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Abstract

Malva neglecta is a common traditionally used medicinal plant, contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, organic acids, protein, oils and sugars. It possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, anti-urolithiasis, anticholinesterase and angiotensin converting enzyme, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory inhibitory effects. This review will highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Malva neglecta.
IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy www.iosrphr.org
(e)-ISSN: 2250-3013, (p)-ISSN: 2319-4219
Volume 9, Issue 6 Series. I (June 2019), PP. 60-67
60
Medical benefit of Malva neglecta A review
Ali Esmail Al-Snafi
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Thi qar University, Iraq.
Abstract: Malva neglecta is a common traditionally used medicinal plant, contained alkaloids, tannins,
saponins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, organic acids,
protein, oils and sugars. It possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic,
hepatoprotective, anti-urolithiasis, anticholinesterase and angiotensin converting enzyme, α-amylase, α-
glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory inhibitory effects. This review will highlight the chemical
constituents and pharmacological effects of Malva neglecta.
Keywords: constituents, pharmacology, Malva neglecta
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Date of Submission: 27-05-2019 Date of acceptance: 13-06-2019
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I. INTRODUCTION
As a result of accumulated experience from the past generations, today, all the world’s cultures have an
extensive knowledge of herbal medicine. Two thirds of the new chemicals identified yearly were extracted from
higher plants. 75% of the world’s population used plants for therapy and prevention. In the US, where chemical
synthesis dominates the pharmaceutical industry, 25% of the pharmaceuticals are based on plant-derived
chemicals(1). Recent reviews revealed that the medicinal plants possessed central nervous, cardiovascular,
antioxidant, reproductive, gastro-intestinal, respiratory, antidiabetic, galactagogu, antimicrobial, antiparasitic,
dermatological, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic, immunological, hepato and reno-
protective and many other pharmacological effects(2-40). Malva neglecta is a common traditionally used
medicinal plant, contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, flavonols,
proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, organic acids, protein, oils and sugars. It possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, anti-urolithiasis, anticholinesterase and angiotensin
converting enzyme, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory inhibitory effects. This current
review highlighted the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Malva neglecta.
Plant profile:
Synonyms:
Malva neglecta is the only accepted name of this species(41).
Taxonomic classification:
Kingdom: Plantae, Subkingdom: Tracheobionta, Superdivision: Spermatophyta, Division: Magnoliophyta,
Class: Magnoliopsida, Subclass: Dilleniidae, Order: Malvales , Family: Malvaceae, Genus: Malva, Species:
Malva neglecta(42).
Common names:
Arabic: Khubbaizah; English: common mallow, dwarf mallow; German: Käsepappel, Weg-Malve; Swedish:
skär kattost; Turkey: ebegumeci, develik, gomec, komec, ebegomeci, tolık(43-44).
Distribution:
It is native to Africa (Macaronesia, Algeria, Morocco); Asia (Saudi Arabia, Azerbaijan, Georgia,
China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq,
Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, India, Pakistan); Europe ( Belarus, Lithuania, Moldova,
Ukraine, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia,
Switzerland, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, France, Portugal,
Spain); and has become naturalised outside its native range, in temperate regions(43).
Distribution:
Herbs biennial, 50-100(-120) cm tall; stem sparsely stellate velutinous. Stipules ovate-lanceolate, 3-5 ×
2-4 mm, stellate puberulent; petiole 2-8(-15) cm, puberulent in adaxial groove, glabrescent; leaf blade reniform
or round, (3-)5-11 × (2-)5-11 cm, both surfaces very sparsely strigose or subglabrous, 5-7-lobed, lobes rounded
or acute, margin crenate-serrate. Flowers 3- to many-fascicled, axillary. Pedicels 2-15(-40) mm. Epicalyx lobes
Medical benefit of Malva neglecta A review
61
filiform- lanceolate, (3-)5-6 mm, ciliate. Calyx cup-shaped, 5-8 mm, lobes broadly triangular, sparsely stellate
strigose. Corolla whitish to reddish, slightly longer than sepals; petals 6-8 mm, apex retuse; claw glabrous or
sparsely hairy. Filament tube 3-4 mm, glabrous or with a few simple hairs. Style branches 10-11. Schizocarp
flat-globose, 5-7 mm in diam.; mericarps 10-12, abaxially smooth, ca. 1 mm thick, angles rounded and rugose,
sides reticulate. Seeds purple-brown, reniform, ca. 1.5 mm in diam., glabrous(45).
