What is it like to grow old in Turkey, a country at the crossroads of developed and developing societies and a country situated in a dynamically changing area of the world? The distinguished scientists, clinicians and scholars who have contributed to this text provide a comprehensive overview of Population Ageing in Turkey: Health and social care services for older persons all come from centres of research and learning throughout Turkey. They work in disciplines directly involved in all aspects of dealing with the complications of older persons. The coverage provides a valuable source of information concerning the resources and deficits present in Turkey at this time. The editors, Marvin Formosa and Yeşim Gökçe Kutsal, are themselves recognized authorities in these areas. They have organized the material in a logical sequence to ensure coverage of the reality of growing old in Turkey. Each chapter provides definitions of terms specific to that discipline so that the material covered is meaningful and accessible to specialists as well as non-specialists in the different areas. As such, the book is a resource for all regarding the particular areas discussed.
Gelişmiş Batılı ülkelerde nüfusun yaşlandığı saptanmakta, bu eğilimin devam etmesi durumunda yaşlılık sorununun önemli boyutlara varacağı beklenmektedir. Teknolojik ve sosyal gelişmelerle birlikte doğum ve ölüm oranlarında meydana gelen azalmalar, yaşlılığın toplam nüfus içerisindeki oranını yükseltmiş, başka bir deyişle nüfus yaşlanmıştır. Her ne kadar ülkemizdeki bu oran. Batı ülkelerindeki eğilimlere kıyasla çok daha düşük olsa da, 3.5 milyona yaklaşan sayılarıyla yaşlılar, ülkemizde önemli bir sosyal kesimi oluşturmaktadırlar. Ayrıca yaşlı nüfusun toplam nüfusa oranı, son yıllarda Türkiye'de de giderek artmaktadır. Nüfusun yaşlanması ve yaşlı nüfusun üretken nüfusa bağımlılığının toplumsal, ekonomik, kültürel ve siyasi sorunlar yaratabileceği kaygısı, toplumda yaşlı kesimler için gerekli sosyal politikalar üretme çabalarına olan ihtiyacı giderek artırmaktadır. Ancak bu ihtiyacın sağlıklı bir şekilde tespit edilebilmesi için, önce yaşlılık alanının kendine özgü dinamiklerinin ve sorunlarının bilimsel yöntemlerle analiz edilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu bağlamda bu proje, ülkemizdeki yaşlı nüfusun hem yaşam aranjmanlarını hem de ekonomik, sosyal ve kültürel yaşam örüntülerini Ankara İli içerisinde yapılan niteliksel bir araştırmanın bulguları ışığında betimlemeyi hedeflemektedir.
Aging and Alzheimer is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study involving 2944 adults aged ≥65 years from selected areas in Cuba’s Havana and Matanzas Provinces. This door-to-door study, which began in 2003, includes periodic assessments of the cohort based on an interview; physical exam; anthropometric measurements; and diagnosis of dementia and its subtypes, other mental disorders, and other chronic non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. Information was gathered on sociodemographic characteristics; disability, dependency and frailty; use of health services; and characteristics of care and caregiver burden. The first assessment also included blood tests: complete blood count, blood glucose, kidney and liver function, lipid profile and ApoE4 genotype (a susceptibility marker). In 2007–2011, the second assessment was done of 2010 study subjects aged ≥65 years who were still alive. The study provides data on prevalence and incidence of dementia and its risk factors, and of related conditions that affect the health of older adults. It also contributes valuable experiences from field work and interactions with older adults and their families. Building on lessons learned, a third assessment to be done in 2016–2018 will incorporate a community intervention strategy to respond to diseases and conditions that predispose to dementia, frailty and dependency in older adults.
Suicide is defined as an individual taking action towards themselves with the intention of terminating their own life. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 800,000 deaths per year worldwide are due to suicide. In 2012, suicide cases constituted 1.4% of all the deaths worldwide. In most countries throughout the world, the suicide rates of the elderly are higher than those of other age groups. Epidemiological studies have concluded that suicide rates increase with advancing age in all societies, this increase accelerates after the age of 65 years and the highest rates are reached after the age of 75 years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic features, suicide methods and reasons for suicide in geriatric suicide cases between 2009 and 2013 using the data of the Turkish Statistics Institute (TUIK).
