Article

Digital restoration of fragmentary human skeletal remains: Testing the feasibility of virtual reality

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

For 50 days the article can be accessed at https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1ZE-A,dssAEU3V Experts in forensic anthropology and medicine have become gradually accustomed to examining components of the human body in the virtual workspace. While the computer-assisted approach offers numerous benefits, the interactions with digital three-dimensional biological objects are often problematic, particularly if conducted with mouse, keyboard and flat-panel screen. The study focusses on feasibility of a virtual reality (VR) system for virtual restoration of fragmentary skeletal remains. The VR system was confronted with three cases of fragmentary remains. The cases were reassembled manually by twenty participants using a HTC Vive headset combined with an in-house application A.R.T. The same task was performed using a CloudCompare software in conjunction with a desktop peripheral. The two systems were compared in terms of time efficiency, the geometric properties of the resulting restorations, and convenience of use. Restoration using the VR system took approximately half the time the desktop set-up did. The VR system also yielded a lower error rate when a severely fragmented skull was reassembled. Ultimately, although the efficiency of the reassembling was shown to be strongly dependent on the operator's experience, the use of the VR system balanced out the uneven levels of proficiency in computer graphics. The current generation of virtual reality headsets has a strong potential to facilitate and improve tasks relating to the virtual restoration of fragmented skeletal remains. A VR system offers an intuitive digital working environment which is less affected by an operator's computer skills and practical understanding of the technology than the desktop systems are.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... In contrast, the use of MDCT-scans allows a direct access to the bone structure with minimum handling [7,19,21,22]. The acquired data represents negligible physical space for storage and are easily transferred [23][24][25]. ...
... 15 additional articles, referenced in the selected publications, completed the list. From these 39 articles, 33 were primary [3,4,22,24,25,] and 6 were reviews [2,7,11,14,[58][59][60]. ...
... A total of 26 articles presented methods based on MDCT data [2][3][4]7,14,25,[32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]43,44,46], [48][49][50][52][53][54]67]. Among them, 15 publications described, at least partially, their acquisition protocol [3,7,25,32,33,35,[40][41][42][43][44]48,50,52,67], and only 3 provided their full protocol [7,35,44]. ...
Article
During a Disaster Victims Identification (DVI) mission, international protocols rely on interdisciplinary work, especially between specialists from forensic imaging and anthropology. In case of air crashes or explosions, DVI units may face thousands of fragmented human remains (FHRs). The physical re-association of FHRs and the identification process is very complex and challenging, and relies upon expensive and destructive DNA analysis. A virtual re-association (VRA) of these fragments, using Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT), could be a helpful tool in forensic anthropology analysis, as it could assist in reducing the number of DNA samples. However, there is no standardized protocol for including such an approach into a DVI procedure. The aim of this study was to summarize and analyze existing techniques through a systematic review and to develop a protocol for virtual re-association of FHRs, adapted to the DVI context. A keyword-based literature search was conducted, focusing on the VRA methods using MDCT imaging and 3D surface scan methodology. Reviews and primary articles, published between 2005 and 2020 in the fields of forensic anthropology, paleoanthropology, archaeology, and fracture reduction surgery were sorted out. A total of 45 publications were selected and analyzed based on their content and relevance. The results show that research on the re-association of FHRs increased significantly during the last five years. Seven steps regarding the MDCT-based method for the virtual re-association of FHRs could be identified: acquisition of 3D-images, segmentation of the MDCT-data, post-processing and surface generation, identification of intact and fracture surfaces, identification and registration of matching fragments, and validation of the re-association. The literature is surprisingly sparse regarding the FHRs re-association as a forensic tool, and mainly consists in case reports, whereas validated methods were presented in archaeology and surgery publications. However, we were able to adapt the MDCT-based approach for the virtual re-association of the FHRs and propose an innovative protocol for DVI missions. This protocol includes the needed details, from the acquisition of MDCT imaging to the virtual re-association of 3D models and its validation. Each step has to be fully tested, adapted and validated in future studies.
... Innovative approaches using 3D modalities assume a necessary part for the evolution in the various fields of forensics 1 . Since last few decades, the various forensic and medico-legal experts have gradually become acquainted with 3D modalities including 3D acquisition, 3D modeling and processing and 3D printing techniques [2][3][4] . It has been repeatedly demonstrated that virtual methods facilitate preservation, restoration, storage and conservation of evidence 2,5 . ...
... Since last few decades, the various forensic and medico-legal experts have gradually become acquainted with 3D modalities including 3D acquisition, 3D modeling and processing and 3D printing techniques [2][3][4] . It has been repeatedly demonstrated that virtual methods facilitate preservation, restoration, storage and conservation of evidence 2,5 . The 3D approach has evolved into a legitimate, recognized and stand alone methods for examining human skeletal remains, after the conversion of scanned data to digital models for editing, analysis and visualisation 3,6,7 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Three-dimensional (3D) modalities are frequently applied in forensic practice as it tends to give complete information of the evidence merely by touching which has resulted in increased usage in legal medicine and forensic sciences. A number of sub-disciplines of forensic science utilises 3D modalities in an inter-disciplinary manner viz. forensic anthropology, forensic archaeology, forensic odontology, crime-scene investigation, pattern analysis and recovery, courtroom visualisation and ballistic comparison. With appropriate knowledge and utilisation of 3D scanning, modelling and printing technologies, innovative approaches can be implemented for identification in forensic cases. Given that these technologies are evolving rapidly and changing the face of forensic science, the present article collates current developments, working and applications of non-contact scanning techniques, modeling and 3D printing techniques.
... Automatic reassembly has still many drawbacks related to low efficiency of registration of fragmentary elements to a single specimen (Lynch, 2018), and it is restricted to rather trivial cases (Jurda et al., 2019). Therefore, manual techniques are still commonly applied even in virtual environment, and special devices are sometimes used to imitate the dimensional reality that is lost on the desktop (Jurda et al., 2019). ...
... Automatic reassembly has still many drawbacks related to low efficiency of registration of fragmentary elements to a single specimen (Lynch, 2018), and it is restricted to rather trivial cases (Jurda et al., 2019). Therefore, manual techniques are still commonly applied even in virtual environment, and special devices are sometimes used to imitate the dimensional reality that is lost on the desktop (Jurda et al., 2019). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Preservation is a major obstacle in paleoanthropological studies. Since 1990s virtual methods have become an important part of anthropological research helping to overcome preservation problems in two principle ways: they improve extraction of information from a fragmentary material, and they permit a more objective reconstruction of fragmentary and incomplete remains. This thesis has focused on the virtual reconstruction of two fossil specimens: the modern human cranium from the Upper Paleolithic site of Zlatý kůň (ZK; Czech Republic) and the Neandertal Regourdou 1 (R1) pelvis (France). The reconstruction of the ZK cranium allowed us to revise sex attribution and analyze morphological affinity. Based on the secondary sex diagnosis, the ZK individual was most probably a female and exhibits a great affinity to Early Upper Paleolithic population. The R1 pelvis shows considerable asymmetry that was first analyzed on the sacrum in comparison with healthy modern humans and Neandertals. The asymmetry exceeds normal variation observed in the extant population and could have related to asymmetrical load dissipation. Therefore, the asymmetry was considered in the subsequent preliminary pelvic reconstruction which allowed us to assess sex of the individual and to analyze transverse dimensions of the pelvic canal and orientation of the sacrum in the pelvis. Based on the newly available sexually dimorphic traits, the R1 individual was probably a male. Transverse canal diameters indicate slightly wider outlet than in modern males, but they show similar relationship as in other archaic humans. Regarding the high degree of correlation between sacral orientation and lumbar lordosis, R1 had slightly higher lumbar lordosis angle (close to modern mean) than has been proposed for most of other Neandertals. This slightly extends the previously suggested Neandertal range of variation, which, however, still remains in the lower portion of modern human variation. In other presented studies, we focused on sex estimation from fragmentary remains and compatibility of 3D data digitization techniques. Specifically, we proposed a method for sex estimation from the posterior ilium and adjusted the visual method of Brůžek (2002) to the use on fragmentary material. Finally, we compared two different 3D scanners and their outcomes. They did not significantly differ with regard to subsequent anthropological analyses (sex and age estimation), but they may provide differential results in highly structured areas.