Traditional uses:
Due to its high mucilage content, it was used as soothing demulcent herbs, especially for cases of
inflammation, either for the urinary, digestive or respiratory systems. Pregnant women or new mothers used
mallow leaves as a source of iron, zinc and vitamins. Malva neglecta was substituted for spinach in many
dishes, including soups, salads, gnocchi and quiche(46).
Leaves and flowers were used for the treatment of constipation, sore throat, women sterility, wound,
hemorrhoids, miscarriage swellings, rheumatic pain, stomachache, abdominal pain, abscess, renal diseases,
cough, throat infection, common cold, bronchitis, peptic ulcer and indigestion. Stems and roots were used as
abortifacient(47-49).
Malva neglecta was used in the treatment of common cold and to relieve cough in different parts of
Iran. It was also used as a valuable and useful medicine to relieve the bruise, inflammation and mosquito bite.
It was consumed for the treatment of urinary tract or digestive system diseases as well(50). The pulverized
mallow seeds are used to treat bladder ulcers and coughs(51).
In Italy the plant was used as tea in inflammation and as a gargle in sore throat. It also was also used to
treat acne, broken bones, help in abdominal pain and to treat swelling, dermatitis, burns and throat infection(52-
53). Malva neglecta fruit was an edible traditional medicinal plant used in Anatolia to cure multiple
medical conditions such as asthma, stomachache and diarrhea. It also used to promote maturation of abscesses,
in wound healing, abdominal pains and cancer(54-55). The plant was also used in mild cathartic(56).
Parts used medicinally:
Fruits, roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds(47-49, 51).
Physecochemical characteristics:
The physecochemical characteristics of Malva neglecta leaves gum were: moisture 0.43%, nitrogen 1.37%
crude protein 0.62%, total ash 0.30%, whole sugar 0.83%(57).
Chemical constituents:
The preliminary analysis showed that Malva neglecta contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins,
hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, organic acids, protein and
sugars(55, 57-59).
Forty one components were identified in the essential oils, constituting 95.0% of the essential oil
composition of Malva neglecta (whole plants in flowering stage). The main constituents of the essential oil were
cineole, hexatriacontane, tetratetracontane and α-selinene. However, the identified compounds (%) were: octane
1.7, isononane 1.3, α-pinene 1.6, camphene 1.1, β-pinene 2.9, β-Myrcene 0.8, limonene 1.0, cineole 18.8, 2-
methyl decane 0.8, camphor 1.4, 1,3-di-tert butyl benzene 2.4, carvone oxide 0.8, anethole 2.2, valencene 1.7, α-
selinene 4.2, β-Himachalene 1.2, α-muurolene 0.9, cadalene 1.1, 2-methyl heptadecane 1.6, octadecane 1.6, 2-
methyl-1-hexadecanol 2.3, hexadecanoic acid 0.9, heneicosane 1.8, 1-nonadecanol 1.8, butyl phthalate 1.1, 2-
eicosanol 1.8, Z-8-octadecen-1-ol acetate 1.4, docosane 1.3, 9-hexyl heptadecane 0.7, 2,5-Di-tert octyl-p-
benzoquinone 4.0, arachidic acid 1.3, tetracosane 2.3, 3-ethyl-5-(2-ethylbutyl)octadecane 1.5, heptacosane 0.8,
1-hexacosanol 2.8, choleic acid 0.9, nonacosane 1.3, ethyl iso-allocholate 0.8, 17-pentatriacontene 1.5,
hexatriacontane 7.8 and tetratetracontane 7.8(44).
Fatty acid compositions of Malva neglecta (whole plants in flowering stage) (%) were: 10-undecenoic
acid 1.6, myristic acid 7.8, palmitic acid 36.8, phytol 2.9, linoleic acid 17.8, oleic acid 4.6, linolenic acid 13.2,
stearic acid 6.8, arachidic acid 2.3, 6-hexadecenoic acid 2.3, behenic acid 1.8, saturated fatty acids 55.5 and
unsaturated fatty acids 42.4(44).
