with a reported range between one day [40] and 52 days [37]. Details on larvae feeding frequency were provided by 19 articles, as shown in Table 1 [19][20][21][22][24][25][26][27][28][29][31][32][33][34][36][37][38][39][40]. Of these the feeding frequency ranged from a singular feed at the beginning of the experiment [19,35], to a set feeding schedule throughout the experimental trial including daily [26,34,36], weekly [32], and specific days [22,23,25,27,32,33], and ad libitum feeding approaches [21,29,30,37,39,40]. ...
Article
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The Black Soldier Fly (BSF) offers the potential to address two global challenges; the environmental detriments of food waste and the rising demand for protein. Food waste digested by BSF larvae can be converted into biomass, which may then be utilized for the development of value-added products including new food sources for human and animal consumption. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies investigating the influence of food waste rearing substrates on BSF larvae protein composition. Of 1712 articles identified, 23 articles were selected for inclusion. Based on the results of this review, BSF larvae reared on ‘Fish waste Sardinella aurita’ for two days reported the highest total protein content at 78.8% and BSF larvae reared on various formulations of ‘Fruit and vegetable’ reported the lowest protein content at 12.9%. This review is the first to examine the influence of food waste on the protein composition of BSF larvae. Major differences in larval rearing conditions and methods utilized to perform nutritional analyses, potentially influenced the reported protein composition of the BSF larvae. While this review has highlighted the role BSF larvae in food waste management and alternative protein development.
... The use of BSF meal as feed raw material is notably limited by their high lipid content and their fatty acid profile (Barragan-Fonseca et al., 2017). To bypass this problem, two solutions are potentially available: insect defatting or insect fatty acid profile adjustment by feed modulation (Barroso et al., 2019(Barroso et al., , 2017Ewald et al., 2020;Liland et al., 2017;Oonincx et al., 2019;St-Hilaire et al., 2007;Tschirner and Simon, 2015). Different fractioning approaches to separate lipid, protein, and chitin from BSF prepupae are currently developed (Caligiani et al., 2018). ...
... Researches to improve the larval fatty acid profile are mainly conducted with byproducts derived from fish and aimed to increase the levels of long-chain (i.e. ≥ C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, 22:6n-3) as fish and fish oils are the primary sources of ω3 LC-PUFAs in human nutrition (Barroso et al., 2019;Cullere et al., 2019;St-Hilaire et al., 2007;Wang et al., 2006). These essential ω3 LC-PUFAs are mainly produced by microalgae and are consequently largely accumulated by fishes through the food chain (Dyer et al., 2008). ...
... Generally, the fatty acid composition of feed material used in the formulation of BSF larval diets are low in ω3 and therefore the larval profile also contains few ω3 fatty acid (Finke, 2013;Gao et al., 2019;Meneguz et al., 2018;Oonincx et al., 2015a). As the BSF larval fatty acid profiles can be partially oriented according to their diet, several ω3 enrichment tests have been performed with animal (fish offal or waste, fish meal or mussels) and vegetal (seaweed or flaxseed oil) byproducts and range from 2.99 to 16.5% of ω3 PUFAs levels in larvae oils (0.74 -9.7% of ALA, 0.0 -8.2% of EPA and 0.0 -4.9% of DHA) (Barroso et al., 2019(Barroso et al., , 2017Cullere et al., 2019;Ewald et al., 2020;Liland et al., 2017;Oonincx et al., 2019;St-Hilaire et al., 2007). In this study, flax cake incorporation allows a significant enrichment of prepupae with ALA levels up till 15.27 ± 0.02% (F100). ...
Article
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To meet the growing demand for fish in human nutrition, aquaculture is developing increasingly from marine fishery products (i.e. fish meal and fish oil). New environmentally sustainable protein and lipid resources are recommended for this sector and insects, particularly black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L. 1758), are considered as promising candidates for fish feed production. BSF larvae convert organic materials into high-valued protein and lipid, their nutritional composition is related to their diet and could therefore be manipulated. The key issue in fish nutrition will be the fatty acid composition of BSF larvae that are characterized by high saturated fatty acids (SFAs) level (> 60%) with lack of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study aimed to adjust the fatty acid profile of BSF larvae by manipulating their food on focusing on diet formulation with local oilseed cakes for essential ω3 fatty acid (ALA: α-linolenic acid, C18:3n3) enrichment. Selected populations (100 individuals/population) of 7 days old BSF larvae were reared on Chicken feed (CF) diets enriched with flax and rape cakes at six incorporation rates (10 - 20 - 40 - 60 - 80 - 100%), the CF was used as the control diet and all diets were tested in triplicate (n = 3). The first prepupae appeared from 15 rearing days on all diets with an average weight of 195 mg excepted for full oil cake diets showing longer prepupal collection time (7 days) and lower average weight (116 mg). Oil cakes incorporation shows an impact on the prepupae fatty acid profiles. The results show that progressive oil cakes diets incorporation decreased saturated fatty acids from 75.86 ± 0.34% to 56.10 ± 0.74%. Simultaneously, rape cake incorporation leads mainly to oleic acid (C18:1n-9) enrichment which not sought in fish nutrition and low ALA rate from 1.16 ± 0.25% to 2.42 ± 0.12% but Flax cake incorporation increase ALA enrichment up till 15.27 ± 0.02% favorable to fish needs allowing a potential increase BSF meal incorporation in fish feed. This research therefore presents a model of progressive prepupae oil enrichment from oilseed coproducts for application in fish feed.
... However, it has been previously revealed that the fatty acid (FA) profiles of insects can be modified through dietary strategies (Kouba and Mourot, 2011), which can be applied for large-scale insect rearing (Dreassi et al., 2017;Rutaro et al., 2018). For instance, increased n-3 VLCPUFAs content was achieved in black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) larvae using fish meal or fish offal as feed ingredients (Barroso et al., 2017(Barroso et al., , 2019. ...
... MWL contain CP and ether extract ranging from 47 to 53% and from 33 to 43% respectively (Bernard et al., 1997;Finke, 2015;Oonincx et al., 2015). Mineral composition is similar in BSF and MWL, with higher Ca, Fe and Mn in BSFL and higher Na in MWL (Janssen et al., 2019) Previous studies have focused on fish waste and discarded fish to improve the n-3 VLCPUFAs content of BSFL (Barroso et al., 2019;St-Hilaire et al., 2007). Such research demonstrated that fish-fed BSFL accumulate n-3 VLCPUFAs and that such accumulation increases as larvae are fed with discarded fish for longer durations. ...
... Such research demonstrated that fish-fed BSFL accumulate n-3 VLCPUFAs and that such accumulation increases as larvae are fed with discarded fish for longer durations. In this way, producers should decide whether they prefer a high n-3 VLCPUFAs increase in larvae with more complex management in BSFL breeding or to simplify management and discomfort while although obtaining lower n-3 VLCPUFAs enrichment in larvae (Barroso et al., 2019). An important issue to be elucidated is whether suitable amounts of n-3 VLCPUFAs can be obtained in BSFL through partial substitution of insect feed with discarded fish, or whether the use of fish derivatives as single feed component is required for such achievements. ...
Article
Fishery discards represent 10% of total fishery catches, and insect rearing can be accomplished using this wasted resource. Considering that fish are the main source of n-3 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for human nutrition, and that fish contain both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, this study focused on monitoring the accumulation of such n-3 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in insect larvae. To determine the feasibility of this process, we monitored nutritional changes achieved in two insect larvae – black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758) and mealworm (Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758) – fed using two different fish species from discards, i.e. round sardinella (Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847) and blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo, Brünnich, 1768). Five different diets were prepared: control (broiler feed), 50% discarded fish (round sardinella and blackspot seabream) +50% broiler feed, and 100% discarded fish. The 100% blackspot seabream fed H. illucens accumulated eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid up to 2.4 g /100 g and 0.8 g /100 g, respectively. T. molitor accumulated lower amounts of both n-3 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids due to the low intake of fish-containing feed by the larvae.
... The BSF meal contains 35%-57% crude protein, 32.6% crude fat, 6.7% crude fiber and 8.6% ash content [9,10]. Nevertheless, the amount and quality of fat depend on diet type [5,11]. ...
... However, the FA profile of insects could be manipulated through feeding [22]. Barroso et al. [11,23] were able to increase n-3 LCPUFAS content in BSF larvae fed fish meal or fish offal. ...
... The defatting of insect meal is because its FA profile differs considerably from fishmeal. Nevertheless, the FA profile can be changed by feeding insect larvae [11,23]. The BSF50m insect meal was made by feeding BSF discarded fish to obtain a BSF meal rich in n-3 LCPUFAs. ...
Article
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Abajo: se repite los tres en el resumen. This work studies the effect of high-level fish meal replacement with insect meal: YW meal (obtained from Tenebrio larvae fed a broiler diet), BSF meal (from hermetia larvae fed broilers diet), BSFm meal (obtained from hermetia larvae fed discard fish) on growth performance nutritive indices and in vitro digestibility of Dicentrarchus labrax juvenile. Three different insect meals were used: BSF meal from hermetia larvae fed broilers diet; BSF improve (BSFm) obtained from hermetia larvae fed discarded fish; YW meal obtained from the larvae of Tenebrio fed a broiler diet. Five diets were used, a control (C) diet and four experimental diets by replacing fishmeal with insect meal from BSF at 30% and 50% (BSF30 and BSF50) substitutions, BSFm at 50% substitution (BSF50 m) and YM at 50% substitution (YW50). Nutritional and growth indices worsened by including insect meal, especially for hermetia meal at 50% substitution, BSF50 and BSF50 m. The internal organs’ weight reflected the growth of the fish fed each experimental diet. No differences were found in fillet composition. Nevertheless, under our experimental condition, YW replacement obtained better results than both BSF diets.
... Our findings are in agreement with fatty acid spectra reported on other edible insects [36,[38][39][40]. Notwithstanding the effect of insect species, studies have also shown that the fatty acid spectra of edible insects are partly dependent on the fatty acid composition of their feed [41][42][43]. ...
... This clearly signifies that the insect species and its developmental stage and age had a direct influence on the type and amount of free fatty acids that were present in the three insects. This is in agreement with the findings of previous studies, which have shown that the nutritional components of edible insects vary based on species and age among other factors [26,[41][42][43]48]. ...