... In such cases digital restoration of the remains by means of three-dimensional technology can be conducted as it is a non-invasive in nature. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that virtual methods facilitate preservation, storage, and conservation [8] of skeletal remains. In the present report, the fragmented remains were fragile and difficult to handle and the scanning technology allowed the remains to be digitally reconstructed. ...
... Following a literature review, the morphology of the reconstructed and printed skull was compared to a domesticated dog (Canis familiaris) [8]. The rostral portion was longer than the cranium, whereas the nasal portions was longer. ...
Article
Full-text available
Reconstruction of fragmented material remains has been given a considerable attention in the fields of archaeology, forensic anthropology, and palaeoanthropology. Fragmented osseous remains are often found in cases of mass disasters, burning incidents, crash incidents, as well as bodily mutilation through criminal and suicidal activities. In cases where the remains are burnt or fragile, the handling of the remains becomes difficult and improper handling may lead to further destruction of the evidence. In such cases, digital restoration of the remains by means of threedimensional technology can be done as it is a non-invasive in nature and minimizes physical handling. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that virtual methods facilitate preservation, storage, and conservation of skeletal remains. For this current preliminary study, fragile fragmentary osseous remains were obtained and then digitally reconstructed. The data was acquired using hand-held 3D laser scanners and digitally reconstructed using software. The reconstructed specimen was then printed and could be used for further analysis due to the fragile nature of the original specimen.
... The bone measurement by virtual method was as accurate and reliable as the conventional method and is highly recommended in 30,31 countries with limited skeletal collection. With advancement in technology, restorative procedures can be performed digitally providing increased reliability and quality control than manual 32 restoration. ...
... However, despite of various advantages, 3D technology cannot replace the real 41 bones as this new arena is partly operator-dependent and during manual segmentation small bone spurs or important 31,34 structures may be accidentally deleted. ...
Article
Full-text available
Imaging innovations assume a necessary part irrespective of the considerable evolution in the discipline of forensic anthropology. Thus, enables the anthropologist to record the site and anthropological remains in outstanding point of interest. With advancement in innovations, virtual human studies are increasing pervasively replacing conventional radiographs that have been utilized to archive specimens. The forensic anthropologists have incorporated computed tomography (CT) and three-dimensional (3D) surface scans as advanced imaging methods for their case analyses and research to obtain process and dissect 3D information. Among these methods, three dimensional scanners have picked up a conspicuous place for an assortment of reasons that make them valuable to anthropologists. These propelled imaging innovations give a way to report anthropological specimens, their injury patterns, and thus provides a platform to create virtual models for record purpose. Imaging specialists have also tried creating techniques for evaluating and utilizing various parameters from the virtual models like surface mapping and advanced methods of geomorphometric analysis. It stretches out our capacity to evaluate phenotypic variety, its non-damaging nature adds to specimen preservation, and it can turn into a basic piece of virtual human studies, along these lines accomplishing more than simply "beginning to expose what's 3D scanning is all about. The present paper provides an insight on the new scanning technology and discusses the possible future application of these techniques in forensic analysis.
... Digital methods that recreate the anatomy of incomplete bones are relevant for sciences that often work with damaged or fragmentary materials that cannot be replaced, such as fossils or unidentified persons in forensic sciences [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. Digital reconstructions are more automatic and reproducible than manual reconstructions, but it is necessary to know the error associated with these virtual methods to know how accurate the reconstructions are. ...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal remains analyzed by anthropologists, paleontologists and forensic scientists are usually found fragmented or incomplete. Accurate estimations of the original morphologies are a challenge for which several digital reconstruction methods have been proposed. In this study, the accuracy of reconstructing bones based on multiple linear regression (RM) was tested. A total of 150 digital models from complete zygomatics from recent past populations (European and African American) were studied using high-density geometric morphometrics. Some landmarks (i.e., 2, 3 and 6) were coded as missing to simulate incomplete zygomatics and the missing landmarks were estimated with RM. In the zygomatics, this simulated damage affects a few square centimeters or less. Finally, the predicted and original shape data were compared. The results indicate that the predicted landmark coordinates were significantly different from the original ones, although this difference was less than the difference between the original zygomatic and the mean zygomatic in the sample. The performance of the method was affected by the location and the number of missing landmarks, with decreasing accuracy with increasing damaged area. We conclude that RM can accurately estimate the original appearance of the zygomatics when the damage is small.
... VR is gradually adapted by experts in forensic anthropology to examine components of the human body. Jurda et al. (2019) designed a VR reassembly for three cases of fragmentary remains and twenty participants using Vive combined with an in-house application Augmented Reconstruction Toolset (A.R.T) reassembled the parts. Then, they used CloudCompare software in conjunction with a desktop application to compare the result with the VR method. ...
Article
This article provides a systematic review of research related to Human–Computer Interaction techniques supporting training and learning in various domains including medicine, healthcare, and engineering. The focus is on HCI techniques involving Extended Reality (XR) technology which encompasses Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and Mixed Reality. HCI-based research is assuming more importance with the rapid adoption of XR tools and techniques in various training and learning contexts including education. There are many challenges in the adoption of HCI approaches, which results in a need to have a comprehensive and systematic review of such HCI methods in various domains. This article addresses this need by providing a systematic literature review of a cross-section of HCI approaches involving proposed so far. The PRISMA-guided search strategy identified 1156 articles for abstract review. Irrelevant abstracts were discarded. The whole body of each article was reviewed for the remaining articles, and those that were not linked to the scope of our specific issue were also eliminated. Following the application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 69 publications were chosen for review. This article has been divided into the following sections: Introduction; Research methodology; Literature review; Threats of validity; Future research and Conclusion. Detailed classifications (pertaining to HCI criteria and concepts, such as affordance; training, and learning techniques) have also been included based on different parameters based on the analysis of research techniques adopted by various investigators. The article concludes with a discussion of the key challenges for this HCI area along with future research directions. A review of the research outcomes from these publications underscores the potential for greater success when such HCI-based approaches are adopted during such 3D-based training interactions. Such a higher degree of success may be due to the emphasis on the design of user-friendly (and user-centric) training environments, interactions, and processes that positively impact the cognitive abilities of users and their respective learning/training experiences. We discovered data validating XR-HCI as an ascending method that brings a new paradigm by enhancing skills and safety while reducing costs and learning time through replies to three exploratory study questions. We believe that the findings of this study will aid academics in developing new research avenues that will assist XR-HCI applications to mature and become more widely adopted.
... The assembly simulation using the design mockup was the most focused stage in the whole restoration process. Generally, virtual assembly simulation is widely used in medical and industrial fields to evaluate the impact of surface interference in advance [58], and virtual assembly based on various algorithms is used in the field of Fig. 9 3D printing and conservation treatment processes for the restoration of the stone Buddha statue. a 3D-printed outputs using photopolymerization. ...
Article
Full-text available
Three-dimensional (3D) digital technology is an essential conservation method that complements the traditional restoration technique of cultural artifacts. In this study, 3D scanning, virtual restoration modeling, and 3D printing were used as a noncontact approach for restoring a damaged stone-seated Bodhisattva (stone Buddha statue). First, a 3D model with an average point density of 0.2 mm was created by integrating the fixed high-precision scanning of the exterior and the handheld mid-precision scanning of the interior excavated hole. Using a 3D deterioration map of the stone Buddha statue, the area of the missing parts was measured to be 400.1 cm ² (5.5% of the total area). Moreover, 257.1 cm ² (64.2% of the missing part area) of four parts, including the head, surrounding area of the Baekho, right ear, and right eye, for which symmetry was applicable for modeling or there could be ascertainable historical evidence for the total missing parts, was selected for restoration. The virtual restoration of the missing parts of the stone Buddha statue was performed using a haptic modeling system in the following order. First, the location of the three fragments detached from the head was determined. Next, a reference model was selected, and its symmetrization and modification with respect to the original model were conducted. Further, estimation modeling and outer shape description were achieved through historical research and consultation with experts. The heuristic-based assembly suitability of the created virtual restoration model (461 cm ³ ) was verified by design mockup printing and digital–analog simulation. In particular, to address assembly interference, the interface surface was modified and reprocessed several times. Accordingly, the volume of the final design mockup decreased by 5.2% (437 cm ³ ). Photopolymerization 3D printing technology was used for the actual restoration of the stone Buddha statue, and considering the surface roughness, the layer thickness of the material used for restoration was set at 0.10 mm. Finally, the surface of the printed output was colored to prevent yellowing and joined to the missing parts of the stone Buddha statue. This study presents a remarkable case of shifting from the traditional manual-contact method to the contactless digital method for restoring artifacts and is expected to largely contribute to increasing the usability of digital technologies in the restoration of cultural artifacts.
