ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Human relationships in societies consisted of face-to-face relationships until the middle of the 20’th century. Throughout their lives, people have established social relationships with a limited number of people, sharing their sadness and happiness with them. The great technological developments began with the invention of the transistor in the mid-20th century allowed development of portable communication tools and caused great changes in the way of communication of the societies. The virtual chat culture, which started with the introduction of the Internet into the houses, has reached the dimension of media sharing with the spread of mobile devices. Everyone in society has got the chance to become mediatic and famous, and many of them have started to make an effort for it. However, statistical and medical researches have made in recent years that this attractive media is addictive. Research has been conducted on changes in chemical movements and physiological behavior of individuals’ brain and nervous system. In this study, statistical information of the year 2018 on the use of internet and social media in the world are presented. In addition, the concept of addiction, addicted behavior and symptoms were examined. Research made about substances which cause biological and psychological addiction like alcohol, cigarettes and pills and chemicals which affect on behaviour of individuals such as dopamine. Symptoms of mania, depression and bipolar disorder were examined, and similarities between behaviors of individuals using social media for a long time and individuals who are addicted and sick were examined. Keywords: Social Media, Addiction, Dopamine Loop
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... As social exclusion lessens a sense of wellbeing (Sjåstad et al., 2021), the need for inclusivity and connection may turn users towards social media platforms. Moreover, becoming influenced by a group may be another reason for mimicking social media behaviors (Aral, 2014;Macït et al., 2018). ...
... While academics indicate a linkage between digital disconnection and wellbeing (Baumer, 2013;Bélair-Gagnon et al., 2022;Bratsberg & Moen, 2015;Karppi et al., 2021;Syvertsen & Enli, 2020), whether or not users would opt to refrain from using digital media platforms remains contentious. The users' decisions may be guided by enforced digital usage (González-López et al., 2021), coerced digital usage (Barassi, 2019), or digital compulsions, as well as by the dopamine cycle which often centers on anxiety while anticipating rewards from digital activities (Macït et al., 2018). Therefore, whether disconnection and detox proposals are practical enough in the current mediatized scenario where digital use may not be an option but a necessity or compulsion requires further inquiry. ...
... Further, this particular finding supports previous literature which suggests that digital coercion or enforcement (Barassi, 2019;González-López et al., 2021) serve as a deterrent to withdrawal. Additionally, digital compulsions that push the reward-seeking dopamine cycle through digital activities may dissuade users from digital disconnection (Macït et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how users perceive their wellbeing amid the risks associated with digital media use in Norway. According to the literature, some of these risks include digital dependence, online privacy, scams, thefts, information misuse, and harassment. To expand knowledge on how these and other digital risks are construed by users, this study addresses the following research questions: What implications do digital risks have on users’ perceived sense of wellbeing? What are the solutions proposed by users to manage these risks? Methodologically, the inquiry is led through a qualitative approach comprising 17 semi-structured in-depth interviews of university students in Norway. The investigation centers on an interpretative phenomenological analysis. This study contributes to the existing literature by empirically evaluating the notion of digital wellbeing in the everyday choices of university students, thereby comprehending their safety concerns and how they manage online risks while exploring solutions to combat the risks of digital usage. The study adds value to the present literature on digital wellbeing by juxtaposing digital risks with the construct of wellbeing in digitalized societies.
... Embora as redes sociais proporcionem tais vantagens, além da possibilidade de engajamento e sentimentos instantâneos de conexão e de bem-estar, muitos estudos relacionam o seu uso prolongado à consequências negativas as quais nunca foram alertadas pelas empresas detentoras de redes sociais: ou seja, como causadoras de vício, sintomas de dependência, baixa autoestima, redução de produtividade, problemas de sono, deterioramento da saúde física e problemas psicopatológicos, como níveis altos de Normalmente, os sintomas manifestados são: foco exacerbado nesta atividade, modificações no humor, tolerância à alta prática de acesso às redes sociais, momentos de abstinência, conflitos em convívios sociais e até a desvalorização de relacionamentos da vida real, por exemplo (VAGHEFI et al., 2020). Comparativamente, a abstinência, relativa ao vício em redes sociais, possui sintomas parecidos ao da abstenção em situações de vício de álcool, de cigarro e outras drogas (KIRCABURUN et al., 2019;MACİT et al., 2018). ...
