Conference Paper

Mitigating Trust Issues in Electric Vehicle Charging using a Blockchain

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Abstract

Energy systems are rapidly becoming decentralized due to advances in distributed renewable generation, storage technologies, and electric vehicles (EVs). One consequence of decentralization is the loss of a central trusted party. There is, therefore, a need for a solution that enables interactions between mutually untrusting agents. In this paper, we present a general methodology for blockchain-oriented system design and demonstrate its use to design a system for EV charging in a decentralized network of charging stations. We also show how a blockchain can be integrated with minimal changes to a legacy back end. Our solution is scheduled for roll-out by the EV charging service provider SWTCH in the near future.

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... Blockchain's features and design make it a model for processes plagued by trust issues [6], [11], [96]. Blockchain is ideal for increasing trust in contexts involving parties that do not have reason to trust each other [6], [11], [96]. ...
... Blockchain's features and design make it a model for processes plagued by trust issues [6], [11], [96]. Blockchain is ideal for increasing trust in contexts involving parties that do not have reason to trust each other [6], [11], [96]. One of such contexts is in healthcare [6]. ...
... As previously noted, Blockchain is ideal for scenarios in which parties do not have incentives to trust one another [96]. Blockchain is designed to be distributed, transparent and immutable by design [6], [11], and can shift trust relations among stakeholders [6], [11], [18], [96]. ...
Preprint
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BACKGROUND While Big Data and smart technologies allow for the development of precision medicine and predictive models in healthcare, there are still several challenges that need to be addressed before the full potential of this data can be unleashed (e.g., data sharing and interoperability issues, lack of massive genomic datasets, data ownership, and security and privacy of health data). Health companies are exploring the use of Blockchain, a tamperproof and distributed digital ledger, to address some of these challenges. OBJECTIVE Obtain an overview of Blockchain solutions that aim to solve challenges in healthcare from an industry point of view, focusing on solutions being developed by health and technology companies. METHODS We conducted a literature review, following the protocol defined by Levac et al. to analyze the findings in a systematic manner. In addition to traditional databases such as IEEE, PubMed and Google Scholar, we included search and news outlets such as CoinDesk, CoinTelegraph, and Medium. RESULTS Healthcare companies are using Blockchain to improve challenges in 5 key areas: (i) electronic health records - Blockchain can address interoperability issues by creating an overarching mechanism to link disparate personal records, as well as stimulate data sharing by connecting owners and buyers directly; (ii) Drug (and Food) supply chain - Blockchain can provide an auditable log of a product’s provenance and transportation (including information on the conditions in which the product was transported), increasing transparency and eliminating counterfeit products in the supply chain; (iii) health insurance - Blockchain can facilitate the claims management process as well as help users to calculate medical and pharmaceutical benefits; (iv) genomics - by connecting data buyers and owners directly, Blockchain can increase sharing of genomic data, increasing its availability; and (v) consent management - since all participants in a Blockchain network view an immutable version of the truth, Blockchain can provide an immutable and timestamped log of consent, increasing transparency in the consent management process. CONCLUSIONS Blockchain technology can improve on several challenges faced by the healthcare industry today. However, companies must evaluate how Blockchain’s features can affect their systems (e.g., Blockchain being append-only limits the deletion of data stored in the network and distributed systems, although more secure, are less efficient). While these trade-offs need to be taken into account when considering Blockchain solutions, the technology has potential to optimize processes, minimize inefficiencies, and increase trust in all contexts covered in this review.
... This paper explores the creation of a blockchain platform for consent management in health care, specifically in the context of AAL. We discuss a general methodology for identifying blockchain use cases developed by Gorenflo et al [43], and we apply this methodology to consent management for AAL technologies. With the identification of consent management as a prime use case for blockchain, we expand upon previous work done by Bublitz et al [1], deriving from their general software architecture for surveillance activities, a conceptual framework for blockchain in AAL consent management. ...
... Gorenflo et al [43] defined a general methodology for identifying use cases of blockchain based on the identification of trust relations. This robust approach involves the following sequential steps relevant to this paper: ...
... Our proposed solution facilitates health data sharing by different stakeholders while increasing transparency and trust. The biggest advantage of our solution is that it was developed based on a systematic process of identifying and mitigating the trust issues in the consent management process [43]. The framework minimizes all trust issues indicated in Figure 1 by providing a virtual space to manage consent, powered by blockchain to provide an immutable and timestamped log of user consent for data owners and collectors. ...
