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Psychological Pricing Strategy and its Influences on Consumer’s Buying Behavior in Kurdistan Region

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Recently finding a proper market became one of the major targets that producers are willing to recognize for their products. Also, dealing with consumer behavior is measured as one of the biggest and hardest aspect for suppliers as it changes frequently. The main objective of this study is to find out the impact of psychological pricing on consumer's behavior in term of buying goods and services in five famous malls in Kurdistan Region-Iraq. To achieve this objective, current study adopts descriptive analytical method (DAM) by using factor analysis (FA) with (Principal Component Analysis), and (Person Correlation) methods, as well as, the primary data are from a survey of (221) sellers and (216) buyers who interested mall to meet their needs. It was conducted during 01/02/2019 to 01/03/2019. Distributing questionnaires are used among different types and groups of people as primary data to collect data and information as a way to achieve the study's objective. Findings illustrate that the most influences factors on consumer's behavior are (Advertisement for the products, Environment for the malls and Nine-end price). Beside these, nine-ending prices could be counted as one of the major factors that have a positive significant impact on consumer behavior. In addition, consumers with a small hedonic, low educated, low income and younger consumers are prone to select the nine-ending priced products and services. Psychological pricing strategy has significant impact on consumer's buying behavior in Kurdistan Region. Having this study will contribute in providing information on people behavior in Kurdistan Region, which could leave benefit on local and foreign investors in order to know how to make a good marketing for their products in the society. Moreover, the results will be useful for any other upcoming researches in this field.
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Psychological pricing strategy and its influences on consumer’s buying behavior in Kurdistan Region
Dr.Younis Ali Ahmed (Assist. Prof) College of Administration and Economics University of Sulaimani
Bzhar Nasradeen Majeed (Assist. Lecture) College of Public Administration and Natural Resources Management
University of Charmo
Hajar Abdulqadir Salih (Assist. Lecture) College of Public Administration and Natural Resources Management
University of Charmo
Abstract:
Recently finding a proper market became one of the major targets that producers are willing
to recognize for their products. Also, dealing with consumer behavior is measured as one of the
biggest and hardest aspect for suppliers as it changes frequently. The main objective of this study
is to find out the impact of psychological pricing on consumer’s behavior in term of buying
goods and services in five famous malls in Kurdistan Region- Iraq. To achieve this objective,
current study adopts descriptive analytical method (DAM) by using factor analysis (FA) with
(Principal Component Analysis), and (Person Correlation) methods, as well as, the primary data
are from a survey of (221) sellers and (216) buyers who interested mall to meet their needs. It
was conducted during 01/02/2019 to 01/03/2019. Distributing questionnaires are used among
different types and groups of people as primary data to collect data and information as a way to
achieve the study’s objective. Findings illustrate that the most influences factors on consumer’s
behavior are (Advertisement for the products, Environment for the malls and Nine-end price).
Beside these, nine-ending prices could be counted as one of the major factors that have a positive
significant impact on consumer behavior. In addition, consumers with a small hedonic, low
educated, low income and younger consumers are prone to select the nine-ending priced products
and services. Psychological pricing strategy has significant impact on consumer’s buying
behavior in Kurdistan Region. Having this study will contribute in providing information on
people behavior in Kurdistan Region, which could leave benefit on local and foreign investors in
order to know how to make a good marketing for their products in the society. Moreover, the
results will be useful for any other upcoming researches in this field.
Keywords: Psychological pricing, consumer behavior, nine-ending prices, factor analysis and
Person Correlation, famous malls in Kurdistan - Iraq.
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1. Introduction
Nowadays, getting loyal customers and sustaining them in a strong market competition became a
vital task. However, it is not an easy mission for marketers to endure customers and get numerous
profit as there are several companies and brands simultaneously compete each other. One of the
most significant decisions that is done by consumers in their daily life is buying decision. This
take place for several reasons, such as: their need for the products, other might strongly
recommend certain products or buying the products as a gift. However, introducing new products
and services by companies or developing their existing once is another target that could be
achieved by studying and analyzing consumer’s behavior. From all of these making consumer
loyal and satisfying them is the target, which could be done by decreasing their costs and gather
maximum revenue in a proper way. Investigating the behavior of consumer buying has a
significant role in grasping the factors that effect on their decisions. Beside this, marketers use
customers as an indicator for their success or failure. That is why studying buyers’ behavior
among researchers and marketers are increasing (Al-Salmin and Al-Hassan, 2016).
Over decades, marketers have used psychological pricing strategies in order to convene buyers to
purchase their products as a result of having highly stiff market. Psychological tactics in pricing
is used by many projects and businesses in order to sustain in such a competitive world.
(Asamoah and Chovancova, 2011) discussed that it is really significant for businesses to use a
proper way of pricing strategies to affect psychologically consumer behavior. Also, they have
mentioned that pricing is a play on perception, which means that it is not the actual money price
that makes people buy goods and services, it's about customer’s perception of price. Moreover,
(Kumar and Pandey, 2017) stated that one of the tough thing in the market for project owners is
recognizing consumer’s behavior to encourage their decision making, particularly in the
contemporary competitive market. Likewise, implementing some specific pricing strategies such
as “everyday low price” and “high-low” for attracting customers based on products’ elasticity are
used by businesses (consumerpsychologist, 2019).
The current study is intended to analyze main factors that directly and indirectly encourage
consumer’s who interests mall to buy products in Kurdistan Region. To achieve that, this paper is
structured into five sections. First, conduct general introduction on the topic. Section two
provides literature review about the relationship between a psychological pricing and consumer.
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The methodology employed, the model specifications, the data collection, the tests are provided
in Section three. Section four provides the discussion of results. The last section concludes the
conclusion of the study and policy implementation.
2. Literature Review on Psychological Pricing and Consumer
Many researches have been studied to understand the factors that influence consumer buying
behavior, for instance:
In 1990 (Cohen and Chakravarti) applied a meta-analysis and found that the perception of
quality and price had stronger association with public acceptance of goods and services than
consumer description. In his book “Everyday Finance and Entrepreneurship” is 2008, Riggs
stated that the process of setting and implementing prices on goods and services called pricing,
which was counted as one of the most vital element of (4Ps) in marketing (Product, Place, Price
and Promotion). That was because price contributes with a great share in increasing company’s
revenue, even though price is determined by interaction between supply and demand. Schmitt
(2012) discussed that there were five main processes occur that consumer should take them in to
their decision when the brandy product exist. The processes were (identifying, experiencing,
integrating, signifying and connecting). Schmitt has created a model, which reflects an
understanding that consumers have various levels of psychological engagement with brands
because of their various tastes and preferences such as; different needs, motives and goals.
Larson (2014) in term of framing principles argued that free unit offer such as; buy one get one
free) will generate a greater response by consumers than discount price. Moreover, Larson
mentioned that generating sales and revenue could be more when free gift is offered than
discount in price.
Khaniwali (2015) conducted a study to examine consumer behavior in the field of marketing. In
this study the focus was on examining the factor that may affect consumer buying behavior, as
well as noticing the factors that impact on their purchasing and decision making. This study
found that both internal and external factors had a significant effect on consumer’s buying
behavior, and it played a great role in providing proper marketing strategies. In 2003
(Ingenbleek and et al.) conducted a study in order to find out what was the proper new product
pricing practice when they examined three main pricing practice (consumer value, competition
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and cost). The results illustrated that contingency approach was appropriate as there were no bad
or best practices.
On the other hand, (Al-Salamin and Al-Hassan, 2016) discussed the impact of pricing on
consumer buying behavior in Saudi Arabia. The study showed that the relationship between
pricing and consumer buying behavior was positive, which means the suitable prices encourage
consumers more willing to purchase goods and services. Moreover, in term of discount pricing
strategy and bundle pricing strategy there was no statistically significant differences among
consumers response due to (age, gender, marital status, qualification and monthly salary).
However, the only difference occurred was in gender’s perspective when it came to odd pricing
strategy.
In their research on the behavioral measurement of young generation towards brand product in
Saudi Arabia in 2015 (Al-Salamin and et al.) illustrated that the purchasing process were
negatively affected by the price of brandy products. Beside this, even though young generations
were considered as a major part of society, their limited income usually prevent them from
buying well-known brand name items. (Oh , 2006 and Lefa,2007) discussed about the brand
name items. The first illustrated that the brand could be shifted from consumer’s hold set to
consideration set, when a price discount without and with a lower buying requirement apply to a
brand in a hold set. Meanwhile, there was not significantly difference between the two price
discount impacts. The latter founded that consumer value process will be significantly affected
by brand awareness and price fairness.
3. Methodology and data collection
The study objective is economic analyze to find out the impact of psychological pricing on
consumer’s behavior in term of buying goods and services in the five famous malls in Kurdistan
Region- Iraq. Furthermore, current section explains the data collection and the study sample. The
major parts of this section are the variables, population, sample, data collection as following:
Population and study sample: Even though, there are plenty of malls in Southern Kurdistan,
however only five famous malls in Kurdistan were selected; (Majidi Mall and Family Mall in
Sulaimani), (Majidi Mall and Family Mall in Erbil) and (Family Mall in Duhok). While the study
sample includes (437) persons (221 sellers and 216 buyers).
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Data Collection Procedures: Questionnaire was used as an instrument for collecting primary
data, which has contained (44 and 38 questions) distributed to sellers and buyers respectively of
five malls in Kurdistan Region to identify their views and suggestions regarding to the impact of
psychological pricing. Five hundred questionnaires were distributed and only (437 response)
were recovered and used as a basic of study.
Study Variables and Study Models: In order to achieve the study objectives, this study is based
on the descriptive analytical method (DAM) by using factor analysis (FA) with (Principal
Component Analysis), and (Person Correlation) methods. Moreover, the psychological pricing
(independent variable) and consumer’s behavior (dependent variable) are applying in SPSS.
Moreover, the description of the variables as follows:
Reasons of Buying
Factors that affect Buying
Sellers
Product’s price
Price discounting is a good way to increase selling
Nine-end has a good impact on increasing selling
Advertisement is a good impact on increasing selling
Quality of the product
Brand and type of the brand
Arranging the product by type and sector
Good facilities and environment
Providing presents
Advertisement for the products
Using social medias
Buyers
Nine-end price affect my buying to up
Nine-end prices affect increase my buying to food and drinks
Nine-end price increase my buying to clothes
Nine-end price increase my buying to make-up
Nine-end price increase my buying to electronic product
Nine-end price increase my buying to cleaning stuff
Nine-end price increase my buying to furniture
Cheap product price
High quality of the products
Buy more within a shorter time
Majority of the brandy products are in the malls
Environment and atmosphere inside the malls
Malls have more security
Providing right and trusty information on the
price and type of the product
Providing good facilities during buying and
transporting them
Easily exchanging the product that
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4. Result and Discussion
The results of study were carried out through applying various statistical techniques as follow:
4.1. Respondents Profile
Preliminary data was collected via field survey from 437 persons, Respondents are asked to give
answers of the questions related to their personal information. The profile of a respondent are
shown in table (1).
Table 1. Respondent Demographic Profile
Source: Prepared by researchers based on field survey from 437 (sellers and buyers), 2019.
The profile of buyer respondent shows that majority are male. (49.07%) of the whole sample are
in the age range of 18-25 years, (42.12%) married and 45.83% are holder of bachelor degree.
Also, (69.44%)of customer come from urban, while (30.56%) from suburban. On the other hand,
sellers’ gender are close to each other for male and female, with 49.32% and 50.68%
respectively. Same as buyers, majority of sellers are in the age of 18-25 years with (65.61%).
Meanwhile, bachelor holder are 130 sellers with (58.82%).
Buyer
Information
Item
Percentage (%)
Item
Percentage
(%)
Gender
Male
67.59
Male
49.32
Female
32.41
Female
50.68
Age
18-25
49.07
18-25
65.61
26-35
31.01
26-35
31.67
36-45
14.81
36-45
2.26
Over 46
5.11
Over 46
0.46
Marital status
Married
42.12
Single
57.88
Qualification
None
2.31
None
1.80
Elementary
6.48
Elementary
2.26
Middle School
9.25
Middle School
6.78
High school
15.74
High school
19.45
Diploma
8.79
Diploma
9.04
Bachelor
45.83
Bachelor
58.82
Master and PHD
11.6
Master and PHD
1.85
Come from
urban
69.44
suburban
30.56
Malls
Sulaimani Majidi mall
37
Sulaimani Majidi mall
46
Sulaimani Family mall
47
Sulaimani Family mall
47
Erbil Majidi mall
45
Erbil Majidi mall
46
Erbil Family mall
37
Erbil Family mall
47
Duhok Family mall
50
Duhok Family mall
35
Total
216
100
221
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4.2. The Result of the Scale Reliability
The Alpha-Cronbach coefficient was used to confirm the stability of the scale and to determine
the accuracy of the responses of the sample members. The table below shows the result of the
alpha coefficient Cronbach as follows:
Table 2: Alpha-Cronbach Coefficient of the dimensions of the questioner
Seller
Buyer
Distance
N of item
Alpha Value
Distance
N of item
Alpha Value
Reason
8
0.73
Reason
11
0.66
Effect
12
0.78
Effect
13
0.71
Source: Prepared by researchers based on field survey from 437 (sellers and buyers), 2019.
Table (2) shows that the value of alpha coefficient cronbach for all dimensions is high and
accepted. The total level of the factors and variables for sellers are (0.73 and 0.78), while total
level of the factors and variables for buyer are (0.66 and 0.71). Thus, the results indicate the
sample adequacy for the use of factor analysis to clarify the factor structure, and all statements
had greater than (0.6).
4.3. The Result of factors discussion: KMO
The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy. The KMO statistic varies between (0
and 1). A value of (0) indicates that the sum of partial correlations is large relative to the sum of
correlations, indicating diffusion in the pattern of correlations, while a value close to 1 indicates
the patterns of correlation are relatively compact and so factor analysis should yield distinct and
reliable factors. Moreover, Kaiser (1974) recommends accepting values greater than 0.5 (values
below this should lead you to either collect more data or rethink which variables to include).
Furthermore, values between 0.5 and 0.7 are mediocre values between 0.7 and 0.8 are
good, values between 0.8 and 0.9 are great and values above 0.9 are super. The result of
Kaiser test as following:
Table 3: Kaiser Coefficient of the Measure for Sampling Adequacy
Seller
Buyer
Kaiser
Coefficient
N of degree of Freedom
Kaiser
Coefficient
N of degree of Freedom
0.75
190
0.83
276
Source: Prepared by researchers based on field survey from 437 (sellers and buyers), 2019.
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From table (3), for the seller sample the value is (0.75) which falls into the range of being good,
as well as for buyer sample is (0.83) which falls into the range of being great. So, we should be
confident that factor analysis is appropriate for these data.
4.4. The Factor Analysis: Rotated Component Solution
Using factor analysis important to convert and divide the items and variables to several
factors. However, some items sometimes represent the same idea, thus these can be omitted if
they are redundant or unnecessary. Also the results of the factor analysis are shown in Table (4
and 5).
Table 4: Rotation Method and Factor Analysis to determine the importance of variables from the
point of view of seller
Rotation Method: Component Transformation Matrix
Factor Analysis: Extraction Method: Rotated Component Matrix
The main reasons and factors affect Buying in the mall in view of sellers
Factors /Variables
Factors /Variables
Cause
Share rate
(%)
Effect
Share rate (%)
Advertisement for the products
14.60
Nine-end price increase my buying to
cleaning stuff
9.78
Using social medias
13.75
Nine-end price increase my buying to
furniture
9.42
Good facilities and environment
13.70
Nine-end has a good impact on increasing
selling
9.35
Quality of the product
12.85
Nine-end price increase my buying to
electronic product
9.21
Arranging the product by type and
sector
12.45
High price means high quality
8.90
Providing presents
11.81
Discounting price is a good approach for
increasing the volume of selling
8.66
Product’s price
11.35
Nine-end price increase my buying to make-
up
8.48
Brand and type of the brand
9.497
Low price means low quality
8.14
Total
100
Prices and really suitable
8.13
Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings
Cumulative Variance/ R2 = 0.64
Nine-end prices affect increase my buying to
food and drinks
7.4
Price discounting are in customer’s
expectation
6.40
Nine-end price increase my buying to clothes
6.13
Total
100
Source: Prepared by researchers based on SPSS.
From Table (4) notes that many factors affect the consumer’s behavior and the impact of these
factors vary from one group to another, and within one group of another factor depending on the
degree of influence and rate of participation in the formation of the consumer’s behavior. Also,
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the totality of the factors involved in the model are (%64), and distributed to six groups or six
models*.
As noted in Table (4) that within each group there is a difference between influencing factors, but
the (Advertisement for the products and Nine-end price) among the most important factors
affecting the consumer’s behavior which are equals (%14.60, %9.78) respectively. This is
consistent with the economic theory that there is a positive relationship between advertisement
and selling. Moreover, the impact of nine-end price on cleaning stuff and furniture. This may be
due to the fact that the majority of customer prefers to buy these two products.
Table 5: Rotation Method and Factor Analysis to determine the importance of variables from the
point of view of buyer
Rotation Method: Component Transformation Matrix
Factor Analysis: Extraction Method: Rotated Component Matrix
The main reasons of Buying in the mall in view of buyers
Factors /Variables
Factors /Variables
Cause
Share rate (%)
Effect
Share rate (%)
Nice environment and atmosphere
inside the malls
11.50
Nine-end price increase my
buying to cleaning stuff
9.04
Providing good facilities during
buying and transporting them
11.00
Nine-end price increase my
buying to electronic product
9.00
I only go to the malls for leisure time
10.20
High price means high quality
8.76
Easily exchanging the product that I
disliked them
9.95
Nine-end price increase my
buying to furniture
8.45
Majority of the brandy products are
in the malls
9.76
Advertisement is a reason to push
my buying’s up
8.44
Malls have more security
9.74
Nine-end price affect my buying
to up
8.42
Cheap product price
9.25
Prices and suitable
7.70
High quality of the products
9.00
Nine-end prices affect increase
my buying to food and drinks
7.65
Good treatment inside the malls
7.84
Price discounting is a good way
to increase my buying
7.33
* Model Estimation for Seller:
1. Cause Factors:
First Factor: Containing these variables (Y1, Y2) by total variance (%7.47)
F = 0.654Y1+0.740Y2
Second Factor: Containing these variables (Y3, Y4, and Y5) by total variance (%7.01)
F= 0.547Y3+0.717Y4+0.789Y5
Third Factor: Containing these variables (Y6, Y7, and Y8) by total variance (%5.01)
F = -0.680Y6+0.841Y7+0.792Y8
2. Effect Factors:
First Factor: Containing these variables (X1, X2, X3, and X4) by total variance (%20.21)
F = 0.707X1+0.774X2+0.708X3+0.56X4
Second Factor: Containing these variables (X5, X6, X7 and X8) by total variance (% 13.54)
F = 0.753X5+0.813X6+0.743X7+0.533X8
Third Factor: Containing these variables (X9, X10, X11 and X12) by total variance (% 10.43)
F= 0.737X9+0.801X10+0.850X11+0.819X12
!
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Providing right and trusty
information on the price and type of
the product
6.63
Low price means low quality
7.06
I would be able to buy more within a
shorter time
5.12
Price discounting reach my
expectation
6.09
Total
100
Nine-end price increase my
buying to make-up
6.55
Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings
Cumulative Variance/ R2 = 0.61
Nine-end price increase my
buying to clothes
5.52
Total
100
Source: Prepared by researchers based on SPSS.
From Table (5) notes that many factors affect the consumer’s behavior and the impact of these
factors vary from one group to another, and within one group of another factor depending on the
degree of influence and rate of participation in the formation of the consumer’s behavior. Also,
the totality of the factors involved in the model are (%61), and distributed to six groups or six
models*. As noted in Table (5) that within each group there is a difference between influencing
factors, but the (environment and atmosphere and Nine-end price) among the most important
factors affecting the consumer’s behavior which are equals (%11.50 , %9.04) respectively. This
is consistent with the economic theory that there is a positive relationship between advertisement
and selling. Moreover, the impact of nine-end price on cleaning stuff and electronic. This may be
due to the fact that the majority of customer prefers to buy these two important*.
!
* Model Estimation for Buyer:
1. Cause Factors:
First Factor: Containing these variables (Y1 and Y2) by total variance (%24.71).
F = 0.657Y1+0.639Y2
Second Factor: Containing these variables (Y4, Y5 and Y6) by total variance (%7.86)
F = 0.693Y4+0.817Y5+0.692Y6
Third Factor: Containing these variables (Y7, Y8, Y9 andY10) by total variance (%5.56)
F =0.557Y7+0.417Y8+0.707Y9+0.782Y10
Fourth Factor: Containing these variables (Y7 and Y8) by total variance (%4.51)
F =0.737Y7+0.670Y8
Fifth Factor: Containing these variables (Y3) by total variance (%4.18)
F =0.364Y3
2. Effect Factors:
First Factor: Containing these variables (X1, X2 and X3) by total variance 24.712%.
F = 0.674X1+0.767X2+0.618X3
Second Factor: Containing these variables (X9,X10,X11,X12 and X13) by total variance(% 9.31)
F = 0.483X9+0.574X10+0.788X11+0.792X12+0.740X13
Third Factor: Containing these variables (X4, X5 and X6) by total variance (%4.74)
F =0.533X4+0.642X5+0.739X6
!
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4.5. Person Correlation: Relationship between Cause and Effect Estimation
Current study applying (Pearson Correlation Checking) for testing study hypotheses: H1“there is
a positive correlation of Psychological pricing strategy (price, discount of price and Nine-end
price) on (consumer’s buying) in five famous malls in Kurdistan Region. Likewise, for answering
study question: “What is the specific factors that influence attracting customer and achieving
their loyalty in malls in Kurdistan region/ Iraq? the result reported in the table below.
Table 6: Person Correlation between Cause and Effect Estimation
Seller
Reasons of Buying
Effect of Reduction
Reasons of Buying
Person Correlation
1
0.656
Sig.
0.000
0.000
Sample Size
221
221
Effect of Reduction
Person Correlation
0.656
1
Sig.
0.000
0.000
Sample Size
221
221
Buyer
Reasons of Buying
Effect of Reduction
Reasons of Buying
Person Correlation
1
0.644
Sig.
0.000
0.000
Sample Size
216
216
Effect of Reduction
Person Correlation
0.644
1
Sig.
0.000
0.000
Sample Size
216
216
The level of significance at level 0.05
Source: Prepared by researchers based on SPSS.
Table (6) shows that there is a significant statistical correlation between (Reasons of Buying and
Effect of Reduction) which equals (0.656 and 0.644) for seller and buyer respectively. Moreover,
Table(6) indicates that the p-value for all statements is 0.000, which is less than 0.05, therefore,
as a whole, we reject the null hypothesis (H0) and accept (H1). Thus, concluded that there are
strong positive relationship between psychological pricing strategy (price, discount of price and
Nine-end price) on (consumer’s buying) in five famous malls in Kurdistan Region.
4.6. Descriptive Statistics
This part indicates the level of agreeableness and disagreeableness of the respondents by seeing
the value of mean. The value of the mean, std. deviation and relative important are presented in
Appendix (1 - 4). From these Appendixes, in general the mean of all statements goes toward (4)
which shows that majority of the respondent surveyed are agree on the statement that
Psychological pricing strategy has significant impact on consumer’s buying behavior in
Kurdistan Region.
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5. Conclusion
Nowadays, getting loyal customers and sustaining them in a strong market competition became a
vital task. The study objective is economic analyze to find out the impact of psychological
pricing on consumer’s behavior in term of buying goods and services in the five famous malls in
Kurdistan Region- Iraq. The main objective of this study is to show the impact of psychological
pricing on consumer’s behavior in term of buying goods and services in the five famous malls in
Kurdistan Region- Iraq. To achieve that, this study adopts descriptive analytical method (DAM)
by using factor analysis (FA) with (Principal Component Analysis), and (Person Correlation)
methods, as well as, the primary data from a survey of (221) sellers and (216) buyers who
interests mall to meet the needs, was conducted during 01/02/2019 to 01/03/2019. Distributing a
questionnaire is used among different types and groups of people as primary data to collect data
and information as a way to achieve the study’s objective. The most important findings of the
study, show that (Advertisement for the products, Environment for the malls and Nine-end price)
are the main determinants of the consumer’s behavior and nine-ending prices could be counted as
one of the major factors that have a positive significant impact on consumer behavior . Nearby
this, there is a significant statistical correlation between buyers and sellers. In addition, the results
will be useful for any other upcoming researches in this field. Moreover, the regional government
and the concerned authorities should develop a comprehensive plan to improve the standards of
the malls. This is done by forming a special body concerned with the affairs of costumers,
providing the necessary supplies and services in malls. Moreover, malls should prepare and
organize programs for the attract and protect customers to meet their needs and desires, with
appropriate prices.
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14
Appendix 1
Questions of reasons of buying in term of seller
Relative
important
C.V
S.D
Mean
Strongly agree
Agree
No Sure
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
Questions
No
No
No
No
No
%
%
%
%
%
83.8
23.87
1.00
4.19
110
64
32
10
5
Product’s price
49.8
29
14.5
4.5
2.3
82.8
24.88
1.03
4.14
107
61
33
16
4
Quality of the product
48.4
27.6
14.9
7.2
1.8
83.4
23.98
1.00
4.17
107
66
31
13
4
Brand and type of the brand
48.4
29.9
14
5.9
1.8
80.8
23.27
0.94
4.04
83
81
44
10
3
Arranging the product by type and
sector
37.6
36.7
19.9
4.5
1.4
79
26.58
1.05
3.95
81
78
40
15
7
Good facilities and environment
36.7
35.3
18.1
6.8
3.2
79.6
26.63
1.06
3.98
87
71
39
19
5
Providing presents
39.4
32.1
17.6
8.6
2.3
78.2
28.39
1.11
3.91
84
69
38
24
6
Advertisement for the products
38
31.2
17.2
10.9
2.7
81.8
26.16
1.07
4.09
108
50
42
17
4
Using social medias
48.9
22.6
19
7.7
1.8
81.18
25.47
1.03
4.06
767
540
299
124
38
Sum
43.4
30.5
16.9
7.00
2.15
15
Appendix 2
Questions of effecting buying in term of seller
Relative
important
C.V
S.D
Mean
Strongly
agree
Agree
No Sure
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
Questions
No
No
No
No
No
%
%
%
%
%
66.4
34.94
1.16
3.32
35
71
64
32
19
Prices and really suitable
15.8
32.1
29
14.5
8.6
61.6
41.88
1.29
3.08
37
51
58
43
32
High price means high quality
16.7
23.1
26.2
19.5
14.5
56.8
44.01
1.25
2.84
29
34
65
58
35
Low price means low quality
13.1
15.4
29.4
26.2
15.8
70.4
31.25
1.1
3.52
46
75
58
33
9
Price discounting are in
customer’s expectation
20.8
33.9
26.2
14.9
4.1
80
25.00
1.00
4.0
85
70
51
10
5
Discounting price is a good
approach for increasing the
volume of selling
38.5
31.7
23.1
4.5
2.3
81.4
24.32
0.99
4.07
90
79
35
12
5
Nine-end has a good impact on
increasing selling
40.7
35.7
15.8
5.4
2.3
77.2
27.98
1.08
3.86
73
75
50
14
9
Nine-end prices affect increase my
buying to food and drinks
33
33.9
22.6
6.3
4.1
81.8
22.74
0.93
4.09
89
76
45
8
3
Nine-end price increase my
buying to clothes
40.3
34.4
20.4
3.6
1.4
77
24.94
0.96
3.85
58
95
49
14
5
Nine-end price increase my
buying to make-up
26.2
43
22.2
6.3
2.3
76.6
25.07
0.96
3.83
62
80
63
12
4
Nine-end price increase my
buying to electronic product
28.1
36.2
28.5
5.4
1.8
76
25.00
0.95
3.8
54
89
63
9
6
Nine-end price increase my
buying to cleaning stuff.
24.4
40.3
28.5
4.1
2.7
76.8
25.52
0.98
3.84
64
79
63
9
6
Nine-end price increase my
buying to furniture.
29
35.7
28.5
4.1
2.7
73.5
29.39
1.05
3.68
722
874
664
254
138
Sum
27.22
32.96
25.04
9.58
5.20
16
Appendix 3
Questions of reasons of buying in term of buyer
Relative
important
C.V
S.D
Mean
Strongly
agree
Agree
No Sure
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
Questions
No
No
No
No
No
%
%
%
%
%
72.4
37.29
1.35
3.62
86
27
56
28
19
Cheap product price
39.8
12.5
25.9
13
8.8
70.4
33.81
1.19
3.52
52
66
56
26
16
High quality of the products
24.1
30.6
25.9
12
7.4
71.4
32.77
1.17
3.57
53
71
54
23
15
I would be able to buy more
within a shorter time
24.5
32.9
25
10.6
6.9
71.6
33.24
1.19
3.58
50
85
40
23
18
Majority of the brandy products
are in the malls
23.1
39.4
18.5
10.6
8.3
74.2
31.54
1.17
3.71
61
83
35
23
14
Nice environment and atmosphere
inside the malls
28.2
38.4
16.2
10.6
6.5
73.8
33.33
1.23
3.69
68
67
43
21
17
Malls have more security
31.5
31
19.9
9.7
7.9
69
33.33
1.15
3.45
48
57
68
31
12
Good treatment inside the malls
22.2
26.4
31.5
14.4
5.6
62.4
37.82
1.18
3.12
29
53
72
39
23
Providing right and trusty
information on the price and type
of the product
13.4
24.5
33.3
18.1
10.6
63.2
38.92
1.23
3.16
37
48
69
37
25
Easily exchanging the product that
I disliked them
17.1
22.2
31.9
17.1
11.6
63.4
41.01
1.30
3.17
43
46
59
40
28
Providing good facilities during
buying and transporting them
19.9
21.3
27.3
18.5
13
59.4
50.84
1.51
2.97
54
30
40
40
52
I only go to the malls for leisure
time
25
13.9
18.5
18.5
24.1
68.29
36.72
1.24
3.41
581
633
592
331
239
Sum
24.45
26.64
24.92
13.93
10.06
17
Appendix 4
Questions of effecting buying in term of buyer
Relative
important
C.V
S.D
Mean
Strongly
agree
Agree
No Sure
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
Questions
No
No
No
No
No
%
%
%
%
%
69.4
39.19
1.36
3.47
72
35
54
33
22
Prices and suitable
33.3
16.2
25
15.3
10.2
64.8
37.96
1.23
3.24
35
65
60
30
26
High price means high quality
16.2
30.1
27.8
13.9
12
65.2
40.18
1.31
3.26
48
52
51
39
26
Low price means low quality
22.2
24.1
23.6
18.1
12
64.4
35.71
1.15
3.22
31
62
64
42
17
Price discounting reach my
expectation
14.4
28.7
29.6
19.4
7.9
64.2
36.14
1.16
3.21
32
60
67
38
19
Price discounting is a good way to
increase my buying
14.8
27.8
31
17.6
8.8
63.8
38.56
1.23
3.19
37
52
67
36
24
Advertisement is a reason to push
my buying’s up
17.1
24.1
31
16.7
11.1
72
35.28
1.27
3.60
69
53
51
25
18
Nine-end price affect my buying
to up
31.9
24.5
23.6
11.6
8.3
71
32.11
1.14
3.55
45
83
50
22
16
Nine-end prices affect increase my
buying to food and drinks
20.8
38.4
23.1
10.2
7.4
68.6
35.57
1.22
3.43
46
72
45
36
17
Nine-end price increase my
buying to clothes
21.3
33.3
20.8
16.7
7.9
67.4
33.53
1.13
3.37
36
69
65
31
15
Nine-end price increase my
buying to make-up
16.7
31.9
30.1
14.4
6.9
65.8
35.26
1.16
3.29
36
63
61
40
16
Nine-end price increase my
buying to electronic product
16.7
29.2
28.2
18.5
7.4
63.4
36.91
1.17
3.17
30
56
69
40
21
Nine-end price increase my
buying to cleaning stuff.
13.9
25.9
31.9
18.5
9.7
60
41
1.23
3.00
31
43
63
51
28
Nine-end price increase my
buying to furniture.
14.4
19.9
29.2
23.6
13
66.2
36.72
1.36
3.31
548
765
767
463
265
Sum
19.52
27.24
27.31
16.49
9.44
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Annual reviews inc. 41
  • Chakravarti Cohen
  • Dipankar
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