... Mas, de todo modo, o aprendizado por recompensa é um fator importante no engajamento de mídias sociais, responsável por sustentar, aumentar ou até reduzir a frequência de acesso. Sendo assim, há estudos neurocientíficos e psicológicos que demonstram evidências empíricas sobre o engajamento das redes sociais com base no aprendizado por recompensa, relacionando-a com o a causalidade de vício, uma vez que as pessoas são estimuladas a buscar constantemente por experiências de respostas online (feedbacks 8 ) positivas (LINDSTRÖM et al., 2021;MACİT et al., 2018). ...
... 6. A dopamina é o principal neuroquímico cerebral responsável pela sensação de prazer e, sendo assim, crítica para todos os tipos de funções cerebrais como, por exemplo, para os atos de pensar, de dormir, para o humor, para a atenção, para a motivação, entre outros(MACİT et al., 2018). 7. Sean Parker, ex-financiador do Facebook disse que a empresa explora psicologicamente a vulnerabilidade humana ao criar um "ciclo online de feedback de validação social" (WONG, 2017, tradução nossa). ...
... Paul G. Simeone, PhD, Vice President and Medical Director of Behavioral Health at Lee Health, says there are no clinical diagnostic criteria for social media addiction, but general addiction criteria can be adapted to people's social media use. Like with many addictions, social media directly targets the reward system within the brain, triggering a release of dopamine (Macit et al., 2018). Dopamine is the same neurotransmitter released in sex, gambling, and eating, the release of dopamine drives addiction pathways. ...
... By obtaining likes, Instagram users feel supported and rewarded by their virtual social environment. When someone receives a sufficient amount of likes, their brain releases large doses of dopamine (Macït, Macït & Güngör, 2018). However, conversely, when the expected amount of likes is not obtained, the person may feel rejected, negatively affecting their mental health. ...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo principal de este artículo es explorar las configuraciones culturales transgénero en los marcos legales recientes de España y Chile. Esta investigación indaga cómo las narrativas culturales de las mediaciones transgénero afrontan y son activamente conformadas por estos textos normativos. El estudio realizado se basa en un enfoque metodológico de investigación mixto proporcionando una visión cualitativa y cuantitativa de la arquitectura conceptual de las dos normas analizadas. Nuestros hallazgos se ilustran en las mediaciones de las personas transgénero en Instagram y el fenómeno llamado Síndrome del Espejo. Por último, nuestro artículo pretende establecer un debate fructífero sobre cómo decisiones mejor informadas, basadas en un mayor conocimiento de los contextos y de las arquitecturas conceptuales, pueden contribuir a centrar los desarrollos legales actuales y futuros, al mismo tiempo que apoyar la equidad y el bienestar de los ciudadanos en futuras recomendaciones institucionales, desde una perspectiva fundamental de derechos humanos.
... And social media will boost your dopamine levels every time someone like a post you've made or every time you believe that you get have gotten that acknowledgement you were seeking, it will seem like you have reached acceptance and in a way you have because when you go online and interact you will for a while feel that you are a part of something, and that you matter and you can play a difference. And for social networks such as Facebook the human vanity of needing to be confirmed fits like a glove and once you've created your account the addiction develops quickly and make no mistake, dopamine is addictive (Macit et al., 2018). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Cybersecurity management within the maritime industry is unfortunately still a widely overlooked topic. This project examines the current cybersecurity status from a technological perspective and then identifies the need for a Maritime Computer Incident Response Team (MCIRT), this work provides a complete template for constructing such a team with emphasis on shipping organisations which includes a fleet of vessels. This study continues with providing a generic Maritime CyberSecurity Strategy (MCSS) both these entities will be designed for the maritime industry and shipping corporations in particularly. This includes all the vital steps to both initiate, implement, evaluate and continue to evolve such a strategy. The results concludes that in all cases, education must be considered the most vital ingredient for a successful MCIRT and MCSS.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: In this study, it is aimed to examine the possible effects of the use of technology in the literature and in the near future on physical activity and the extent of these relations from the point of view of affective-reflective theory, through the low levels of physical activity today and the effectiveness of sedentary life. Method: In the study, the document analysis method, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was preferred. Between February-May 2022; as a result of the search using the keywords 'physical activity', ‘sedentary behavior’, ‘affective–reflective theory’ and 'COVID19' in Pubmed, Web of Science, ULAKBIM and Scopus databases, 162 articles related to this subject were reached and 59 articles that met the criteria were included in the study. While clinical and laboratory studies were included in the studies to be reviewed, case reports, abstracts and unpublished papers were not included. The publications included in the study were reviewed in detail by the researcher and the data were evaluated for the current literature review. English keywords "Medical Subject Headings" index, Turkish keywords "Turkey Science Terms" were used. Results: Participation in and commitment to physical activity remains a critical challenge for health promotion. The main obstacle in this regard is the inability to enjoy physical activity. Our over-reliance on technology has transformed tools formerly used to assist with labor and leisure activities into personal devices we now rely on for entertainment. From the lens of affective reflective theory, technology has the potential to be used as a modern tool to encourage participation in physical activity. Conclusion: Although modern technology and participation in physical activity have a complex relationship, advances in technology and our understanding of the principles underlying human behavior will provide us with a unique opportunity to envision what the connection between physical activity and technology might look like in the 21st century and in the future.
