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Cultivation and Medicinal Properties of Giloy [Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers]

Authors:
  • CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Abstract

Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers (family: Menispermaceae) commonly known as “Amrita” or” Guduchi” of “Giloy” a climbing shrub found throughout India. The stems and roots are an integral constituent of several compound preparations. The species is endemic to India and is common throughout tropical and subtropical zones at an altitude of 600 m. The plant distributed throughout the tropical region of India up to 1,200m above sea level from Kumaon to Assam, in north extending through West Bengal, Bihar, Deccan, Kankan, Karnataka and Kerala. It is indigenous to areas of India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, China, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Borneo, Vietnam, Bangladesh, North Africa, and South Africa. 7-10 It is typically grown in deciduous and dry forests at elevations up to 1000fit.
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ISSN 972-7027X
AGROBIOS NEWSLETTER Publishing Date || 01 June 2019
VOL. NO. XVIII, ISSUE NO. 01 57
MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS
Chemical compound Crop Plant part Effects
Sulphoraphane Broccoli Broccoli sprouts Shows anti cancerous property
Etanol ,3 hydroxy-
2-Butanone, 2,3-butanediol
Broccoli Broccoli sprouts Gives characteristic flavor
Apiole Parsley Seeds and leaves Gives characteristic taste and flavor and Consumed
only in small amounts otherwise, it is toxic
Furocoumarins Parsnip Roots Carcinogenic but used to melanise
depigmented skin and in treating psoriasis
Oxalic acid Amaranthus,
Rhubarb,
spinach
Leaves Forms stones (calcium oxalate) in urinary bladder
Saponins Spinach Leaves Glucosides with foaming characters help to reduce
blood cholesterol, reduce the risk of cancer. But in
the high amount they may haemolyse red blood cells
Insulin Jerusalem
artichoke
Tubers Preferred by diabetic patients
Oleo stearic acid Kakrol Seeds Synthesis of lipids
Triterpenoids saponin kakrol Roots Used as a substitute for soap
Conclusion: Vegetables provide basic nutrition
that keeps cells young and vital. Eating vegetables
helps to reduce neuronal degeneration in the body.
The potential importance of these compounds
in reducing cancer risk is also supported by over-
whelming epidemiological evidence showing a
protective effect of consumption of vegetables on
cancer risk. So, we must give more importance to
the consumption of fresh vegetables along with
chemical compounds present in it.
MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS
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38. Cultivation and Medicinal Properties of
Giloy [Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers]
ASHISH KUMAR, JNANESHA A. C.*AND SOUDAMALLA NAGARAJU
*CSIR- Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Centre, Boduppal,
Hyderabad-500092, India
Corresponding Authors email: jnangowda@gmail.com; devashish121@gmail.com
Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers (family:
Menispermaceae) commonly known as “Amrita”
or” Guduchi” of “Giloy” a climbing shrub found
throughout India. The roots and stems contain
several secondary metabolites having curative
properties. The species is endemic to India and
is common throughout tropical and subtropical
zones at an altitude of 600 m. The plant distributed
throughout the tropical region of India up to 1,200m
above sea level from Kumaon to Assam, in north
extending through West Bengal, Bihar, Deccan,
Kankan, Karnataka and Kerala. It is indigenous to
areas of India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, China, Thailand,
Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Borneo, Vietnam,
Bangladesh, North Africa, and South Africa. 7-10 It
is typically grown in deciduous and dry forests at
elevations up to 1000fit.
Botanical Description
The tree is a large, a deciduous plant that grows
to 1 meter (3.3 feet) high and 0.5meters (1.65 feet)
wide extensively spreading climbing shrub with
several elongated twining branches. Giloy Leaves
simple, exstipulate, alternate, long petioles up to 15
cm long, pulvinate, roundish, both at the base and
apex with the basal one longer and twisted partially
and halfway around. Lamina ovate-cordate or
broadly ovate, 15-20 cm long and 10-15 cm broad, 7
nerved & deeply cordate at base, pubescent above,
membranous, whitish tomatoes with a prominent
reticulum beneath. T. cordifolia flowers are having
unisexual, having greenish yellow on axillary and
terminal racemes and have clustered Male flowers
and solitary female. Sepals 6, free in two series of
three each, the outer ones are smaller than the
inner. Petals 6 free is smaller than sepals, obovate
and membranous. Fruits aggregate of 1-3, ovoid
smooth drupelets on a thick stalk with subterminal
style scars, scarlet or orange coloured.
Medicinal Properties of Tinospora cordifolia
This plant has great potential for developing useful
Publishing Date || 01 June 2019 AGROBIOS NEWSLETTER
58 VOL. NO. XVIII, ISSUE NO. 01
MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS
drugs. The leaves extract has shown anti-HIV 1
activity. Thus, it can be said that biological extract
from this plant will certainly be helpful in protecting
and treating various viral diseases in humans. T.
cordifolia has an importance in traditional ayurvedic
medicine used for ages in the treatment of fever,
chronic diarrhea, cancer, jaundice, dysentery, bone
fracture, pain, asthma, skin disease, poisonous
insect, snake bite, eye disorders. A dry bark of T.
cordifolia has anti-spasmodic, antipyretic, anti-
allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-leprotic
properties. T. cordifolia contains with high fibre
(15.8%), protein (4.5%-11.2%), carbohydrate
(61.66%), and low fat (3.1%). T. cordifolia nutritive
value is 292.54 calories per 100 grams. It has high
potassium (0.845%), high chromium (0.006%),
sufficient iron (0.28%) and sufficient calcium
(0.131%), important in various regulatory functions.