... The assembly simulation using the design mockup was the most focused stage in the whole restoration process. Generally, virtual assembly simulation is widely used in medical and industrial elds to evaluate the impact of surface interference in advance [58], and virtual assembly based on various algorithms is used in the eld of cultural heritage [59][60][61][62][63]. However, virtual assembly has its limitations when applied to the stone Buddha statue, the study object, whose joining surface is nonstructured and complicated. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Three-dimensional (3D) digital technology is one of the most essential conservation methods that complements the traditional technique of the restoration of cultural artifacts. In this study, 3D scanning, virtual restoration modeling, and 3D printing were used as a non-contact approach for the restoration of a damaged stone seated Bodhisattva (stone Buddha statue). First, a three-dimensional model with an average point density of 0.2 mm was created by integrating the fixed high-precision scanning of the exterior and the handheld mid-precision scanning of the interior excavated hole. Through a 3D deterioration map of the stone Buddha statue, the area of the missing parts was measured as 400.1 cm 2 (5.5% of the total area). Moreover, 257.1 cm 2 (64.2% of the missing part area) of four parts such as the head, the surrounding area of the Baekho, the right ear, and the right eye, for which symmetry was applicable for modeling or there could be ascertainable historical evidence for the total missing parts, was selected for restoration. The virtual restoration of the missing parts of the stone Buddha statue was performed using a haptic modeling system in the following order. First, the location of the three fragments detached from the head was determined. Next, the reference model was selected, and its symmetrization and modification with respect to the original were conducted. Also, estimation modeling and outer shape description were performed through historical research and consultation with experts. The created virtual-restoration model’s (461 cm 3 ) heuristic-based assembly suitability was verified by design mock-up printing and digital–analog simulation. In particular, to address the assembly interference, the interface surface was modified and reprocessed several times. Accordingly, the final design mock-up’s volume size was decreased by 5.2% (437 cm 3 ). Photopolymerization 3D printing technology was used for the actual restoration of the stone Buddha statue and the layer thickness of the material used was set as 0.10 mm considering the surface roughness. Finally, the surface of the printed output was colored to prevent yellowing and joined to the missing part of the stone Buddha statue. This study presents a great case to shift from the traditional manual-contact method to the contactless digital method for the restoration of artifacts and is expected to largely contribute to increasing the usability of digital technologies in the restoration of cultural artifacts.
... The assembly simulation using the design mockup was the most focused stage in the whole restoration process. Generally, virtual assembly simulation is widely used in medical and industrial elds to evaluate the impact of surface interference in advance [58], and virtual assembly based on various algorithms is used in the eld of cultural heritage [59][60][61][62][63]. However, virtual assembly has its limitations when applied to the stone Buddha statue, the study object, whose joining surface is nonstructured and complicated. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Three-dimensional (3D) digital technology is one of the most essential conservation methods that complements the traditional technique of the restoration of cultural artifacts. In this study, 3D scanning, virtual restoration modeling, and 3D printing were used as a non-contact approach for the restoration of a damaged stone seated Bodhisattva (stone Buddha statue). First, a three-dimensional model with an average point density of 0.2 mm was created by integrating the fixed high-precision scanning of the exterior and the handheld mid-precision scanning of the interior excavated hole. Through a 3D deterioration map of the stone Buddha statue, the area of the missing parts was measured as 400.1 cm 2 (5.5% of the total area). Moreover, 257.1 cm 2 (64.2% of the missing part area) of four parts such as the head, the surrounding area of the Baekho, the right ear, and the right eye, for which symmetry was applicable for modeling or there could be ascertainable historical evidence for the total missing parts, was selected for restoration. The virtual restoration of the missing parts of the stone Buddha statue was performed using a haptic modeling system in the following order. First, the location of the three fragments detached from the head was determined. Next, the reference model was selected, and its symmetrization and modification with respect to the original were conducted. Also, estimation modeling and outer shape description were performed through historical research and consultation with experts. The created virtual-restoration model’s (461 cm 3 ) heuristic-based assembly suitability was verified by design mock-up printing and digital–analog simulation. In particular, to address the assembly interference, the interface surface was modified and reprocessed several times. Accordingly, the final design mock-up’s volume size was decreased by 5.2% (437 cm 3 ). Photopolymerization 3D printing technology was used for the actual restoration of the stone Buddha statue and the layer thickness of the material used was set as 0.10 mm considering the surface roughness. Finally, the surface of the printed output was colored to prevent yellowing and joined to the missing part of the stone Buddha statue. This study presents a great case to shift from the traditional manual-contact method to the contactless digital method for the restoration of artifacts and is expected to largely contribute to increasing the usability of digital technologies in the restoration of cultural artifacts.
... The assembly simulation using the design mock-up was the most focused stage in the whole restoration process. In general, virtual assembly simulation is widely used in medical and industrial elds to evaluate the impact of surface interference in advance [41], and virtual assembly based on various algorithms is used in the eld of cultural heritage [42][43][44][45][46]. However, virtual assembly has its limitations when applied to the stone Buddha statue, the study object, whose joining surface is non-structured and complicated. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Three-dimensional (3D) digital technology is one of the most essential conservation methods that complements the traditional technique of the restoration of cultural artifacts. In this study, 3D scanning, virtual restoration modeling, and 3D printing were used as a non-contact approach for the restoration of a damaged stone seated Bodhisattva (stone Buddha statue). First, a three-dimensional model with an average point density of 0.2 mm was created by integrating the fixed high-precision scanning of the exterior and the handheld mid-precision scanning of the interior excavated hole. Through a 3D deterioration map of the stone Buddha statue, the area of the missing parts was measured as 400.1 cm 2 (5.5% of the total area). Moreover, 257.1 cm 2 (64.2% of the missing part area) of four parts such as the head, the surrounding area of the Baekho, the right ear, and the right eye, for which symmetry was applicable for modeling or there could be ascertainable historical evidence for the total missing parts, was selected for restoration. The virtual restoration of the missing parts of the stone Buddha statue was performed using a haptic modeling system in the following order. First, the location of the three fragments detached from the head was determined. Next, the reference model was selected, and its symmetrization and modification with respect to the original were conducted. Also, estimation modeling and outer shape description were performed through historical research and consultation with experts. The created virtual-restoration model’s (461 cm 3 ) heuristic-based assembly suitability was verified by design mock-up printing and digital–analog simulation. In particular, to address the assembly interference, the interface surface was modified and reprocessed several times. Accordingly, the final design mock-up’s volume size was decreased by 5.2% (437 cm 3 ). Photopolymerization 3D printing technology was used for the actual restoration of the stone Buddha statue and the layer thickness of the material used was set as 0.10 mm considering the surface roughness. Finally, the surface of the printed output was colored to prevent yellowing and joined to the missing part of the stone Buddha statue. This study presents a great case to shift from the traditional manual-contact method to the contactless digital method for the restoration of artifacts and is expected to largely contribute to increasing the usability of digital technologies in the restoration of cultural artifacts.
