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A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security

and Network
Nicholas J. Daras
Michael Th. Rassias Editors
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence
Framework for Cyber Security
Konstantinos Demertzis and Lazaros Iliadis
Abstract Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability of Military information is a
crucial and critical factor for a country’s national security. The security of military
information systems (MIS) and Networks (MNET) is a subject of continuous
research and design, due to the fact that they manage, store, manipulate, and
distribute the information. This study presents a bio-inspired hybrid artificial
intelligence framework for cyber security (bioHAIFCS). This framework combines
timely and bio-inspired Machine Learning methods suitable for the protection of
critical network applications, namely military information systems, applications and
networks. More specifically, it combines (a) the hybrid evolving spiking anomaly
detection model (HESADM), which is used in order to prevent in time and accu-
rately, cyber-attacks, which cannot be avoided by using passive security measures,
namely: Firewalls, (b) the evolving computational intelligence system for malware
detection (ECISMD) that spots and isolates malwares located in packed executables
untraceable by antivirus, and (c) the evolutionary prevention system from SQL
injection (ePSSQLI) attacks, which early and smartly forecasts the attacks using
SQL Injections methods.
1 Introduction
Application of high protection level measures by the army, in order to secure its
information systems (IS), can offer a serious advantage in the evolution of a crisis,
in tactical and operational level. It is a fact that the necessity to ensure secrecy
of military IS and Confidentiality of information control and management systems
(C4I) is a critical stabilization factor between opposite forces and a matter of honor
for each side. The opposite can have serious consequences difficult to estimate in
terms of material or moral cost. Thus, the development of network security systems
following military specifications and demands is absolutely necessary. They could
combine smart techniques capable of preventing attacks of zero-day nature.
K. Demertzis () • L. Iliadis
Department of Forestry & Management of the Environment & Natural Resources,
Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi 671 00, Greece
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015
N.J. Daras, M.Th. Rassias (eds.), Computation, Cryptography,
and Network Security, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-18275-9_7
162 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
The most popular attack techniques aiming to gain access in important or
sensitive data use one of the methods below:
Direct invasion to the system with attacks of DoS,
Dispersion and installation of malware software
Exploitation of potential weaknesses in the security of the system and mainly
in the security of the network applications with attacks of SQL Injections type.
In the case of direct attack in a network, the usual security measures are the
installation of a Firewall, in order to prevent non-authorized access in certain
services and the installation of an intrusion detection system (IDS). The IDS are
network and event monitoring and analysis systems. The target is to spot indications
of potential intrusion efforts or efforts aiming to deviate the security mechanisms by
external non-authorized users or users with limited authorization. The protection in
this case is based on passive measures that use statistical analysis of events. There
are network based (NIDS) and host based (HIDS) IDSs. Some of them are looking
for specific signatures of known threats, whereas others are spotting anomalies by
comparing traffic patterns against a baseline [1].
There are three basic approaches for designing and building IDS, namely: the
Statistical, the Knowledge based, and the Machine Learning one which has been
employed in this research effort. The concept of the statistical-based systems (SBID)
is simple: it determines “normal” network activity and then all traffic that falls
outside the scope of normal is flagged as anomalous (abnormal). These systems
attempt to learn network traffic patterns on a particular network. This process of
traffic analysis continues as long as the system is active, so, assuming network
traffic patterns remain constant, the longer the system is on the network, the more
accurate it becomes. The knowledge based intrusion detection systems (KBIDES)
classify the data vectors based on a carefully designed Rule Set or they use models
obtained from past experience in a heuristic mode. The Machine Learning approach
automates the analysis of the data vectors, and they result in the implementation of
systems that have the capacity to improve their performance as time passes.
This research effort aims in the development and application of an innovative
hybrid evolving spiking anomaly detection model (HESADM) [2], which employs
classification performed by evolving spiking neural networks (eSNN), in order to
properly label a potential anomaly (PAN) in the net. On the other hand, it uses a
multi-layer feed forward (MLFF) ANN to classify the exact type of the intrusion.
The second attack approach is the dispersion and installation of malwares which
are untraceable by the usual antivirus systems. Malware is a kind of software
used to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to
private computer systems. To identify already known malware, existing commercial
security applications search a computer’s binary files for predefined signatures.
However, obfuscated viruses use software packers to protect their internal code
and data structures from detection. Antivirus scanners act like file filters, inspecting
suspicious file loading and storing activities. Malicious programs with obfuscated
content can bypass antivirus scanners. Eventually, they are unpacked and executed
in the victim’s system [3].
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 163
Code packing is the dominant technique used to obfuscate malicious code, to
hinder an analyst’s understanding of the malware’s intent and to evade detection
by Antivirus systems. Malware developers transform executable code into data, at
a post-processing stage in the whole implementation cycle. This transformation
uses static analysis and it may perform compression or encryption, hindering an
analyst’s understanding. At runtime, the data or hidden code is restored to its
original executable form, through dynamic code generation using an associated
restoration routine. Execution then resumes as normal to the original entry point,
which marks the entry point of the original malware, before the code packing
transformation is applied. Finally, execution becomes transparent, as both code
packing and restoration have been performed. After the restoration of one packing,
control may transfer another packed layer. The original entry point is derived from
the last such layer [4].
Code packing provides compression and software protection of the intellectual
properties contained in a program. It is not necessarily advantageous to flag all
occurrences of code packing as indicative of malicious activity. It is advisable to
determine if the packed contents are malicious, rather than identifying only the fact
that unknown contents are packed. Unpacking is the process of stripping the packer
layers off packed executables to restore the original contents in order to inspect
and analyze the original executable signatures. Universal unpackers, introduce a
high computational overhead, low convergence speed, and computational resource
requirements. The processing time may vary from tens of seconds to several minutes
per executable. This hinders virus detection significantly, since without a priori
knowledge on the nature of the executables to be checked for malicious code all
of them would need to be run through the unpacker. Scanning large collections of
executables may take hours or days. This research effort aims in the development
and application of an innovative, fast, and accurate evolving computational intelli-
gence system for malware detection (ECISMD) [5] approach for the identification
of packed executables and detection of malware by employing eSNN. A multilayer
evolving classification function (ECF) model has been employed for malware
detection, which is based on fuzzy clustering. Finally, an evolutionary genetic
algorithm (GA) has been applied to optimize the ECF network and to perform
feature extraction on the training and testing datasets. A main advantage of ECISMD
is the fact that it reduces overhead and overall analysis time, by classifying packed
or not packed executables.
The third way widely used to overcome the security measures by exploiting
the gaps in the control systems is the SQL injections one. This approach tries to
exploit vulnerabilities in the security of network applications. SQL injection is a
code injection technique, used to attack datadriven applications, in which malicious
SQL statements area SQL injection attack consists of insertion or “injection” of a
SQL query via the input data from the client to the application. A successful SQL
injection exploit can read sensitive data from the database, modify database data
(Insert/Update/Delete), execute administration operations on the database (such as
shutdown the DBMS), recover the content of a given file present on the DBMS file
system, and in some cases issue commands to the operating system. SQL injection
164 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
attacks are a type of injection attack, in which SQL commands are injected into
data-plane input in order to effect the execution of predefined SQL commands [6].
This study proposes a bio-inspired Artificial Intelligence model named evolutionary
prevention system from SQL injection (ePSSQLI) Αttacks. It combines the use
of MLFF ANN with optimization techniques of genetic algorithms (evolutionary
optimization), in order to handle the potential intrusion attacks, based on SQL
injection type.
2 Literature Review
Artificial Intelligence and data mining algorithms have been applied as intrusion
detection methods in finding new intrusion patterns [710], such as clustering
(unsupervised learning) [1113] or classification (supervised learning) [1417].
Also, a few hybrid techniques were proposed like Neural Networks with Genetic
Algorithms [18] or Radial Based Function Neural Networks with Multilayer
Perceptron [19,20]. Besides, other very effective methods exist such as Sequential
Detection [21], State Space [22], Spectral Methods [23], and combinations of those.
Dynamic unpacking approaches monitor the execution of a binary in order
to extract its actual code. These methods execute the samples inside an isolated
environment that can be deployed as a virtual machine or an emulator [24].
The execution is traced and stopped when certain events occur. Several dynamic
unpackers use heuristics to determine the exact point where the execution jumps
from the unpacking routine to the original code. Once this point is reached, the
memory content is bulk to obtain an unpacked version of the malicious code. Other
approaches for generic dynamic unpacking have been proposed that are not highly
based on heuristics such as PolyUnpack [25]Renovo[26], OmniUnpack [27], or
Eureka [28].
However, these methods are very tedious and time consuming, and cannot
counter conditional execution of unpacking routines, a technique used for anti-
debugging and anti-monitoring defense [29]. Another common approach is using
the structural information of the executables to train supervised machine-learning
classifiers to determine if the sample under analysis is packed or if it is suspicious
of containing malicious code (e.g., PEMiner [30], PE-Probe [31], and Perdisci et al.
[32]). These approaches that use this method for filtering, previous to dynamic
unpacking, are computationally more expensive and time consuming and less
effective to analyze large sets of mixed malicious and benign executables [3335].
Artificial Intelligence and data mining algorithms have been applied as malicious
detection methods and for the discovery of new malware patterns [36]. In the
research effort of Babar and Khalid [29], boosted decision trees working on n-grams
are found to produce better results than Naive Bayes classifiers and support vector
machines (SVMs). Ye et al. [37] use automatic extraction of association rules
on Windows API execution sequences to distinguish between malware and clean
program files. Chandrasekaran et al. [38] used association rules, on honeytokens
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 165
of known parameters. Chouchan et al. [39] used Hidden Markov Models to detect
whether a givenprogram file is (or is not) a variant ofa previous program file. Stamp
et al. [40] employ profile hidden Markov Models, which have been previously used
for sequence analysis in bioinformatics. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to detect
polymorphic malware is explored in [41]. Yoo [42] employs Self-Organizing Maps
to identify patterns of behavior for viruses in Windows executable files. These
methods have low accuracy as a consequence, packed benign executables would
likely cause false alarm, whereas malware may remain undetected.