The chemical analysis of the essential oils of the aerial parts of Malva neglecta from Torbat-e
Heydarieh region-Iran, showed that they characterized by high percentage of spathulenol (27.0%), 1,7-diepi-α-
cedrenal (10.6%), valencene (6.0%), tetrametyl neophytadiene (4.1%) and carotol (3.7%) represented the most
abundant compounds. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes (49.8%) constitute about half of the total constituents
followed by non-terpene hydrocarbons 26.2%, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 6.0%,, dieterpene hydrocarbons
4.0% and oxygenated monoterpenes 2.0%(60).
The totol phenolics in the methanol extract of Malva neglecta (whole plants in flowering stage) was
68.29±0.14 μg pyrocatechol equivalents /mg extract and the total flavonoides was 15.58±0.19 μg quercetin
Medical benefit of Malva neglecta A review
62
equivalents /mg extract. The phenolic compounds identified in the methanol extracts of Malva neglecta were:
quinic acid 155.93±7.44, malic acid 13108.97±694.77, tr-Aconitic acid 284.98±13.91, protocatechuic acid
282.76±14.38, caffeic acid 70.38±3.65, p-coumaric acid 263.32±13.41, 4-OH benzoic acid 1694.92±88.09 and
salicylic acid 1456.04±72.80μg /g extract(44).
The total phenolics (mg GAE/g DW), hydroxycinnamic acids (mg CAE/g DW), flavonoids (mg RE/g
DW), flavonols (mg RE/g DW), proanthocyanidins (mg CE/g DW) and anthocyanins (mg C3-GE/g DW)
contents in the root extract of Malva neglecta were 3.4 ± 0.3 0.48 ± 0.04, 0.97 ± 0.02, 0.52 ± 0.03, 0.004 ±
0.003 and 0.05 ± 0.01; in the stem extract were: 4.8 ± 0.1, 0.64 ± 0.01, 1.34 ± 0.10, 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.007 ± 0.001
and 0.05 ± 0.01; in the leaf extract were: 17.4 ± 0.3, 2.56 ± 0.06, 7.21 ± 0.28, 4.88 ± 0.21, 0.027 ± 0.003 and
0.65 ± 0.01; in the flower extract were: 11.6 ± 0.5, 1.85 ± 0.03, 5.43 ± 0.56, 3.00 ± 0.11, 0.015 ± 0.001 and
0.35 ± 0.04; in the fruit extract were: 5.0 ± 0.3, 0.88 ± 0.03, 2.63 ± 0.28, 1.43 ± 0.05, 0.027 ± 0.001 and 0.33 ±
0.01; and in the whole plant were: 6.6 ± 0.3, 0.95 ± 0.01, 2.95 ± 0.16, 1.46 ± 0.04, 0.011 ± 0.001 and 0.15 ±
0.02 respectively(55).
The lyophilized ethanol-based hydrophilic extract of Malva neglecta fruits was investigated for
phenolic composition. Flavonoid glycosides were detected as the major phenolic compounds. Traces of rutin,
chlorogenic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid-O-hexoside were detected in the extract(54).
Many organic acids were identified in the extracts of Malva neglecta included oxalic, quinic, malic,
citric, succinic and fumaric acids(59).
Pharmacological effects:
Antimicrobial effect:
Malva neglecta acetone extract (whole plants in flowering stage) possessed antibacterial activity when
used at concentration of 10, 20, and 30 mg/ml, the lowest concentration (10 mg/ml) showed inhibitory zones of
12±0.3, 12±0.1, 11±0.3, 10±0.1 and 16±0.2 mm against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes,
Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans respectively. Methanolic extract also
showed antibacterial at the same concentrations, the lowest concentration (10 mg/ml) showed inhibitory zones
of 10±0.2, 11±0.1, 10±0.2, 12±0.1 and 12±0.3 against the same pathogens respectively(44).
The antimicrobial activity of Malva neglecta was studied against 3 isolates of Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and one isolate of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus
aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The aqueous extract of the leaves of Malva neglecta did not possess
antibacterial effect against the tested bacterial isolates, the methanol extract clearly demonstrated an ability to
inhibit the growth of the tested isolates. The methanol extract of the plant was also capable of inhibiting the
formation of biofilms by many of the tested clinical isolates(61).