Article
Social media use is a topical issue and raises several concerns including online comparison and social media fatigue, which have implications on the perceived wellbeing of users. Thus, this study explores how university students in Norway perceive their wellbeing in respect to their social media usage. To answer this, the study employs a qualitative approach by drawing from a set of 15 in-depth interviews ascertaining how informants perceive their social media use, what ‘balance’ means to their social media connectedness, and how it impacts their subjective sense of wellbeing. The research draws on the theory of mediatization as well as the uses and gratification theory. The mode of analysis rests on an interpretative phenomenological analysis to place findings within the larger context of the role of social media in the daily lives of users. This paper makes a conceptual and empirical contribution. Conceptually, it adds value to how scholarship can theorize wellbeing within social media contexts. Whereas empirically it illuminates how users perceive their wellbeing within the social media landscape and the solutions they propose to balance social media use.
Article
Full-text available
People who do not use 21st-century technologies, especially smartphones, are unconsciously encouraged by the network society to use these technologies. Therefore, today, people are not only using digital technologies but are also exposed to social pressure due to digital interaction networks. Therefore, one of the important factors behind smartphone addiction is the digital social pressure felt in society. However, research examining the role of digital social pressure is very limited. In order to contribute to the limited literature in question, this research explores the effect of digital social pressure on smartphone addiction with the Structural Equation Model. Thus, it provides empirical evidence to the literature. The sample of the study consists of 620 people selected by the cluster sampling method. Data were collected with a questionnaire including Personal Information Form, Digital Social Pressure Scale and Smartphone Addiction Scale. In order to show the causal relationship between the variables, the data were analyzed with SEM. The results show that digital social pressure has a very strong positive effect on smartphone addiction. As the level of education increases, digital social pressure increases and smartphone addiction decreases. People involuntarily use messaging applications such as Whatsapp/Telegram intensively. Organizing various trainings to prevent digital social pressure is very important to reduce the negative effects of smartphone addiction. Thus, individual and social well-being can be improved.
Article
Full-text available
Personality traits are important factors in determining online behaviors. Especially personality traits are linked with users’ behavior on Facebook. Despite the substantial quantity of studies conducted on the relationship between personality factors and Facebook addiction, researchers have yet to reach an agreement. This study sought to examine the relationship between personality traits and Facebook addiction. In this meta-analysis study, agreeableness, openness to experience and conscientiousness were negatively related to Facebook addiction. Loneliness, narcissism, impulsivity and shyness were significantly correlated with Facebook addiction. Meta analysis also found that geographical location, personality scales, Facebook addiction scales, publication status moderated the link between personality variables and Facebook addiction. The limitations and future directions are discussed.
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter deals with the topic of cohousing understood as a bottom-up model of housing, which is a response to contemporary consumer demands and new trends in consumer behavior in terms of: consumers' search for a balance between empowerment and community, sustainable consumption and prosumption. Cohousing promotes a lifestyle that places greater emphasis on social cohesion and creates conditions to ensure that all its residents can meet basic social needs. In this view, cohousing converges with the concept of social innovation. When comparing the features of social innovation and the principles of cohousing, the author sees a similarity: in both cases we are dealing with activities undertaken for social benefit and aimed at solving social problems. The aim of the article is to present the idea of cohousing as an example of social innovation.The first part presents the issue of social innovation, the second part presents the idea of cohousing and indicates the features of cohousing as a form of social innovation. In order to analyze cohousing as an example of social innovation, an analysis was made from the point of view of the core elements that should be present for a given practice to be considered as socially innovative. The research problems of this paper lie in the questions : 1. Is cohousing the answer to a new social need? 2. Does cohousing assume social participation, is it directed at groups of high demand for solutions undertaken within the framework of social initiatives, does it increase the society's ability to act and does it constitute a more effective and efficient (than previously applied) solution in the scope of implementing social needs? By putting together the common features of cohousing and social innovation, it can be concluded that in both cases we are dealing with activities undertaken for social benefit and serving to solve social problems. Cohousing may be an answer to the new social needs in the field of searching for new forms of socialization, in which the balanced model of community-activity is applied and the expectations of sustainable consumption and prosumption are fulfilled. Cohousing assumes social participation, targets groups of high demand for solutions undertaken as part of social initiatives (the problem of social exclusion), increases the creativity and ability of society to act (e.g. by creating new roles and relations and possibilities of better use of resources) and often constitutes a more effective and efficient (than previously applied) solution for meeting social needs. Consequently, cohousing improves people's well-being (material and non-material) and can be considered as an example of social innovation.
Article
Full-text available
Literatürde 1980 ve sonrasında doğanlar dijital yerli olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Dijital yerlilerin en önemli özelliklerinden bir tanesi ve bunu tanımadıkları insanlar da dâhil olmak üzere, kendilerine ait bilgi, fotoğraf, veri vb. sosyal paylaşım sitelerinde başkalarıyla paylaşmakta bir sakınca görmemeleridir. Bunu bilgi edinmek ya da paylaşmak amacıyla yaptıklarını belirtseler de yeni neslin bilgi edinme ve mahremiyet anlayışının sorgulanması gerekliliği ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu çalışmada, Marmara Üniversitesi Bilgi ve Belge Yönetimi Bölümü (MÜBBY) öğrencilerinin birer dijital yerli olarak sosyal paylaşım sitelerini nasıl kullandıkları sorgulanmış ve neticesinde öğrencilerin bilgi edinme yaklaşımları ve mahremiyet konusuna bakış açıları incelenmiştir. Çalışma kapsamında MÜBBY’de birinci eğitimde öğrenim gören 230 öğrenciye kapalı uçlu sorulardan oluşan anket uygulanmıştır. Anket sonuçları SPSS programına girilerek değerlendirilmiş ve sonuçlar buna göre yorumlanmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda, ankete katılan dijital yerlilerin bilgi edinme ve bilgi paylaşımı konusunda sosyal platformu sıklıkla kullandıkları ve yaklaşık yarısının sosyal platformda hareket ederken mahremiyet kavramını referans almadığı görülmüştür.
Article
Full-text available
Yeni iletişim teknolojileri insanlara, düşüncelerini ve eserlerini paylaşacakları olanaklar yaratan, paylaşım ve tartışmanın esas olduğu bir medya sunmaktadır. Sosyal medya olarak adlandırılan bu sanal ortam, kullanıcı tabanlı olmasının yanında kitleleri ve insanları bir araya getirmesi ve aralarındaki etkileşimi arttırması bakımından önem taşımaktadır. Yapılan araştırmalar insanların, bu sanal gerçeklik içinde gün geçtikçe daha fazla vakit harcadıklarını, bu sanal gerçeklik içinde gerçek yaşam ihtiyaçlarını karşılamaya çalıştıklarını ve yine bu sanal gerçeklik içinde yeni bir dünya kurarak yaşadıklarını göstermektedir. Kimi zaman sanal dünyayla, gerçek dünya arasındaki sınırın belirsizleştiği de gözlenmektedir. Öyle ki bu dünyada arkadaş bulma, bu dünyadaki insanlarla sosyal ve siyasi düşünce alışverişinde bulunma; hatta bu dünyadan birileriyle tanışıp evlenme gibi ciddi kararlar alınabilmektedir. Özellikle gençler arasında kullanım değeri bakımından hızlı bir yükseliş gösteren sosyal medya, diğer yandan da günümüzün geleneksel medyasına rakip olmakta; hatta kimi zaman tehdit eder duruma gelmektedir. Bu çalışmanın birinci bölümünde yeni iletişim teknolojileri, sosyal medyanın tanımı, kapsamı, özellikleri ve önemi ele alınacaktır. İkinci bölümde ise kapalı ve açık uçlu sorulardan oluşan bir anket çalışması, Ege Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi öğrencileri örnekleminde uygulanarak gençlerin yeni bir iletişim ortamı olan sosyal medyaya yönelik düşünceleri analiz edilecektir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sosyal Medya, Yeni İletişim Teknolojileri.
Article
Full-text available
Internet addiction, which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control ones use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5), but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other Internet applications developing an addictive behavior. This paper aims to give a current review of the gradually evolving body of literature on Internet addiction. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000): 235-247]
Article
Full-text available
ZET İletişim teknolojilerindeki gelişmelerin bir sonucu olarak hayatımıza giren internet; insanların ihtiyaç duyduğu her türlü bilgiye ulaşmalarına, eğlenceli ve hoşça vakit geçirmelerine ve sevdikle-riyle eş zamanlı iletişimde bulunabilmelerine imkân tanıyan bir kitle iletişim aracıdır. Ancak in-ternetin getirdiği bu kolaylıkların yanında çok sık kullanımdan kaynaklanan bir takım sorunlara da yol açtığı bir gerçektir. Söz konusu sorunların başında hiç kuşkusuz internet bağımlılığı gel-mektedir. Bu çalışmada da üniversite öğrencilerinin internet bağımlılığı araştırılmıştır. Selçuk Üniversitesi'nde öğrenimini sürdüren 953 öğrenciden elde edilen verilere göre, katılımcıların yüzde 23.2'si internet bağımlılığı belirtisi göstermektedir. İnternet bağımlılığı üzerinde demogra-fik değişkenlerin (cinsiyet ve aylık harcama miktarı) ayırt edici bir etkisi bulunmamaktadır. İnter-net bağımlılarını, bağımlı olmayanlardan ayıran en güçlü iki değişken ise sırasıyla internet kulla-nım süresi ve internete duyulan güvendir. Açık bir ifadeyle internet bağımlıları daha uzun süre internet kullanmakta ve internete daha fazla güven duymaktadırlar. Anahtar sözcükler: İnternet, internet bağımlılığı, üniversite öğrencileri INTERNET ADDICTION AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND THE PROFILE OF INTERNET ADDICTS ABSTRACT The Internet entered our lives as a development of the communication technologies and as such it enables us to reach all information that we need, further it enables us to have a fun and entertaining time and to communicate synchronously with our beloved ones. However, alongside these conveniences, there are some problems that arise from the overuse of the Internet. Without doubt, first of all is there the addiction to the Internet. This study has explored Internet addiction among university students. Data obtained from 953 students of the Selcuk University indicated that 23.2 % of participants showed symptoms of Internet addiction. Demographic variables of gender and monthly spending have not been found as effective on differentiating Internet addiction. The two strongest variables differentiating Internet addicts from non-addicts have been found as the Inter-net usage time and the felt confidence to the Internet. It has been shown that Internet addicts clearly spent more time online and felt more confidence to the Internet.
Article
Full-text available
Although there is a voluminous literature on mass media effects on body image concerns of young adult women in the U.S., there has been relatively little theoretically-driven research on processes and effects of social media on young women’s body image and self-perceptions. Yet given the heavy online presence of young adults, particularly women, and their reliance on social media, it is important to appreciate ways that social media can influence perceptions of body image and body image disturbance. Drawing on communication and social psychological theories, the present article articulates a series of ideas and a framework to guide research on social media effects on body image concerns of young adult women. The interactive format and content features of social media, such as the strong peer presence and exchange of a multitude of visual images, suggest that social media, working via negative social comparisons, transportation, and peer normative processes, can significantly influence body image concerns. A model is proposed that emphasizes the impact of predisposing individual vulnerability characteristics, social media uses, and mediating psychological processes on body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Research-based ideas about social media effects on male body image, intersections with ethnicity, and ameliorative strategies are also discussed.
Book
Internet addiction has gained increasing scientific recognition in the last decade, with some researchers claiming it is a '21st Century epidemic'. Literature addressing its treatment is scarce, and there is little consensus among experts as to the most effective intervention. This book aims to fill the gap by exploring how internet addiction therapy experts experience the presenting problem of internet addiction in psychotherapy. A total of 20 psychotherapists from six different countries were interviewed regarding their individual experience of treating patients suffering from internet addiction. They highlighted the existence and severity of internet addiction as psychopathology requiring professional therapy. These findings establish a relevant knowledge base of potential problems related to internet overuse.