Vulnerability pattern approach is used by Livshits et al. [43], they propose static
analysis approach for finding the SQL injection attack. The main issue of this
method is that it cannot detect the SQL injection attack patterns that are not known
beforehand. Also, AMNESIA mechanism to prevent SQL injection at run time is
proposed by Halfond et al. [44]. It uses a model based approach to detect illegal
queries before it sends for execution to database. The mechanism which filters
the SQL Injection in a static manner is proposed by Buehrer et al. [45]. The SQL
statements by comparing the parse tree of a SQL statement before and after input
and only allowing to SQL statements to execute if the parse trees match. Marco
Cova et al. [46] proposed a Swaddler, which analyzes the internal state of a web
application and learns the relationships between the application’s critical execution
points and the application’s internal state.
There exists machine learning related works in the wild [4751]. In this work
we focus on the detection at the spot between application and database, detecting
anomalous SQL statements (the SQL statement returns a result set of records from
one or more tables), which are malicious in the sense that they include parts of
injected code or differ from the set of queries usually issued within an application.
Valeur et al. [52] proposed the use of an IDS based on a machine learning technique
which identifies queries that do not match multiple models of typical queries at
runtime, including string model and data type-independent model. It is trained by
a set of typical application queries, and the quality depends on the quality of the
training set. Wang et al. presented a novel method for learning SQL statements
and apply machine learning techniques, such as one class classification, in order to
detect malicious behavior between the database and application [53]. The approach
incorporates the tree structure of SQL queries as well as input parameter and
query value similarity as characteristic to distinguish malicious from benign queries.
Rawat et al. use SVM for classification and prediction of SQL-Injection attack [54].
This work contains the idea that compares SQL query strings and blocks suspicious
SQL-query and passes original SQL-query. Huang et al. present a new method
to prevent SQLI attack based on machine learning [55]. This approach identifies
SQL injection codes by HTTP parameters’ attributes and the Bayesian classifier.
This technique depends on the choices of patterns’ attributes and the quality of the
training set. They choose two values as attributes of patterns, and invent a way to
generate the real-world patterns automatically. In addition Huang et al. designed
a system based on machine learning for preventing SQL injection attack, which
utilizes pattern classifiers to detect injection attacks and protect web applications
[56]. The system captures parameters of HTTP requests, and converts them into
166 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
numeric attributes. Numeric attributes include the length of parameters and the
number of keywords of parameters. Using these attributes, the system classifies
the parameters by Bayesian classifier for judging whether parameters are injection
3 Methodologies Comprising the bioHAIFCS
The bioHAIFCS uses three biologically inspired Artificial Intelligence methods,
namely: eSNN, MLFF, and ECF and their corresponding optimization approach
with GA, in order to create a high level security framework. It acts in a smart
and preemptive manner to spot the threats by making the minimum consumption of
resources. These methods are presented below:
3.1 Evolving Spiking Neural Networks
The eSNN that has been developed and discussed herein is based on the “Thorpe”
neural model [57] which intensifies the importance of the spikes taking place in
an earlier moment, whereas the neural plasticity is used to monitor the learning
algorithm by using one-pass learning.In order to classify real-valued data sets, each
data sample is mapped into a sequence of spikes using the rank order population
encoding (ROPE) technique [58,59]. The topology of the developed eSNN is strictly
feed-forward, organized in several layers and weight modification occurs on the
connections between the neurons of the existing layers.
The details of eSNN architecture described below:
3.1.1 Rank Order Population Encoding
The ROPE method [58,59] is an alternative to conventional rate coding scheme
that uses the order of firing neuron’s inputs to encode information which allows
the mapping of vectors of real-valued elements into a sequence of spikes. Neurons
organized into neuronal maps which share the same synaptic weights. Whenever
the synaptic weight of a neuron is modified, the same modification is applied to the
entire population of neurons within the map. Inhibition is also present between each
neuronal map. If a neuron spikes, it inhibits all the neurons in the other maps with
neighboring positions. This prevents all the neurons from learning the same pattern.
When propagating new information, neuronal activity is initially reset to zero. Then,
as the propagation goes on, neurons are progressively desensitized each time one of
their inputs fires, thus making neuronal responses dependent upon the relative order
of firing of the neuron’s afferents. More precisely, let A D{a1,a
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 167
the ensemble of afferent neurons of neuron i and W ={w1,i,w
the weights of the m corresponding connections; let mod 2[0,1] be an arbitrary
modulation factor. The activation level of neuron i at time t is given by Eq.(1):
Activation(i,t) DX
modorder(aj) wj,i (1)
where order(aj)isthefiringrankofneurona
jin the ensemble A. By convention,
order(aj)DC8 if a neuron ajis not fired at time t, sets the corresponding term in
the above sum to zero. This kind of desensitization function could correspond to
a fast shunting inhibition mechanism. Whenever a neuron reaches its threshold, it
spikes and inhibits neurons at equivalent positions in the other maps so that only
one neuron will respond at any particular location. Every spike also triggers a time
based Hebbian-like learning rule that adjusts the synaptic weights. Let tebe the date
of arrival of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) at synapse of weight W
and tathe date of discharge of the postsynaptic neuron.
if te<t
athen dW = a(1-W)e-| o| (2)
else dW = -aWe-| o|
where o is the difference between the date of the EPSP and the date of the neuronal
discharge (expressed in terms of order of arrival instead of time), as is a constantthat
controls the amount of synaptic potentiation and depression [58].
ROPE technique with receptive fields allows the encoding of continuous values
by using a collection of neurons with overlapping sensitivity profiles [60]. Each
input variable is encoded independently by a group of one-dimensional receptive
fields (Fig. 2). For a variable n, an interval [ In
max] is defined. The Gaussian
receptive field of neuron i is given by its center i:
min +2i-3
max -I
M-2 (3)
The width is given by Eq. (4):
max -I
M-2 (4)
where 1ˇ2 and the parameter ˇdirectly controls the width of each Gaussian
receptive field.
Figure 1depicts an example encoding of a single variable. For the diagram
(ˇD2) the input interval [ In
min, In
max]wassetto[1.5, 1.5] and MD5 receptive
fields were used. For an input value vD0.75 (thick straight line in left figure) the
intersection points with each Gaussian is computed (triangles), which are in turn
translated into spike time delays (right figure).
168 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
Fig. 1 The evolving spiking
neural network (eSNN)
architecture [23]
evolving neuron
Class 1
Class 2
Firing Time
-2 -1 0
Input Interval
Neuron ID
Receptive Fields
Input Value
Fig. 2 Population encoding based on Gaussian receptive fields [23]
3.1.2 One-Pass Learning
The aim of the one-pass learning method is to create a repository of trained output
neurons during the presentation of training samples. After presenting a certain input
sample to the network, the corresponding spike train is propagated through the
SANN which may result in the firing of certain output neurons. It is also possible
that no output neuron is activated and in this case the network remains silent and
the classification result is undetermined. If one or more output neurons have emitted
a spike, the neuron with the shortest response time among all activated output
neurons is determined. The label of this neuron represents the classification result
for the presented input sample. The procedure is described in detail in the following
Algorithm 1[23,60](Fig.2).
For each training sample i with class label l 2L a new output neuron is created
and fully connected to the previous layer of neurons resulting in a real-valued weight
vector w.i/with w.i/
j2R denoting the connection between the pre-synaptic neuron j
and the created neuron i. In the next step, the input spikes are propagated through
the network and the value of weight w.i/
jis computed according to the order of spike
transmission through a synapse j: w(i)
j=(ml)order(j),8jjj pre-synaptic neuron of i.
Parameter mlis the modulation factor of the Thorpe neural model. Differently
labeled output neurons may have different modulation factors ml. Function order(j)
represents the rank of the spike emitted by neuron j. The firing threshold .i/of the
created neuron I is defined as the fraction cl2R, 0 < cl< 1, of the maximal possible
potential u.i/
max :
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 169
Algorithm 1 Training an Evolving Spiking Neural Network (eSNN) [23]
Require: ml,sl,clfor a class label l2L
1: initialize neuron repository Rl={}
2: for al l samples X.i/belonging to class l do
3: w(i)
j (ml)order(j),8j | j pre-synaptic neuron of i
4: u(i)
max Pjw(i)
5: (i) clu(i)
6: if min(d( w.i/,w.k/)) < sl,w.k/2Rlthen
7: w(k) merge w(i) and w(k) according to Eq. (6)
8: (k) merge (i) and (k) according to Eq. (7)
9: else
10: Rl Rl[\\{w(i)\\}
11: end if
12: end for
.i/ clu.i/
max (5)
max X
j(ml)order(j) (6)
The fraction clis a parameter of the model and for each class label l 2L
a different fraction can be specified. The weight vector of the trained neuron
is then compared to the weights corresponding to neurons already stored in the
repository. Two neurons are considered too “similar” if the minimal Euclidean
distance between their weight vectors is smaller than a specified similarity threshold
sl(the eSNN object uses optimal similarity threshold sD0.6). All parameters
modulation factor ml, similarity threshold sl, PSP fraction cl,l 2LofESNNwhich
were included in this search space, are optimized according to the versatile quantum-
inspired evolutionary algorithm (vQEA) [61]. In this case, both the firing thresholds
and the weight vectors are merged according to Eqs. (7)and(8):
j w(i)
1+N ;8j | j pre-synaptic neuron of i (7)
.k/ .i/+N.k/
1+N (8)
It must be clarified that integer N denotes the number of samples previously used
to update neuron k. The merging is implemented as the (running) average of the
connection weights, and the (running) average of the two firing thresholds. After
the merging, the trained neuron i is discarded and the next sample processed. If no
other neuron in the repository is similar to the trained neuron i, the neuron i is added
to the repository as a new output neuron.
