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The Hyperextension model in the Pyrenees: a perspective

Authors:

Abstract

A review of the Hyperextensional model in the Pyrenees highlighting the discrepancies among different proposals, in particular the interpretation of the polarity of the main extensional detachment(s) and the mechanical role of the exhumed mantle during convergence.
4
NNE
SSW
coast line
34 km
0
10
20
30
km
Bilbao Ant.
Bilbao Ant.
Biscay Sync.
Biscay Sync.
A
Duero Basin Landes Platf.
Landes Platf.
Breakaway zone
Exhumed mantle
Hyperextended upper plate
Alavesa Platform
Main Detachment Fault
un-squeezed diapirs
Future frontal Thrust
Frontal Thrust
Crustal thickening by underthrusting
RetrowedgeProwedge
NNE
SSW
s
s
0
10
20
30
km
0
10
20
30
km
135 km
N
S
G
O
Lk
R
Rb
Rb ROGLk
Cotiella postrift Basin Tarbes Basin
South Pyrenean Platform
Exhumed mantle
Main Detachment Fault
Breakaway zone
Interior basin
Axial Zone
Boixols-Cotiella
Montsec-P. Montañesa
External Sierras
NPF
Ebro B. Aquitaine B.
NPFT
Ainsa Basin
rollovers Em3
Em3
divide
watershed
Extended upper plate
0
10
20
60
40
Lithospheric mantle
Lithospheric mantle
Asthenospheric mantle
Quintana et al. 2015
Synthesis?
Multiple working
hypothesis
ARZACQ-W. PYRENEES ECORS DEEP SEISMIC PROFILE Daignierès et al. 1994
N-Pyrenean Fault as a fundamental fault
Séguret & Daignières 1986
S-DIPPING
Teixell et al. 2016, 2018
Espurt et al. 2019
Jammes et al. 2009, 2010; Lagabrielle et al. 2010
Tomographic models
Wang et al. 2016
Gravity / magnec anomalies
Wehr et al. 2018
Pedrera et al. 2017
Chevrot et al. 2018
García-Senz et al. 2019
Pedrera et al. 2017
Tugend et al. 2014
Jammes et al. 2014
Teixell et al. 2018
Masini et al. 2014
Tugend et al. 2014
Jammes et al. 2014
Roca et al. 2011
Jammes et al. 2009, 2010
García-Senz et al. 2019
Pedrera et al. 2017
N-DIPPING
NORTH PYRENEAN
TRANSFORM FAULT
EXHUMED MANTLE
ACTS AS AN INDENTER
1985-86 ECORS CENTRAL PYRENEES
EXHUMED MANTLE REMAINS AT
SHALLOW CRUSTAL LEVELS
EXHUMED MANTLE
SUBDUCTED
PREOROGENIC MANTLE EXHUMATION
(great extension is required)
SYMMETRICAL ASYMMETRICAL
Developing
crisis
2009-2019
EXHUMED MANTLE
ACTS AS A WEAK ZONE
The Hyperextension model in the Pyrenees: a perspective
(1) (1) (1) (1)
Jesús García-Senz ; Antonio Pedrera ; Alejandro Robador ; Luis Roberto Rodríguez-Fernández ;
(1,2) (1) (1)
Conxi Ayala ; Ana Ruiz-Constán ; Luis González-Menéndez
(1) INSTITUTO GEOLÓGICO Y MINERO DE ESPAÑA, IGME, c/Ríos Rosas 23, 28003, Madrid, Spain
(2) Now visiting at the INSTITUTE OF EARTH SCIENCES JAUME ALMERA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain
HYPEREXTENSION MODEL
IN THE PYRENEES
NEW GEOPHYSICAL
CONSTRAINTS
IBERIAN CRUST
UNDERTHRUST
EUROPEAN PLATE
DEEP SEISMIC REFLECTION EXPERIMENT
POLARITY OF THE MAIN
EXTENSIONAL DETACHMENT(S)
Roure et al. 1989
“Mantle weakening likely controlled
the initiation and vergence of subduction”
*
*our proposal
our proposal
Colloque Le Référentiel Géologique
des Pyrénées 03/06/2019 - 04/06/2019
Palais Beaumont, Pau
Boillot 1986
Comparison between
the Galicia and Aquitaine
margins
ROLE OF THE EXHUMED
MANTLE DURING CONVERGENCE
Pulgar et al. 1996; Gallastegui 2000
ECORS C. PYRENEES PROFILE BALANCED AND RESTORED Muñoz 1992
Publ. Nature 1988, Tectonics V.8 1989, Tectonophysics V.173 1990
(great shortening
is required)
ESCI-N DEEP SEISMIC PROFILES CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS/BAY OF BISCAY
Balanced secon
with preorogenic
detachment and
denudaon of
the crust
ANSÓ-ARZACQ TRANSECT Teixell 1998
Thin-skinned model
Williams & Fisher 1984
Paradigm
Crisis
Alternative hypothesis
Gravity / magnec anomalies
Wehr et al. 2018
Pedrera et al. 2017
Metamorphism & thermal condions
Clerc & Lagabrielle 2014
Lagabrielle et al. 2016
NEW GEOLOGICAL
CONSTRAINTS
Early problems Early problems
Muñoz 1992
PYRENEAN
TECTONICS
EXHUMED MANTLE
HYPOTHESIS (Boillot)
alternative
ECORS
revolution
N-PYRENEAN
TRANSFORM F.
paradigm
EXHUMED MANTLE
HYPOTHESIS (Roure)
HYPEREXTENSION
New paradigm
paradigm
1985-86
1989
1989
1986
EXHUMED MANTLE DRILLED
IN GALICIA MARGIN
1979
2009-2010
1978
Today
SUBDUCTION &
THRUST SYSTEMS
L
E
S
PR
IN
T
P
YR
É
EN
(Choukroune & Maauer)
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