All extracts of Malva neglecta (crude, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous) possessed
antibacterial effect against Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.5-19 mm) and Salmonella typhi (11-14.5mm), all
extracts except ethyl acetate extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (12-18mm), only
chloroform and aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (12 and 10 mm
respectively) and all extracts showed no activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus auerus. All extracts
possessed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, All extracts except hexane extract showed activity
against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani, while only crude and aqueous extracts possessed antifungal
activity against Aspergillus fumigates(62).
The antibacterial activity of Malva neglecta ethanolic flower extract (0.05-4.0 mg/ml) was investigated
against Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria
monocytogenes, Streptococcus pyogen, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extract possessed antibacterial activity against Bacillus anthracis (8-10 mm),
Staphylococcus aureus (8-13 mm), Staphylococcus epidermidis (13-22 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7-10
mm), while other tested bacteria were resistant(663).
The ethanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Malva neglecta possessed wide range of
antimicrobial activity. MICs of the ethanolic extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates and Candida albicans
were 0.70, 0.60, 0.60, 0.75, 0.80, 1.00 and 0.95 mg/ml, MICs of chloroform extract were 0.95, 1.00, 0.95, 1.20,
0.80, 1.00 and 0.95 mg/ml and MICs of aqueous extract were 0.90, 0.90, 0.90, 0.90, 0.70, 0.95 and 0.90 mg/ml,
respectively(64).
The methanol extract of Malva neglecta possessed antibacterial effects against E. coli (12mm),
Salmonella spp (14mm), Shigella spp (31mm) and Clostridium spp (16mm), while it showed no activity against
Klebsiella spp(65).
The ethanolic extract of Malva neglecta possessed antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus. MIC and MBC of the extract were 6.5 and 13 mg/ml respectively(50).
Medical benefit of Malva neglecta A review
63
Antioxidant effect:
Acetone, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of Malva neglecta (whole plants in flowering stage)
were tested for antioxidant activity using β-carotene-linoleic acid test system, DPPH free radical, ABTS cation
radical scavenging activity and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods. The extracts showed
good lipid peroxidation activity (IC50: 45.92, 23.42 and 29.62 μg/ml, respectively). The methanolic extract
showed moderate activity (IC50: 60.51 μg/ml) in DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Methanolic and water
extracts showed IC50: 45.81 and 55.02 μg/ml in ABTS cation radical scavenging assay, respectively(44).
The lyophilized ethanol-based hydrophilic extract of Malva neglecta fruits was tested for in
vitro antioxidant capacity (FCR, FRAP and ORAC assays) and enzyme inhibitory activities. The extract
exhibited pronounced FolinCiocalteu reducing activity (12.8 ± 0.7 mg gallic acid Eq/g DW), ferric reducing
antioxidant power (174.3 ± 9.8 μmol Fe2+/g DW) and oxygen radical scavenging activity (1656.9 ±
69.7 μmol Trolox Eq/g DW)(54).
The antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Malva neglecta, Urtica dioica and their
mixture was studied using in vitro models. Both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the
concentration of 100 μg/ml, hydroalcoholic extracts of Urtica dioica seed, Urtica dioica root, Urtica dioica
flower, Urtica dioica leaf, Malva neglecta flower, Malva neglecta leaf, and Urtica dioica + Malva neglecta
showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid
emulsion, respectively compared with 100 μg/ml of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol which
exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition by the same test, respectively. Urtica dioica + Malva neglecta
showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity compared with Urtica dioica root, Urtica dioica
flower, Urtica dioica leaf, Malva neglecta flower, and Malva neglecta leaf extracts(66).
The antioxidant effect of the leaves, stems, flowers and roots extracts of Malva neglecta was studied
using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay) and total reducing capacity (ferric reducing
antioxidant power and FRAP assay). The total reducing capacity (FRAP assay) ranged from 190.3 ± 6.7 (leaf) to
39.2 ± 1.2 µmol Fe+2/gDW (root), ORAC values ranged from 898.9 ± 14.9 (flower) to 425.3 ± 6.7 (root) µmol
TE/gDW(55).