Article
Forensic anthropology has traditionally relied on two-dimensional (2D) images, such as photographs and sketches, to perform analyses, and disseminate findings. However, as 3D imaging technology advances, it has become more widely implemented into forensic anthropology analysis and practice. Teaching and learning in forensic anthropology still often relies on 2D images, but increasingly three-dimensional (3D) models are available to be used by students training in anatomy and osteology. Additionally, 3D models have been found to be beneficial to comprehension in other contexts within forensic anthropology, such as in the courtroom. The use of these models in the teaching of forensic anthropology is not yet widely implemented and more importantly, the impact on learning is not yet understood. The use of 3D imaging and visualisation in other educational contexts has seen positive results, for example in medical training. To explore this further, a study was conducted using an online activity to compare the comprehension scores of students educated using 2D textbook style images or 3D models on Sketchfab. The results showed that the use of 3D images was not detrimental to comprehension. Students using the 3D models were more consistent in their performance and reported an increase in confidence regardless of prior experience. The results of this study are of particular importance when distance learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic means that students cannot always learn in a laboratory environment.
Article
Full-text available
Based on 3D virtual fitting technology, this paper simulates and reproduces the fabric patterns and sewing processes of 12 characters’ costumes in different scenes on the basis of completing the archaeology of the characters’ costumes in the painting, so as to realize the 3D virtual sewing and digital simulation restoration of the characters costumes. This paper draws the style diagram, structure diagram and 3D virtual simulation diagram of the character costumes in the painting. The article further improves the research on the costumes of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, which has a certain reference value for the study of ancient character costumes and the promotion of Chinese garment culture. At the same time, it provides a reference for the design of artistic works such as character costumes in film and television and games.
Article
Documentation and evidence analysis are major components in forensic investigation; hence two-dimensional (2D) photographs along with three-dimensional (3D) models and data are used to accomplish this task. Data generated through 3D scanning and photogrammetry are generally visualised on a computer screen. However, spatial details are lost on the visualisation of 3D data on 2D computer screens. Virtual reality (VR) is an immersive technology that allows a user to visualise 3D information by immersing oneself into the scene. In forensics, VR was particularly introduced for the visualising and plotting distances of crime scenes; however, this technology has wider applications in the field of forensics and for court presentation. This short communication outlines the concept of VR and its potential in the field of forensics.
Article
Full-text available
Three-dimensional (3D) measurement techniques are gaining importance in many areas. The latest developments brought more cost-effective, user-friendly, and faster technologies onto the market. Which 3D techniques are suitable in the field of forensic medicine and what are their advantages and disadvantages? This wide-ranging study evaluated and validated various 3D measurement techniques for the forensic requirements. High-tech methods as well as low-budget systems have been tested and compared in terms of accuracy, ease of use, expenditure of time, mobility, cost, necessary knowhow, and their limitations. Within this study, various commercial measuring systems of the different techniques were tested. Based on the first results, one measuring system was selected for each technique, which appeared to be the most suitable for the forensic application or is already established in forensic medicine. A body of a deceased, a face and an injury of a living person, and a shoe sole were recorded by 11 people with different professions and previous knowledge using the selected systems. The results were assessed and the personal experiences were evaluated using a questionnaire. In addition, precision investigations were carried out using test objects. The study shows that the hand-held scanner and photogrammetry are very suitable for the 3D documentation of forensic medical findings. Their moderate acquisition costs and easy operation could lead to more frequent application in forensic medicine in the future. For special applications, the stripe-light scanner still has its justification due to its high precision, the flexible application area, and the high reliability. The results show that, thanks to the technological advances, the 3D measurement technology will have more and more impact on the routine of the forensic medical examination.
Article
Full-text available
Placement of pre-contoured fixation plate is a common treatment for bone fracture. Fitting of fixation plates on fractured bone can be preoperatively planned and evaluated in 3D virtual environment using virtual reality technology. However, conventional systems usually employ 2D mouse and virtual trackball as the user interface, which makes the process inconvenient and inefficient. In the paper, a preoperative planning system equipped with 3D haptic user interface is proposed to allow users to manipulate the virtual fixation plate intuitively to determine the optimal position for placement on distal medial tibia. The system provides interactive feedback forces and visual guidance based on the geometric requirements. Creation of 3D models from medical imaging data, collision detection, dynamics simulation and haptic rendering are discussed. The system was evaluated by 22 subjects. Results show that the time to achieve optimal placement using the proposed system was shorter than that by using 2D mouse and virtual trackball, and the satisfaction rating was also higher. The system shows potential to facilitate the process of fitting fixation plates on fractured bones as well as interactive fixation plate design.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Digital approaches to shape comparison and analysis play a very important role in forensic anthropology. New methods are still emerging and the whole area is experiencing a shift from traditional 2D image data to processing of 3D meshes. Therefore, the visual exploration of 3D meshes and methods for their visual comparison play a crucial role in the anthropological research. In our paper we present a novel AnthroVis tool for visual analysis of 3D mesh ensembles, which was designed in tight cooperation with the domain experts. It aims to enhance their workflow by introducing several visualizations that help to understand the similarities and differences between 3D meshes. AnthroVis in general consists of three methods, which serve as a guidance in the process of the comparison of two or more mesh ensembles. The first method, based on the idea of interactive heat plots, provides an overview of pairwise comparisons in a set of analyzed meshes and enables their filtering and sorting. The second method consists of anthropologically relevant cross-cuts indicating the variability through the set of meshes. The last method uses superimposition principle for pairs of meshes equipped with several visual enhancements indicating local mesh differences in three-dimensional space. The domain expert evaluation was performed primarily on facial images, but the tool proved to be applicable to other areas of forensic anthropology as well. Its usefulness is demonstrated by three case studies describing the real situations and problems encountered by anthropologists in forensic casework.
Article
Full-text available
Virtual Reality, an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality, gets a lot of attention in the entertainment industry. However, VR has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain, Examples are intervention planning, training and simulation. This is especially of use in medical operations, where an aesthetic outcome is important, like for facial surgeries. Alas, importing medical data into Virtual Reality devices is not necessarily trivial, in particular, when a direct connection to a proprietary application is desired. Moreover, most researcher do not build their medical applications from scratch, but rather leverage platforms like MeVisLab, MITK, OsiriX or 3D Slicer. These platforms have in common that they use libraries like ITK and VTK, and provide a convenient graphical interface. However, ITK and VTK do not support Virtual Reality directly. In this study, the usage of a Virtual Reality device for medical data under the MeVisLab platform is presented. The OpenVR library is integrated into the MeVisLab platform, allowing a direct and uncomplicated usage of the head mounted display HTC Vive inside the MeVisLab platform. Medical data coming from other MeVisLab modules can directly be connected per drag-and-drop to the Virtual Reality module, rendering the data inside the HTC Vive for immersive virtual reality inspection.
Article
Full-text available
Recent developments in virtual, augmented, and mixed reality have introduced a considerable number of new devices into the consumer market. This momentum is also affecting the medical and health care sector. Although many of the theoretical and practical foundations of virtual reality (VR) were already researched and experienced in the 1980s, the vastly improved features of displays, sensors, interactivity, and computing power currently available in devices offer a new field of applications to the medical sector and also to urology in particular. The purpose of this review article is to review the extent to which VR technology has already influenced certain aspects of medicine, the applications that are currently in use in urology, and the future development trends that could be expected.
Article
Full-text available
During fossilization, the remains of extinct organisms are subjected to taphonomic and diagenetic processes. As a result, fossils show a variety of preservational artefacts, which can range from small breaks and cracks, disarticulation and fragmentation, to the loss and deformation of skeletal structures and other hard parts. Such artefacts can present a considerable problem, as the preserved morphology of fossils often forms the basis for palaeontological research. Phylogenetic and taxonomic studies, inferences on appearance, ecology and behaviour and functional analyses of fossil organisms strongly rely on morphological information. As a consequence, the restoration of fossil morphology is often a necessary prerequisite for further analyses. Facilitated by recent computational advances, virtual reconstruction and restoration techniques offer versatile tools to restore the original morphology of fossils. Different methodological steps and approaches, aswell as software are outlined and reviewed here, and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Although the complexity of the restorative processes can introduce a degree of interpretation, digitally restored fossils can provide useful morphological information and can be used to obtain functional estimates. Additionally, the digital nature of the restored models can open up possibilities for education and outreach and further research.