FIG: Plant stem and leaves of Tinospora cordifolia
Cultivation Technology
The T. cordifolia plants grow in the tropical and
subtropical climate. The plants grow well in Light-
medium sandy loam soil rich in organic matter
and with adequate drainage, are suitable for its
cultivation (Kumar and Jnanesha, 2017). It does not
tolerate high rainfall or waterlogged conditions. The
land is ploughed, harrowed, and made weed-free.
A basal dose of FYM (farmyard manure) 10 tonnes
per hectare and half dose of nitrogen (75 kg) are
applied at the time of land preparation. T. cordifolia
can be propagated by seeds and also vegetative
cuttings. Stem cuttings are the best planting
material for raising a commercial crop. The cuttings
can be obtained from mother plants in May–June.
The cuttings of the small finger thickness with 6
to 8-inch length long stem having 2 or 3 nodes are
used. The healthy plants stem cuttings are sown
directly in the ready field. Promotion of rooting of
shoot cuttings by exogenous auxins application in
several species has been reported (Hartmann et
al., 1997). The Nursery method for plants cutting
planted in the poly bags of 4-inch ×6-inch size
during Feb-March. The poly bags filled with mud,
sand and dry cow dung or vermicompost in the
ratio 1:1:1. The rooting of the cuttings takes almost
15 to 25 days. The cuttings of T. cordifolia will be
ready for planting into the main field by this time
in the month of May-June. About 2500 cuttings
are required for plantation in one hectare of land.
Optimum spacing of 3 m × 3 m is recommended
for better yield. The plant requires support to grow,
which can be provided by raising wooden stakes
or trellis. Already growing shrubs or trees can
also support the plants. It’s good some support
preferably trees like Neem and Mango trees. Such
plants are supposed to possess better medicinal
values. The crop is grown under rain-fed conditions.
However, occasional irrigation during extremes of
cold and hot weather may help the crop survive
adverse conditions. The stem is harvested during
autumn when it develops to a diameter of more
than 2.5 cm. Basal part is left for further growth. The
stem should be cut into small pieces and dried in
the shade. It can be stored in gunny bags and kept
in cool and airy storage godowns. Stem bark peels
off even by touch. Thus, stem should be cut very
cautiously as peeled stem decays very soon. On an
average farmer are getting an average yield of 8-10
q./ha and the rate for a kg. of dried stem ranges
from Rs. 25-35.
Conclusion: T. cordifolia has high medicinal
value in the world and is also the number one
recommended natural herb for the Indian system
of medicine (ISM). In fact, in Egyptians, Chinese,
Indian, Greek, Roman and Hebrew have given the
high status of importance to this medicinal property.
There is a needed to develop more agriculture
technologies for the T. cordifolia, by which farmers
can earn more profit by cultivating the T. cordifolia
as medicinal crop in the future.
References
Ashish Kumar and Jnanesha. A.C., 2017. Cultivation,
Utilization and Role of Medicinal Plants in
Tradition Medicine in Deccan Eco-climate. Int. J.
on Agric. Sci., 8 (1): 98-103.
Hartmann H.T, Kester D.E, Davies F.T and Geneve
RL. 1997. Plant propagation principles and
practices. 6th edn. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.,
New Delhi. pp.276-238.
Singh J, Sinha K, Sharma A, Mishra N.P and Khanuja
S.P., 2003. Traditional uses of Tinospora cordifolia
(Guduchi) J. Med Aromat plant Sci; 25: 748-51.
... It is also listed as a vegetable in the wealth of India and in Indian health Ministry's comprehensive compilation on medicinal plants (MP's). Sitosterol, pregnane glycosides, oleic acid, hexadeconic acid, flavones glycosides, megastigman glycosides, bitter principles, alkaloids, saponins (Naingade 2013) and various flavonoids are the key Phytochemical ingredients present in Caralluma fimbriata and has become an extremely useful type of "portable food" It is even called as "famine food", since it helps fight off hunger in times of desperate need of food for those who had to travel long distances (Jnanesha and Kumar 2019b) and it also used in weight loss management. ...
... The species is endemic to India and is common throughout tropical and subtropical zones at an altitude of 600 m. The tree is large, deciduous plant that grows upto 1m height and 0.5 m wide extensively spreading climbing shrub with several elongated twining branches (Kumar et al. 2019b). ...
... It is indigenous to areas of India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, China, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Borneo, Vietnam, Bangladesh, North Africa, and South Africa. It is typically grown in deciduous and dry forests at elevations up to 1000 feet (Kumar and Jnanesha, 2019b). T. cordifolia can be propagated by seeds and also vegetative cuttings. ...
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