170 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
3.2 Multilayer Feed-Forward Neural Network
Artificial neural networks are biologically inspired classification algorithms that
consist of an input layer of nodes, one or more hidden layers, and an output layer.
Each node in a layer has one corresponding node in the next layer, thus creating the
stacking effect [62]. Artificial neural networks are the very versatile tools and have
been widely used to tackle many issues [6367].
Feed-forward neural networks (FNN) are one of the popular structures among
artificial neural networks. These efficient networks are widely used to solve complex
problems by modeling complex input–outputrelationships [68,69]. Each neuron in
one layer has directed connections to the neurons of the subsequent layer. In many
applications the units of these networks apply a sigmoid function as an activation
The universal approximation theorem for neural networks states that every
continuous function that maps intervals of real numbers to some output interval
of real numbers can be approximated arbitrarily closely by a multi-layer perceptron
with just one hidden layer. This result holds only for restricted classes of activation
functions, e.g. for the sigmoidal functions.
Feed-forward networks often have one or more hidden layers of sigmoid neurons
followed by an output layer of linear neurons. Multiple layers of neurons with
nonlinear transfer functions allow the network to learn nonlinear relationships
between input and output vectors. The linear output layer is most often used for
function fitting (or nonlinear regression) problems.
Multi-layer networks use a variety of learning techniques, the most popular being
back-propagation. Here, the output values are compared with the correct answer to
compute the value of some predefined error-function. By various techniques, the
error is then fed back through the network. Using this information, the algorithm
adjusts the weights of each connection in order to reduce the value of the error
function by some small amount. After repeating this process for a sufficiently large
number of training cycles, the network will usually converge to some state where
the error of the calculations is small. In this case, one would say that the network
has learned a certain target function. To adjust weights properly, one applies a
general method for nonlinear optimization that is called gradient descent. For this,
the derivativeof the error function with respect to the network weights is calculated,
and the weights are then changed such that the error decreases (thus going downhill
on the surface of the error function).
3.3 Evolving Connectionist Systems
Evolving connectionist systems (ECOS) [70] are multi-modular, connectionist ar-
chitectures that facilitate modeling of evolving processes and knowledge discovery
[60]. An ECOS may consist of many evolving connectionist modules. An ECOS
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 171
Input Hidden Layer Output Layer
a1= tansig (IW1,1p1 +b1) a2= purelin (LW2,1a1 +b2)
24 3
4 x 1
4 x 1
4 x 1
3 x 4
3 x 1
3 x 1
3 x 1
4 x 2
2 x 1 IW1,1 LW2,1
Fig. 3 Architecture of the multilayer feed-forward artificial neural network (http://www.
is a neural network that operates continuously in time and adapts its structure and
functionality through a continuous interaction with the environment and with other
systems according to:
a set of parameters that are subject to change during the system operation;
an incoming continuous flow of information with unknown distribution;
• a goal (rational) criterion (also subject to modification) that is applied to
optimize the performance of the system over time.
The ECOS evolve in an open space, using constructive processes, not necessarily of
fixed dimensions. Moreover, they learn in on-line incremental fast mode, possibly
through one pass of data propagation. Life-long learning is a main attribute of this
procedure. They operate as both individual systems and as part of an evolutionary
population of such systems. They learn locally and locally partition the problem
space, thus allowing for a fast adaptation and tracing processes over time. They
facilitate different kinds of knowledge representation and extraction, mostly—
memory based statistical and symbolic knowledge [60,71,72](Fig.3).
ECOS are connectionist structures that evolve their nodes (neurons) and connec-
tions through supervised incremental learning from input–output data pairs.
Their architecture comprises of five layers: input nodes, representing input
variables; input fuzzy membership nodes, representing the membership degrees
of the input values to each of the defined membership functions; rule nodes,
representing cluster centers of samples in the problem space and their associated
output function; output fuzzy membership nodes, representing the membership
degrees to which the output values belong to defined membership functions; and
output nodes, representing output variables [60,71,72].
ECOS learn local models from data through clustering of the data and associating
a local output function for each cluster. Rule nodes evolve from the input data
stream to cluster the data, and the first layer W1 connection weights of these nodes
represent the coordinates of the nodes in the input space. The second layer W2
represents the local models (functions) allocated to each of the clusters.
172 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
Clusters of data are created based on similarity between data samples either in
the input space or in both the input space and the output space. Samples that have
a distance to an existing cluster center (rule node) N of less than a threshold Rmax
are allocated to the same cluster Nc. Samples that do not fit into existing clusters
form new clusters as they arrive in time. Cluster centers are continuously adjusted
according to new data samples and new clusters are created incrementally. The
similarity between a sample S D(x, y) and an existing rule node N D(W1, W2)
can be measured in different ways, the most popular of them being the normalized
Euclidean distance:
where n is the number of the input variables.
ECOS learn from data and automatically create a local output function for each
cluster, the function being represented in the W2 connection weights, thus creating
local models. Each model is represented as a local rule with an antecedent—the
cluster area, and a consequent—the output function applied to data in this cluster.
The following is a corresponding example of such a local Rule:
IF (data is in cluster Nc), THEN (the output is calculated with a function Fc)
In the case of DENFIS [32], first order local fuzzy rule models are derived
incrementally from data. The following rule is a characteristic example:
IF (the value of x1 is in the area defined by a Gaussian function with a center at
0.7 and a standard deviation of 0.1) AND (the value of x2 is in the area defined
by a Gaussian function with a center at 0.5 and a deviation of 0.2), THEN (the
output value y is calculated with the use of the formula y= 3.7 + 0.5x14.2x2).
3.3.1 Evolving Classification Function
ECF, a special case of ECOS used for pattern classification, generates rule nodes
in an N dimensional input space and associate them with classes. Each rule node is
defined with its center, radius (influence field), and the class it belongsto. A learning
mechanism is designed in such a way that the nodes can be generated.
The ECF model used here is a connectionist system for classification tasks
that consists of four layers of neurons (nodes). The first layer represents the
input variables; the second layer—the fuzzy membership functions; the third layer
represents clusters centers (prototypes) of data in the input space; and the fourth
layer represents classes [60,7072].
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 173
3.4 Genetic Algorithm
The genetic algorithm (GA) is a method for solving both constrained and
unconstrained optimization problems that is based on natural selection, the
process that drives biological evolution ( The GA
repeatedly modifies a population of individual solutions. At each step, the GA
selects individuals at random from the current population to be parents and uses
them to produce the children for the next generation. Over successive generations,
the population “evolves” toward an optimal solution. You can apply the GA to
solve a variety of optimization problems that are not well suited for standard
optimization algorithms, including problems in which the objective function is
discontinuous, nondifferentiable, stochastic, or highly nonlinear. Also the GA can
address problems of mixed integer programming, where some components are
restricted to be integer-valued.
The GA uses three main types of rules at each step to create the next generation
from the current population:
• Selection rules select the individuals, called parents, that contribute to the
population at the next generation.
Crossover rules combine two parents to form children for the next generation.
Mutation rules apply random changes to individual parents to form children.
The GA differs from a classical, derivative-based, optimization algorithm in two
main ways, as follows:
Classical Algorithm
– Generates a single point at each iteration. The sequence of points
approaches an optimal solution.
Selects the next point in the sequence by a deterministic computation.
Genetic Algorithm
Generates a population of points at each iteration. The best point in the
population approaches an optimal solution.
Selects the next population by computation which uses random number
3.4.1 Genetic Algorithm for Offline ECF Optimization
A GA is applied to a population of solutions to a problem in order to “breed”
better solutions. Solutions, in this case the parameters of the ECF network, are
encoded in a binary string and each solution is given a score depending on how
well it performs. Good solutions are selected more frequently for breeding, and are
subjected to crossover and mutation (loosely analogous to those operations found
in biological systems). After several generations, the populationof solutions should
converge on a “good” solution.
174 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
Given that the ECF system is a neural network that operates continuously in
time and adapts its structure and functionality through a continuous interaction with
the environment and with other systems according to a set of parameters P that
are subject to change during the system operation; an incoming continuous flow of
information with unknown distribution; a goal (rationale) criteria (also subject to
modification) that is applied to optimize the performance of the system over time.
The set of parameters P of an ECOS can be regarded as a chromosome of “genes”
of the evolving system and evolutionary computation can be applied for their
optimization. The GA algorithm for offline ECF Optimization runs over generations
of populations and standard operations are applied such as: binary encoding of
the genes (parameters); roulette wheel selection criterion; multi-point crossover
operation for crossover. Genes are complex structures and they cause dynamic
transformation of one substance into another during the whole life of an individual,
as well as the life of the human population over many generations.
Micro-array gene expression data can be used to evolve the ECF with inputs
being the expression level of a certain number of selected genes and the outputs
being the classes. After the ECF is trained on gene expression rules can be
extracted that represent [73]. The ECF model and the GA algorithm for Offline
ECF Optimization are parts from NeuCom software (
which is a Neuro-Computing Decision Support Environment, based on the theory
of ECOS [60,7072].
4 Description of the Proposed Hybrid Framework
Considering that the aim of the partial proposed systems is to carry out acts in a
common environment, the architecture of the bioHAIFC can be simulated by a dis-
tributed multi-agent AI system. The agents are the three proposed Machine Learning
systems, namely: (HESADM, ECISMD and ePSSQLI). These systems dynamically
control the predefined sectors with a potential threat [74]. The synchronization of
the Agents is achieved either with negotiation or with cooperation, as none of them
has the full information package, there is no central control in the system, the data
are distributed and the calculations are done in an asynchronous manner. The Agent
communication and information exchange is done by a hybrid system of temporal
programming in order to phase (in an optimal way) the potential contradiction of
intensions and contradiction in the management of resources, based on priorities
related to the extent of the threat and risk.