Article
Full-text available
Creating digital replicas of unique biological findings or archeological artifacts has become a desirable task, which enables to spare original integrity and enhance accessibility of valuable objects to a wide range of experts as well as public. In recent years, specialized scanning devices have been challenged by performance of photogrammetry software tools capable of processing unstructured image sets and providing three-dimensional digital models in return. Simplicity, portability and affordability predetermine photogrammetry to be the method of choice if three-dimensional documentation is to be conducted at remote facilities and outdoor locations. The present paper tests technical limitations of two 3D documentation techniques – close range photogrammetry carried out in Agisoft PhotoScan software and laser scanning conducted with MicroScribe/MicroScan scanning unit while documenting pelvic bones and sacra from the Upper Paleolithic triple burial of Dolní Věstonice, Czech Republic. For photogrammetry, two different approaches to generate closed textured 3D models were confronted – alignment of partial polygonal meshes and joint processing of multiple image sets. Our results showed that photogrammetry provided high-resolution 3D models appended by photorealistic texture. In terms of depicted details, the photogrammetry-generated models were comparable to those of laser scanning. However, the robust performance of the employed algorithm was achieved at the expense of extensive time and labor demands, which for many experts may be difficult to justify. In conclusion, photogrammetry should be considered a suitable substitute for surface scanners only if conducted for occasional and/or out-of-lab documentation tasks.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This article explores the potential of virtual reality (VR) to study burglary by measuring user responses on the subjective, physiological, and behavioral levels. Furthermore, it examines the influence of individual dispositions, such as sensation seeking and self-control, on behavior during a virtual burglary event. Methods Participants, male university undergraduates ( N = 77), could freely move around a virtual neighborhood wearing a VR headset and using a game controller and were instructed to burgle one of the houses in the neighborhood. Participant movement, items stolen from the house, and heart rate (HR) were recorded throughout the burglary event. Individual dispositions were measured before, and subjective user responses were measured after, the event. Additionally, we experimentally varied whether there was an alarm sounding and participants’ beliefs about the chance of getting caught (deterrence). Results Participants reacted subjectively to the burglary event by reporting high levels of presence in the virtual environment (VE) and physiologically by showing increased HRs. In terms of behavior, high deterrence resulted in fewer items being stolen and a shorter burglary. Furthermore, sensation seekers stole more valuable items, while participants high in conscientiousness stole fewer items. Conclusions The results suggest that VEs have substantial potential for studying criminal behavior.
Article
Full-text available
Funerary taphonomy has come of age as an important field in osteoarchaeology. Its goal is to reconstruct funerary practices by using taphonomic evidence, including both evidence recorded during excavation (particularly the context and state of articulation of human remains) and evidence observable in subsequent laboratory analysis (such as element representation and traces of burning, animal modification, cut-marks, and fragmentation). This article – intended as a systematic introduction to the field – gives an overview of funerary taphonomy. It first discusses the goals and theoretical questions, and then reviews the wide range of methods available to archaeologists using human remains to investigate funerary behaviour. It finishes with a review of how taphonomists have approached particular issues, such as single burials, commingled multiple depositions, cannibalism, and the cultural reuse of human skeletal parts.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Digital slides obtained from whole slide imaging (WSI) platforms are typically viewed in two dimensions using desktop personal computer monitors or more recently on mobile devices. To the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of any studies viewing digital pathology slides in a virtual reality (VR) environment. VR technology enables users to be artificially immersed in and interact with a computer-simulated world. Oculus Rift is among the world's first consumer-targeted VR headsets, intended primarily for enhanced gaming. Our aim was to explore the use of the Oculus Rift for examining digital pathology slides in a VR environment. Methods: An Oculus Rift Development Kit 2 (DK2) was connected to a 64-bit computer running Virtual Desktop software. Glass slides from twenty randomly selected lymph node cases (ten with benign and ten malignant diagnoses) were digitized using a WSI scanner. Three pathologists reviewed these digital slides on a 27-inch 5K display and with the Oculus Rift after a 2-week washout period. Recorded endpoints included concordance of final diagnoses and time required to examine slides. The pathologists also rated their ease of navigation, image quality, and diagnostic confidence for both modalities. Results: There was 90% diagnostic concordance when reviewing WSI using a 5K display and Oculus Rift. The time required to examine digital pathology slides on the 5K display averaged 39 s (range 10-120 s), compared to 62 s with the Oculus Rift (range 15-270 s). All pathologists confirmed that digital pathology slides were easily viewable in a VR environment. The ratings for image quality and diagnostic confidence were higher when using the 5K display. Conclusion: Using the Oculus Rift DK2 to view and navigate pathology whole slide images in a virtual environment is feasible for diagnostic purposes. However, image resolution using the Oculus Rift device was limited. Interactive VR technologies such as the Oculus Rift are novel tools that may be of use in digital pathology.
Article
Full-text available
Forensic facial reconstruction(FFR) is an auxiliary technique that approximates a face in order to generate identifications. Technological development allows access to open software that can be applied to FFR. The demonstrated protocol has features from creating 3D replicas of the skull to finishing and displaying the reconstruction.PPT GUI is used for 3D scanning, and the resulting point cloud is con verted into a 3D mesh in MeshLab.The sculpture is made in Blender, according to the user’s preferred technique.The adaptation of the skin layer and finishing of the reconstruction is optimized with the use of templates.In this phase,details can also be hand-carved.Allied to basic training in the software featured in this protocol, the open access to these tools and its independence of imaging hardware other than digital cameras is an advantage to its application in forensic and research contexts.
Article
Full-text available
In order to discuss possible differences in brain anatomy between Neanderthals and early modern humans, the original antemortem appearance of fossil crania that enclosed the brain must somehow be correctly restored, as soft tissues such as the brain are generally not fossilized. However, crania are typically fractured, fragmented, and deformed due to compaction and diagenesis. Furthermore, recovery of all component fragments of fossil crania is rare. Restoration of the brain morphology of fossil crania therefore necessitates correct assembly of the available fragments, eliminating distortions, and compensating for missing parts as a first step. This paper reviews the current status of computerized reconstruction methods, then provides an overview and future directions toward digital reconstruction of fossil crania and the associated brain morphology.
Article
Full-text available
In contrast to traditional techniques, the restoration and reconstruction of fragmented skeletal remains in a digital environment is considered far less destructive and invasive to the original skeletal remains. The present study aimed to outline an optimized approach to the virtual anatomical restoration of fragmented human skulls. In addition, it aimed to examine the applicability of currently available sex determination methods in virtually restored skulls. The studied sample consisted of 268 cranial fragments which were digitized using a 3D Next Engine laser scanner and restored with Amira software functionalities. Of the various sex determination methods, traditional visual assessment and computer-aided osteometric techniques performed by the FORDISC 3.0, 3D-ID 1.0, and COLIPR 1.0 programs were tested. When confronted with sex diagnoses based on pelvic bones, the results showed that sex diagnoses from virtual skulls were more reliable if based on visual assessment rather than on computer-aided osteometric approaches, where the population-specificity of applied algorithms combined with the incompleteness and poorer preservation of restored skulls affected the final reliability rates.
Article
Full-text available
Since the pioneering early studies of the 1990s hinted at its promise as a research method, virtual reality (VR) technology has increasingly been used by social scientists. Given recent developments that have greatly enhanced realism, reduced costs, and increased possibilities for application, VR seems well on its way to become an established research tool in the social sciences. However, as with other methodological innovations, the field of criminology has been slow to catch on. To address this gap, this article explores the potential of VR as a tool for crime research. It provides readers with a brief and non-technical description of VR and its main elements and reviews several applications of VR in social scientific research that are potentially relevant for criminologists. By way of illustration, we identify and discuss in more detail different areas in which we think the field of criminology can particularly benefit from VR and offer suggestions for research. Some of the equipment available on the consumer market is also reviewed. In conjunction, the different sections should equip readers interested in applying VR in their own research with a fundamental understanding of what it entails and how it can be applied.