Article
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Background Recent advancements in active assisted living (AAL) technologies allow older adults to age well in place. However, sensing technologies increase the complexity of data collection points, making it difficult for users to consent to data collection. One possible solution for improving transparency in the consent management process is the use of blockchain, an immutable and timestamped ledger. Objective This study aims to provide a conceptual framework based on technology aimed at mitigating trust issues in the consent management process. Methods The consent management process was modeled using established methodologies to obtain a mapping of trust issues. This mapping was then used to develop a conceptual framework based on previous monitoring and surveillance architectures for connected devices. Results In this paper, we present a model that maps trust issues in the informed consent process; a conceptual framework capable of providing all the necessary underlining technologies, components, and functionalities required to develop applications capable of managing the process of informed consent for AAL, powered by blockchain technology to ensure transparency; and a diagram showing an instantiation of the framework with entities comprising the participants in the blockchain network, suggesting possible technologies that can be used. Conclusions Our conceptual framework provides all the components and technologies that are required to enhance the informed consent process. Blockchain technology can help overcome several privacy challenges and mitigate trust issues that are currently present in the consent management process of data collection involving AAL technologies.
... Blockchain's features and design make it a model for processes plagued by trust issues [6,12,108], and it is ideal for increasing trust in contexts involving parties that do not have reason to trust each other [6,12,108]. One such context is health care [6]. ...
... Blockchain's features and design make it a model for processes plagued by trust issues [6,12,108], and it is ideal for increasing trust in contexts involving parties that do not have reason to trust each other [6,12,108]. One such context is health care [6]. ...
... Blockchain is designed to be distributed, transparent, and immutable by design [6,12] and can improve trust among stakeholders [6,12,18,108]. This is true in the scenarios described above. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although big data and smart technologies allow for the development of precision medicine and predictive models in health care, there are still several challenges that need to be addressed before the full potential of these data can be realized (eg, data sharing and interoperability issues, lack of massive genomic data sets, data ownership, and security and privacy of health data). Health companies are exploring the use of blockchain, a tamperproof and distributed digital ledger, to address some of these challenges. Objective In this viewpoint, we aim to obtain an overview of blockchain solutions that aim to solve challenges in health care from an industry perspective, focusing on solutions developed by health and technology companies. Methods We conducted a literature review following the protocol defined by Levac et al to analyze the findings in a systematic manner. In addition to traditional databases such as IEEE and PubMed, we included search and news outlets such as CoinDesk, CoinTelegraph, and Medium. Results Health care companies are using blockchain to improve challenges in five key areas. For electronic health records, blockchain can help to mitigate interoperability and data sharing in the industry by creating an overarching mechanism to link disparate personal records and can stimulate data sharing by connecting owners and buyers directly. For the drug (and food) supply chain, blockchain can provide an auditable log of a product’s provenance and transportation (including information on the conditions in which the product was transported), increasing transparency and eliminating counterfeit products in the supply chain. For health insurance, blockchain can facilitate the claims management process and help users to calculate medical and pharmaceutical benefits. For genomics, by connecting data buyers and owners directly, blockchain can offer a secure and auditable way of sharing genomic data, increasing their availability. For consent management, as all participants in a blockchain network view an immutable version of the truth, blockchain can provide an immutable and timestamped log of consent, increasing transparency in the consent management process. Conclusions Blockchain technology can improve several challenges faced by the health care industry. However, companies must evaluate how the features of blockchain can affect their systems (eg, the append-only nature of blockchain limits the deletion of data stored in the network, and distributed systems, although more secure, are less efficient). Although these trade-offs need to be considered when viewing blockchain solutions, the technology has the potential to optimize processes, minimize inefficiencies, and increase trust in all contexts covered in this viewpoint.
... The decentralized nature of transport, with many parties (vehicles, drivers, charging stations, passengers using ondemand mobility services) lends itself naturally to blockchain implementations [7]. Research in [22] finds that there is a lack of trust among charging service providers, property owners and owners of electric vehicles (EVs). With an open blockchain platform, all parties will have access to the data and can see if it has been tampered with. ...
... With an open blockchain platform, all parties will have access to the data and can see if it has been tampered with. Using a blockchainoriented charging system will, therefore, allow EV owners to see if they are being overcharged while property owners will know if they are being underpaid, elimination of centrally managed EV charging infrastructure, as well as elimination of price-setting and collusion between charging stations or transport providers [7] [22]. The study in [23] estimates that the global automotive blockchain market size is projected to grow at a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 29.3% from $428.57 million in 2020 to $5.61 billion by 2030. ...
... Blockchain systems are suitable for applications wishing to eliminate a central trusted party [18], as is the case in the architecture illustrated in Figure 1. At a high level, a blockchain is a distributed, immutable and tamper-proof transaction log maintained by a network of nodes. ...
Preprint
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The increasing amount of personal data is raising serious issues in the context of privacy, security, and data ownership. Entities whose data are being collected can benefit from mechanisms to manage the parties that can access their data and to audit who has accessed their data. Consent management systems address these issues. We present Consentio, a scalable consent management system based on the Hyperledger Fabric permissioned blockchain. The data management challenge we address is to ensure high throughput and low latency of endorsing data access requests and granting or revoking consent. Experimental results show that our system can handle as many as 6,000 access requests per second, allowing it to scale to very large deployments.
... A lack of trust was observed among the various charging service providers (CSP), property owners, and EV owners (University of Waterloo, 2019). A study in (Gorenflo et al., 2019) identifies trust issues between charging service providers (CSP) and customers, and between property owners and charging service providers (CSP). Customers must not be overcharged by the CSP, while property owners must not be undercharged by the CSP. ...
Chapter
This chapter emphasizes the utilization of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) as a backup power source for residential loads in under-developing and developing countries. It works as a source of energy in residential micro-grid based on the condition of vehicle battery without harming its function as an EV (electric vehicle). The suggested V2H system uses solar PV power to charge vehicle battery; therefore, the entire system works as a residential nano-grid system. The EV is considered as a load of home when its batteries are charged by solar PV or grid. However, the main emphasis is given to use solar PV power to reduce charging from the grid. The key objectives of this work are to minimize the energy cost of a household by reducing the dependency of residential loads on the power grid to enhance the reliability of power supply to residential loads during load shedding and blackouts and to maximize the utilization of power produced by solar PV array mounted on the rooftop.
... Based on a case study using blockchain to mitigate shortcomings in the electricity charging market due to trust issues, Gorenflo et al. (2019) states that "In the end, we could even have a system where there is machine-tomachine communication rather than people-to-machine. If an autonomous vehicle needs power, it could detect that and drive to the nearest charging station and communicate on a platform with that charging station for the power." ...
Article
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The transparency and visibility engendered in Distributed Ledger Technology allows, for the first time, disparate stakeholders to agree on common resource existence, ownership, and rules of exchange, while keeping the coordination costs comparatively low with respect to earlier methods. This infrastructure can finally facilitate a self-organizing market mechanism, where people can decide upon the market rules themselves and potentially self-select into any particular marketplace dependent upon their personal beliefs and preferences. Reinventing the apparatus of the economy upon shared distributed infrastructure may finally allow the emergence of actual shared ownership, unlike the existing systems where short-term rentals or access-based consumption are often confused with sharing and social exchange.
... The consortium blockchain-based solutions provide limited access, high efficiency, and satisfactory scalability (up to a certain number of network nodes). These solutions often rely on HyperLedger [12,68,70,72,74,82,102,113]. A private blockchain is also considered as an adequate solution for addressing security, privacy, and trust-related issues in vehicular networks [3,57,69,78,83,84,87,108,109]. ...
Article
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Vehicular networks are considered as one of the most pertinent research topics in intelligent transportation systems and anchors for future smart city environment due to the ability to provide road safety and precautionary measures for the drivers and passengers. Due to the characteristics of vehicular networks, security, privacy, and trust management are challenging issues. Blockchain is an emerging decentralized and distributed computing platform that facilitates recording and tracking resources without the need for the centralized trusted authority. Therefore, the potential for security improvements in vehicular networks is enormous. The paper aims to review, classify, and discuss a range of the proposed models in blockchain-based vehicular networks. We presented summary comparisons of the available models with their main features and objectives regarding security, privacy preservation, and trust management. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that provides a survey on blockchain-based solutions for security services’ improvements in vehicular networks.
... Based on the characteristics of immutability and multiparty accounting, the emergence of blockchain [10], [11], [12] is expected to solve the problems of single-point failures and central deception [13], [14], [15], [16] in the charging model. Therefore, a reputation mechanism based on the blockchain is proposed, which record the reputation on the blockchain to prevent tampering. ...
Article
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With the development of electric vehicles, the shortage of charging piles has gradually been exposed. In response to this situation, charging pile (CP) operators have taken private charging piles into the shared charging system. Due to the lack of maintenance personnel for private charging piles that join shared charging, users often face the problems of damaged CPs and poor service attitudes of CP owners. Reputation solutions based on third-party platforms face a problem of single-point failures and reputation solutions based on blockchain face problems of storage and query efficiency. To improve storage and query efficiency, this paper proposes a multi-chain charging model that stores different types of information on different blockchains. However, it faces the problem of unreliable information called across chains, when calculating reputation across chains. Therefore, this paper proposes a cross-chain trusted smart contract (C2T smart contract) to ensure the authenticity, real-time, and inter-chain write mutual exclusion of cross-chain information, making reputation calculation in the multi-chain charging model more convenient and more accurate. Specially, we propose a data mutual trust mechanism based on merkel proof to ensure the authenticity of cross-chain information and prevent forged information from participating in calculating reputation. Furthermore, we present a data structure composed of multiple counting bloom filters (MCBF) to verify the real-time of information and filter out non-real-time information, thereby ensuring the real-time of the calculated reputation. In addition, we put forward an algorithm to guarantee the inter-chain write mutual exclusion by hash mutexes, making the reputation calculation process more accurate and complete. The security analysis and experimental results demonstrate that C2T smart contract is feasible in practice.
... There is an increasing number of applications of blockchain technology to energy systems. For example, the study [21] applied blockchain to mitigate trust in peer-to-peer electric vehicle charging. Blockchain has been applied to microgrid energy exchange and wholesale markets by prosumers [31]. ...
Preprint
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Energy storage provides an effective way of shifting temporal energy demands and supplies, which enables significant cost reduction under time-of-use energy pricing plans. Despite its promising benefits, the cost of present energy storage remains expensive, presenting a major obstacle to practical deployment. A more viable solution to improve the cost-effectiveness is by sharing energy storage, such as community sharing, cloud energy storage and peer-to-peer sharing. However, revealing private energy demand data to an external energy storage operator may compromise user privacy, and is susceptible to data misuses and breaches. In this paper, we explore a novel approach to support energy storage sharing with privacy protection, based on privacy-preserving blockchain and secure multi-party computation. We present an integrated solution to enable privacy-preserving energy storage sharing, such that energy storage service scheduling and cost-sharing can be attained without the knowledge of individual users' demands. It also supports auditing and verification by the grid operator via blockchain. Furthermore, our privacy-preserving solution can safeguard against a dishonest majority of users, who may collude in cheating, without requiring a trusted third-party. We implemented our solution as a smart contract on real-world Ethereum blockchain platform, and provide empirical evaluation in this paper.
... This avoidance of a single point of failure from an integrity and availability perspective makes blockchains highly attractive for critical infrastructures and the digital collaboration of mutually distrusting organizations [Fridgen et al. 2019]. Consequently, blockchains have, among others, been suggested in the energy sector for decentralized storage and control in power grids, peer-to-peer energy trading in smart grids, imbalance settlement, electric vehicle charging, e-roaming, carbon emission and green certificate trading, and fine-grained investments through tokenization [Albrecht et al. 2018;Andoni et al. 2019;Bao et al. 2020;Gorenflo et al. 2019;Wang et al. 2021]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The labeling of electricity is considered an important mechanism to differentiate renewable power generation and, thus, to incentivize the expansion of green energy. However, today's systems for documenting and trading green energy certificates suffer from multiple challenges. These could be addressed by a digital solution that holistically collects and processes production and consumption data. Blockchain-based architec-tures have repeatedly been suggested for this purpose since they can provide transparency and can likely be accepted by a broad group of stakeholders. Yet, there are significant scalability and privacy issues of a blockchain-based approach for storing and processing fine-grained production and consumption data. In this paper, we propose and discuss a potential solution that levers succinct cryptographic zero-knowledge proofs to balance the required level of transparency and privacy while at the same time providing a high degree of scalability.
... The primordial tasks of industries and researchers include retrieving the state of charge and remaining range of an EV battery, scheduling and remotely controlling the charging and discharging processes, optimizing relative pricing costs, and building EV management dashboards. The common application among existing energy studies on IoV are for smart charging or fueling services in vehicular networks using decentralized, private, or consortium Blockchain [285], [286], [289], [291], [293], [296], [297], [416], [466], [467]. As an application example, a simple selection mechanism of the charging unit for EV drivers is developed based on smart contracts [284]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of Blockchain technology has recently become widespread. It has emerged as an essential tool in various academic and industrial fields, such as healthcare, transportation, finance, cybersecurity, and supply chain management. It is regarded as a decentralized, trustworthy, secure, transparent, and immutable solution that innovates data sharing and management. This survey aims to provide a systematic review of Blockchain application to intelligent transportation systems in general and the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) in particular. The survey is divided into four main parts. First, the Blockchain technology including its opportunities, relative taxonomies, and applications is introduced; basic cryptography is also discussed. Next, the evolution of Blockchain is presented, starting from the primary phase of pre-Bitcoin (fundamentally characterized by classic cryptography systems), followed by the Blockchain 1.0 phase, (characterized by Bitcoin implementation and common consensus protocols), and finally, the Blockchain 2.0 phase (characterized by the implementation of smart contracts, Ethereum, and Hyperledger). We compared and identified the strengths and limitations of each of these implementations. Then, the state of the art of Blockchain-based IoV solutions (BIoV) is explored by referring to a large and trusted source database from the Scopus data bank. For a well-structured and clear discussion, the reviewed literature is classified according to the research direction and implemented IoV layer. Useful tables, statistics, and analysis are also presented. Finally, the open problems and future directions in BIoV research are summarized.
... Needs to retrieve the state of charge and the remaining range from an EVs battery, [44, - [44,, Communication and network - [69,[197][198][199][200][201][202][203][204] [ 69,[197][198][199][200][201][202][203][204] Payments and optimization [41,46,47,205] [43], [45] [ 41, 43, 45-47, 53, 205] to schedule and remotely control the charging and discharging process and to optimize the elative pricing costs, and to build EV management dashboards were an urgent task for industries as well as researchers. The common application for current energy studies in the IoV is offering smart charging or fueling services in vehicular networks using decentralized, private, or consortium Blockchain [153,154,157,159,161,206]. As examples of applications, a simple selection mechanism of the priceless charging unit is developed for EVs' drivers based on smart contracts [152]. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The concept of smart cities is increasingly gaining prominence in modern metropolises due to the emergence and spread of embedded and connected smart devices, systems, and technologies in everyday lives, which have created an opportunity to connect every ‘thing’ to the Internet. In the upcoming era of the Internet of Things, the Internet of Vehicles (IOV) will play a crucial role in constructing a smart city. In fact, the IOV has a potential to solve various traffic problems effectively. It is critical for enhancing road utilization, reducing energy consumption and pollution, and improving road safety. Nevertheless, the primary issue regarding the IoV, and in particular to Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I), is establishing secure and instant payments and communications. To respond to this challenge, this work proposes a Blockchain-based solution for establishing secure payment and communication in order to study the use of Blockchain as middle-ware between different participants of intelligent transportation systems. The proposed framework employs Ethereum to develop a solution aimed at facilitating Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communications and payments. Moreover, this work qualitatively test the performance and resilience of the proposed systems against common security attacks. Computational tests showed that the proposed solution solved the main challenges of Vehicle-to-X (V2X) communications such as security and centralization.
... In 2017, Dubois et al. 99 introduced a blockchain-based application based on smart contracts that enables the provision of such a charging service between EVs and charging stations even in the absence of a trusted third party. Gorenflo et al. 100 developed a methodology for developing blockchain-based systems and demonstrated its use to construct an EV charging system in a decentralized network of charging stations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Electric vehicle (EV) has emerged as the future of transport worldwide, with the rising need for greener and energy‐efficient transportation solutions. The adoption of EVs can accommodate a clean atmosphere, dropping conventional fuel dependence. During the charging process, the EV will have to interact with various entities that are presented in the dynamic charging station to get charged. This emerging technology grabbed the attention of several researchers to propose authentication protocols for the dynamic EV charging system to protect the information exchanged between the EVs and the dynamic charging station. Considering the complexities associated with communications among EV and other involved entities, security researchers have proposed diverse authentication protocols vital for the EV charging system to protect the information exchanged. However, several existing authentication protocols either suffer from prominent security threats or limit themselves to static charging. This review paper discusses security aspects, security threats, the typical network model, and the threat model in the EV dynamic charging system. Next, we studied and analyzed various security protocols that are needed to provide authentication, privacy preservation, secure billing, and payment among the involved entities in the EV dynamic charging system. A comparative analysis of several state‐of‐the‐art security protocols that offer authentication, privacy preservation, and secure billing and payment facilities in EV dynamic charging systems is demonstrated with their efficacy as well as security and functionality aspects. In addition, some future challenges for EV dynamic charging system security protocols are also highlighted.
... Needs to retrieve the state of charge and the remaining range from an EVs battery, to schedule and remotely control the charging and discharging process and to optimize the elative pricing costs, and to build EV management dashboards were an urgent task for industries as well as researchers. The common application for current energy studies in the IoV is offering smart charging or fueling services in vehicular networks using decentralized, private, or consortium Blockchain [151,152,155,157,159,204]. As examples of applications, a simple selection mechanism of the priceless charging unit is developed for EVs' drivers based on smart contracts [150]. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Le concept de villes intelligentes gagne de plus en plus en importance dans les métropoles modernes en raison de l’émergence et de la diffusion d’appareils, de systèmes et de technologies intelligents embarqués et connectés dans la vie quotidienne, qui ont créé l’opportunité de connecter chaque “chose" à Internet. Dans l'ère à venir de l'Internet des objets, l'Internet des véhicules (IoV) jouera un rôle crucial dans la construction d'une ville intelligente. En fait, l'IoV a le potentiel de résoudre efficacement divers problèmes de trafic. Il est essentiel pour améliorer l'utilisation des routes, réduire la consommation d'énergie et la pollution et améliorer la sécurité routière. Néanmoins, le principal problème concernant l'IoV, et en particulier le Véhicule-à-Véhicule (V2V) et le Véhicule-à-infrastructure (V2I), est l'établissement de paiements et de communications sécurisés et instantanés. Pour répondre à ce défi, ce travail propose une solution basée sur la Blockchain pour mettre en place un paiement et une communication sécurisés afin d'étudier l'utilisation de la Blockchain comme middleware entre différents acteurs des systèmes de transport intelligents.Dans cette étude, nous avons évalué les propriétés les plus importantes de la solution développée, à savoir la consommation de la mémoire et de l’énergie, l’immutabilité, la confidentialité, la cohérence, l’intégrité, le temps d’exécution et le coût. L’objet de cette évaluation est de vérifier la capacité de la plateforme basée sur la Blockchain à assurer une communication efficace et un paiement sécurisé avec l’IoV. Selon les résultats, cette plateforme peut contribuer à résoudre les défis les plus critiques de la communication véhicule-à-tout (V2X) en améliorant la sécurité et l’évolutivité.
... Integrating EV charging into new energy systems also creates problems for which technical solutions are suggested. For example, Gorenfo et al. (2019) discuss how energy can be traded within new centralised energy systems, involving distributed generation, EVs and storage technology. However, they identify issues relating to trust between property owners and the charging service provider and between customers and the charging service provider. ...
... Integrating EV charging into new energy systems also creates problems for which technical solutions are suggested. For example, Gorenfo et al. (2019) discuss how energy can be traded within new centralised energy systems, involving distributed generation, EVs and storage technology. However, they identify issues relating to trust between property owners and the charging service provider and between customers and the charging service provider. ...
... Integrating EV charging into new energy systems also creates problems for which technical solutions are suggested. For example, Gorenfo et al. (2019) discuss how energy can be traded within new centralised energy systems, involving distributed generation, EVs and storage technology. However, they identify issues relating to trust between property owners and the charging service provider and between customers and the charging service provider. ...
Chapter
Charging infrastructure is a key factor in successful electric vehicle adoption. Charging stations are still a fragmented market in terms of ownership, lack of standards, and charging protocols. The increasing decentralised grid has made energy and communication flow bi-directional. Challenges arise in maintaining the increasing decentralised structure, security, and privacy of the network. Blockchain facilitates the interconnectedness of such a distributed and decentralised network. Blockchain's versatility lies in its transparent and immutable decentralized architecture that enables direct transactions between users without the need of a middleman. It provides powerful safeguards against cyberattacks with its advanced cryptography enabling privacy-preserving authentication. This chapter presents a comprehensive review on the application of blockchain technology in EV charging infrastructure such as facilitating the peer-to-peer energy exchange, increased security and privacy, immutable transactions, and mitigating trust issues among the participants in the charging infrastructure.
Article
With the development of the Energy Internet and the support of the subsidy policies of various countries, Electric Vehicles(EVs) have ushered in a golden development period. However, the development of EVs needs to solve the problems of insufficient charging piles(CPs) and difficulty in finding CPs. In order to solve the problem of difficult charging of EVs, the concept of shared charging came into being, in which idle CPs or private CPs are shared to meet the charging needs of more people and improve the utilization rate of CPs. However, the shared charging scheme implemented by third-party platforms faces the issue of trust lacking. This paper proposes a blockchain architecture for shared charging, which can use the blockchain to build a trust environment involving private pile owners, charging pile(CP) operators, Electric Vehicle(EV) users, etc.. The blockchain architecture also contains the block structure where pointer was added for quick search, contract content that can automatically execute multi-party contracts to achieve secure computing and reputation-based incentive mechanism to provide high-quality charging services in detail. This architecture establishes the multi-party trust environment for shared charging from three aspects: secure storage, secure computing, and secure incentives.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to understand the specific reasons why developed countries could easily start implementing innovative alternative fuel vehicles (e.g. electric vehicles or EVs) while the implementation in developing countries looks so far-fetched, with respect to infrastructure and downstream activities, and suggest the steps that can be taken to effectively address these issues. Design/methodology/approach This research undertakes case study – Tesla (USA), Mahindra and Mahindra (India) and Tata Motors to bring out the problems being faced by manufacturers from developing countries vis-a-vis the developed countries. The consumers’ side has been adequately represented though an in-depth survey. An analysis is also carried out as to how Tesla has accrued competitive leverage by innovating and vertical integration of up as well as downstream systems. Findings EV infrastructure remains grossly inadequate in developing countries like India. Two key areas that remain significantly unexplored are the installation of charging stations at parking lots and at the housing clusters and lack of competitive leverage in the services, processes and other downstream systems due to limited research and development capabilities. The performance metrics of domestic EVs lag those of conventional vehicles as well as foreign competitors like Tesla. Range anxiety is ranked as number one in the major concerns among the potential mass buyers of electric vehicles in India. Originality/value The value of the paper lies in an in-depth analysis of the relationship between horizontal and vertical perspectives as well as the impact of the product eco-system innovation on both the upstream as well as downstream nodes in the supply chain. Whereas the consumer attitudes and perspectives on e-mobility are inferred from a survey, the impact analysis matrix is used for analyzing the competitive leverage of Tesla through several features in the upstream, downstream and servitization.
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Modern cities worldwide are undergoing radical changes to foster a clean, sustainable and secure environment, install smart infrastructures, deliver intelligent services to residents, and facilitate access for vulnerable groups. The adoption of new technologies is at the heart of implementing many initiatives to address critical concerns in urban mobility, healthcare, water management, clean energy production and consumption, energy saving, housing, safety, and accessibility. Given the advancements in sensing and communication technologies over the past few decades, exploring the adoption of recent and innovative technologies is critical to addressing these concerns and making cities more innovative, sustainable, and safer. This article provides a broad understanding of the current urban challenges faced by smart cities. It highlights two new technological advances, edge artificial intelligence (edge AI) and Blockchain, and analyzes their transformative potential to make our cities smarter. In addition, it explores the multiple uses of edge AI and Blockchain technologies in the fields of smart mobility and smart energy and reviews relevant research efforts in these two critical areas of modern smart cities. It highlights the various algorithms to handle vehicle detection, counting, speed identification to address the problem of traffic congestion and the different use-cases of Blockchain in terms of trustworthy communications and trading between vehicles and smart energy trading. This review paper is expected to serve as a guideline for future research on adopting edge AI and Blockchain in other smart city domains.
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Given the rapid rise of electric vehicles (EVs) worldwide, and the ambitious targets set for the near future, the management of large EV fleets must be seen as a priority. Specifically, we study a scenario where EV charging is managed through self-interested EV aggregators who compete in the day-ahead market in order to purchase the electricity needed to meet their clients' requirements. In order to reduce electricity costs and lower the impact on electricity markets, a centralised bidding coordination framework has been proposed in the literature, using a trusted black-box coordinator. In order to improve privacy and limit the need for the coordinator, we propose a reformulation of the coordination framework as a decentralised algorithm, employing the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). We test the resulting algorithm in a realistic scenario with real market and driver data from Spain. Finally, we discuss the potential of implementing the proposed coordination algorithm in a blockchain, providing transparency and anti-tampering guarantees.
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Since their market introduction in 1991, lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have developed evolutionary in terms of their specific energies (Wh/kg) and energy densities (Wh/L). Currently, they do not only dominate the small format battery market for portable electronic devices, but have also been successfully implemented as the technology of choice for electromobility as well as for stationary energy storage. Besides LIBs, a variety of different technologically promising battery concepts exists that, depending on the respective technology, might also be suitable for various application purposes. These systems of the “next generation,” the so-called post-lithium ion batteries (PLIBs), such as metal/sulfur, metal/air or metal/oxygen, or “post-lithium technologies” (systems without Li), which are based on alternative single (Na⁺, K⁺) or multivalent ions (Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺), are currently being studied intensively. From today’s point of view, it seems quite clear that there will not only be a single technology for all applications (technology monopoly), but different battery systems, which can be especially suitable or combined for a particular application (technology diversity). In this review, we place the lithium ion technology in a historical context and give insights into the battery technology diversity that evolved during the past decades and which will, in turn, influence future research and development.
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Blockchain technologies are taking the world by storm. Public blockchains, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, enable secure peer-to-peer applications like crypto-currency or smart contracts. Their security and performance are well studied. This paper concerns recent private blockchain systems designed with stronger security (trust) assumption and performance requirement. These systems target and aim to disrupt applications which have so far been implemented on top of database systems, for example banking, finance and trading applications. Multiple platforms for private blockchains are being actively developed and fine tuned. However, there is a clear lack of a systematic framework with which different systems can be analyzed and compared against each other. Such a framework can be used to assess blockchains' viability as another distributed data processing platform, while helping developers to identify bottlenecks and accordingly improve their platforms. In this paper, we first describe BLOCKBENCH, the first evaluation framework for analyzing private blockchains. It serves as a fair means of comparison for different platforms and enables deeper understanding of different system design choices. Any private blockchain can be integrated to BLOCKBENCH via simple APIs and benchmarked against workloads that are based on real and synthetic smart contracts. BLOCKBENCH measures overall and component-wise performance in terms of throughput, latency, scalability and fault-tolerance. Next, we use BLOCKBENCH to conduct comprehensive evaluation of three major private blockchains: Ethereum, Parity and Hyperledger Fabric. The results demonstrate that these systems are still far from displacing current database systems in traditional data processing workloads. Furthermore, there are gaps in performance among the three systems which are attributed to the design choices at different layers of the blockchain's software stack. We have released BLOCKBENCH for public use.
Apache Kafka A Distributed Streaming Platform
  • Apache
Apache. 2017. Apache Kafka A Distributed Streaming Platform. (2017). https: //kafka.apache.org/http://kafka.apache.org/
Hype Cycle for Blockchain Technologies
  • David Furlonger
  • Rajesh Kandaswamy
David Furlonger and Rajesh Kandaswamy. 2018. Hype Cycle for Blockchain Technologies, 2017. Gartner July (2018). https://www.gartner.com/doc/3883991/ hype-cycle-blockchain-technologies-
Hyperledger Fabric: github repository
  • Hyperledger Fabric
Hyperledger Fabric. 2019. Hyperledger Fabric: github repository. (2019). https: //github.com/hyperledger/fabric
Nature 2.0: The Cradle of Civilization Gets an Upgrade
  • Trent Mcconaghy
Trent Mcconaghy. 2018. Nature 2.0: The Cradle of Civilization Gets an Upgrade. (2018). https://medium.com/@trentmc0/nature-2-0-27bdf8238071
Hyperledger Fabric: A Distributed Operating System for Permissioned Blockchains
  • Elli Androulaki
  • Artem Barger
  • Vita Bortnikov
  • Christian Cachin
  • Konstantinos Christidis
  • Angelo De Caro
  • David Enyeart
  • Christopher Ferris
  • Gennady Laventman
  • Yacov Manevich
  • Chet Srinivasan Muralidharan
  • Binh Murthy
  • Manish Nguyen
  • Gari Sethi
  • Keith Singh
  • Alessandro Smith
  • Chrysoula Sorniotti
  • Marko Stathakopoulou
  • Vukolić