The results of the characterization of a threat are sent to the administrator of
the network in a form of logs. The administrator tries to take necessary prevention
actions in order to avoid the risk. Also the framework automates the potential direct
termination of the TCP connection operation with the attacker for higher security
and control (e.g., tcpkill host or tcpkill host
The analytical description of the partial systems of the bioHAIFCS is described
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 175
4.1 Hybrid Evolving Spiking Anomaly Detection Model
The HESADM methodology uses eSNN classification approach and Multi-Layer
Feed Forward ANN in order to classify the exact type of the intrusion or anomaly
in the network with minimum computational power. The dataset which used and the
general algorithm are described in detail below:
4.1.1 Data
The KDD Cup 1999 data set [75] was used to test the herein proposed approach.
This data set was created in the LincolnLab of MIT and it is the most popular free
data set used in evaluation of IDS. It contains recordingsof the total network flow of
a local network which was installed in the Lincoln Labs and it simulates the military
network of the USA air force. The method of events’ analysis includes a connection
between a source IP address and a destination IP, during which a sequence of TCP
packages is exchanged, by using a specific protocol and a strictly defined operation
The KDD Cup 1999 data includes 41 characteristics which are organized in
the following four basic categories: Content Features, Traffic Features, Time-based
Traffic Features, Host-based Traffic Features. Also the attacks are divided into four
categories, namely: DoS, r2l, u2r, and probe.
Using the eSNN In the first classification case, all (41)
features were used. The data were classified as normal or abnormal. The dataset has 145,738 records and the 75 % (109,303 rec.) used as
train_data and the 25 % (36,435 rec.) used as test_data.
Using the SNN In the second classification case, the relevant
normal features comprising of 11 features were used. The data were classified as
normal or abnormal. The dataset has 145,738 records and the 75 %
(109,303 rec.) were used as train_data and the 25% (36,435 rec.) as test_data.
4.1.2 Algorithm
Step 1
We choose to use the traffic oriented data, which is related to only nine features.
We import the required classes that use the variable Population Encoding. This
variable controls the conversion of real-valued data samples into the corresponding
time spikes. The encoding is performed with 20 Gaussian receptive fields per
variable (Gaussian width parameter betaD1.5). We also normalize the data to the
interval [1,1] and so we indicate the coverage of the Gaussians using i_min and
i_max. For the normalization processing the following function 10 was used:
176 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
x1norm D2x1xmin
xmax xmin 1; x2R(10)
The data is classified into two classes namely: class 0 which contains the normal
results and class 1 which comprises of the abnormal ones (DoS, r2l, u2r and probe).
The eSNN object using modulation factor mD0.9, firing threshold ratio cD0.7 and
similarity threshold sD0.6 in agreement with the vQEA algorithm [23,61].
Step 2
We train the eSNN with 75 % of the dataset vectors (train_data) and we test the
eSNN with 25 % of the dataset vectors (test_data). The training process is described
in Algorithm 1.
Step 3
If the result of the classification is normal, the eSNN classification process is
repeated but this time the relevant normal data vectors are used. These vectors are
comprised of 11 features [9]. If the result is normal, then the process is terminated. If
the result of the classification is abnormal, a two-layer feed-forward neural network
with sigmoid function both in hidden and output layer with scaled conjugate
gradient backpropagation as the learning algorithm is used to perform pattern
recognition of the attack type with all features of KDD dataset (41 inputs and 5
The outcome of the pattern recognition process is submitted in the form of an
Alert signal to the network administrator. A Graphical display of the complete
HESADM methodology can be seen in Fig. 4.
The performance metric used is the mean squared error (MSE). The MLFF ANN
was developed with 41 input neurons, corresponding to the 41 input parameters of
the KDD cup 1999 dataset, 33 neurons in the Hidden Layer, and 5 in the output
one corresponding to the following output parameters: DoS, r2l, u2r, Probe, normal.
In the hidden layer 33 neurons are used, based on the following empirical function
11 [76]:
-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6
Rule 1:if
X1 is (2: 0.50)
X3 is (1: 0.95)
X4 is (1: 0.95)
X5 is (1: 0.94)
X6 is (1: 0.52)
X7 is (1: 0.95)
X8 is (2: 0.87)
X9 is (2: 0.82)
then Class is [1]
Radius = 0.022719 , 20 in node
X2 is (1: 0.69)
Fig. 4 Rule of the evolving connectionist system [60,7072]
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 177
3InputsCOutputs D2
341C5D33 (11)
The KDD cup 1999 dataset was divided randomly into 70 % (102,016 rec.) the
train_data, 15 % (21,861 rec.) as test_data and the rest 15 % (21,861 records) as
4.2 Evolving Computational Intelligence System
for Malware Detection
The proposed herein, hybrid ECISMD methodology uses an eSNN classification
approach to classify packed or unpacked executables with minimum computational
power combined with the ECF method in order to detect packed malware. Finally it
applies Genetic Algorithm for ECF Optimization, in order to decrease the level of
false positive and false negative rates (Fig.5).
The dataset which used and the general algorithm are described below:
4.2.1 Dataset
The full_dataset comprised of 2598 packed viruses from the Malfease Project
dataset (, 2231 non-packed benign executables collected
from a clean installation of Windows XP Home plus, several common user applica-
tions and 669 packed benign executables.
The dataset was divided randomly into two parts:
A training dataset containing 2231 patterns related to the non-packed benign
executable and 2262 patterns related to the packed executables detected using
unpacked software
A testing dataset containing 1005 patterns related to the packed executables that
even the best known unpacked software was not able to detect. These datasets
areavailableat [32].
The virus dataset containing 2598 malware and 669 benign executables is divided
into two parts:
A training dataset containing 1834 patterns related to the malware and 453
patterns related to the benign executables
A test dataset containing 762 patterns related to the malware and 218 benign
executables. In order to translate each executable into a pattern vector Perdisci
et al. [32] use binary static analysis, to extract information such as the name of
the code and data sections, the number of writable-executable sections, the code
and data entropy.
178 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
Fig. 5 Bio-inspired hybrid artificial intelligence framework for cyber security
In the first classification performed by the ECISMD, the eSNN approach was
employed in order to classify packed or not packed executables.
In the second classification performed by the ECISMD, the ECF approach was
employed in order to classify malware or benign executables.
4.2.2 Algorithm
Step 1
The train and test datasets are determined and formed, related to nfeatures. The
required classes (packed and unpacked executables) that use the variable Population
Encoding are imported. This variable controls the conversion of real-valued data
samples into the corresponding time spikes. The encoding is performed with 20
Gaussian receptive fields per variable (Gaussian width parameter betaD1.5). The
data are normalized to the interval [1,1] and so the coverage of the Gaussians is
determined by using i_min and i_max. For the normalization processing function
10 is used (Fig.6).
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 179
Fig. 6 The hybrid evolving spiking anomaly detection model (HESADM) methodology
The data is classified into two classes, namely: Class 0 which contains the
unpacked results and Class 1 which comprises of the packed ones. The eSNN
object using modulation factor mD0.9, firing threshold ratio cD0.7, and similarity
threshold sD0.6 in agreement with the vQEA algorithm [23,61].
Step 2
The eSNN is trained with the packed_train dataset vectors and the testing
is performed with the packed_test vectors. The training process is described in
Algorithm 1.
180 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
Step 3
If the result is unpacked, then the process is terminated and the executable file
goes to the antivirus scanner. If the result of the classification is packed, the new
classification process is initiated employing the ECF method. This time the malware
data vectors are used. These vectors comprise of nine features and two classes
malware and benign.
The learning algorithm of the ECF according to the ECOS is as follows:
If all input vectors are fed, finish the iteration; otherwise, input a vector from
the data set and calculate the distances between the vector and all rule nodes
already created using Euclidean distance.
If all distances are greater than a max-radius parameter, a new rule node is
created. The position of the new rule node is the same as the current vector in
the input data space and the radius of its receptive field is set to the min-radius
parameter; the algorithm goes to step 1; otherwise it goes to the next step.
If there is a rule node with a distance to the current input vector less than or
equal to its radius and its class is the same as the class of the new vector, nothing
will be changed; go to step 1; otherwise.
If there is a rule node with a distance to the input vector less than or equal to its
radius and its class is different from those of the input vector, its influence field
should be reduced. The radius of the new field is set to the larger value from the
two numbers: distance minus the min-radius; min radius. New node is created
as in to represent the new data vector.
If there is a rule node with a distance to the input vector less than or equal to
the max-radius, and its class is the same as of the input vector’s, enlarge the
influence field by taking the distance as a new radius if only such enlarged field
does not cover any other rule nodes which belong to a different class; otherwise,
create a new rule node in the same way as in step 2, and go to step 1 [77].
Step 4
To increase the level of integrity the Offline ECF Optimization with GA is used.
Step 5
If the result of the classification is benign, the executable file goes to antivirus
scanner and the process is terminated. Otherwise, the executable file is marked as
malicious, it goes to the unpacker, to the antivirus scanner for verification and finally
placed in quarantine and the process is terminated (Fig. 7).
4.3 Evolutionary Prevention System from SQL Injection
The proposed ePSSQLI model uses an MFFNN which has optimized with a GA.