Article
Full-text available
The study related to human machine interaction has been done intensively to improve the ways human communication with the machine. In this paper, we present the application that uses of hand and arm gesture control to interact with a 2D medical image 3D volumetric medical visualization. User is allowed to use hand and arm gestures to navigate and manipulate the visualization with the help of Microsoft Kinect for Xbox™ as the input device. We explained the gestures that can be used to control the visualization as well as the framework and the interaction flow of our application with Kinect sensor in order to perform these operations. User will be able to perform simple navigation and manipulation to the visualization by using this application.
Article
Full-text available
Archaeology and biological anthropology share research interests and numerous methods for field work. Both profit from collaborative work and diffusion of know-how. The last two decades have seen a technical revolution in biological anthropology: Virtual Anthropology (VA). It exploits digital technologies and brings together experts from different domains. Using volume and surface data from scanning processes, VA allows applying advanced shape and form analysis, higher reproducibility, offers permanent availability of virtual objects, and easy data exchange. The six main areas of VA including digitisation, exposing hidden structures, comparing shapes and forms, reconstructing specimens, materialising electronic specimens, and sharing data are introduced in this paper. Many overlaps with archaeological problems are highlighted and potential application areas are emphasised. The article provides a 3D human cranium model and a movie flying around and through the virtual copy of a most famous archaeological object: the Venus from Willendorf, Austria.
Article
Full-text available
This article describes two new algorithms that, when integrated into an existing semi-automatic virtual bone fragment reconstruction system, allow for more accurate anatomic restoration. Furthermore, they spare the user the painstaking task of positioning each fragment in 3D, which can be extremely time consuming and difficult. The virtual interactive environment gives the user capabilities to influence the reconstruction process and that allows idiosyncratic geometric surface reconstruction scenarios. Coarse correspondences specified by the user are refined by a new alignment functional that allows geometric surface variations such as ridges and valleys to more heavily influence the final alignment solution. Integration of these algorithms into the system provides improved reconstruction accuracy, which is critical for increasing the likelihood of satisfactory clinical outcome after the injury.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the method of virtually and physically reconstructing the missing part of a badly damaged medieval skull by means of reverse engineering, computer‐aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP) techniques. Design/methodology/approach Laser scanning data were used to create the 3D model of the damaged skull. Starting from this digital model, a virtual reconstruction of the missing part of the skull, based on the ideal symmetry with respect to the mid‐sagittal plane, was achieved in a CAD environment. Finally, the custom‐designed model was directly fabricated by means of the RP process. Findings The result shows that the designed missing part of the skull fits very well with the existing skeletal remains. The final physical assembly of the prototyped element on the damaged skull was tested, restoring it to its whole original shape. Research limitations/implications The entire process was time‐consuming and may be applied just to the most representative skeletal remains. Practical implications The method allows accurate fabrication of the missing part of the skull to be joined with the original skeletal remains. The advantage of using this technique is that the joining operation can be carried out without any need of supplementary connecting material, such as glue or plaster, to fix together the two parts. Originality/value The reversible and non‐invasive method improves the restoration process, reduces the risk of damage to the skeletal structure and allows reversion to the original repair as it was before.
Article
Full-text available
Computed tomography is presently one of the most powerful analytical tools available to investigate anatomy and morphology in palaeontological contexts. Apart from its important scientific implications, computed tomography must also be viewed as a tool to analyse the conditions of preservation of fossil remains, to plan restoration processes, and to consider fossils in terms of cultural heritage. A densitometric analysis is necessary in order to check the different geological components, the presence of infiltrations within the fossil volume, as well as the extension and presence of fractures and/or weakened surfaces. Furthermore, biomedical imaging allows non-invasive procedures of reconstruction and reproduction of the original morphology of the specimens. Digital anthropology must also be considered in view of the deontological problems associated with fossil record management and with the diffusion of science.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The perception and recognition of spatial layout of objects within a three-dimensional setting was studied using a virtual reality (VR) simulation. The subjects' task was to detect the movement of one of several objects across the surface of a tabletop after a retention interval during which time all objects were occluded from view. Previous experiments have contrasted performance in this task after rotations of the observers' observation point with rotations of just the objects themselves. They found that subjects who walk or move to new observation points perform better than those whose observation point remains constant. This superior performance by mobile observers has been attributed to the influence of non-visual information derived from the proprioceptive or vestibular systems. Our experimental results show that purely visual information derived from simulated movement can also improve subjects' performance, although the performance differences manifested themselves primarily in improved response times rather than accuracy of the responses themselves.
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskéri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum.
Article
Full-text available
A facial image was reconstructed from the skull, part of a complete skeleton found in woodland, of a male person who hanged himself from a tree. In addition, video superimposition was carried out with antemortem photographs of a person suspected of being the victim, and a good match was obtained. In a further case, a cheaper video-transparency superimposition was carried out, with identity later being confirmed on the basis of dental records. The techniques and the problems encountered are discussed. According to our experience, 3D computer reconstruction and video superimposition have a useful role in the process of identification, particularly in the early stages of an investigation and when other more definitive methods may not be available.
Article
Objective: Nowadays, post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) has become an integral part of Forensic practice. The purpose of the study was to determine PMCT impact on diagnosis of the cause of death within the context of the external examination of the body, when autopsy has, at first, not been requested. Material and methods: We reviewed the records of 145 cases for which unenhanced PMCT was performed in addition to the external examination of the body from January 2014 to July 2015 at the Institute of Forensic medicine in Strasbourg (France). We confronted final reports from forensic pathologist to the corresponding PMCT reports. Data were collected in a contingency table and the impact of PMCT on the final conclusions of the forensic pathologist was evaluated via a Chi2test. Results: PMCT results significantly impact the final conclusions of forensic pathologist (p<0,001). In some cases, PMCT permits etiological diagnosis by revealing a cause of death hidden from external examination (mainly natural death) or by supporting the clinical findings of the forensic pathologist. In other cases (traumatic death), PMCT enables fast and exhaustive lesion assessment. Lastly, there are situations where PMCT may be ineffective (intoxication, hanging or some natural deaths). Conclusion: Performing PMCT within the context of the external examination of the body when autopsy has, at first, not been requested could bring significant benefits in diagnosing the cause of death. The impact of PMCT varies depending on the circumstances of death.
Article
Toolmark analysis involves examining marks created on an object to identify the likely tool responsible for creating those marks (e.g., a knife). Although a potentially powerful forensic tool, knife mark analysis is still in its infancy and the validation of imaging techniques as well as quantitative approaches is ongoing. This study builds on previous work by simulating real-world stabbings experimentally and statistically exploring quantitative toolmark properties, such as cut mark angle captured by micro-CT imaging, to predict the knife responsible. In Experiment 1 a mechanical stab rig and two knives were used to create 14 knife cut marks on dry pig ribs. The toolmarks were laser and micro-CT scanned to allow for quantitative measurements of numerous toolmark properties. The findings from Experiment 1 demonstrated that both knives produced statistically different cut mark widths, wall angle and shapes. Experiment 2 examined knife marks created on fleshed pig torsos with conditions designed to better simulate real-world stabbings. Eight knives were used to generate 64 incision cut marks that were also micro-CT scanned. Statistical exploration of these cut marks suggested that knife type, serrated or plain, can be predicted from cut mark width and wall angle. Preliminary results suggest that knives type can be predicted from cut mark width, and that knife edge thickness correlates with cut mark width. An additional 16 cut marks walls were imaged for striation marks using scanning electron microscopy with results suggesting that this approach might not be useful for knife mark analysis. Results also indicated that observer judgements of cut mark shape were more consistent when rated from micro-CT images than light microscopy images. The potential to combine micro-CT data, medical grade CT data and photographs to develop highly realistic virtual models for visualisation and 3D printing is also demonstrated. This is the first study to statistically explore simulated real-world knife marks imaged by micro-CT to demonstrate the potential of quantitative approaches in knife mark analysis. Findings and methods presented in this study are relevant to both forensic toolmark researchers as well as practitioners. Limitations of the experimental methodologies and imaging techniques are discussed, and further work is recommended.