Article
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This study aimed to provide information on the nutrients of the edible larval stage of Gonimbrasia cocaulti (GC) for the first time, while exploring the potential nutrient content of the pupal life stages of the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori; BM) and the Eri silkworm (Samia Cynthia ricini; SC). The three insects were analyzed for fatty acids, minerals, proximate composition, and vitamins. Among the fatty acids, linoleic, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, was approximately threefold higher in GC than in the silkworms. The Ca, Fe, and K contents were highest in GC. However, the Zn and Na contents were highest in BM, while Mg content was predominant in SC. The crude protein content of the various developmental life stages of the edible caterpillars and pupae ranged between 50 and 62%. Further, the fiber content of GC was substantially higher compared to the pupal stages of the two silkworm species. The vitamin (B6, B9, B12, and α-tocopherol) levels of the two insect life stages were considerably high. These insects are comparably rich in nutrients with potential suitability to be utilized in food fortification, and thus ease pressure on the over-reliance on animal and plant-based sources, which are becoming unsustainable.
... Numerous studies have researched the use of biowaste and by-products for rearing BSF larvae such as animal manure, brewery by-products, fish offal, and fruit and vegetable waste [e.g. 8, [14][15][16][17]. These studies have shown that the larval composition and performance are largely modified by the rearing substrate. ...
... In particular, larvae reared on marine-based ingredients had a relatively higher share of omega-3 fatty acids, especially EPA, than other treatment groups, reflecting the presence of these fatty acids in the substrates. The findings are consistent with previous studies using other marine-based substrates such as algae [33], fishery waste [15,34] and salmon oil [35]. Similar to the current study, EPA was the main omega-3 fatty acid accumulating in larvae reared on fishery waste, followed by ALA and subsequently DHA [34]. ...
Article
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Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae can convert biowaste and by-products into body mass high in protein (~40% dry matter, DM) and lipid (~30% DM). However, the type of rearing substrate also affects the larval body composition and thus its nutritional value. Hitherto, it remains unclear how and to what extent the larval body composition can be altered by the substrate. This study was therefore performed to examine the possibilities of modifying larval body composition using different rearing substrates. To investigate this, 5-days old larvae were reared for seven days on different locally available waste and by-products: brewer’s spent grain, mitigation mussels (Mytilus edulis), rapeseed cake, and shrimp waste meal (Pandalus borealis). Larval composition and performance were compared to larvae reared on a commercial chicken feed as well as a mixed feed (mixture of chicken feed and by-products, with a similar macronutrient composition to chicken feed). Larval body weight was recorded daily to determine growth over time whereas larvae and substrates were sampled at the start and end of the trial and analysed for their nutritional composition. The type of rearing substrate affected both larval body composition and growth performance. There was a clear relation between the nutritional composition of the substrate and larvae for certain fatty acids. Larvae reared on marine-based waste substrates contained a higher share of omega-3 fatty acids than larvae reared on the other substrates, indicating an accumulation of omega-3 fatty acids from the substrate. There was a strong positive linear correlation between the ash content in the substrate and larvae whereas larval lipid, protein, amino acid, and chitin content seemed more affected by larval development. Overall, this study showed that the rearing substrate affects larval composition and development, and that larval composition of certain nutrients can be tailored depending on further food and feed applications.
... Feeding insects with fish waste increases their polyunsaturated fatty acid content. An increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid content was observed in black soldier fly larvae fed with fish waste (Barroso et al., 2019). The omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid ratio in Eulepida mashona and Henicus whellani is well-balanced (Manditsera et al., 2019). ...
... Putrefied wastes from food processing can be valorized by insects. Barroso et al. (2019) demonstrate how fish waste can be converted into polyunsaturated fatty acids when used as insect feed, though, Skrivervik (Skrivervik, 2020) reported that most of the commercial insect farmers are not using food waste as insect feed. Black soldier fly can efficiently convert waste into a high-value protein with qualities similar to that of soy meal and fishmeal (Surendra et al., 2020). ...
Article
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There is an urgent need for alternative protein sources due to the rapid population growth, climate change, environmental degradation by pollution, food-fuel competition and the reduction in arable land for agricultural use. Conventional livestock production is also deleterious to the environment due to the production of greenhouse gasses and ammonia. This article provides insights into the potentials of edibleinsects as novel food ingredients. The manuscript provides concise explanations for the need of embracing additional protein sources, edibleinsects consumption and their nutritional benefits and environmental and economic advantages of using edibleinsects as food. Literature was gathered through an online search on the Science Direct database and Google Scholar, relevant papers published between January 2002 and November 2020 were cited. Edibleinsects are good source of essential nutrients. They are rich in proteins and essential amino acids, contain good quality lipids and significant amounts of important minerals. They are potential source of proteins for humans and animals. They can play an important role in global food security by providing essential nutrients to the increasing global population. This can only be achieved when more attention is given to their production and processing. Creating awareness among new consumers on their nutritional and environmental benefits and the development of food products with appealing sensory properties will surely improve their acceptance as food.
... Values as high as 48% lauric acid of the lipids were determined for H. illucens (91). Although edible insects have a distinct fatty acid spectrum (110), it is partly dependent on the fatty acid composition of their feed (6,33,110). Several studies have shown that the fatty acid spectra could be selectively enhanced via feed (6,110). ...
... Although edible insects have a distinct fatty acid spectrum (110), it is partly dependent on the fatty acid composition of their feed (6,33,110). Several studies have shown that the fatty acid spectra could be selectively enhanced via feed (6,110). This is relevant since commercially produced insects are generally low in ω-3 fatty acids and have elevated ω-6/ω-3 ratios (110). ...
Article
Over the last decade, the urgency to find alternative and sustainable protein sources has prompted an exponential increase in the interest in insects as a human food source. Edible insects contribute suitable amounts of energy and protein, fatty acids, and micronutrients to the human diet. Nutritional values of insects can be manipulated to meet specific needs. Edible insects in food-insecure countries can contribute to improving diets and preventing undernutrition. Bioactive compounds in insects may reduce health risks. Food safety risks are low and mainly relate to those of allergenicity. Strategies to overcome barriers to the consumption of insect products include emphasizing their sustainability, increasing their tastiness, and developing the ability to disguise insects in familiar products. A new sector of insects as food and feed is emerging. Major challenges include legislation, lowering prices by automation and cheap substrates, developing insect products that appeal to consumers, and exploring the health benefits. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition, Volume 41 is September 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... To use BSF meal in aquafeed, its FA profile must be improved to harbor ω3 unsaturated FAs of interest, including ALA, EPA and DHA (Barroso et al., 2017;Ewald et al., 2020;Hoc et al., 2021;Liland et al., 2017). EPA and DHA-enriched BSF prepupae have already been obtained from diets containing fish offal and fishery waste (Barroso et al., 2019;Sealey et al., 2011;St-Hilaire et al., 2007b). Unfortunately, European legislation on feed applied to insect rearing states that insects must be fed with eligible materials used for farmed animals (Regulation EU:1069/2009). ...
... Although EPA and DHA are of interest for enhancing fish nutrition, neither was detected in BSF prepupal meal. BSF prepupae are not able to produce long-chain PUFAs and could simply accumulate those provided in their diet (Barroso et al., 2019(Barroso et al., , 2017Hoc et al., 2020Hoc et al., , 2021St-Hilaire et al., 2007b). ...
Article
The aquaculture sector is expanding rapidly and needs an increasing supply of fishery products. To ensure an ecological transition of this sector, alternative feed ingredients are required for fish nutrition. Potential alternatives include insects, particularly the black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens L. 1758), which is being increasingly targeted for their nutritional qualities and their sustainable production practices. BSF have a well-balanced amino acid profile; however, their fatty acid profile is not sufficiently balanced for most aquafeed formulations but can be modulated through their feed. In this study, two different batches of BSF prepupae (BSFP) were firstly produced: BSFP with a standard ω3 content (C18:3n-3 ≈ 1.36%) and ω3-enriched BSFP (C18:3n-3 ≈ 9.67%). Then, three isoproteic, -lipidic and -energetic trout feeds were formulated and produced: one control and two feeds containing 75% BSF meal as a substitute for fish meal (standard vs ω3-enriched-BSF). Finally, a trout feeding trial (n = 3 for each feed batch) in a recirculating aquaculture system was carried out for 75 days. BSFP meal inclusion in trout diets did not impact most nutritional and growth parameters of trout compared to the control; however, the coefficient of fatness increased, weight gain decreased and fatty acid profiles of fillets were altered. In conclusion, this study presents a more sustainable model of trout production by including insects from bioconversion of local byproducts in aquafeed.
... Likewise, the breeding substrate influences the mineral and vitamin fraction of the final product. [203][204][205][206][207] However, while macronutrient composition (including total protein content), is related to insect composition and the quantity of nutrients in the substrate, amino acid (AA) composition is inconsistent in the literature. In fact, some studies reported an impact of the substrate on AA composition, 208 while others argue that these components are poorly modulated, as they are under genetic regulation and more uniform in profile. ...
Article
The aims of this review are to describe the role of ‘blue‐food production’ (animals, plants and algae harvested from freshwater and marine environments) within a circular bioeconomy, discuss how such a framework can help the sustainability and resilience of aquaculture and to summarise key examples of novel nutrient sources that are emerging in the field of fed‐aquaculture species. Aquaculture now provides >50% of the global seafood supply, a share that is expected to increase to at least 60% within the next decade. Aquaculture is an important tool for reducing resource consumption in global protein production and increasing resilience to climate change and other global disruptions (i.e. pandemics, geo‐political instability). Importantly, blue foods also provide essential nutrition for a growing human population. Blue foods are helping to help the global goal of ‘zero hunger’ (United Nation's Sustainable Development Goal 2) while reducing the dependency on finite natural resources but further refinement and new solutions are needed to make the industry more ‘circular’ and sustainable, particularly with respect to sourcing raw materials for aquafeeds. This review describes the feed resources that are available or may be created within a circular bioeconomy framework, their role within the framework and in aquaculture and ultimately, how these resources contribute to de‐risking and establishing a resilient aquaculture production chain.
... Please cite this article as 'in press' a fish meal diet. Previous studies have also demonstrated the possibility of tailoring the BSFL composition in macronutrient by adjusting the insect diet (Ewald et al., 2020) and the ability to bioaccumulate micronutrients and essential compounds, such as vitamin E (Liland et al., 2017) and ω3 fatty acids (Barroso et al., 2019;Hoc et al., 2021;Oonincx et al., 2020), with the addition of food wastes and by-products. Next to the substrate carotenoid content, other factors which could have had an implication in the BSFL carotenoid enrichment have been taken into consideration. ...