Antiinflammatory effect:
The effect of aqueous extract of Malva neglecta extract on the main inflammatory biomarkers in
osteoarthritis was studied in synoviocytes and and THP -1 cells as a model of monocyte/ macrophage and
human cartilage cells in osteoarthritis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce production of
inflammatory cytokines in both cells. Malva neglecta extract reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, IL-18 and COX-2
expression in synoviocytes. Expression of all of these factors was also reduced by the extract in THP-1 cells.
Furthermore, the production of PGE2 and NO in the LPS-induced THP-1 cells was also reduced by Malva
neglecta extract(67).
The effect of Malva neglecta on reducing the production of inflammatory mediators (inflammatory
cytokines IL-1B, TNF-α, PGE2) was also investigated in lipopolysaccharide stimulating chondrocytes and
monocytes like cells/ human macrophages. The aqueous extract of Malva neglecta, effectively suppressed the
expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. The expression of cytokine TNF-α gene decreased to 95.04%,
the expression of cytokine IL-1B gene decreased to 73.81% and the expression of COX-2 gene decreased to
93.79% in the presence of the aqueous extracts of Malva neglecta and LPS (68).
Anti-ulcerogenic effect:
The anti-ulcerogenic potential of the extract of aerial parts of Malva neglecta was investigated in
ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis in rats. Malva neglecta extract was nearly completely protected rat stomach from
any visible damage. It induced 81.9% inhibition at a dose of 1243 mg/kg bw. Histologically, animal group
treated with Malva neglecta extract, showed regenerative improvements of the lamina epithalis (69).
Hepatoprotective effect:
The hepato-protective effect of Malva neglecta hydroethanolic extract ( 300and 600 mg/ kg) was
investigated in rats. The serum liver enzymes were increased in rats intoxicated with CCl4 compare to the
control group (p<0.001) and decreased significantly in rats treated with the extract (p<0.01). Histological
finding revealed that CCl4 caused hepatic tissue necrosis, while the extract reduced necrosis and enhanced
hepatocytes regeneration(70).
Anti-urolithiasis effects effect:
The anti-urolithiasis effects of aqueous extracts of Malva neglecta (intraperitoneal injections of 200
and 800 mg/kg for 28 days) was investigated in ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride induced kidney stones
in rats. The extract significantly decreased CaOx deposits and tubule-interstitial damage (p<0.001) in the
Medical benefit of Malva neglecta A review
64
preventive groups. In curative groups, a low dosage of extract, reduced kidney oxalate deposits and tubule-
interstitial damage (p<0.05). However, high dosed was more effective in both preventive and curative groups (p
0.001)(71).
Anticholinesterase activity:
Extracts ( methanol, petroleum ether and acetone) of Malva neglecta (whole plants in flowering stage)
showed moderate activity against acetyl-and butyryl-cholinesterase enzymes. Methanol extract exerted the
highest activity among all the tested extracts against acetyl-and butyryl-cholinesterase enzymes. At 200 μg/ml
methanol extract possessed (53.68 and 63.95% inhibition), acetone extract (38.65±1.39 and 57.69±0.63%
inhibition) and petroleum ether extract showed (30.13±1.32 and 43.68±1.12 % inhibition) against acetyl- and
butyryl- cholinesterase enzymes respectively(44).
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect:
In studying of the angiotensin converting enzyme suppressive effect of six traditional medicinal tea
(Verbascum cheiranthifolium, Anchonium elrichrysifolium, Plantago lanceolata, Phlomis armeniaca, Phlomis
armeniaca, Malva neglecta and Salvia limbata) infusions. The highest angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory
activity was displayed by Malva neglecta (34.0%) herbal infusions at the concentration of 0.6 mg/ml(55).
α-amylase, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects:
The lyophilized ethanol-based hydrophilic extract of Malva neglecta fruits was weakly suppressed the activity
of α-amylase (IC50: 15.2 ± 0.8 mg/ml), α-glucosidase (IC50: 14.19 ± 0.10 mg/ml) and pancreatic lipase (IC50:
17.55 ± 0.20 mg/ml)(54).
Side effects and toxicity:
The side effects of Malva neglecta hydroalcoholic extract (200 and 500 mg/kg/day) were studied in
comparison with prostodin on kidney tissue in rats. Creatinine and urea levels decreased significantly in the
groups treated with Malva neglecta extract and increased significantly in the group receiving prostodin
(p<0.05). Histopathologically, glomerular hypertrophy was observed in the rats treated with prostodin, while, in
the groups treated with Malva neglecta, the glomeruli structure appeared normal, with tubular damage in some
tubes(56).
II. CONCLUSION
Malva neglecta possessed wide range of pharmacological effects included antimicrobial, antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, anti-urolithiasis, anticholinesterase and angiotensin
converting enzyme, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory inhibitory effects. The current
review discussed the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Malva neglecta .
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Ali Esmail Al-Snafi.“ Medical benefit of Malva neglecta A review.”IOSR Journal of
Pharmacy (IOSRPHR), vol. 9, no. 6, 2019, pp. 60-67.
... Additionally, the analyses highlighted the presence of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, succinic acid and hydrocarbons. Although not specific to Malva sp., such compounds were nonetheless characterized in Malvaceae chemical composition (Hasimi et al., 2017;Al-Snafi, 2019). Hydrocarbons, and more specifically terpene structures, including mono-, sesqui-, di-and more rarely triterpenoids were also evidenced (Cutillo et al., 2006). ...
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The work presented in this thesis focused on the analysis of archaeological vessels. Through the search for molecular markers, identified by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry and the observation of archaeobotanical remains, this study aims to identify the original content of the studied vessels. The analysis of organic residues, both contained in the ceramic sherd and in the waterproofing layer inside the amphora, offers a first reading of the functionality of the object and its content. Particular importance is given to the botanical identification and formulation techniques used to produce a waterproofing matrix that was affixed to the inside of the amphora. The paleobotanical investigation that mainly focused on the search for pollen, brings a new angle of analysis by concentrating on the one hand on the characterization of environmental and/or economic fossil species, and on the other hand on the botanical origin of the identified pollens. In addition to the optimization of existing protocols for the extraction of molecules considered as biomarkers, this study focuses on the benefits of a multi-analytical archaeometric approach through the analysis of different archaeological artifacts from heterogeneous periods and contexts. Focusing on the Roman period, this thesis focuses on the analysis of wine and/or oil amphorae from the Planier 3 shipwreck (France) and the ancient anchorage of San Felice Circeo (Italy) before extending the methodology and the results to a "pouring" vase of singular typology dating from the Bronze Age (West Bank).
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... The commonly used traditionally medicinal herb Malva neglecta, contained hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, flavonols, alkaloids, organic acids, protein and oils. Plant extract exhibited antiulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticholinesterase, antioxidant and enzymatic inhibitory effects [19,20]. There have been no previous reports demonstrating the efficacy of Malva neglecta Wallr extracts isolated phytochemicals against COVID-19. ...
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The Covid-19 pandemics caused by SARS-CoV-19, and the inadequacy of targeted medications, compelled scientists to seek new antiviral drugs. We present our current understanding of plant extracts containing polyphenols that inhibit Covid-19. Natural phytochemicals (polyphenols) derived from plants have the potential to establish research using extracts and/or individual compounds in the treatment and prevention of coronavirus. The polyphenolic drugs (antivirus) capable of inhibiting the coronavirus protein, that are vital for infection and virus replication. The benefit of phytochemicals is that they promote patient well-being while causing minimal side effects. To understand the antiviral behavior of isolated phytochemicals 1-6, various molecular descriptors, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), and frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) were investigated. A systematic analysis of isolated phytochemicals was accomplished then molecular descriptors, docking score, active sites, and FMOs energies were compared to the commonly used drugs recently to treat COVID19, namely favipiravir, remdesivir dexamethasone and hydroxychloroquine. Using a molecular docking technique, we demonstrate for the first time that these plant phytochemicals can be inhibited by the core protease (6LU7) protein of COVID19.
... Malva neglecta fruit was an edible traditional medicinal plant used in Anatolia to cure multiple medical conditions such as asthma, stomachache and diarrhea. It also used to promote maturation of abscesses, in wound healing, abdominal pains and cancer [118][119]. ...
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... Ethanol extract of Malva neglecta flowers showed antibacterial activity on Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa species 82 . In addition, M. neglecta also showed antibacterial activity on antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus species 83 . ...
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