Conference Paper
Ungrounded haptic devices for virtual reality (VR) applications lack the ability to convincingly render the sensations of a grasped virtual object's rigidity and weight. We present Grabity, a wearable haptic device designed to simulate kinesthetic pad opposition grip forces and weight for grasping virtual objects in VR. The device is mounted on the index finger and thumb and enables precision grasps with a wide range of motion. A unidirectional brake creates rigid grasping force feedback. Two voice coil actuators create virtual force tangential to each finger pad through asymmetric skin deformation. These forces can be perceived as gravitational and inertial forces of virtual objects. The rotational orientation of the voice coil actuators is passively aligned with the real direction of gravity through a revolute joint, causing the virtual forces to always point downward. This paper evaluates the performance of Grabity through two user studies, finding promising ability to simulate different levels of weight with convincing object rigidity. The first user study shows that Grabity can convey various magnitudes of weight and force sensations to users by manipulating the amplitude of the asymmetric vibration. The second user study shows that users can differentiate different weights in a virtual environment using Grabity.
Article
While assessing skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains, forensic anthropologists are frequently presented with fractured, fragmented, or otherwise modified skeletal remains. The examination of evidence and the mechanisms of skeletal injuries often require that separate osseous elements be permanently or temporarily reassembled or reconstructed. If not dealt with properly, such reconstructions may impede accurate interpretation of the evidence. Nowadays, routine forensic examinations increasingly incorporate digital imaging technologies. As a result, a variety of PC-assisted imaging techniques, collectively referred to as the virtual approach, have been made available to treat fragmentary skeletal remains. The present study employs a 3D virtual approach to assess mechanisms of skeletal injuries, and provides an expert opinion of causative tools in three forensic cases involving human skeletal remains where integrity was compromised by multiple peri- or postmortem alterations resulting in fragmentation and/or incompleteness. Three fragmentary skulls and an incomplete set of foot bones with evidence of perimortem fractures (gunshot wounds) and sharp force trauma (saw marks) were digitized using a desktop laser scanner. The digitized skeletal elements were reassembled in the virtual workspace using functionalities incorporated in AMIRA® version 5.0 software, and simultaneously in real physical space by traditional reconstructive approaches. For this study, the original skeletal fragments were substituted by replicas built by 3D printing. Inter-method differences were quantified by mesh-based comparison after the physically reassembled elements had been re-digitized. Observed differences were further reinforced by visualizing local variations using colormaps and other advanced 3D visualization techniques. In addition, intra-operator and inter-operator error was computed. The results demonstrate that the importance of incorporating the virtual approach into the assessment of skeletal injuries increases with the complexity and state of preservation of a forensic case. While in relatively simple cases the virtual approach is a welcome extension to a traditional approach, which merely facilitates the analysis, in more complex and extensively fragmentary cases such as multiple gunshot wounds or dismemberment, the virtual approach can be a crucial step in applying the principles of gunshot wounds or sharp force traumatic mechanisms. The unrestricted manipulation with digital elements enabling limitless repairs and adjustments to a “best-case scenario” also produced smaller inter-operator variation in comparison to the traditional approach.
Article
This research presents a new software, “Fragmento”, for accurate analyses of fragmentary human skeletal remains and facilitation of three-dimensional (3D) fragmentary matching and full bone reconstruction. The framework utilizes the power of statistical bone atlases to create 3D templates for bone matching and to interpolate missing anatomy for full bone reconstruction. Developed tool has enhanced features allowing the user to visualize, review and scale all scanned skeletal remains within a 3D statistical template, merging accepted registered elements to provide a fully reconstructed bone. A three stage validation was performed on Fragmento: Stage I and II used simulated fragmentary data which was compared to full bones with an error less than 3 mm; Stage III compared output from geographic information system (GIS) software with comparable results. This validation process demonstrates the robustness and utility of Fragmento as tool for 3D fragmentary bone matching and full bone reconstruction.
Article
The conservation and valorization of our cultural heritage has become one of the priorities of the international community. Accordingly, many technological applications are being developed with a cultural object as the focal theme of interest. This paper presents a detailed account of the construction of a computerized model of the Roman Theater of Byblos, one of oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Central to the paper is a historical study, which yielded the formation of a hypothesis on the original shape and details of the theater, which today retains very little of its original structure. Another major part of the paper is the detailed description of the procedures for the creation of both a virtual and augmented reality application of the Roman theater.
Chapter
The use of 3D datasets and models has become commonplace in a number of heritage-related disciplines. While 3D data presents significant advantages over traditional means of recording and studying human remains, long-term access and preservation of such data presents an additional challenge. This chapter highlights the specific advantages of 3D datasets for the study of human remains and discusses why such datasets should be retained and made accessible in the long term. Data storage is then discussed in relation to general digital preservation principles and good practice, including the role played by specific file formats, data standards and metadata. The role that specialized digital repositories can play in preserving data is also highlighted, particularly in regard to the need for ongoing data management and long-term access.
Article
With the advancement of virtual reality (VR) technologies, medical students may now study complex anatomical structures in three-dimensional (3-D) virtual environments, without relying solely upon high cost, unsustainable cadavers or animal models. When coupled with a haptic input device, these systems support direct manipulation and exploration of the anatomical structures. Yet, prior studies provide inconclusive support for direct manipulation beyond passive viewing in virtual environments. In some cases, exposure to an “optimal view” appears to be the main source of learning gains, regardless of participants’ control of the system. In other cases, direct manipulation provides benefits beyond passive viewing. To address this issue, we compared medical students who either directly manipulated a virtual anatomical structure (inner ear) or passively viewed an interaction in a stereoscopic, 3-D environment. To ensure equal exposure to optimal views we utilized a yoked-pair design, such that for each participant who manipulated the structure a single matched participant viewed a recording of this interaction. Results indicate that participants in the manipulation group were more likely to successful generate (i.e., draw) the observed structures at posttest than the viewing group. Moreover, manipulation benefited students with low spatial ability more than students with high spatial ability. These results suggest that direct manipulation of the virtual environment facilitated embodiment of the anatomical structure and helped participants maintain a clear frame of reference while interacting, which particularly supported participants with low spatial ability.
Article
The present paper aims to test performances of semi-automatic tools for mesh-to-mesh processing while assessing sex and ancestry in documented human crania. The studied sample of 80 human crania, which originated in two documented Brazilian collections (São Paulo, Brazil) was digitized using photogrammetry and laser scanning. 3D cranial morphology was quantified by computing inter-mesh dissimilarity measures using in-house freeware FIDENTIS Analyst (www.fidentis.com). Numerical outputs were further processed using Discriminant Function Analysis and Canonical Variant Analysis in order to classify models into sex and ancestry groups. In addition, cranial morphology was described by a set of 37 landmarks, processed by a Procrustes analysis and confronted with the inter-mesh comparison. Patterns of sexual dimorphism and ancestral group-specific variation were interpreted using average meshes and further emphasized by employing advanced visualization graphics. The mesh-to-mesh processing was capable to detect shape differences related to sex and ancestry. The highest accuracy levels for sex determination were obtained for meshes representing the facial skeleton and the supraorbital region. For both, analysis correctly assigned 82.5% of the crania. Ancestry-related differences were manifested primarily in the global cranial features (observed accuracy rates reaching 63%). The advanced visualization tools provided a highly informative insight into sexual dimorphism and ancestry-related variation. While in the current state the technique cannot be considered suitable for being implemented into the everyday forensic practice, the extent of automatization proved to be perspective, especially for assessing skeletal features that cannot be properly quantified using discrete variables. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1344622316300980
Chapter
The availability of computed tomographic (CT) scans of fossil crania has opened a new chapter in paleoneurology. CT scans have made it possible to create virtual imprints of the braincase—so called endocasts—on the computer, even when the endocranial cavity is filled with stone matrix. CT data have also become invaluable for reconstructing partially complete or damaged fossils. Recent methodological advancements have made it possible to analyse endocranial shape using multivariate statistics and study the evolution and development of the endocranium quantitatively. Here I review (1) methods for quantifying endocranial shape, and (2) techniques of virtual fossil reconstruction. I show how these novel methods can be applied in paleoneurology, and discuss advantages and limitations of these approaches.