Article
Nowadays, the mass production of insects is promoted not only for their nutritional value, but also for their ability to convert agri-food by-products into high valuable derived products. In the present work, the potential production of carotenoid-rich larvae of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (BSFL), was evaluated by rearing them on different agri-food by-products. The carotenoid concentration in BSFL was highly correlated with the carotenoid content of the substrates (R=0.882). Among the different substrates, tomato and carrot by-products allowed to obtain BSFL with a total carotenoid content 230% higher than the amount detected in the BSFL grown in the control diet. Furthermore, the killing method played a key role in the preservation of the BSFL carotenoid content, with dry heating resulting in a significantly higher total carotenoid content compared to blanching and freezing. These results clearly support the valorisation of agri-food by-products for the production of BSFL naturally rich in carotenoids for specific feed and food purposes.
... k COD,VS were calculated using Eq. (7), selecting larvae dry mass (DM, %wet weight) and VS (%DM) content based on typical literature values, corresponding to 23-36% (% wet weight), and 70-90% (%DM), respectively (Barroso et al., 2019;Liland et al., 2017), yielding k COD,VS ranging from 0.49 to 1.37 mgCOD/mgVS/d. ...
Article
The biological treatment process based on the metabolism of Black Soldier Fly (BSF) larvae proved to be a highly promising technique for the treatment of high organic content (HOC) wastewater, such as sewage from food industries, leachate from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill, etc. The present study was aimed at achieving a better understanding of how biodegradability and degree of oxidation of organic content might influence treatment performance and biomass quality. Six leachates characterised by similar COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) but different BOD 5 /COD (Biochemical Oxygen demand/COD) and TOC/COD (Total Organic Carbon/ COD) ratios were tested. By combining these ratios, the BOD 5 /TOC ratio was introduced to take into account the effect of both leachate properties (biodegradability and oxidation degree). Process treatment performance was significantly influenced by the quality of organic substances. Higher BOD 5 /TOC values (higher biodegradability and lower oxidation degree) resulted in a greater and faster larvae growth, with final wet weight of between 49.2 and 91.9mg/larva; lower mortality between 5 and 32%; higher prepupation percentages ranging from 4 to 21% and higher specific substrate consumption rate with values varying from 0.051 to 0.063 mgTOC/mg larva/d, up to 3-fold higher than values obtained using conventional activated sludge based on COD consumption. Conversely, no significant differences were detected in larvae protein and lipid contents, including the profiling of fatty acids.
... The crude protein portion of the BSFL meal used in the present study was 52.6%, which was in the range of reported crude protein in BSFL, but lower than that of BSFL meal reared on fish waste in a similar period (71.3%). The difference may attribute to the overestimation of crude protein in BSF meal reared on fish waste using a general conversion factor (6.25), which is proposed as 4.67 because of the presence of nonprotein nitrogen in BSFL, such as chitin (Janssen et al., 2017;Barroso et al., 2019). In addition, instead of a full-fat BSFL meal (31−35%), the BSFL meal used in this study was moderately defatted (Diener et al., 2009) and had 15% crude fat content on a dry matter basis, which was higher than that in the fish meal. ...
Article
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The use of insects in animal feed appears to be an efficient approach that contributes to solving the environmental issues related to leftover disposal; however, it has not been approved in some countries due to concerns about pathogenic infections. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of long-term substitution of fish meal in poultry feed with organic defatted black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) meal prepared from BSFL raised on leftovers. The 87 Julia laying hens (178-day-old) were allotted in a completely randomized design with three treatments (29 layers in each treatment). The laying hens were fed maize grain and soybean meal-based diet containing either 3% fish meal, 1.5% fish meal and 1.5% BSFL meal, or 3% BSFL meal supplements for 52 weeks (541-day-old). Results showed that substituting fish meal with BSFL meal had no effect on the laying rate, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of laying hens, and only the complete replacement (3% BSFL meal) significantly increased the body weight of laying hens. In terms of egg quality, there was no significant effect on eggshell parameters (weight, thickness and strength), albumen weight, yolk height, yolk color, and Haugh unit. However, both half (1.5% fish meal and 1.5% BSFL meal) and complete substitution of fish meal increased yolk weight (P < 0.01) and egg weight (P < 0.05). In conclusion, even if BSFL were fed leftovers and the meal was defatted with organic solvents, it can be used as a poultry feed ingredient without any adverse effect. Moreover, the complete substitution of fish meal with BSFL meal may be a feasible way to effectively contribute to the laying hens’ performances and poultry farming costs. In addition to fish meal, the replacement of soybean meal with BSFL meal may also needs to be further studied for the extensive BSFL meal application in poultry feed.
... The larvae of Hermetia illucens (H), insect of the Diptera order, Stratiomydae family, commonly known as black soldier fly, are routinely evaluated as an alternative protein source for aquafeeds thanks to their nutritional composition comparable to that of fishmeal (Barragan-Fonseca et al., 2017;Barroso et al., 2014;Henry et al., 2015). Their chemical composition largely depends on the rearing substrate (Barroso et al., 2019(Barroso et al., , 2017Liland et al., 2017;Truzzi et al., 2020) and they are characterised by medium protein (~ 40% on dry weight) and lipid content (> 30% on dry weight) (Diener et al., 2009;Sánchez-Muros et al., 2014). H. illucens can accumulate heavy metals and is deficient in methionine of 80-93% for rainbow trout (Diener et al., 2015;Papuc et al., 2020), but taking close care of the insect farming management and adding methionine supplements in the fish diet might easily solve the matter. ...
Article
Given the drift to improve economic and ecological sustainability of the aquaculture sector, novel ingredients fulfilling these requirements are sought. Hermetia illucens, commonly called black soldier fly, (Diptera: Stratiomydae; H) is a promising dietary protein source but its effect on fish gut microbiota is still to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to increase the knowledge of the effect of dietary full-fat H meal on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) microbiota and, in particular, on intestinal mucosa-adherent microbiota by applying a dual approach based on polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Rainbow trout (initial body weight of 137.3 ± 10.5 g) was fed for 98 days with a control diet (H0) containing fishmeal and protein-rich vegetable ingredients and an experimental diet (H50) where 50% of the fishmeal had been replaced by full-fat H meal rich in saturated fatty acids. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were generally present in all samples, although the core microbiota (relative prevalence higher than or equal to 80% in all samples) only consisted of the proteobacteria Caulobacter, Delftia, Agrobacterium and Ochrobactrum. In addition, Streptococcus infantis and a member of the Cytophagaceae family were part of the core taxa of mucosa samples. Tenericutes were abundant in pyloric caeca samples and, among them, Mycoplasmataceae seemed to increase in the group fed the high saturated fatty acid diet containing H meal; a consideration about the connection between this bacterial group and the dietary lipid content must be considered. Dietary treatment did not clearly affect alpha-diversity metrics, but mucosa samples tended to be more resilient to dietary changes than content samples. Permutational analysis of variance showed significantly different β-diversities between diets (p < 0.05) but principal coordinates analysis did not confirm this result. Diets for rainbow trout containing full-fat H meal determined interesting modifications in the gut microbiota with patterns similar to the ones found in the literature. The dietary lipids can exert an effect on microbiota. Nonetheless, research data on this topic are still scarce and further studies are highly encouraged.
... However, the use of terrestrial insects to feed marine organisms is regarded as of limited use due to the lack of important n-3 PUFA (Freccia et al., 2020;Hua et al., 2019). In recent years, the ability of Black Soldier Fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), to use different wastes as feeding substrates, ranging from manure (Moula et al., 2018), Parodi et al., 2021 to vegetables, fruits (Meneguz et al., 2018), algae (Liland et al., 2017) or fish wastes (Barroso et al., 2019), has been deeply explored, as well as the ability to modulate its nutritional profile by altering its feeding substrate (Barroso et al., 2017;Danieli et al., 2019;St-Hilaire et al., 2007). Many attempts have already succeeded in improving the lipid profile of H. illucens, namely by using algae or finfish as substrates, thus allowing the bioencapsulation of n-3 PUFA, and consequently, making the inclusion of this insect species more feasible in the diet of carnivorous marine fish (Barroso et al., 2017;Liland et al., 2017). ...
Article
In modern aquaculture systems, feed is the main source of the waste being produced, including expired aquafeeds. There is a link between the expiration date of aquafeeds enriched with fish oil for marine fish and the observation of several physical and microbiological changes. Among these, lipid oxidation is worth highlighting, as this process is responsible for the loss of palatability of aquafeeds, which can lead to feeding rejection by the species being farmed. In this study, we used an expired fish aquafeed, which otherwise would be discarded as waste, as a substrate to feed Black Soldier Fly (BSF) larvae. Different replacement levels of expired aquafeed were used which unravelled the amount of n-3 fatty acids added to larval tissues of BSF larvae after 2, 7, and 10 days of feeding. Our results also showed that shorter trials and higher diet replacement levels induced a deleterious effect on final larval weight. Furthermore, amino acid and fatty acid larval contents were shaped by the supplied diet, with results supporting the inclusion of BSF meal in aquafeeds, due to the levels of lysine (5.6–8.9%), methionine (1.9–3.2%), and omega-3 fatty acids (14.5%) recorded. These results demonstrate that the re-introduction of an expired resource aiming to diversify the source of aquafeeds raw materials can be safely achieved through BSF biotransformation. Overall, BSF larvae can successfully recover important nutrients for aquafeeds targeting marine species and foster the production of value-added insects under a circular bioeconomy framework.
... However, Finke (85) argues the opposite, that chitin accounts for a relatively small portion of an insect's nitrogen and is therefore not impacting calculated crude protein values. Indeed, some researchers still favor the conversion factor of 6.25 (29,(99)(100)(101)(102)(103) whilst others use 4.76 (104)(105)(106). This discrepancy can introduce high protein variation in the literature; for example, Basto, Matos, and Valente (107) calculated H. illucens crude protein content with both a conversion factor of 4.76 and 6.25 and obtain values of 32.2 and 46.1%, respectively. ...
Article
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Background: Undernutrition is a prevalent, serious, and growing concern, particularly in developing countries. Entomophagy—the human consumption of edible insects, is a historical and culturally established practice in many regions. Increasing consumption of nutritious insect meal is a possible combative strategy and can promote sustainable food security. However, the nutritional literature frequently lacks consensus, with interspecific differences in the nutrient content of edible insects generally being poorly resolved. Aims and methods: Here we present full proximate and fatty acid profiles for five edible insect species of socio-economic importance in West Africa: Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly), Musca domestica (house fly), Rhynchophorus phoenicis (African palm weevil), Cirina butyrospermi (shea tree caterpillar), and Mac rotermes bellicosus (African termite). These original profiles, which can be used in future research, are combined with literature-derived proximate, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles to analyse interspecific differences in nutrient content. Results: Interspecific differences in ash (minerals), crude protein, and crude fat contents were substantial. Highest ash content was found in H. illucens and M. domestica (~10 and 7.5% of dry matter, respectively), highest crude protein was found in C. butyrospermi and M. domestica (~60% of dry matter), whilst highest crude fat was found in R. phoenicis (~55% of dry matter). The fatty acid profile of H. illucens was differentiated from the other four species, forming its own cluster in a principal component analysis characterized by high saturated fatty acid content. Cirina butyrospermi had by far the highest poly-unsaturated fatty acid content at around 35% of its total fatty acids, with α-linolenic acid particularly represented. Amino acid analyses revealed that all five species sufficiently met human essential amino acid requirements, although C. butyrospermi was slightly limited in leucine and methionine content. Discussion: The nutritional profiles of these five edible insect species compare favorably to beef and can meet human requirements, promoting entomophagy's utility in combatting undernutrition. In particular, C. butyrospermi may provide a source of essential poly-unsaturated fatty acids, bringing many health benefits. This, along with its high protein content, indicates that this species is worthy of more attention in the nutritional literature, which has thus-far been lacking.