Generally, there are three methods of using a GA for training MFFNNs. Firstly, GA
is utilized for finding a combination of weights and biases that provide the minimum
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 181
Fig. 7 Graphical display of the ECISMD algorithm
error for an MFFNN. Secondly, GA is employed to find a proper architecture for
an MFFNN in a particular problem. The last method is to use a GA to tune the
parameters of a gradient-based learning algorithm, such as the learning rate and
momentum. In the first method, the architecture does not change during the learning
process. The training algorithm is required to find proper values for all connection
weights and biases in order to minimize the overall error of the MFFNN. In the
second approach, the structure of the MFFNNs varies. In this case, a training
algorithm determines the best structure for solving a certain problem. Changing the
structure can be accomplished by manipulating the connections between neurons,
the number of hidden layers, and the number of hidden nodes in each layer. In this
study the GA is applied to minimize the error of MFFNN in order to classify SQL
injections with high accuracy.
The dataset which used and the general algorithm are described below:
182 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
4.3.1 Dataset
The dataset used includes a list of 13,884 SQL statements thathave been selected by
various sources. Actually, 12,881 of them are malicious (SQL Injections) and 1003
are legit. With the help of the SQLparse module (
sqlparse) in Python, which is a non-validating SQL one, we have searched the way
of syntax and use of certain SQL symbols in the construction of SQL injections
commands. Also we investigated the correlation of SQL statements with the attacks
of SQL injections’ type.
Finally, the n-gram technique was used to search the correlation of the SQL
statements sequence, with the syntax of the SQL injections commands (https:// In the fields of computational linguistics
and probability, an n-gram is a contiguous sequence of n items from a given
sequence of text or speech. The items can be phonemes, syllables, letters, words,
or base pairs according to the application. The n-grams in this case are collected
from an SQL statements.
Various malicious και legit scores constitute the statistical output of the SQL
statements and they were used as features. In information theory, entropy is a
measure of the uncertainty associated with a random variable. The term by itself
in this context usually refers to the Shannon entropy, which quantifies, in the
sense of an expected value, the information contained in a message, usually in
units such as bits. Equivalently, the Shannon entropy is a measure of the average
information content one is missing when one does not know the value of the random
variable [78].
After its adjustment, the dataset includes the following parameters:
• Length
• Malicious_score
• Legit_score
• Difference_score
In the pre-processing of data remove extreme values and outliers. The extreme
value is a point which is far away from the average value of a parameter. The
distance is measured based on a threshold which is a multiplicand of the standard
deviation (Fig. 8).
We know that for a random parameter that is under normal distribution, the
95 % of all the values fall up to the value of 2*stdev whereas 99 % fall up to
the value of 3*stdev. Extreme values cause significant errors in a potential model.
Things become even worse when these extreme values are noise results during
measurements procedure. If the number of extreme values is small, then they are
removed from the data set.
The estimation of the extreme values was done under the Inter Quartile Range
method [79]. This method spots extreme values and outliers based on (InterQuartile
Ranges—IQR). The IQR is the difference between the third (Q3) and the first (Q1)
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 183
24.65% 24.65%
Fig. 8 Graphical display of inter quartile range method
quartile, IQRDQ3 – Q1. The quartiles divide the data into four equal parts. The
IQR includes the imtermediate 50 % of the data whereas the rest 25 % is less than
Q1 and the rest 25% is higher than Q3 [2]. The calculation of the Extreme values
was done as follows:
• Outliers:
–Q3COF*IQR < x <DQ3 + EVF*IQR or Q1 - EVF*IQR <Dx<Q1-
– x>Q3+EVF*IQRorx<Q1-EVF*IQR
Key: Q1D25 % quartile, Q3D75 % quartile, IQRDInterquartile Range difference
between Q1 and Q3, OFDOutlier Factor, EVFDExtreme Value Factor.
With the use of the above method 12 outliers and three extreme values were
removed from the data set which was reduced to 13,869 cases (12,881 malicious,
988 legit).
Also the data were Normalized so that they can have the proper input for the
Learning Algorithms in the interval [1; C1].
After a relative observation we can realize that we have created an imbalanced
dataset which includes 13,869 cases from which 12,881 are malicious and 988 legit
(0.0723%). Imbalanced data sets are a special case for classification problem where
the class distribution is not uniform among the classes. Typically, they are composed
184 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
by two classes: The majority (negative) class and the minority (positive) class. The
problem with class imbalances is that standard learners are often biased towards the
majority class. That is because these classifiers attempt to reduce global quantities
such as the error rate, not taking the data distribution into consideration. As a result
examples from the overwhelming class are well classified whereas examples from
the minority class tend to be misclassified.
To resolve the certain problem we use the technique synthetic minority over-
sampling technique (SMOTE) in order to resample the dataset. [80]. Re-sampling
provides a simple way of biasing the generalization process. It can do so by
generating synthetic samples accordingly biased and controlling the amount and
placement of the new samples. SMOTE is a technique which combines Informed
oversampling of the minority class with random undersampling of the majority
class. SMOTE is a technique which is combines Informed oversampling of the
minority class with random undersampling of the majority class and produce
the best results as far as re-sampli ng and modifying the probabilistic estimate
For each minority sample, SMOTE works as follows:
Find its k-nearest minority neighbors.
Randomly select jof these neighbors.
• Randomly generate synthetic samples along the lines joining the minority
sample and its jselected neighbors (jdepends on the amount of oversampling
By applying the SMOTE approach we re-created the dataset, which includes 21,773
cases, from which 12,881 are malicious and 8892 are legit.
4.4 Algorithm
The MLFF ANN was developed with five input neurons, corresponding to the five
input parameters of the dataset, five neurons in the Hidden Layer and two in the
output one corresponding to the following output parameters: malicious or legit. In
the hidden layer five neurons are used, based on the empirical function 11.
This adds a greater degree of integrity to the rest of security infrastructure MFF
ANN, optimized with GA. The following outline summarizes how the GA works:
The algorithm begins by creating a random initial population.
The algorithm then creates a sequence of new populations. At each step, the
algorithm uses the individuals in the current generation to create the next
To create the new population, the algorithm performs the following steps:
Scores each member of the current population by computing its fitness
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 185
Scales the raw fitness scores to convert them into a more usable range of
Selects members, called parents, based on their fitness.
Some of the individuals in the current population that have lower fitness are
chosen as elite. These elite individuals are passed to the next population.
Produces children from the parents. Children are produced either by making
random changes to a single parent—mutation—or by combining the vector
entries of a pair of parents—crossover.
Replaces the current population with the children to form the next genera-
The algorithm stops when one of the stopping criteria is met.
Each subsystem was tested based on multiple scenarios and different datasets
were used for each case of threat. The results obtained are very encouraging as
the accuracy is as high as 99 %, resulting in a reduction of the false alarms to
the minimum. This fact, combined with the flexibility of the proposed system and
with its generalization ability and the spotting of zero-day threats, makes its use
suitable for critical applications like the one of military networks protection. The
results of each case are presented below:
5.1 Hybrid Evolving Spiking Anomaly Detection Model
5.1.1 eSNN Approach
In the first classification using the eSNN the data classified
as normal or abnormal. The results are shown below:
Classification Accuracy: 97.7 %
No. of evolved neurons: Class 0: 794 neurons, Class 1: 809 neurons
– The average accuracy after applying tenfold Classification in the was as high as 97.2 %.
In the second classification case using the SNN, the relevant
normal features comprising of 11 features were used. The data were classified
as normal or abnormal. The results are shown below:
Classification Accuracy: 99.99 %
No. of evolved neurons: Class 0: 646 neurons, Class 1: 136 neurons
The average accuracy after applying tenfold Classification in the normal- was as high as 99.76 %.
186 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
Fig. 9 ROC analysis
Fig. 10 Confusion matrix
5.1.2 MLFF ANN Approach
The classification accuracy is as high as 99.9% and all the performance metrics
support the high level of convergence of the model.
In Fig. 9the colored lines in each axis represent the ROC curves. The ROC
curve is a plot of the true positive rate (sensitivity) versus the false positive rate
(1-specificity) as the threshold is varied. A perfect test would show points in the
upper-left corner, with 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity. For this problem,
the network performs very well.
Figure 10 shows the confusion matrices for training, testing, and validation, and
the three kinds of data combined. The network outputs are very accurate, by the
high numbers of correct responses in the green squares and the low numbers of
incorrect responses in the red squares. The lower right blue squares illustrate the
overall accuracies.
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 187
5.2 ECISMD Results
Table 1reports the average accuracy which computed over tenfold cross-validation
obtained with RBF ANN, Naïve Bayes, multi layer perceptron (MLP), Support
Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest-Neighbors (k-NN), and eSNN. The best results
on the testing dataset were obtained by using the eSNN classifier, to classify packed
or not packed executables.
Table 2reports the results obtained with six classifiers and optimized ECF
network (RBF Network, Naïve Bayes, MLP, Lib SVM, k-NN, ECF, and optimized
ECF). The best results on the testing dataset were obtained by using the optimized
ECF which classifies virus or benign executables (Table 3).