Material and methods:
A retrospective evaluation was made of the TUIK data related to proven suicide cases aged 65 years and older in the 5-year period of 2009-2013.
A total of 1723 geriatric suicides were determined in Turkey between 2009 and 2013. These comprised 1284 (74.5%) males and 439 (25.5%) females, showing a rate of males approximately 3 times higher than that of females. An increase of approximately 10% was seen in the deaths by suicide in 2013 compared to 2009. The highest rate of geriatric suicides within total geriatric deaths was observed to be in 2012 (15.2%) and the lowest rate was in 2010 (12.4%). The most common method of suicide in both genders was hanging. In the majority of cases of geriatric suicide of both genders, the reason could not be determined. In those cases where the reason was known, the most common reason was illness.
It has been reported that the most significant factors in suicide prevention are friends and family. As there continues to be an extensive family structure and family connections are strong in Turkey, this can be considered to be one of the reasons for lower rates of geriatric suicide compared to other countries. As there is a strong adherence to Islam in Turkey, another significant reason for the low rate could be the effect of the belief that suicide is a sin in the Islamic religion.
Introduction: The main purpose of this research is develop the Turkish version of the BNT long form (consist of 60 items) [BNT-60 (TR)] and to determine the normative data for Turkish healthy geriatric population. BNT is a neuropsychological test which was widely used to measure naming disorders associated with a variety of neuropathological events. This research consists of two stages. In the stage of pilot study, adaptation of test was completed and BNT-60 (TR) version was developed; and in the stage of normative study, normative data was collected and norm determination was completed. Methods: Ninety healthy and volunteer elderly were participated in pilot study and 317 were in normative study. Three screening tests called Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA), Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were administered for participant selection. BNT-60 (TR) was applied to participants who meet the inclusion criteria. Results: According to 5 (age) x 2 (gender) x 3 (education) factorial ANOVA results, main effects of age and education level on BNT-60 (TR) total score were found statistically significant. Then according to MANOVA results, main effects of age and education level on BNT-60 (TR) sub-scores were found statistically significant. On the other hand, main effect of gender was not significant on BNT-60 (TR) scores. The age and BNT-60 (TR) total score were negatively correlated. This results consistent with other normative studies of BNT in the literature. Conclusion: Finally, BNT-60 (TR) is adopted for Turkish culture, determined normative data and a test which is evaluating naming ability of the older adults was put into use.
Elderly people constitutes a specific group of the population and the proportion of elderly in the population is increasing. This increase causes an increase in a variety of health problems such as chronic diseases. Better life at aging, requires prevention of many chronic diseases. Therefore initiatives should be planned to protect elderly population from these diseases. One of the most important prevention strategies is routine screening. Diseases that can be diagnosed at early stage in the elderly are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, bone metabolism diseases, cognitive dysfunction and nutritional problems. There are some recommended screening programs also for these diseases. The elderly admitted to health institutions should be periodically examined for these diseases. During this examination, increased problems related with aging and their solutions should be explained to elderly and their relatives. In this way, protection of these diseases should be provided and secondary events related with these diseases like disability, dependence or premature deaths can be minimized.
As human life expectancy rises, the aged population will increase. Aging is accompanied by changes in tissue structure, often resulting in functional decline. For example, aging within blood vessels contributes to a decrease in blood flow to important organs, potentially leading to organ atrophy and loss of function. In the central nervous system, cerebral vascular aging can lead to loss of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, eventually resulting in cognitive and sensorimotor decline. One of the major of types of cognitive dysfunction due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). In spite of recent progress in clinical and experimental VCID research, our understanding of vascular contributions to the pathogenesis of VCID is still very limited. In this review, we summarize recent findings on VCID, with a focus on vascular age-related pathologies and their contribution to the development of this condition.
Although public health is often conceptualized only as the prevention of physical illness, recent data suggest that mental illnesses are increasingly relevant to the mission of disease prevention and health promotion. Projections are that by 2020, depression will be second only to heart disease in its contribution to the global burden of disease as measured by disability-adjusted life years. Also, as the population ages, successive cohorts of older adults will account for increasingly larger segments of the U.S. population. We present the diagnostic criteria for, prevalence of, and risk factors for depressive disorders among older adults; the challenges of recognizing and treating depression in this population; the cost-effectiveness of relevant public health interventions; and the public health implications of these disorders.