Article
Eye tracking has a long history in medical and psychological research as a tool for recording and studying human visual behavior. Real-time gaze-based text entry can also be a powerful means of communication and control for people with physical disabilities. Following recent technological advances and the advent of affordable eye trackers, there is a growing interest in pervasive attention-aware systems and interfaces that have the potential to revolutionize mainstream human-technology interaction. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the state-of-the art in eye tracking technology and gaze estimation. We discuss challenges involved in using a perceptual organ, the eye, as an input modality. Examples of real life applications are reviewed, together with design solutions derived from research results. We also discuss how to match the user requirements and key features of different eye tracking systems to find the best system for each task and application.
Article
Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases that are rarely encountered in modern medical practice. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, this book provides essential text and materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. It also provides time depth to our understanding of the effect of disease on past human populations.
Article
Background Virtual-reality (VR) based simulation techniques offer an efficient and low cost alternative to conventional surgery training. This article describes a VR training and assessment system in laparoscopic rectum surgery.Methods To give a realistic visual performance of interaction between membrane tissue and surgery tools, a generalized cylinder based collision detection and a multi-layer mass–spring model are presented. A dynamic assessment model is also designed for hierarchy training evaluation.ResultsWith this simulator, trainees can operate on the virtual rectum with both visual and haptic sensation feedback simultaneously. The system also offers surgeons instructions in real time when improper manipulation happens. The simulator has been tested and evaluated by ten subjects.Conclusions This prototype system has been verified by colorectal surgeons through a pilot study. They believe the visual performance and the tactile feedback are realistic. It exhibits the potential to effectively improve the surgical skills of trainee surgeons and significantly shorten their learning curve. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Book
Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice-winner of a 2015 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from The Text and Academic Authors Association-approaches forensic anthropology through an innovative style using current practices and real case studies drawn from the varied experiences, backgrounds, and practices of working forensic anthropologists. This text guides the reader through all aspects of human remains recovery and forensic anthropological analysis, presenting principles at a level that is appropriate for those new to the field, while at the same time incorporating evolutionary, biomechanical, and other theoretical foundations for the features and phenomena encountered in forensic anthropological casework. Attention is focused primarily on the most recent and scientifically valid applications commonly employed by working forensic anthropologists. Readers will therefore learn about innovative techniques in the discipline, and aspiring practitioners will be prepared by understanding the necessary background needed to work in the field today. Instructors and students will find Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice comprehensive, practical, and relevant to the modern discipline of forensic anthropology. Winner of a 2015 Most Promising New Textbook Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association Focuses on modern methods, recent advances in research and technology, and current challenges in the science of forensic anthropology Addresses issues of international relevance such as the role of forensic anthropology in mass disaster response and human rights investigations Includes chapter summaries, topicoriented case studies, keywords, and reflective questions to increase active student learning.
Article
Paleoanthropologists are confronted by a steadily growing number of fossil specimens exhibiting diversity in both apparent morphology and state of preservation. Studying this material to answer phylogenetic and functional questions requires extensive qualitative assessment accompanied by quantitative evaluation of large volumes of data. Over the past decade, major new developments in both respects have been made possible through the advent of medical imaging technologies, most notably computer tomography (CT), and through concomitant progress in computer graphics technology. In paleoanthropology, these techniques offer noninvasive tools for visualization of inaccessible regions of the skeleton, computer-assisted reconstruction of fragmentary fossil specimens, and morphometric or biomechanical analysis of data derived from CT images. A series of CT based studies has already yielded new insights into character differences between fossil hominid species. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
As virtual anthropology is becoming more and more ubiquitous, so are the means to acquire, process and analyze 3D data. Among these means, surface scanners have gained a prominent place for a variety of reasons that make them useful to anthropologists. While surface scanning has several advantages over other 3D devices (digitizers, volume scanners etc.), it does come with one obvious drawback - internal structures remain invisible. Still, surface scanning is emerging as a convenient tool for anthropometric and especially paleoanthropological research. It extends our ability to quantify phenotypic variation, its non-destructive nature contributes to specimen conservation, and it can become an integral part of virtual anthropology, thus doing more than just "scratching the surface".
Article
Forensic investigations frequently utilize facial reconstructions/approximations to stimulate recognition and identification. Over the past 25 years, many computer-based systems have been developed, and with the recent rapid advances in medical imaging and computer technology, the current systems claim high levels of efficiency, objectivity, and flexibility. The history of computerized facial approximation/reconstruction is presented, along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the technologies. Evaluation of the accuracy and reproducibility of these new systems is critical for the future of computerized facial reconstruction/approximation to become accepted by the wider forensic science field. In addition, constant re-evaluation and assessment will promote further improvement and increase reliability.
Article
Over the last several years, professionals from many different fields have come to the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (H.I.T.L) to discover and learn about virtual environments. In general, they are impressed by their experiences and express the tremendous potential the tool has in their respective fields. But the potentials are always projected far in the future, and the tool remains just a concept. This is justifiable because the quality of the visual experience is so much less than what people are used to seeing; high definition television, breathtaking special cinematographic effects and photorealistic computer renderings. Instead, the models in virtual environments are very simple looking; they are made of small spaces, filled with simple or abstract looking objects of little color distinctions as seen through displays of noticeably low resolution and at an update rate which leaves much to be desired. Clearly, for most applications, the requirements of precision have not been met yet with virtual interfaces as they exist today. However, there are a few domains where the relatively low level of the technology could be perfectly appropriate. In general, these are applications which require that the information be presented in symbolic or representational form. Having studied architecture, I knew that there are moments during the early part of the design process when conceptual decisions are made which require precisely the simple and representative nature available in existing virtual environments.
Article
Non-invasive documentation methods such as surface scanning and radiological imaging are gaining in importance in the forensic field. These three-dimensional technologies provide digital 3D data, which are processed and handled in the computer. However, the sense of touch gets lost using the virtual approach. The haptic device enables the use of the sense of touch to handle and feel digital 3D data. The multifunctional application of a haptic device for forensic approaches is evaluated and illustrated in three different cases: the representation of bone fractures of the lower extremities, by traffic accidents, in a non-invasive manner; the comparison of bone injuries with the presumed injury-inflicting instrument; and in a gunshot case, the identification of the gun by the muzzle imprint, and the reconstruction of the holding position of the gun. The 3D models of the bones are generated from the Computed Tomography (CT) images. The 3D models of the exterior injuries, the injury-inflicting tools and the bone injuries, where a higher resolution is necessary, are created by the optical surface scan. The haptic device is used in combination with the software FreeForm Modelling Plus for touching the surface of the 3D models to feel the minute injuries and the surface of tools, to reposition displaced bone parts and to compare an injury-causing instrument with an injury. The repositioning of 3D models in a reconstruction is easier, faster and more precisely executed by means of using the sense of touch and with the user-friendly movement in the 3D space. For representation purposes, the fracture lines of bones are coloured. This work demonstrates that the haptic device is a suitable and efficient application in forensic science. The haptic device offers a new way in the handling of digital data in the virtual 3D space.
Article
Facial reconstruction has until now been carried out by the sculpting technique. This method involves building a face with clay or other suitable material on to a skull or its cast, taking into account appropriate facial thickness measurements together with information provided by anthropologists such as approximate age, sex, race and other individual idiosyncrasies. A method for facial reconstruction is presented using 3-D computer graphics and is compared with the manual technique. The computer method involves initially digitising a skull using a laser scanner and video camera interfaced to a computer. A face, from a data bank which has previously digitised facial surfaces, is then placed over the skull in the form of a mask and the skin thickness is altered to conform with the underlying skull. The advantage of the computer method is its speed and flexibility. We have shown that the computer method for reconstructing a face is feasible and furthermore has the advantage over the manual technique of speed and flexibility. Nevertheless, the technique is far from perfect. Further facial thickness data needs collecting and the method requires evaluation using both known control skulls and later unknown remains.