5.3 ePSSQLI Results
5.3.1 MFF ANN
The classification accuracy of the MFF ANN that uses tenfold Cross Validation
before the optimization is equal to 97.7 %. The rest of the measurements and the
confusion matrix are presented below (Table 4):
Tab l e 1 Comparison of
various approaches for the
packed dataset
Packed dataset
Classifier Train accuracy (%) Test accuracy (%)
RBFNetwork 98.3085 98.0859
NaiveBayes 98.3975 97.1144
MLP 99.5326 96.2189
LibSVM 99.4436 89.8507
k-NN 99.4436 96.6169
eSNN 99.8 99.2
Tab l e 2 Comparison of
various approaches for the
virus dataset
Virus dataset
Classifier Train accuracy (%) Test accuracy (%)
RBFNetwork 94.4031 93.0612
NaiveBayes 94.0533 92.3469
MLP 97.7551 97.289
LibSVM 94.6218 94.2857
k-NN 98.1198 96.8367
ECF 99.05 95.561
Optimized ECF 99.87 97.992
188 K. Demertzis and L. Iliadis
Tab l e 3 Metrics of the MFF ANN
TP rate FP rate Precision Recall F-measure ROC area Class
0.986 0.034 0.976 0.986 0.981 0.986 Malicious
0.966 0.014 0.980 0.966 0.973 0.986 Legit
Tab l e 4 Confusion matrix of
the MFF ANN Malicious Legit
12,702 179
306 8586
Tab l e 5 Metrics of the MFF ANN with GA
TP rate FP rate Precision Recall F-measure ROC area Class
0.997 0.003 0.998 0.997 0.997 0.998 Malicious
0.997 0.003 0.996 0.997 0.996 0.998 Legit
Tab l e 6 Confusion matrix of
the MFF ANN with GA Malicious Legit
12,845 36
31 8861
5.3.2 MFF ANN Optimized with GA
The initial parameters of GA are as below (Table 5):
Selection: Roulette wheel
Crossover: Single point (probability D1)
Mutation: Uniform (probability D0.01)
Population size: 200
Maximum number of generations: 250
The classification accuracy of the MFF ANN that uses tenfold Cross Validation after
its optimization with GA is 99.6 %. The rest of the measurements and the confusion
matrix are presented below (Table 6):
The good performance and reliability of the proposed scheme that uses MFF
ANN with GA is shown in Table 7below. Table 7presents the results of the
categorization with the same dataset and by employing tenfold Cross Validation
and other Machine Learning approaches.
6 Discussion: Conclusions
This paper proposes the use of a Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence
Framework for Cyber Security, which is based on the combination of three timely
methods of Artificial Intelligence.
A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework for Cyber Security 189
Tab l e 7 Comparison of
various approaches for the
SQLI dataset
SQLI dataset
Classifier Accuracy (%)
MFF ANN with GA 99.6
RBFNetwork 97.3
fNaiveBayes 95.6
BayesNet 98.7
SVM 98.5
k-NN 98.3
Random forest 99.1
The function of the subsystems aims in the time spotting of the cyber-attacks
which are untraceable with the classical passive protection approaches.
More specifically, this paper proposes the HESADM system, which spots
potential anomalies of a network and the attacks that might bypass the firewall and
the IDS. The second subsystem is ECISMD which scans the packed executable files
and then spots malicious code untraceable by antivirus. The third one is ePSSQLI
which spots in time the SQL Injections attacks. The result of each categorization is
sent to the administrator of the system so that he/she can impose proper actions. An
automatic disconnection from the attacker is also included.
The combination of the subsystems under the proposed framework takes place
based on a temporal scheduling which succeeds the optimal distribution of the
resources and the maximum availability and performance of the system. The use of
the proposed systems can be done regardless of the framework.
The testing has resulted in an accuracy level of 99 %. Also a comparative analysis
has revealed that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing ones.
As a future direction, aiming to improve the efficiency of biologically realistic
ANN for pattern recognition,it would be importantto evaluate the eSNN model with
ROC analysis and to perform feature minimization in order to achieve minimum
processing time. Other coding schemes could be explored and compared on the same
security task. Also, the ECISMD could be improved towards a better online learning
with self-modified parameter values. Finally, the MFF ANN with GA which used
in the ePSSQLI system could be compared with other optimization schemes like
particle swarm optimization.
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My Publications
Cyber Security informatics
1. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2018. A Computational Intelligence System Identifying Cyber-
Attacks on Smart Energy Grids, in: Daras, N.J., Rassias, T.M. (Eds.), Modern Discrete
Mathematics and Analysis: With Applications in Cryptography, Information Systems
and Modeling, Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Springer International
Publishing, Cham, pp. 97116.
2. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2017. Computational intelligence anti-malware framework
for android OS. Vietnam J Comput Sci 4, 245259.
3. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2016. Bio-inspired Hybrid Intelligent Method for Detecting
Android Malware, in: Kunifuji, S., Papadopoulos, G.A., Skulimowski, A.M.J., Kacprzyk,
J. (Eds.), Knowledge, Information and Creativity Support Systems, Advances in
Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, pp. 289304.
4. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2015. A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Framework
for Cyber Security, in: Daras, N.J., Rassias, M.T. (Eds.), Computation, Cryptography,
and Network Security. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 161193.
5. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2015. Evolving Smart URL Filter in a Zone-Based Policy Firewall
for Detecting Algorithmically Generated Malicious Domains, in: Gammerman, A.,
Vovk, V., Papadopoulos, H. (Eds.), Statistical Learning and Data Sciences, Lecture
Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, pp. 223233.
6. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2015. SAME: An Intelligent Anti-malware Extension for
Android ART Virtual Machine, in: Núñez, M., Nguyen, N.T., Camacho, D., Trawiński, B.
(Eds.), Computational Collective Intelligence, Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
Springer International Publishing, pp. 235245.
7. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2014. A Hybrid Network Anomaly and Intrusion Detection
Approach Based on Evolving Spiking Neural Network Classification, in: Sideridis, A.B.,
Kardasiadou, Z., Yialouris, C.P., Zorkadis, V. (Eds.), E-Democracy, Security, Privacy and
Trust in a Digital World, Communications in Computer and Information Science.
Springer International Publishing, pp. 1123.
8. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2014. Evolving Computational Intelligence System for
Malware Detection, in: Iliadis, L., Papazoglou, M., Pohl, K. (Eds.), Advanced
Information Systems Engineering Workshops, Lecture Notes in Business Information
Processing. Springer International Publishing, pp. 322334.
9. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., Anezakis, V., 2018. MOLESTRA: A Multi-Task Learning
Approach for Real-Time Big Data Analytics, in: 2018 Innovations in Intelligent Systems
and Applications (INISTA). Presented at the 2018 Innovations in Intelligent Systems
and Applications (INISTA), pp. 18.
10. Demertzis, Konstantinos, Iliadis, L., Anezakis, V.-D., 2018. A Dynamic Ensemble
Learning Framework for Data Stream Analysis and Real-Time Threat Detection, in:
Kůrková, V., Manolopoulos, Y., Hammer, B., Iliadis, L., Maglogiannis, I. (Eds.), Artificial
Neural Networks and Machine Learning ICANN 2018, Lecture Notes in Computer
Science. Springer International Publishing, pp. 669681.
11. Demertzis, Konstantinos, Iliadis, L., Spartalis, S., 2017. A Spiking One-Class Anomaly
Detection Framework for Cyber-Security on Industrial Control Systems, in: Boracchi,
G., Iliadis, L., Jayne, C., Likas, A. (Eds.), Engineering Applications of Neural Networks,
Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer International
Publishing, pp. 122134.
12. Demertzis, Konstantinos, Iliadis, L.S., Anezakis, V.-D., 2018. An innovative soft
computing system for smart energy grids cybersecurity. Advances in Building Energy
Research 12, 324.
13. Demertzis, Konstantinos, Kikiras, P., Tziritas, N., Sanchez, S.L., Iliadis, L., 2018. The
Next Generation Cognitive Security Operations Center: Network Flow Forensics Using
Cybersecurity Intelligence. Big Data and Cognitive Computing 2, 35.
14. Rantos, K., Drosatos, G., Demertzis, K., Ilioudis, C., Papanikolaou, A., 2018. Blockchain-
based Consents Management for Personal Data Processing in the IoT Ecosystem.
Presented at the International Conference on Security and Cryptography, pp. 572
15. Demertzis, Konstantinos, Iliadis, L.S., 2018. Real-time Computational Intelligence
Protection Framework Against Advanced Persistent Threats. Book entitled "Cyber-
Security and Information Warfare", Series: Cybercrime and Cybersecurity Research,
NOVA science publishers, ISBN: 978-1-53614-385-0, Chapter 5.
16. Demertzis, Konstantinos, Iliadis, L.S., 2016. Ladon: A Cyber Threat Bio-Inspired
Intelligence Management System. Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics,
vol.6, no.3, 2016, 45-64, ISSN: 1792-6602 (print), 1792-6939 (online), Scienpress Ltd,
17. Demertzis, K.; Tziritas, N.; Kikiras, P.; Sanchez, S.L.; Iliadis, L. The Next Generation
Cognitive Security Operations Center: Adaptive Analytic Lambda Architecture for
Efficient Defense against Adversarial Attacks. Big Data Cogn. Comput. 2019, 3, 6.
18. Rantos K., Drosatos G., Demertzis K., Ilioudis C., Papanikolaou A., Kritsas A. (2019)
ADvoCATE: A Consent Management Platform for Personal Data Processing in the IoT
Using Blockchain Technology. In: Lanet JL., Toma C. (eds) Innovative Security Solutions
for Information Technology and Communications. SECITC 2018. Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, vol 11359. Springer, Cham.
19. Demertzis, K.; Iliadis, L.. Cognitive Web Application Firewall to Critical Infrastructures
Protection from Phishing Attacks, Journal of Computations & Modelling, vol.9, no.2,
2019, 1-26, ISSN: 1792-7625 (print), 1792-8850 (online), Scienpress Ltd, 2019.
20. Demertzis K., Iliadis L., Kikiras P., Tziritas N. (2019) Cyber-Typhon: An Online Multi-
task Anomaly Detection Framework. In: MacIntyre J., Maglogiannis I., Iliadis L.,
Pimenidis E. (eds) Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations. AIAI 2019. IFIP
Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol 559. Springer, Cham
21. Lining Xing, Konstantinos Demertzis, Jinghui Yang, 2019, Identify Data Streams
Anomalies by Evolving Spiking Restricted Boltzmann Machines", Neural Comput &
Applic, DOI: 10.1007/s00521-019-04288-5.