... The n-6/n-3 ratio of 1% flaxseed oilenriched feed (3) was also higher (by almost 2-fold) than the results of the current study with SLO 5% (1.64). Our results produced BSFL with lower EPA + DHA contents (7%) than previously described when fed only fishery waste (Barroso et al., 2019): 12.1%. However, in our study, 5% SLO produced 7% EPA + DHA (% of total fatty acids), while in the control (0% SLO) substrate, BSFL did not contain EPA or DHA. ...
Article
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL; Hermetia illucens) are known as an alternative feed for livestock, but their lack of polyunsaturated fatty acids (such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) makes it less valuable. To overcome these problems, BSFL substrate (chicken feed) was fortified with squid liver oil (SLO) at five different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20%). The growth rate, feed conversion, and nutritional content of BSFL were evaluated at day 15 of rearing. Of the five concentrations, SLO 5% showed the highest growth increase (25.82-fold) among the other treatments (20.63-22.98-fold; P<0.05). The fortification of SLO 5% did not result in differences in survival and feed conversion of larvae compared to larvae fed the control substrate. By rearing BSFL in a substrate containing SLO 5%, the lipid content of the larvae was 32% higher than that of larvae fed the control substrate (P<0.05). The accumulation of lipids was faster in the substrate containing SLO 5% (33.20% for 8 days) than in the control substrate (24.36% for 15 days). The control group of BSFL contained no DHA or EPA, but after rearing on the SLO 5% fortified substrate, the larvae contained DHA at an average level of 2.99 g/100 g lipid and EPA was 2.68 g/100 g lipid. Harvested larvae from SLO 5% treatment was within safe levels of Pb, Cd, As, and Hg (840, 370, 860, and 26.7 μg/kg, respectively), under the EU threshold for animal feed. Based on our results, it concluded that BSFL enriched with PUFAs, DHA and EPA can be considered as important nutritional components of animal feed without excessive heavy metals accumulation by feeding SLO in an appropriate amount.
... On the other hand, defatted insect meal could avoid undesirable effects by reducing the SFA content, as well as increase the level of high-quality protein. Similar effect might be obtained by previous enrichment of larvae with n-3 PUFAs, by means of using PUFAs-rich substrates in breeding systems, as previously reported by Barroso et al. (2017Barroso et al. ( , 2019 and St-Hilaire et al. (2007). ...
Article
Currently, insects are considered a new source of food that could be an alternative to fishmeal (FM) in aquaculture. However, more studies are needed to assess the effects of the inclusion of insects in fish diets on both fish productivity and fish quality. To this end, three trials were conducted to evaluate as feed ingredients the meals of two insects, black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, HI) and mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, TM), on the fatty acid (FA) profiles of fillets of three fish species: sea bream (Sparus aurata), tench (Tinca tinca) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In each trial, the animals were randomly divided into five experimental groups (3 tanks/treatment). The fish were fed until triple their initial weight with isoprotein and isolipid diets at different levels of FM replacement using insect meal: 0% insect meal or control diet (C), 15% inclusion of HI meal (H15), 30% inclusion of HI meal (H30), 15% inclusion of TM meal (T15), and 30% inclusion of TM meal (T30). Overall, the use of insect meal induced a decrease in valuable long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in fish fillets, and the higher the insect inclusion (H30 and T30 diets), the higher the decreases in EPA and DHA contents. Moreover, insect-containing diets worsened the lipid health indices (n-3/n-6 ratio, atherogenicity AI, and thrombogenicity TI indices) of fillets. However, differences between the three fish species were observed: tench was the more resilient species to insect inclusion, while in rainbow trout, there were very marked decreases in LCPUFA content, especially in DHA, and in the n-3/n-6 ratio. Nevertheless, insect-fed fish could be considered “healthy” based on the n-3 LCPUFA content. Furthermore, several strategies could be implemented to avoid the decline of n-3 LCPUFAs in fish, such as using partially defatted insect meal or the use of insects previously fed n-3 PUFA-rich by-products.
... In particular, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens; BSF) is able, during its larval development, to grow on organic by-products, converting them into valuable biomass with a nutritional composition dependent on the quantity and the quality of feed offered [6][7][8]. Due to its promising protein content and essential amino acid pattern, the use of different BSF dietary inclusion levels has been widely investigated in several farmed fish species, including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) [9,10], Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) [11,12] and Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) [13,14], as well as in experimental models like zebrafish (Danio rerio) [8,15,16]. In addition, as recently reviewed by Zarantoniello and collaborators [17], different diets in terms of BSF dietary inclusions, developmental stage (larvae or prepupae) and lipid content (full-fat, partially or totally defatted) have been tested in recent years on several fish species. ...
Article
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Insects represent a valuable and sustainable alternative ingredient for aquafeed formulation. However, insect-based diets have often highlighted controversial results in different fish species, especially when high inclusion levels were used. Several studies have demonstrated that nutritional programming through parental feeding may allow the production of fish better adapted to use sub-optimal aquafeed ingredients. To date, this approach has never been explored on insect-based diets. In the present study, five experimental diets characterized by increasing fish meal substitution levels with full-fat Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens; BSF) prepupae meal (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were used to investigate the effects of programming via broodstock nutrition on F1 zebrafish larvae development. The responses of offspring were assayed through biometric, gas chromatographic, histological, and molecular analyses. The results evidenced that the same BSF-based diets provided to adults were able to affect F1 zebrafish larvae fatty acid composition without impairing growth performances, hepatic lipid accumulation and gut health. Groups challenged with higher BSF inclusion with respect to fish meal (50%, 75% and 100%) showed a significant downregulation of stress response markers and a positive modulation of inflammatory cytokines gene expression. The present study evidences that nutritional programming through parental feeding may make it possible to extend the fish meal substitution level with BSF prepupae meal in the diet up to almost 100% without incurring the well-known negative side effects of BSF-based diets.
... Enrichment of longer-chain n-3 PUFA in BSF larvae did occur when these fatty acids were present in the diet, e.g. fish waste (Barroso et al., 2019;St-Hilaire et al., 2007) and mussels (Ewald, 2019). ...
Article
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The oilseed crops Crambe abyssinica and Camelina sativa produce oils rich in erucic acid and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), respectively. After pressing the oil, a seed cake remains as a protein-rich by-product. Edible insects may convert this seed press cake and the defatted seed meal produced from it into insect biomass suitable for animal feed. Black soldier fly larvae (BSF, Hermetia illucens) can grow on a wide range of organic waste types, but may be hindered by excess protein or the plant toxins characteristic for these two oilseed crops, i.e. glucosinolates and their breakdown products. We tested the effects of 25, 50 and 100% oilseed by-product inclusion in the diet on survival, development, biomass production and fatty acid composition of BSF larvae. Larval performance on diets with up to 50% camelina by-product or 25% crambe by-product was similar to performance on control diet (chicken feed), and decreased with higher inclusion percentages. Larval fatty acid profiles differed significantly among diets, with larvae fed press cake more distinct from control than larvae fed seed meal. Larvae fed camelina press cake had more α-linolenic acid, whereas larvae fed crambe contained most oleic acid. The n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio decreased with increasing proportion of by-product, especially on camelina diets. Lauric acid content was highest in larvae fed 100% camelina meal or 50% crambe meal. These results indicate that BSF larvae can be successfully grown on diets with camelina or crambe oilseed by-products, and that the resulting larval n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio is favourable for animal feed. However, the fate of glucosinolates and their derivatives remains to be determined, to guarantee chemical safety of camelina- or crambe-fed BSF larvae for animal feed.
... Fatty acid profiles can be manipulated by the substrates used to raise the insects and it is possible to enrich the EPA and DHA content by feeding insects with fish offal or algae (Sealey et al., 2011;Liland et al., 2017;Barroso et al., 2019 ). However, in a recent study with black soldier fly larvae by Ewald et al. (2020), it was observed that the fatty acid profiles can also be affected by the harvesting weight of larvae and the modification of the fatty acid profiles appeared to be limited. ...
Article
Recognizing the importance of reducing fish meals in fish feeds to ensure the economic and environmental sustainability of aquaculture operations, there have been growing interests in using insect meals as a protein source in aquaculture feeds. Increasing number of studies have been conducted to test the effects of insect meals as substitutes of fish meals in feeds of various fish species with varying degrees of success. A meta-analysis was carried out to quantify the effects of insect meals on growth performance of fish. The meta-analysis indicated that in general low or moderate dietary incorporation levels of insect meals did not affect the growth of fish in comparison to fish meal-based diets. High dietary inclusion levels of different insect species appeared to have divergent effects on the fish growth. While higher than 29% (±3%) dietary inclusion levels of black solider fly meals depressed the growth performance, yellow mealworm seemed to be well tolerated by fish. Full-fat and defatted black soldier fly meals did not seem to differ in their effects on fish growth performance but this should be viewed as inconclusive due to varying degrees of defatting and highly variable nutrient compositions of the insect meals. Overall the results suggest that insect meals are promising novel protein sources for aquaculture feeds. More research is warranted to further elucidate the various influencing factors on the effectiveness of the dietary inclusions of insect meals in aquaculture feeds, as well as to integrate and translate this information into practical feed formulations.
... Fish waste (discarded round sardinella) as a substrate was used to augment the EPA, DHA and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content in the lipid fraction of BSFL. The percentage of EPA + DHA observed in the twelve-day old larvae was 12.1%, which was significantly higher than previously reported values [45]. ...
Article
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Each year, the food supply chain produces more than 1.3 billion tons of food and agricultural waste, which poses serious environmental problems. The loss of the massive quantity of secondary and primary metabolites retrievable from this resource is a significant concern. What if there is a global solution that caters to the numerous problems arising due to the humongous volume of waste biomass generated in every part of the world? Insects, the tiny creatures that thrive in decaying organic matter, which can concentrate the nutrients present in dilute quantities in a variety of by-products, are an economically viable option. The bioconversion and nutritional upcycling of waste biomass with insects yield high-value products such as protein, lipids, chitin and frass. Insect-derived proteins can replace conventional protein sources in feed formulations. Notably, the ability of the black soldier fly (BSF) or Hermetia illucens to grow on diverse substrates such as agri-food industry side streams and other organic waste proves advantageous. However, the data on industrial-scale extraction, fractionation techniques and biorefinery schemes for screening the nutritional potential of BSF are scarce. This review attempts to break down every facet of insect processing and analyze the processing methods of BSF, and the functional properties of nutrients obtained thereof.
... To limit undesired outcomes on fillet FA composition, two approaches have been undertaken. On the one hand, prior to the administration to fish, insect larvae FA profile was tailored by rearing them on PUFAn-3-rich substrates, like Ascophyllum nodosum (Liland et al., 2017), microalgae or fish material (Barroso et al., 2019(Barroso et al., , 2017St-Hilaire et al., 2007). The second approach considered a thorough modulation of the lipidic ingredients of fish feed by augmenting the dietary fish oil inclusion level (Belghit et al., 2019a). ...
Article
Free download at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044848620311716?dgcid=author Insects are able to bio-convert organic by-products into a sustainable biomass for aquafeed formulation. Specifically, among several insect species, Hermetia illucens (H) is particularly interesting for its nutritious traits but, unfortunately, the lipidic fraction is poorly represented by polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 and poses some limits in its application in aquafeed formulation. The present study undertook an interdisciplinary approach to explore the effects of three experimental diets containing increasing levels of full-fat H meal (H0 diet based on fishmeal and purified protein-rich vegetable ingredients; H25 and H50 diets containing 25% or 50% of full-fat H meal replacing fishmeal, respectively), on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed over a 98 days experimental period. The expression of genes related to lipid metabolism by RT-qPCR, liver histology, as well as the qualitative traits of fillets and fatty acid (FA) composition were investigated. Interestingly, fads2 gene expression in pyloric caeca increased in fish fed diets containing the highest full-fat H meal inclusion (H50 > H0; p < .05). Liver histological examinations showed normal morphological aspect even though hepatic FA profiles seemed to resemble those of the diets. However, liver docosahexaenoic acid did not significantly differ between the dietary groups and showed a mean value of 11.07 g FA methyl esters/100 g total FA methyl esters. Despite the FA profile of the three diets differed depending on the H meal inclusion level, biometrics, fillet physical traits, total lipids and the overall FA profile were not jeopardised, not even eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The overall results showed that the dietary full-fat H meal inclusion under study did not impair fish fillet quality, guaranteeing its nutritional value. Some effects on lipid metabolism were observed, as suggested by liver, pyloric caeca and mid intestine gene expression and liver FA profile. Future studies on the biological mechanisms behind the macroscopic traits of fish fed unprocessed insects are warmly encouraged.
... This was carried out as previously described elsewhere (Barroso et al., 2019). The repeatability of the direct methylation was checked by analyzing replicates of the same sample daily. ...
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The effects of feeds containing several food by‐products on the fatty acid compositions of Hermetia illucens larvae were studied. Coconut, tomato, apple, and viscera by‐products, as well as combinations of control feed containing carbohydrate‐rich additives were assayed. Final live weight (mg) and daily growth coefficient (%/day) ranged from 41 and 0.548 (tomato) to 93 and 1.292 (coconut), respectively. Oils containing lauric acid were obtained from larvae‐fed vegetable by‐products, especially those fed feed containing apple, coconut, and tomato (65.3, 54.4 and 52.3% of total fatty acids, respectively). Feed containing apple and a 1:1 (w/w) mix of control feed and apple by‐products yielded the highest proportion of fatty acids in the larvae (23.5 and 15.6 g fatty acids/100 g fresh larvae, respectively). The properties of biodiesel that could be produced from larvae fatty acids were calculated and the following values were obtained: cetane number (58.5–60.2), higher heating value (38.3–39.0 MJ·kg−1), density (0.869–0.873 g·cm−3), and induction period, an index of oxidation stability (8.4–150 hours). Such values were within the ranges specified by the ASTM D6751 and Europe EN 14214:2008 standards, while values for cold filter plugging point (−9.6 to 2.8 °C) were adequate for biodiesels intended for use in temperate climates. However, values for kinematic viscosity (2.93–3.58 mm2·s−1) were slightly below the requirements of EN 14214:2008 (3.5–5.0). Overall, larvae fed food by‐products produced lauric acid‐rich oils, and the calculated properties of the oils were largely suitable for biodiesel production.
... Food waste can be used as a rearing substrate for the mass rearing of insects [6] which are a potential valuable protein source for food and feed [8]. Prospective food waste-derived rearing substrates include seasonal agrifood leftovers such as vegetable leftovers [9], food by-products [10] in general, fermented maize straw [11], fishery waste [12], wheat middlings, rapeseed meal and brewery grains [13], and vegetable canteen waste [14], just to name a few. However, the utilization of food waste as feed for insects as livestock for food and feed production is subject to legal restrictions (for more information refer: Regulation (EC) 68/2013). ...
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In light of the global extent of food waste accruing every year, in addition to prevention measures, a circular, waste-based economy for food waste valorization is proposed as one potential remedy. Profound knowledge is missing on the consumers´ willingness to take part in circular systems for the reduction of food waste. Edible insects were suggested as a potential tool for the sustainable valorization of food waste and production of valuable proteins, food and feed products. This insect-based food waste valorization strategy faces a number of obstacles – one being the consumer acceptance of the resulting food products. An overview of existing strategies for the promotion of novel and/or waste-based food as well as insect-based food is given and compared.
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Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae can utilise biowaste streams and convert them into high-quality larval biomass. However, the nutritional requirements of BSF larvae are largely unknown and remain to be identified to optimally use biowaste streams for BSF rearing. The current study thus investigated the optimal dietary protein to carbohydrate ratio for industrially reared BSF larvae for food and feed applications. In addition to a chicken feed control with a crude protein to non-fibre carbohydrate ratio (P:C) of 1:3, six isoenergetic and isolipidic experimental substrates were formulated with the P:C ratios ranging between 1:1 – 1:9. Each substrate was fed to triplicate groups of 5-days old larvae (n=10,000 per box) reared under commercial scale conditions for 11 days before harvesting. Highest overall performance was observed for larvae reared on substrates with P:C ratios between 1:2 – 1:3, corresponding to protein to energy ratios (P:E) of 11.2-14.4 g/MJ. Larvae reared on these substrates had the highest final yield, highest survival, and the lowest feed conversion ratio. Feeding the most protein-biased substrates (P:C ratios of 1:1 – 1:1.5) or the most carbohydrate-biased substrate (P:C ratio of 1:9) significantly lowered larval survival. Additionally, larvae fed a more carbohydrate-biased substrate resulted in a prolonged development time. In summary, the study found that P:C ratios of 1:2 – 1:3 (11.2-14.4 g/MJ P:E) were most optimal in terms of obtaining the highest larval yield and ensuring the best utilisation of feed resources for BSF production while meeting larval macro-nutritional requirements.
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Chapter
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Chapter
The present chapter shows an overview of the production of bioactive peptides (BAPs) obtained from food matrices, using fermentation processes. It shows that it is possible to obtain BAPs from milk, meat, and vegetable proteins and emphasizes scientific production and the proven benefits that milk protein-derived BAPs provide to health. It also emphasizes a promising outlook in BAP production by fully using meat and vegetable proteins using food industry by-products, which also helps to mitigate waste environmental issue. For viable and safe BAPs industrial production, advances about in vivo research and adaptations of biotechnological processes for this scale of production are required.
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Fermented food and beverages constitute a significant part of the human diet (5%–40%) worldwide. Fermentation has been used for preservation and to augment the flavor, texture, and nutritional qualities of the food, since antiquity. During fermentation, the bioavailability of vitamins, minerals, and other constituents increases due to the microorganisms’ metabolic activities. Besides enhancing nutritional quality, fermented foods contain live organisms reported to prevent/treat many health disorders. Types of the fermentation process are also classified based on these microorganisms. In developing countries, fermented foods were usually prepared using traditional methods without any standardized techniques. Considering the beneficial effects of fermented foods, industrial-level production requires consistent specific microorganisms, fermentation methods, evaluation of nutritional compositions, and food safety testing. This chapter discusses the fermented foods and associated organisms, different sources available for the consumption of fermented foods, and food component’s effect on microorganism’s efficacy.
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Fish culture plays an important role in supplying high-quality proteins and omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aquaculture has been the fastest growing sector in agriculture. Fishmeal is an important component of commercial fish feeds, but ensuring a sustainable supply of fishmeal is in question. A good source of proteins in aquafeeds is insects. For the past 20 years, investigations have been carried out on insect meals as alternative sources for fishmeal. Thus far, the results on replacing fishmeal in feeding aquaculture species have been promising. However, some challenging issues including costs and scaling up of insect production remains. In this review, we aim to summarize the status of applying meals of eight insect species in formulated aquafeeds. We also discussed issues in replacing fishmeal in fish feeds with insect meals and listed some future research directions to make insect meals an important source of proteins for green, profitable and sustainable (GPS) aquaculture. It is certain that in the near future, large-scale insect farming and processing to produce insect meals as an ingredient of fish feeds will have positive impact on the sustainability and profitability of aquaculture.
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Insects are efficient converters of different types of low-quality organic matter into biomass rich in good quality protein. Flies are particularly well suited for the biodegradation of organic waste and larval stages can be used as animal feed. Currently, only Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) are accepted for feeding purposes by European authorities. However, there are several other species potentially interesting to be used in animal feed. This review compiles available information regarding species from Calliphoridae family, ranging from scattered records of its use as animal feed to nutritional profile descriptions. Comparisons are made with the most common ingredients used as animal feed, fish meal and soybean meal as well as with other two authorised species by the European regulation, H. illucens and M. domestica. Concerns about pathogen transmission are also discussed. Blow flies present a real opportunity to recycle organic side streams under a circular economy framework and can ultimately contribute to the reduction of nutrients shortage in animal feed. Other advantages include their high fertility, short life cycle, known rearing methodologies and good nutritional profile. Further, their potential as pathogen transmitters is equivalent to the domestic fly. For all these reasons blow flies are good candidates to be used as ingredients in animal feed.
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Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly lar-vae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid-and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly lar-vae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.
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Background Two trials were performed to evaluate a partially defatted Hermetia illucens (HI) larvae meal as potential feed ingredient in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) diets. In the first trial, 360 trout (178.9 ± 9.8 g of mean initial body weight) were randomly divided into three experimental groups (4 tanks/treatment, 30 fish/tank). The fish were fed for 78 days with isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isoenergetic diets containing increasing levels of HI, on as fed basis: 0% (HI0, control diet), 25% (HI25) and 50% (HI50) of fish meal substitution, corresponding to dietary inclusion levels of 0, 20% and 40%. In the second trial, 36 trout (4 tanks/treatment, 3 fish/tank) were used to evaluate the in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of the same diets used in the first trial. Results Survival, growth performance, condition factor, somatic indexes, and dorsal fillet physical quality parameters were not affected by diet. The highest dietary inclusion of HI larvae meal increased dry matter and ether extract contents of trout dorsal fillet. The use of HI larvae meal induced a decrease of valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) even if differences were only reported at the highest level of HI inclusion. The insect meal worsened the lipids health indexes of the same muscle. Dietary inclusion of insect meal did not alter the villus height of the fish. No differences were found among treatments in relation to ADC of ether extract and gross energy, while ADC of dry matter and crude protein were higher in HI25 if compared to HI50. Conclusions The obtained results showed that a partially defatted HI larvae meal can be used as feed ingredient in trout diets up to 40% of inclusion level without impacting survival, growth performance, condition factor, somatic indexes, dorsal fillet physical quality parameters, and intestinal morphology of the fish. However, further investigations on specific feeding strategies and diet formulations are needed to limit the observed negative effects of the insect meal on the FA composition of dorsal muscle.
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The fatty acid profile and the related indices of the nutritional quality of breast and thigh muscles were studied in two lines of chickens – La Belle (LB) and White Plymouth Rock (WPR) – slaughtered at the age of 9 and 18 weeks. The fatty acid profile was more affected by the age than the line of the birds; however, the influence of both differed between the breast and thigh. The content of total saturated fatty acids (SFAs) increased in the thigh (P < 0.01), while that of the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased with age in both muscles (P < 0.001). This corresponded to the significant decrease in C18:1 in the older chickens and the lower desaturase activity (P < 0.001). The contents of C20:4n-6, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 and the total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in breast were higher (P < 0.001) at the age of 18 weeks. A similar pattern in the individual and total PUFA was observed in the thighs. The effect of line was more visible in the breast, leading to a lower C14:0 content and C20:5n-3 and a higher C18:0 content in the WPR chickens (P < 0.001), corresponding to the higher elongase and thioesterase indices in these birds. Both atherogenic (AI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices were lowered, while the ratio of hypocholesterolemic ∕ hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (h ∕ H) and polyunsaturated ∕ saturated fatty acids (P ∕ S) increased in the breast of the birds at 18 weeks. In breast and thigh meat, the ratio of n-6 ∕ n-3 PUFA decreased in the older chickens (P < 0.001).
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Species from Diptera (Hermetia illucens and Lucilia sericata), Coleoptera (Tenebrio molitor and Zophoba morio) and Orthoptera (Locusta migratoria, Acheta domestica and Anacridium aegyptium) were analyzed for fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content. The following solvent systems were tested for extraction: direct methylation (CH3OH/CH3COCl/hexane); n-hexane; acetone; ethanol/water; hexane/ethanol; and direct saponification (KOH and ethanol). Direct methylation was performed as control of extraction yields and to evaluate the possible use of these fats as biodiesel. Insect lipids were extracted by ethanol in a similar extent as did other tested organic solvents, while direct methylation of the biomass provided the highest yields. L. sericata and Z. morio contained high percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids; A. aegyptium and L. migratoria were two polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched species, while H. illucens and Z. morio showed high proportions of medium-chain fatty acids. All extracted fats might be used in the alimentary industry, as evidenced by their low cholesterol content, as well as for biodiesel obtainment, as suggested by computed saponification, iodine and cetane values. Samples of H. illucens and L. migratoria showed exceptional cetane numbers (64.8 and 60.7, respectively), and all tested species except A. aegyptium exhibited an exceptional fatty acid profile for biodiesel production.
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A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food.
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Securing protein for the approximate 10 billion humans expected to inhabit our planet by 2050 is a major priority for the global community. Evidence has accrued over the past 30 years that strongly supports and justifies the sustainable use of insects as a means to produce protein products as feed for pets, livestock, poultry, and aquacultured species. Researchers and entrepreneurs affiliated with universities and industries, respectively, from 18 nations distributed across North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia contributed to the development of this article, which is an indication of the global interest on this topic. A brief overview of insects as feed for the aquaculture industry along with a review of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), as a model for such systems is provided.
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Experts in the field of fisheries and aqua feeds have estimated that about a quarter of wastes coming from fishery are discarded, so causing not only a significant environmental impact but also a loss of the potential value of such products. This consideration stresses the importance of finding adequate modalities for fish wastes management, taking into account the possibility to use them not only as fish feeds but also as a potential source of bioactive compounds.
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A 60-70% increase in consumption of animal products is expected by 2050. This increase in the consumption will demand enormous resources, the feed being the most challenging because of the limited availability of natural resources, ongoing climatic changes and food-feed-fuel competition. The costs of conventional feed resources such as soymeal and fishmeal are very high and moreover their availability in the future will be limited. Insect rearing could be a part of the solutions. Although some studies have been conducted on evaluation of insects, insect larvae or insect meals as an ingredient in the diets of some animal species, this field is in infancy. Here we collate, synthesize and discuss the available information on five major insect species studied with respect to evaluation of their products as animal feed. The nutritional quality of black soldier fly larvae, the house fly maggots, mealworm, locusts-grasshoppers-crickets, and silkworm meal and their use as a replacement of soymeal and fishmeal in the diets of poultry, pigs, fish species and ruminants are discussed. The crude protein contents of these alternate resources are high: 42 to 63% and so are the lipid contents (up to 36% oil), which could possibly be extracted and used for various applications including biodiesel production. Unsaturated fatty acid concentrations are high in housefly maggot meal, mealworm and house cricket (60-70%), while their concentrations in black soldier fly larvae are lowest (19-37%). The studies have confirmed that palatability of these alternate feeds to animals is good and they can replace 25 to 100% of soymeal or fishmeal depending on the animal species. Except silkworm meal other insect meals are deficient in methionine and lysine and their supplementation in the diet can enhance both the performance of the animals and the soymeal and fishmeal replacement rates. Most insect meals are deficient in Ca and its supplementation in the diet is also required, especially for growing animals and laying hens. The levels of Ca and fatty acids in insect meals can be enhanced by manipulation of the substrate on which insects are reared. The paper also presents future areas of research. The information synthesized is expected to open new avenues for a large scale use of insect products as animal feed.
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Insects are part of the traditional diets of approximately 2 billion people worldwide. Insects can contribute to food security and be a part of the solution to protein shortages, given their high nutritional value, low emissions of greenhouse gases, low requirements for land and water, and the high efficiency at which they can convert feed into food. This article outlines the potential of insects as a food for humans as well as a feedstock for animals and fish. The majority of insects consumed in developing countries today are harvested in nature from wild populations. In Western countries, the disgust factor in considering insects as food, combined currently with their limited availability on the market, and a lack of regulations governing insects as food and feed, are major barriers for their further expansion. However, the biggest opportunity may well lie in the production of insect biomass as feedstock for animals and fish, to partly replace the increasingly expensive protein ingredients of compound feeds in the livestock industries. Considering the immense quantities of insect biomass needed to replace current protein-rich ingredients such as meal from fish and soybeans, automated mass rearing facilities need to be developed. For this to occur, significant technological innovations, changes in consumer food preferences, insect-encompassing food and feed legislation, and progress towards more sustainable food production systems are needed. The close collaboration of government, food and feed industry, media, chefs, and academia will be essential for success.
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The aim of this work was to establish the richness in γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6) and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) of the seed oil of several restricted-range Boraginaceae species, in a search for new valuable oils as advantageous alternatives to the commercially available sources of both polyunsaturated fatty acids. To this end, seeds of selected Boraginaceae species were collected and analyzed. The highest GLA contents (% total fatty acids) were found in the seed oils of Symphytum caucasicum M.Bieb. (22.9 %), Anchusa undulata subsp. undulata (Ten.) Cout. (22.0 %), Anchusa puechii Valdés (20.0 %), Glandora nitida Thomas (19.2 %), Echium pininana Webb & Berth. (17.1 %) and Pentaglottis sempervirens (L.) L. H. Bailey (17.0 %). With regard to SDA, the highest percentage was found in the seed oil of Echium cantabricum (M. Laínz) Fdez. Casas & M. Laínz (14.7 %), followed by Lappula patula (Lehm.) Asch ex Gürke (13.6 %). It is noticeable that several GLA-enriched species stand under a great threat of extinction, thus revealing the importance of the preservation of the natural ecosystems for endangered species.
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The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.
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It is well known that food has a considerable environmental impact. Less attention has been given to mapping and analysing the emergence of policy responses. This paper contributes to that process. It summarises emerging policy development on nutrition and sustainability, and explores difficulties in their integration. The paper describes some policy thinking at national, European and international levels of governance. It points to the existence of particular policy hotspots such as meat and dairy, sustainable diets and waste. Understanding the environmental impact of food systems challenges nutrition science to draw upon traditions of thinking which have recently been fragmented. These perspectives (life sciences, social and environmental) are all required if policy engagement and clarification is to occur. Sustainability issues offer opportunities for nutrition science and scientists to play a more central role in the policy analysis of future food systems. The task of revising current nutrition policy advice to become sustainable diet advice needs to begin at national and international levels.
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An improved adaptation of the direct transesterification method of Lepage and Roy (J. Lipid Res. 25, 1391–96, 1984) for the preparation of fatty acid methyl esters allows notable saving of time and reagents. The material being analysed is heated for 10 minutes with methanol, acetyl chloride and hexane. Rapid Science Ltd. 1998
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Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean) polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat) appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.
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One hundred and eight Merino Branco and crossbred Ile de France×Merino Branco ram lambs were used to evaluate the effects of genotype, feeding system and slaughter weight on fatty acid composition of meat (longissimus thoracis muscle). At 60 days of age, lambs were assigned to the experimental feeding systems: P—pasture with dams; SP—pasture with dams, plus concentrate ad libitum; C—weaning and concentrate ad libitum. Lambs were slaughtered at 24 and 30 kg live weight. The meat had a low fatty acid content. Intramuscular fatty acid (FA) composition was not affected by genotype. Pasture raised lambs (P and SP) showed higher proportion of n-3 FA, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-octadecenoic FA, and lower n-6:n-3 ratio, than C lambs. When slaughter weight increased, total FA content increased. Palmitic acid and monoenoic FA increased and polyunsaturated FA decreased with slaughter weight. The CLA proportion increased with slaughter weight, but only for lambs raised on pasture (P and SP). Fatty acid profile was effective in the identification of lamb feeding systems.
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Generation of immense quantity of underutilized marine processing byproducts has long been recognized as wastes and greater efforts were given to use these materials in various applications. With a great number of researches on these byproducts, some biologically active compounds were identified and applicated to the useful compounds for human utilization. Potential applications of proteins, lipids, chitin and minerals in marine bioprocessing leftovers as bioactive materials have increased the value of processing byproducts in recent years. In this review, we have focused on the utilization of marine processing byproducts to screen bioactive compounds and their potential applications.
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Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3)), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.
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Methods currently in use for the quantitative measurement of fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography after transesterification are usually lengthy and cumbersome. The technique described is a one-step reaction that is carried out in the same tube and bypasses all the extraction and purification steps. Recoveries of fatty acid and triglyceride standards (C6:0 to C24:1) were better than 96%. When the direct transesterification method was compared to the Folch extraction procedure, increases of fatty acid concentration of 11.4% and 15.8% were observed in human milk and adipose tissue, respectively. The method appears to be particularly advantageous for the recovery of the highly volatile medium chain triglycerides and there is no need to add an antioxidant to protect unsaturated lipids.
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The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in pregnant and lactating women and infants during postnatal life, on the visual acuity, psychomotor development, mental performance and growth of infants and children. Eighteen publications (11 sets of randomized control clinical trial [RCTs]) assessed the effects of the n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy on neurodevelopment and growth, in the same subjects at different time points; 4 publications (2 data sets from RCTs) addressed physiological responses to n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy & lactation and 5 publications (3 data sets from RCTs) exclusively during lactation. Some of these studies showed beneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation especially on visual acuity outcomes and some on long-term neurodevelopment; a few, showed positive effects on growth. There were also 15 RCTs involving term infants who received infant formula supplemented with DHA, which met our selection criteria. Many of these studies claimed a beneficial effect of such supplementation on visual, neural, or developmental outcomes and no effects on growth. Although new well designed and conducted studies are being published, evidence from RCTs does not demonstrate still a clear and consistent benefit of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation on term infants growth, neurodevelopment and visual acuity. These results should be interpreted with caution due to methodo-logical limitations of the included studies.
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Insects can become a key element of sustainable foods in the future. However, terrestrial insects have high levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and are very low in very long change polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFA), which could limit their use as food. In this experiment, we studied the modification of the FA composition of Hermetia illucens larvae by varying the composition of the larval feed. The effects of diets enriched in n-3 VLCPUFA on FA compositions of insect larvae were studied. Eight experimental groups of larvae were fed with an experimental diet for different durations before slaughter. The addition of n-3 to the larval diets resulted in an insect meal with three times more n-3 and therefore a lower n-6:n-3 ratio than those of the control insect meal. The amounts of n-3 VLCPUFA in Hermetia larvae could be altered by dietary manipulation in a short period of time.
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Importance of the Ratio of Omega 6/Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids - Evolutionary Aspects, Simopoulos, A.P. The Importance of Omega 6/Omega 3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Cell Function - The Gene Transfer of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase, Kang, J.X. Omega 6/Omega 3 Ratio and Brain-Related Functions, Yehuda, S. Dietary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease - Focus on Omega 6/Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acid Balance, de Lorgeril, M., Salen, P. Effects of an Indo-Mediterranean Diet on the Omega 6/Omega 3 Ratio in Patients at High Risk of Coronary Artery Disease - The Indian Paradox, Pella, D., Dubnov, G., Singh, R.B., Sharma, R. Berry, E.M. Manor, O. Omega 6/Omega 3 Fatty Acid Ratio - The Israeli Paradox, Dubnov, G., Berry, E.M. Linoleic Acid to Alpha-Linolenic Acid Ratio - From Clinical Trials to Inflammatory Markers of Coronary Artery Disease, Zampelas, A., Paschos, G., Rallidis, L., Yiannakouris, N. The Japan Society for Lipid Nutrition Recommends to Reduce the Intake of Linoleic Acid. A Review and Critique of the Scientific Evidence, Hamazaki, T., Okuyama, H. Omega 6/Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio and Cancer, Chaj s, V., Bougnoux, P. Omega 6/Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Arthritis, Cleland, L.G., James, M.J., Proudman, S.M.
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Food waste management strategies are mainly focused on waste minimization, but the search for new solutions to waste valorization is also a viable and potentially advantageous alternative. In this context, the aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of food-waste bioconversion into compost and dried larvae through the action of Hermetia illucens, by applying Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In international scientific literature, there are many studies concerning the utilization of insects for food-waste bioconversion, but very few articles relate to the application of LCA in this sector and none of these refers to Hermetia illucens. Furthermore, the process of bioconversion through Hermetia illucens is a very attractive option, considering that it represents a potential valuable solution to two problems: food waste management on the one hand and, on the other, the rising global demand for feed (dried larvae can be used in aquaculture feed production) or the competition between land use for energy crops and for food crops (dried larvae are a fat-rich resource potentially usable for the production of biodiesel). In particular, the LCA results presented in this study refer to the assessment of the potential environmental impacts of a pilot plant in which H. illucens is employed for food-waste treatment. From 10 tonnes of food-waste input, 300 kg of dried larvae and 3,346 kg of compost are produced. Three different functional units were used to carry out the analysis: the input of the production process, therefore 1) food-waste; the output composed of dried larvae, for which 2) the protein content (fundamental characteristic for using this product in aquaculture) and 3) the lipid content (to be used for biodiesel production) are considered. Results related to the functional unit of 1 tonne of food waste treated show a value of 30.2 kg CO2 eq in terms of Global Warming Potential, 215.3 MJ in terms of Energy Use, and 0.661 m2a in terms of Land Use. When compared with alternative sources of raw material for feed or biodiesel, these results show that the most significant benefits of insect production are connected to Land Use, while Energy Use is the main burden, and the estimation of Global Warming Potential is still affected by many uncertainties.
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Approximately one-third of all food produced for human consumption worldwide is wasted. The current waste management practices are not only costly but also have adverse impact on environment. In this study, black soldier fly (BSF) (Hermetia illucens) larvae were grown on food wastes to produce fat and protein-rich BSF prepupae as a novel strategy for efficient organic waste management. The lipid content in BSF prepupae was characterized for fatty acids profile. Whole BSF prepupae, pressed cake, and meal were analyzed for important animal feed characteristics. BSF-derived oil has high concentration of medium chain saturated fatty acids (67% total fatty acids) and low concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (13% total fatty acids), which makes it potentially an ideal substrate for producing high quality biodiesel. BSF (prepupae, pressed cake, and meal) has feed value comparable to commercial feed sources. Thus, the bioconversion of organic waste into BSF prepupae has significant potential in generating high-value products with simultaneous waste valorization.
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Fillets of 76 finfish species (293 composites of three fish) were obtained from commercial seafood vendors in six regions of the United States (i.e., Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, New England, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest). Full fatty acid profiles were determined for each species and are presented here. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been associated with many health benefits. Thus, fillets of each species were compared for total EPA plus DHA content, which ranged from 17 mg/100 g (pangasius/swai) to 2430 mg/100 g (Chilean sea bass). Of the top ten most popularly consumed seafoods in the US, finfish, including salmon species (717-1533 mg/100 g), Alaskan pollock (236 mg/100 g), tilapia (76 mg/100 g), channel catfish (44 mg/100 g), Atlantic cod (253 mg/100 g), and pangasius/swai (17 mg/100 g), exhibited a wide concentration range of EPA plus DHA. Large variances were found within many of the farmed species analyzed, which likely stems from dietary differences in the farm-fed diet. The results of this study provide current information on a broad range of species and will help nutritionists and the public make informed decisions regarding seafood consumption.
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A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were developed by substituting 25 and 50% of the fish meal with normal (BSF) or fish offal-enriched black soldier fly (EBSF) prepupae. Dietary fat was adjusted to approximately 20% lipid using fish oil and poultry fat. Diets were fed to three replicate tanks of fish per treatment (10 fish/tank) for 8 wk. After the trial, three fish per tank were sampled for determination of hepatosomatic index, intraperitoneal fat ratio and muscle ratio, and muscle proximate and fatty acid composition. Fish remaining after sampling were used for sensory evaluation. Growth of fish fed the EBSF diets was not significantly different from those fish fed the fish meal-based control diet, while the growth of fish fed the BSF diets was significantly reduced as compared to the control diet. A group of 30 untrained panelists did not detect a significant difference in a blind comparison of fish fed the fish meal containing control diet as compared to fish fed the EBSF or BSF diets.
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The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. From a climate change perspective, the food sector is thought to be the cause of 22 per cent of the global warming potential in the EU. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and unavoidable food waste, and between waste prevention and waste management. This study suggests that the first step towards a more sustainable resolution of the growing food waste issue is to adopt a sustainable production and consumption approach and tackle food surplus and waste throughout the global food supply chain. The authors examine the factors that give rise to food waste throughout the global food supply chain, and propose a framework to identify and prioritize the most appropriate options for the prevention and management of food waste. The proposed framework interprets and applies the waste hierarchy in the context of food waste. It considers the three dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, and social), offering a more holistic approach in addressing the food waste issue. Additionally, it considers the materiality and temporality of food. The food waste hierarchy posits that prevention, through minimization of food surplus and avoidable food waste, is the most attractive option. The second most attractive option involves the distribution of food surplus to groups affected by food poverty, followed by the option of converting food waste to animal feed. Although the proposed food waste hierarchy requires a fundamental re-think of the current practices and systems in place, it has the potential to deliver substantial environmental, social and economic benefits.
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Most published analyses of the fatty acid compositions of insect tissue do not record long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids beyond C18:3. When this is set against recent discoveries of important nutritional and prostaglandinogenic roles for arachidonic and other long-chain polyunsaturates in several insects of diverse taxa, the issue of a possible general occurrence of such material in insects assumes compelling interest. We used gas chromatographic methods to investigate the presence of fatty acids of more than 18 carbon atoms in lipid extracts from whole-animal and specific tissue preparations, and in particular fractions of lipid extracts. Results indicate that such compounds generally occur as a low proportion of the total fatty acids in whole-animal extracts and in neutral acyl fractions. Larger numbers and higher proportions of long-chain fatty acids were detected in extracts of certain tissues and in the phospholipid fractions of whole animal extracts than were found in the unfractionated whole-animal extracts. These findings show that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are a regular component of the tissues of the insects examined and, in the light of their known nutritional, prostaglandinogenic and presumed structural roles are of considerable biological significance.
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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derived from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. DHA, together with arachidonic acid, is the most highly concentrated polyunsaturated fatty acid in the nervous system. It has been suggested that DHA has an important role during the formation and in the function of the nervous system, particularly in the brain. Although the mechanism of action of DHA has not been totally elucidated, it has been suggested a role for the fatty acid at membrane level by regulating its functions, and at the genetic level by the regulation of the expression of some genes involved in the brain function. The content of DHA of the brain has been correlated to the learning ability and the intelligence level of newborn and nursing babies. Several experimental reports in animals and in humans have demonstrated the need for the fatty acid during brain development. The fatty acid, formed from the precursor, supplied by the diet, and from the tissue reservoirs, is provided by the mother to the foetus during the pregnancy and to the newborn through the milk during the lactating period. It has been suggested the need for DHA supplementation during the gestational period, and even before, to secure an adequate supply of the fatty acid for the brain development. DHA supplementation can be provided through oils with high content of the fatty acid, as phospholipids, as ethyl ester derivatives of the fatty acid, or as DHA-containing monoglycerides. The evidence for a role of DHA during the brain development and function, and the relation of the fatty acid with the learning capability and intelligence of newborn babies is discussed. The different ways to supply DHA to the mother during pregnancy and to the newborn during lactation are also discussed.
1.1. The fatty acid compositions of the seven insect orders, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Dictyoptera differ quantitatively in a number of respects with regard to the relative percentages of the commonly occurring fatty acids, myristic, myristoleic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids.2.2. Major characteristics which appear to be taxonomically related include the relatively high levels of palmitoleic acid in dipterous insects and high levels of myristic acid in some families of hemipterous insects. The exceptions are discussed.3.3. The apparent significance of the fatty acid composition, in general, is discussed.
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The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, has the potential to reduce animal waste on livestock facilities and produce an animal-grade feedstuff high in protein and fat. The lipid content of insects is largely dependent on their diet. Data from this study suggest that black soldier fly prepupae incorporate a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapen- taenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) when fish offal is included in their diet. Fly larvae were fed three different proportions of fish offal and cow manure diets over a 21-d trial. An additional group of larvae were fed 22% fish offal diet within 24 h of their pupation. Larvae fed fish offal were, on average, 30% lipid, which was 43% more than the controls fed cow manure only, and approximately 3% of this lipid was omega-3 fatty acids (EPA, DHA, and ALA). Furthermore, this concentration of omega-3 fatty acids was achieved within 24 h of feeding fish offal. These omega-3 fatty-acid-enhanced prepupae may be a suitable fish meal and fish oil replacement for carnivorous fish and other animal diets. In addition, they may provide a method of reducing and recycling fish offal from processing plants.
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The main goal of this work was to find new seed oils rich in γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6) and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) as alternatives to the commercially available oils, such as those from fish and borage. To this end, seeds of selected Boraginaceae species growing wild in the North Africa region (Maghreb) were collected and analyzed. The key finding is that two Echium species have been identified as new sources of valuables fatty acids (FAs): E. sericeum and E. parviflorum, showing 18.3% GLA and 17.3% SDA on total FAs respectively. Both of them could be cultivated to provide functional oils, polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) concentrates or pure FAs, among other uses. It is also noteworthy that the seed oils of Borago officinalis and Echium plantagineum gathered in different locations showed different GLA and SDA percentages, respectively.
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Most omnivorous animals, including humans, have to some degree relied on physiologically important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from food. Only some taxa of microalgae, rather than higher plants can synthesize de novo high amounts of EPA and DHA. Once synthesized by microalgae, PUFA are transferred through trophic chain to organisms of higher levels. Thus, aquatic ecosystems play the unique role in the Biosphere as the principal source of EPA and DHA for most omnivorous animals, including inhabitants of terrestrial ecosystems. PUFA are transferred from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems through riparian predators, drift of carrion and seaweeds, emergence of amphibiotic insects, and water birds. The essential PUFA are transferred through trophic chains with about twice higher efficiency than bulk carbon. Thereby, PUFA are accumulated, rather than diluted in biomass of organisms of higher trophic levels, e.g., in fish. Mankind is faced with a severe deficiency of EPA and DHA in diet. Although additional sources of PUFA supply for humans, such as aquaculture, biotechnology of microorganisms and transgenic terrestrial oil-seed producing plants are developed, natural fish production of aquatic ecosystems will remain one of the main sources of EPA and DHA for humans. Aquatic ecosystems have to be protected from anthropogenic impacts, such as eutrophication, pollution and warming, which reduce PUFA production.
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"Knowledge of the role of fatty acids in determining health and nutritional well-being has expanded dramatically in the past 15 years. In November 2008, an international consultation of experts was convened to consider recent scientific developments, particularly with respect to the role of fatty acids in neonatal and infant growth and development, health maintenance, the prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers and age-related functional decline. This report will be a useful reference for nutrition scientists, medical researchers, designers of public health interventions and food producers."--P. [4] of cover.
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Prostaglandins (PG's), derivatives of certain C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's), feature a five-membered ring that is variously substituted at C9 and C11, and two aliphatic chains. PG's have so far been found in tissues from over a dozen insect species, most often detected by radioimmunoassay, but in some cases verified by rigorous chemical methods. Certain PG's release egg-laying behavior in two cricket species, and to a lesser extent in a moth; however, this is not true for all insects. In the field cricket Teleogryllus commodus (Walker), PG's formed in spermathecae following spermatophore transfer of a PG-synthesizing enzyme complex and precursor PUFA's release a bout of egg-laying that produces hundreds of individually deposited eggs. Insects obtain the PG precursor PUFA's either directly in their diet, or else produce them; three patterns of fatty acid metabolism are described, one of which includes de novo biosynthesis of PUFA's. Work on biochemistry of PG-synthetase activity indicates that certain, but not all, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that inhibit PG synthesis in mammals also inhibit PG synthesis in insect systems.
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Fish industry by-products can account for up to 75% of the catch depending on postharvest or industrial preparation processes. Different terms such as ‘fish waste’, ‘by-product’ and ‘rest raw materials’ have been used. The review gives an overview of value-added processes that provide an alternative to low-profit uses such as silage, fish meal and mince. The preparation of different by-product fractions such as fish blood, marine lipids, omega-3 fatty acids, fish protein fractions and bioactive components with nutraceutical potential, i.e. antioxidants and bioactive peptides, is considered. There are several future opportunities for the preparation of high-value by-products such as enzymes, minerals and other bioactive substances including hydroxyapatite, phosphorus, taurine and creatine. Both regulatory status and future market potential need to be considered. In addition, there is a need for technologies that maintain good quality by-products and ‘simple’ processes to produce bulk products for further refining.
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The importance of biomass as a resource for energy production or as a chemical feedstock will increase significantly in the next decades. The amounts of biomass that can be used for non-food purposes however will be limited and its use will compete with other claims like food and feed production. In order to minimize such food-feed-fuel conflicts it is necessary to integrate all kinds of biowaste into a biomass economy. The food industry in particular might be a good candidate for assessment, since it produces inevitably large amounts of biogenic residues each year. The possibilities to use food processing residues for non-food purposes like bioenergy, biomaterial production, chemical feedstock or as animal feed are therefore discussed in more detail in this paper. It is shown that food processing residues represent a small but valuable biomass fraction that can be exploited in numerous ways. The most promising approach appears to be to design new microbial bioconversion processes as part of more complex biorefinery concepts.
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Total lipid content and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of six species of insects (mole cricket, ground cricket, spur-throated grasshopper, giant water bug, true water beetle and water scavenger beetle) were determined. The total PUFA ranged from 726 mg/100 g in water scavenger beetle to 2883 mg/100 g in ground cricket; 18:2n-6 was the major PUFA in most insects, except in spur-throated grasshopper where the predominant PUFA was 18:3n-3. The C20 PUFA, 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 were only found in aquicolous species, 149 and 57 mg/100 g in water scavenger beetle, 233 and 92 mg/100 g in true water beetle, and 569 and 264 mg/100 g in giant water bug, respectively. Total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content ranged from 714 mg/100 g in water scavenger beetle to 5889 mg/100 g in giant water bug; total saturated fatty acid (SFA) content ranged from 653 mg/100 g in water scavenger beetle to 5432 mg/100 g in giant water bug. The major MUFA in all insects was 18:1 and predominant SFA was 16:0. Results also showed the ratios of n-6/n-3 ranged from 0.3 in spur-throated grasshopper to 31 in mole cricket. The aquicolous edible insects may be an alternative source of C20 long-chain PUFA.
Article
Willett WC (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA). Dietary fats and coronary heart disease (Review). J Intern Med 2012; 272: 13–24. The relation of dietary fat to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been studied extensively using many approaches, including controlled feeding studies with surrogate end-points such as plasma lipids, limited randomized trials and large cohort studies. All lines of evidence indicate that specific dietary fatty acids play important roles in the cause and the prevention of CHD, but total fat as a percent of energy is unimportant. Trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have clear adverse effects and should be eliminated. Modest reductions in CHD rates by further decreases in saturated fat are possible if saturated fat is replaced by a combination of poly- and mono-unsaturated fat, and the benefits of polyunsaturated fat appear strongest. However, little or no benefit is likely if saturated fat is replaced by carbohydrate, but this will in part depend on the form of carbohydrate. Because both N-6 and N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential and reduce risk of heart disease, the ratio of N-6 to N-3 is not useful and can be misleading. In practice, reducing red meat and dairy products in a food supply and increasing intakes of nuts, fish, soy products and nonhydrogenated vegetable oils will improve the mix of fatty acids and have a markedly beneficial effect on rates of CHD.
The de novo biosynthesis of linoleic acid was demonstrated in 8 of the 32 insect species examined, which include members of three orders and encompass both holometabolous and hemimetabolous species. The incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into linoleate was demonstrated by radio-GLC, and in selected species by radio-HPLC, silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography, radio-GLC and GLC linked to mass spectrometry of ozonolysis products. In most of the species which synthesized linoleate, there was a time-dependent increase in the incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into linoleate from 2 to 24 h, and most of the labeled linoleate was recovered in the phospholipid fraction. There was no readily discernable evolutionary, physiological or nutritional pattern in the ability of certain species to synthesize linoleate.
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The popularity of low- and reduced-fat foods has increased as consumers seek to decrease their energy consumption. Fat replacers may be used in fat-reduced products to maintain their sensory properties. However, these ingredients have been largely formulated to replicate nongustatory properties of fats to foods and have only achieved moderate success. There is increasing evidence that fats also activate the taste system and