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Transmisja pamięci. Działacze „sfery pamięci” i przekaz o Kresach Wschodnich we współczesnej Polsce

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... 3 Undeniably, history is partial and written by the victors (Gilloch, 2002;Hastrup, 1997;Kracauer, 1995), here, however, lies a paradox of the post-German archive. The settlers who should be regarded as victors were not a homogeneous group: some of them could have felt as victims similarly as the German expellees (Głowacka-Grajper, 2016;Praczyk, 2018;Tomczak, 2006) and they were victors only by name. This particular settlers' situation is therefore paradoxical: if someone was displaced -even if they were in the position of acquiring something that was left behind by the previous owners -they could also feel a loss: they were uprooted and willing to re-create their memories of the settlement. ...
... The informal, collective archives of the expellees do not have a counterpart on the side of the settlers. Only recently we are seeing the peak of interest in the settlement history, both professional (Głowacka-Grajper, 2016;Spurný, 2011) and collective (various Facebook groups collecting post-war photos of the given locality). This step pushes us towards the question of the materiality of the post-German archive and the role of the researcher. ...
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The article introduces the notion of the “post-German” archive as an idea for further research on the erased cultures of Central Europe. The author questions the hierarchical and top-down structure of the institutionalized archive. Instead, she proposes to understand the “post-German” archive as an inclusive conception. It would incorporate various narratives, languages, and perspectives. In this way, the canonization of given motives can be avoided. The author pays special attention to the responsibility of the researcher. She illustrates the theoretical framework with examples from Polish and Czech archival practices.
... It is a memory focused on specific details, that is on individual people, local communities, buildings, objects and places and the longing for them (cf. Głowacka-Grajper 2016). ...
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In this chapter, Ursa explores multiple forms of displacement in Herta Müller’s prose. Identified as crucial ways of remediating the author’s autobiography and postmemory, linguistic estrangement, autobiographical mediation, and non-human displacement are central to the analysis. Based on two best-known novels by Müller, The Land of Green Plums and The Hunger Angel, the chapter shows how meaning is transferred throughout the narrative between speech, material objects, humanness, and animality. Focusing on the individual-collective interplay and on the human–non-human ambivalence, and dwelling on theoretical input from memory and postmemory studies, Ursa contends that the writer uses identity displacement to mediate and remediate different places of memory, where the non-human takes part in being human.
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The phenomenon of wall paintings has been developing in public space since the Mexican Revolution. Murals are used, among other purposes, to capture memories. Moreover, they are one of the most popular forms of representation of the past in public space, commonly called memory carriers. In the discussion of the research being carried out, the opportunities associated with the formation of historical awareness and attitudes towards society’s past through commemorative murals will be highlighted.The research was conducted from July to November 2020. It was based on the analysis of the existing materials – photographs of commemorative murals (significant and marked elements) and interviews with semi-structured memory agents. The first stage of the described research focused on the authors of commemorative murals.The aim of the research was to determine the meaning and values that the creators of murals have given in general and in particular to the commemorative murals made by themselves.The research allowed, among other things, to answer questions concerning the artistic path of the creators (graffiti environment), what factors influenced the process of making mural (family history, one’s own past, finances, social involvement), worldview and values of the declared creators (patriotism) and attitude to the politics of memory.
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In this article, based on the materials of the author’s search ethnographic expeditions аnd published works, by the example of ritual culture the result of breaking tradition of Ukrainians from Western Boykivshchyna, who were displaced within the framework of ’Operation Vistula’ have been analysed. It was the forced resettlement of approximately 150,000 Ukrainians and mixed Polish-Ukrainian families from the territory of Rzeszów, Lublin and Krakow provinces (Voivodeships) to the western and northern territories of Poland (1947–1950). After the deportation of the Ukrainians, the processes of accelerated breaking of both their the way of life and the unique world of traditional culture with its archaic customs and rites have begun. This was actively facilitated by local government policies aimed at inciting inter-ethnic tensions, creating difficult relations with representatives of various regional groups of the Polish ethnic community, as well as censure and ridicule of the traditional elements of the folk culture of re-settlers by their neighbors. Nevertheless, with the help of tradition (in ritual form or in form of their memories), re-settlers from Western Boykivshchyna continue to keep memory of their own (non) traumatic past, and, based on it, construct their own identity in the perspective of modernity.
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The Leopolis Collection (at the Museum of Independence) constitutes a valuable source of knowledge on the past of Lviv and its surroundings as well as the fate of the Polish people living there. Created in 1992 as a result of the efforts of Borderland circles, its contribution is used for research by museum specialists, professional historians and researchers of the Borderlands past. The artefacts, archival materials and publications collected there are made use of for preparing exhibitions, scholarly articles and monographs. These valuable collections in relation to exhibitions are still awaiting a systematic study. Research undertaken so far has borne fruit in the form of valuable monographs and studies, but there are many valuable materials still waiting to be unearthed. For the purposes of accessing the museum materials the creation of a Leopolis Collection catalogue is necessary so that its contents can be more broadly made use of – both in historical research and that pertaining to museum-based studies.
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This article aims to present the possibilities offered to urban studies by the concept of memory culture. The case study discussed is that of Vilnius in the 1990–2018 period. The definition put forward by C. Cornelißen, for whom memory culture is “the formal generic term for all possible forms of conscious human memory of historical events, personages and processes”, inspired the creation of a research model encompassing: the multilingual urban discourse of Vilnius (analysis of texts), interviews with representatives of the official and alternative discourses of Vilnius’ memory (analysis of oral histories), and spatial representations of the past (analysis of carriers of memory). This diversified corpus of sources will allow for as comprehensive as possible a description of the phenomenon that is present-day Vilnius’ memory culture; it will also extend the boundaries of research towards true interdisciplinarity.
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W artykule dokonano analizy tradycyjnych obrzędów i zwyczajów, które dotyczą obchodów Świętego Wieczoru (6 stycznia według nowego stylu) na Bojkowszczyznie – w regionie historyczno-etnograficznym na terenie współczesnej Ukrainy. Świąteczno-obrzędowa uroczystość została przedstawiona według tradycji ludowej obchodów Świętego Wieczoru, czyli dotyczy okresu końca ХІХ – lat 30. ХХ wieku. Opisane działania obrzędowe i rytualne cechuje symbolika dobrego początku; miały one na celu zachować i powiększyć własne gospodarstwo: rytualne milczenie podczas karmienia kur, żywienie bydła daniami obrzędowymi z dotrzymaniem pewnego scenariusza rytualnego i in. Konieczną częścią Świętego Wieczoru na Bojkowszczyznie były motywy zaduszkowe, które przejawiały się w zaproszeniu zmarłych do rodzinnej Świętej Wieczerzy, zostawaniu potraw obrzędowych po jej zakończeniu, semantyką tekstu-obrzędu dopełnianego pomiedzy członkami rodziny, zapychaniu łyżki w rytualny snop. W takich czynnościach magiczno-rytualnych Świętej Wieczerzy jak dzielenie się chlebem, obwiązywanie nóżek stołu łańncuchem, zaprosiny do rodzinnego stołu dusz zmarłych krewnych, dzikich zwierząt czy aniołów, znaleziono symbolikę communitas. Opisywane obrzędy tradycyjne i działania magiczne, funkcjonujące wśród mieszkańców ukraińskiej części Bojkowszczyzny, często porównywnuję z wypowiedziami przesiedlonych Ukraińców – mieszkańców województw zachodnich i północnych współczesnej Polski, którzy jeszcze przed 1947 r. zasiedlali górskie stoki Bieszczad Zachodnich.
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The chapter focuses on the memory of displacement from eastern Polish borderlands (called ‘Kresy’) which were not included in the Polish state after the World War II. Analysis is based on interviews conducted among members of Kresy-related organisations in contemporary Poland. Głowacka-Grajper shows that memory of lost lands and displacement is transmitted mainly within families and local non-governmental organisations and women became the main ‘memory makers’ in this sphere. Most interlocutors recall stories from their mothers and grandmothers as a way of establishing a link with the family’s past. The narratives often focus on the everyday aspects of family life culturally ascribed to women’s sphere, for example, various family stories, neighbour relations, the immediate surroundings and ordinary working days. The reasons for the domination of women’s narratives for the memory of displacement in contemporary Poland and its consequences are analysed in the chapter.
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