Environmental informatics
22. Anezakis, V., Mallinis, G., Iliadis, L., Demertzis, K., 2018. Soft computing forecasting of
cardiovascular and respiratory incidents based on climate change scenarios, in: 2018
IEEE Conference on Evolving and Adaptive Intelligent Systems (EAIS). Presented at the
2018 IEEE Conference on Evolving and Adaptive Intelligent Systems (EAIS), pp. 1 8.
23. Anezakis, V.-D., Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2018. Classifying with fuzzy chi-square test:
The case of invasive species. AIP Conference Proceedings 1978, 290003.
24. Anezakis, V.-D., Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., Spartalis, S., 2018. Hybrid intelligent modeling
of wild fires risk. Evolving Systems 9, 267283.
25. Anezakis, V.-D., Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., Spartalis, S., 2016. A Hybrid Soft Computing
Approach Producing Robust Forest Fire Risk Indices, in: Iliadis, L., Maglogiannis, I.
(Eds.), Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations, IFIP Advances in
Information and Communication Technology. Springer International Publishing, pp.
26. Anezakis, V.-D., Dermetzis, K., Iliadis, L., Spartalis, S., 2016. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for
Long-Term Prognosis of the Evolution of Atmospheric Pollution, Based on Climate
Change Scenarios: The Case of Athens, in: Nguyen, N.-T., Iliadis, L., Manolopoulos, Y.,
Trawiński, B. (Eds.), Computational Collective Intelligence, Lecture Notes in Computer
Science. Springer International Publishing, pp. 175186.
27. Anezakis, V.-D., Iliadis, L., Demertzis, K., Mallinis, G., 2017. Hybrid Soft Computing
Analytics of Cardiorespiratory Morbidity and Mortality Risk Due to Air Pollution, in:
Dokas, I.M., Bellamine-Ben Saoud, N., Dugdale, J., Díaz, P. (Eds.), Information Systems
for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries, Lecture Notes in
Business Information Processing. Springer International Publishing, pp. 87105.
28. Bougoudis, I., Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2016. Fast and low cost prediction of extreme
air pollution values with hybrid unsupervised learning. Integrated Computer-Aided
Engineering 23, 115127.
29. Bougoudis, I., Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2016. HISYCOL a hybrid computational
intelligence system for combined machine learning: the case of air pollution modeling
in Athens. Neural Comput & Applic 27, 11911206.
30. Bougoudis, I., Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., Anezakis, V.-D., Papaleonidas, A., 2018.
FuSSFFra, a fuzzy semi-supervised forecasting framework: the case of the air pollution
in Athens. Neural Comput & Applic 29, 375388.
31. Bougoudis, I., Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., Anezakis, V.-D., Papaleonidas, A., 2016. Semi-
supervised Hybrid Modeling of Atmospheric Pollution in Urban Centers, in: Jayne, C.,
Iliadis, L. (Eds.), Engineering Applications of Neural Networks, Communications in
Computer and Information Science. Springer International Publishing, pp. 5163.
32. Demertzis, Konstantinos, Anezakis, V.-D., Iliadis, L., Spartalis, S., 2018. Temporal
Modeling of Invasive Species’ Migration in Greece from Neighboring Countries Using
Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, in: Iliadis, L., Maglogiannis, I., Plagianakos, V. (Eds.), Artificial
Intelligence Applications and Innovations, IFIP Advances in Information and
Communication Technology. Springer International Publishing, pp. 592605.
33. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2018. The Impact of Climate Change on Biodiversity: The
Ecological Consequences of Invasive Species in Greece, in: Leal Filho, W., Manolas, E.,
Azul, A.M., Azeiteiro, U.M., McGhie, H. (Eds.), Handbook of Climate Change
Communication: Vol. 1: Theory of Climate Change Communication, Climate Change
Management. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 1538.
34. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2017. Adaptive Elitist Differential Evolution Extreme Learning
Machines on Big Data: Intelligent Recognition of Invasive Species, in: Angelov, P.,
Manolopoulos, Y., Iliadis, L., Roy, A., Vellasco, M. (Eds.), Advances in Big Data,
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, pp.
35. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2015. Intelligent Bio-Inspired Detection of Food Borne
Pathogen by DNA Barcodes: The Case of Invasive Fish Species Lagocephalus
Sceleratus, in: Iliadis, L., Jayne, C. (Eds.), Engineering Applications of Neural Networks,
Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer International
Publishing, pp. 8999.
36. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., Anezakis, V., 2017. A deep spiking machine-hearing system
for the case of invasive fish species, in: 2017 IEEE International Conference on
INnovations in Intelligent SysTems and Applications (INISTA). Presented at the 2017
IEEE International Conference on INnovations in Intelligent SysTems and Applications
(INISTA), pp. 2328.
37. Demertzis, Konstantinos, Iliadis, L., Anezakis, V.-D., 2017. Commentary: Aedes
albopictus and Aedes japonicustwo invasive mosquito species with different
temperature niches in Europe. Front. Environ. Sci. 5.
38. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., Avramidis, S., El-Kassaby, Y.A., 2017. Machine learning use in
predicting interior spruce wood density utilizing progeny test information. Neural
Comput & Applic 28, 505519.
39. Demertzis, Konstantinos, Iliadis, L.S., Anezakis, V.-D., 2018. Extreme deep learning in
biosecurity: the case of machine hearing for marine species identification. Journal of
Information and Telecommunication 2, 492510.
40. Dimou, V., Anezakis, V.-D., Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2018. Comparative analysis of
exhaust emissions caused by chainsaws with soft computing and statistical
approaches. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 15, 15971608.
41. Iliadis, L., Anezakis, V.-D., Demertzis, K., Mallinis, G., 2017. Hybrid Unsupervised
Modeling of Air Pollution Impact to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases.
IJISCRAM 9, 1335.
42. Iliadis, L., Anezakis, V.-D., Demertzis, K., Spartalis, S., 2018. Hybrid Soft Computing for
Atmospheric Pollution-Climate Change Data Mining, in: Thanh Nguyen, N., Kowalczyk,
R. (Eds.), Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XXX, Lecture Notes in
Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 152177.
43. Demertzis, K., Iliadis, L., 2017. Detecting invasive species with a bio-inspired semi-
supervised neurocomputing approach: the case of Lagocephalus sceleratus. Neural
Comput & Applic 28, 12251234.
44. Κωνσταντίνος Δεμερτζής, Λάζαρος Ηλιάδης, 2015, Γενετική Ταυτοποίηση
Χωροκατακτητικών Ειδών με Εξελιγμένες Μεθόδους Τεχνητής Νοημοσύνης: Η
Περίπτωση του Ασιατικού Κουνουπιού Τίγρης (Aedes Αlbopictus). Θέματα
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... 1. A study on bio-inspired hybrid artificial intelligence framework for cyber security (bioHAIFCS) that combines timely and bio-inspired Machine Learning methods suitable for the protection of critical network applications, namely military information systems, applications and networks [4]. ...
In the last 25 years, there has been a rapid advance in attacks and security protection. However, the evolution of the velocity of this attack is far outpacing the level of security the businesses are deploying. This is a problem. As a vast number of IoT devices are introduced into the market and each device is transmitting data in real-time. The privacy and security of the data is still at an infant stage, causing it to be subjected to data manipulation and denial-of-service by hackers, through Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS), Man-In-Middle (MIM) and polymorphic malware attacks, among others. For healthcare organizations and services, this problem needs to be immediately remedied to address aspects of trust management and data integrity. In order to prevent the data manipulation, and provide a secure cost effective medium for data transmission to end-users, there is a need to introduce Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Cyber Security in devices. In this paper we are discussing about the proof-of-concept design, of a three stage secure by device solution, consisting of a multi-layered AI based architecture, with polymorphic encryption, and the ability to self-replicate in case of a 5th generation cyber attack(s).
... Finally, the third Fast-Flux Botnet Localization Dataset (F2BLD) comprised of 15 independent variables and 2 classes (benign or botnet). This dataset containing 131,374 patterns (100,000 URLs they were chosen randomly from the database with the 1 million most popular domain names of Alexa, 16,374 malicious URLs from the Black Hole DNS database and 15,000 malicious URLs they were created based on the timestamp DGA algorithm) [11]. ...
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According to the Greek mythology, Ladon was the huge dragon with the 100 heads, which had the ability to stay continuously up, in order to guard the golden “Esperides” apples in the tree of life. Alike the ancient one, digital Ladon is an advanced information systems’ security mechanism, which uses Artificial Intelligence to protect, control and offer early warning in cases of detour or misleading of the digital security measures. It is an effective cross-layer system of network supervision, which enriches the lower layers of the system (Transport, Network and Data). It amplifies in an intelligent manner the upper layers (Session, Presentation and Application) with capabilities of automated control. This is done to enhance the energetic security and the mechanisms of reaction of the general system, without special requirements in computational resources. This paper describes the development of Ladon which is an advanced, incredibly fast and low requirements’ effective filter, that performs analysis of network flow. Ladon uses Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine with Gaussian Radial Basis Function kernel in order to perform network traffic classification, malware traffic analysis and fast-flux botnets localization.
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With information systems worldwide being attacked daily, analogies from traditional warfare are apt, and deception tactics have historically proven effective as both a strategy and a technique for Defense. Defensive Deception includes thinking like an attacker and determining the best strategy to counter common attack strategies. Defensive Deception tactics are beneficial at introducing uncertainty for adversaries, increasing their learning costs, and, as a result, lowering the likelihood of successful attacks. In cybersecurity, honeypots and honeytokens and camouflaging and moving target defense commonly employ Defensive Deception tactics. For a variety of purposes, deceptive and anti-deceptive technologies have been created. However, there is a critical need for a broad, comprehensive and quantitative framework that can help us deploy advanced deception technologies. Computational intelligence provides an appropriate set of tools for creating advanced deception frameworks. Computational intelligence comprises two significant families of artificial intelligence technologies: deep learning and machine learning. These strategies can be used in various situations in Defensive Deception technologies. This survey focuses on Defensive Deception tactics deployed using the help of deep learning and machine learning algorithms. Prior work has yielded insights, lessons, and limitations presented in this study. It culminates with a discussion about future directions, which helps address the important gaps in present Defensive Deception research.
У статті запропоновано переглянути завдання визначення оптимального складу комплексів засобів захисту інформації (ЗЗІ) для узгоджено розподіленої обчислювальної системи (РОС) за допомогою модифікованого генетичного алгоритму (МГА). Як цільову функцію запропоновано критерій максимуму ймовірності успішної протидії ЗЗІ реалізації всіх цілей порушником. На відміну від існуючих підходів, запропонований у роботі МГА і відповідна цільова функція, реалізують кросинговер для випадків, коли пари батьків підбираються виходячи із принципу «елітарності» однієї особини та «випадковості» другої. Показано, що реалізація МГА дозволила прискорити пошук оптимальних варіантів розміщення ЗЗІ по вузлах РОСу 7–15 разів.
In the current ever-changing cybersecurity scenario, active cyber defense strategies are imperative. In this work, we present a standard testbed to measure the efficacy and efficiency of customized networks while analyzing various parameters during the active attack. The presented testbed can be used for analyzing the network behavior in presence of various types of attacks and can help in fine-tuning the proposed algorithm under observation. The proposed testbed will allow users to design, implement, and evaluate the active cyber defense mechanisms with good library support of nature-inspired and AI-based techniques. Network loads, number of clusters, types of home networks, and number of nodes in each cluster and network can be customized. While using the presented testbed and incorporating active-defense strategies on existing network architectures, users can also design and propose new network architectures for effective and safe operation. In this paper, we propose a unified and standard testbed for cyber defense strategy simulation and bench-marking, which would allow the users to investigate current approaches and compare them with others, while ultimately aiding in the selection of the best approach for a given network security situation. We have compared the network performance in difference scenarios namely, normal, under attack and under attack in presence of NICS-based adaptive defense mechanism and achieved stable experimental results. The experimental results clearly show that the proposed testbed is able to simulate the network conditions effectively with minimum efforts in network configuration. The simulation results of defense mechanisms verified on the proposed testbed got the improvement on almost 80 percent while increasing the turnaround time to 1–2 percent. The applicability of proposed testbed in modern technologies like Fog Computing and Edge Computing is also discussed in this paper.
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In this interesting and original study, the authors present an ensemble Machine Learning (ML) model for the prediction of the habitats’ suitability, which is affected by the complex interactions between living conditions and survival-spreading climate factors. The research focuses in two of the most dangerous invasive mosquito species in Europe with the requirements’ identification in temperature and rainfall conditions. Though it is an interesting approach, the ensemble ML model is not presented and discussed in sufficient detail and thus its performance and value as a tool for modeling the distribution of invasive species cannot be adequately evaluated.
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Cyber-Typhon: An Online Multi-Task Anomaly Detection Framework
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A Machine Hearing Framework for Real-Time Streaming Analytics using Lambda Architecture
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A Security Operations Center (SOC) is a central technical level unit responsible for monitoring, analyzing, assessing, and defending an organization’s security posture on an ongoing basis. The SOC staff works closely with incident response teams, security analysts, network engineers and organization managers using sophisticated data processing technologies such as security analytics, threat intelligence, and asset criticality to ensure security issues are detected, analyzed and finally addressed quickly. Those techniques are part of a reactive security strategy because they rely on the human factor, experience and the judgment of security experts, using supplementary technology to evaluate the risk impact and minimize the attack surface. This study suggests an active security strategy that adopts a vigorous method including ingenuity, data analysis, processing and decision-making support to face various cyber hazards. Specifically, the paper introduces a novel intelligence driven cognitive computing SOC that is based exclusively on progressive fully automatic procedures. The proposed λ-Architecture Network Flow Forensics Framework (λ-ΝF3) is an efficient cybersecurity defense framework against adversarial attacks. It implements the Lambda machine learning architecture that can analyze a mixture of batch and streaming data, using two accurate novel computational intelligence algorithms. Specifically, it uses an Extreme Learning Machine neural network with Gaussian Radial Basis Function kernel (ELM/GRBFk) for the batch data analysis and a Self-Adjusting Memory k-Nearest Neighbors classifier (SAM/k-NN) to examine patterns from real-time streams. It is a forensics tool for big data that can enhance the automate defense strategies of SOCs to effectively respond to the threats their environments face.
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Prolonged climate change contributes to an increase in the local concentrations of O3 and PMx in the atmosphere, influencing the seasonality and duration of air pollution incidents. Air pollution in modern urban centers such as Athens has a significant impact on human activities such as industry and transport. During recent years the economic crisis has led to the burning of timber products for domestic heating, which adds to the burden of the atmosphere with dangerous pollutants. In addition, the topography of an area in conjunction with the recording of meteorological conditions conducive to atmospheric pollution, act as catalytic factors in increasing the concentrations of primary or secondary pollutants. This paper introduces an innovative hybrid system of predicting air pollutant values (IHAP) using Soft computing techniques. Specifically, Self-Organizing Maps are used to extract hidden knowledge in the raw data of atmospheric recordings and Fuzzy Cognitive Maps are employed to study the conditions and to analyze the factors associated with the problem. The system also forecasts future air pollutant values and their risk level for the urban environment, based on the temperature and rainfall variation as derived from sixteen CMIP5 climate models for the period 2020–2099.
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Biosafety is defined as a set of preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of infectious diseases’ spread to crops and animals, by providing quarantine pesticides. Prolonged and sustained overheating of the sea, creates significant habitat losses, resulting in the proliferation and spread of invasive species, which invade foreign areas typically seeking colder climate. This is one of the most important modern threats to marine biosafety. The research effort presented herein, proposes an innovative approach for Marine Species Identification, by employing an advanced intelligent Machine Hearing Framework (MHF). The target is the identification of invasive alien species (IAS), based on the sounds they produce. This classification attempt, can provide significant aid towards the protection of biodiversity, and can achieve overall regional biosecurity. Hearing recognition is performed by using the Online Sequential Multilayer Graph Regularized Extreme Learning Machine Autoencoder (MIGRATE_ELM). The MIGRATE_ELM uses an innovative Deep Learning algorithm (DELE) that is applied for the first time for the above purpose. The assignment of the corresponding class “native” or “invasive” in its locality, is carried out by an equally innovative approach entitled “Geo Location Country Based Service” that has been proposed by our research team.
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Modern critical infrastructures are characterized by a high degree of complexity, in terms of vulnerabilities, threats, and interdependencies that characterize them. The possible causes of a digital assault or occurrence of a digital attack are not simple to identify, as they may be due to a chain of seemingly insignificant incidents, the combination of which provokes the occurrence of scalar effects on multiple levels. Similarly, the digital explosion of technologies related to the critical infrastructure and the technical characteristics of their subsystems entails the continuous production of a huge amount of data from heterogeneous sources, requiring the adoption of intelligent techniques for critical analysis and optimal decision making. In many applications (e.g. network traffic monitoring) data is received at a high frequency over time. Thus, it is not possible to store all historical samples, which implies that they should be processed in real time and that it may not be possible to re-review old samples (one-pass constraint). We should consider the importance of protecting critical infrastructure, combined with the fact that many of these systems are cyber-attack targets, but they cannot easily be disconnected from their layout as this could lead to generalized operational problems. This research paper proposes a Multi-Task Learning model for Real-Time & Large-Scale Data Analytics, towards the Cyber protection of Critical Infrastructure. More specifically, it suggests the Multi Overlap LEarning STReaming Analytics (MOLESTRA) which is a standardization of the "Kappa" architecture. The aim is the analysis of large data sets where the tasks are executed in an overlapping manner. This is done to ensure the utilization of the cognitive or learning relationships among the data flows. The proposed architecture uses the k-NN Classifier with Self Adjusting Memory (k-NN SAM). MOLESTRA, provides a clear and effective way to separate the short-term from the long-term memory. In this way the temporal intervals between the transfer of knowledge from one memory to the other and vice versa are differentiated.
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According to the latest projections of the International Energy Agency, smart grid technologies have become essential to handling the radical changes expected in international energy portfolios through 2030. A smart grid is an energy transmission and distribution network enhanced through digital control, monitoring, and telecommunication capabilities. It provides a real-time, two-way flow of energy and information to all stakeholders in the electricity chain, from the generation plant to the commercial, industrial, and residential end user. New digital equipment and devices can be strategically deployed to complement existing equipment. Using a combination of centralized IT and distributed intelligence within critical system control nodes ranging from thermal and renewable plant controls to grid and distribution utility servers to cities, commercial and industrial infrastructures, and homes a smart grid can bring unprecedented efficiency and stability to the energy system. Information and communication infrastructures will play an important role in connecting and optimizing the available grid layers. Grid operation depends on control systems called Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) that monitor and control the physical infrastructure. At the heart of these SCADA systems are specialized computers known as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). There are destructive cyber-attacks against SCADA systems as Advanced Persistent Threats (APT) were able to take over the PLCs controlling the centrifuges, reprogramming them in order to speed up the centrifuges, leading to the destruction of many and yet displaying a normal operating speed in order to trick the centrifuge operators and finally can not only shut things down but can alter their function and permanently damage industrial equipment. This paper proposes a computational intelligence System for Identification Cyber-Attacks on the Smart Energy Grids (SICASEG). It is a big data forensics tool which can capture, record, and analyze the smart energy grid network events to find the source of an attack to both prevent future attacks and perhaps for prosecution. © 2018, Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature.