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Abstract

Lythrum salicaria contained wide range of chemical constituents included alkaloids, tannins, anthocyanins, glycosides (salicairine), triterpene, sterols, steroids, organic acids, phenolic aids, and flavonoids. Thee pharmacological studies revealed that it exerted many therapeutic effects included antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, intestinal, hypoglycemic, anitinflammatory, analgesic, antitussive, dermatological, haemostatic, anticholinesterase activity and enhancement of osteoblastic proliferation. This review will designed to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Lythrum salicaria.
IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy www.iosrphr.org
(e)-ISSN: 2250-3013, (p)-ISSN: 2319-4219
Volume 9, Issue 6 Series. I (June 2019), PP. 51-59
51
Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Lythrum
Salicaria- A Review
Ali Esmail Al-Snafi
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Thi qar University, Iraq.
Abstract: Lythrum salicaria contained wide range of chemical constituents included alkaloids, tannins,
anthocyanins, glycosides (salicairine), triterpene, sterols, steroids, organic acids, phenolic aids, and flavonoids.
Thee pharmacological studies revealed that it exerted many therapeutic effects included antioxidant,
antimicrobial, anticancer, intestinal, hypoglycemic, anitinflammatory, analgesic, antitussive, dermatological,
haemostatic, anticholinesterase activity and enhancement of osteoblastic proliferation. This review will designed
to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Lythrum salicaria.
Keywords: constituents, pharmacoloy, Lythrum salicaria.
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Date of Submission: 27-05-2019 Date of acceptance: 13-06-2019
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I. INTRODUCTION
In the last few decades there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine. It is
getting popularized in developing and developed countries owing to its natural origin and lesser side effects.
Plants generally produce many secondary metabolites which are bio-synthetically derived from primary
metabolites and constitute an important source of chemicals which are used as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals,
flavours, fragrances, colours, biopesticides and food additives(1-35). Lythrum salicaria contained wide range of
chemical constituents included alkaloids, tannins, anthocyanins, glycosides (salicairine), triterpene, sterols,
steroids, organic acids, phenolic aids, and flavonoids. Thee pharmacological studies revealed that it exerted
many therapeutic effects included antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, intestinal, hypoglycemic,
anitinflammatory, analgesic, antitussive, dermatological,, haemostatic, anticholinesterase activity and
enhancement of osteoblastic proliferation. This review will designed to highlight the chemical constituents and
pharmacological effects of Lythrum salicaria.
Plant profile:
Synonyms:
Chabraea vulgaris, Lythrum anceps, Lythrum argyi, Lythrum intermedium, Lythrum salicaria var.
anceps, Lythrum salicaria var. glabrum, Lythrum salicaria subsp. intermedium, Lythrum salicaria var. mairei,
Lythrum salicaria var. salicaria, Lythrum tomentosum(36).
Taxonomic classification:
Kingdom:Plantae, Subkingdom: Viridiplantae, Infrakingdom: Streptophyta, Superdivision: Embryophyta,
Division: Tracheophyta, Subdivision: Spermatophytina, Class: Magnoliopsida, Superorder: Rosanae, Order:
Myrtales, Family: Lythraceae, Genus: Lythrum, Species: Lythrum salicaria(37).
Common names
Arabic: Farandal, Furfool, salekariabanafsajia; Chinese: qianqucai; English: purple loosestrife, purplelythrum,
spiked loosestrife; French: salicaire, bouquet violet, bouquets rouges, caroncule de dindon; German: Blut-
Weiderich; Japanese: miso-hagi; Portuguese: abre-o-sol, quebra-arado, vassourinha; Spanish: Arroyuela,
Salicaria; Swedish: fackelblomster(38).
Distribution:
The plant is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere (Europe, Asia, North Africa, and North
America), but it can also be found in Australia and New Zealand. It is native to Europe and Asia (Afghanistan,
Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Croatia,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta,
Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Russian Federation ,Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine,
Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Lythrum Salicaria- A Review
52
United Kingdom). It is also native to Algeria and Tunisia, and introduced to Australia, Canada, Chile, New
Zealand, South Africa and United States(39-40).
Description:
It is a an erect, perennial herb, 2 to 6 feet in height. Stem: purple loosestrife stems are herbaceous but
they arise from a semi-woody base; the four-angled stem can be glabrous to pubescent. Leaves are opposite or in
whorls; they are narrow to narrowly oblong, with a heart-shaped base that connects directly to the stem. The
roots of purple loosestrife form a dense mass around the semi-woody base. Flowers: Purple loosestrife flowers
are magenta, or occasionally white or light pink, with 57 petals. The inflorescence is spike-like, 420 inches
tall. The fruit is a capsule generally containing, 100 or more, tiny, dark colored seeds. Seed capsules remain on
the plants through the winter, disseminating seed on a continual basis(41).
Traditional uses:
Lythrum salicaria was known as medicinal plant from the ancient Greek and Roman times. The aerial
parts of Lythrum salicaria were used internally for the treatment of diarrhea, chronic intestinal catarrh,
hemorrhoid, eczema, as a decoction or fluid extract. Externally, it was used in the treatment of varicose veins,
bleeding of the gums, hemorrhoid, eczema and vaginitis(42-45).
It was also used as a demulcent and astringent decoction for the treatment of colorectitis, summer
complaints of children diarrhoea; locally for chronic ophthalmic and as a wash or poultice for leucorrhoea, gleet
(gonorrheal discharge), and chronic gonorrhea(46).
Parts used medicinally: Aerial parts(42-45).
Chemical constituents:
The preliminary phytochemical analysis of Lythrum salicaria revealed that it contained alkaloids,
tannins, anthocyanins, glycosides (salicairine), triterpene, sterols, steroids, organic acids, phenolic aids, and
flavonoids(43, 47-48).
Diffeerent parts of the plant contained: alkaloids (piperidine and quinolizidine derivatives: lythranine,
lythranidine, lythra mine, lythrancineIVII, lythrancepineIIII), tannins (1-O-galloylglucose, 6-O-
galloylglucose, 1,6-di-O- galloylglucose, galloyl-HHDP-glucose, trigalloylglucose, galloyl-bis-HHDP-glucose,
trigalloyl-HHDP-glucose, vescalagin, pedunculagin, castalagin, lythrine A-D), flavonoids (isoorientin, orientin,
isovitexin, vitexin, rutin, luteolin, apigenin), anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3,5-diglucoside),
phenolics (gallic acid, methyl-gallate, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, vanoleic acid dilactone, isochlorogenic
acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid derivatives: (3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-β-D-(2"-
acetyl)-glucopyranoside, 3,3',4'-tri-Omethylellagic acid-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic
acid), coumarins (umbelliferone-6-carboxylic acid, the furanocoumarinpeucedanin, and buntansin), phtalates
(dibutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, butyl-2-metylpropyl
phthalate, phtalic acid), sterols (β-sitosterol), steroids (daucosterol, β-sitosterol), terpenes (loliolide, betulinic
acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, erythrodiol, the ursan-type triterpenecorosolic acid, -hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-
28-oic acid methyl ester) and 5-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one, phytol and dodecanoic acid(47-49, 51-59).
The different constituents identified in the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, 50% ethanol of aerial
parts of Lythrum salicaria (μg/g) respectively: gallic acid 4.78, 3.58, 39.40 and 166.26; catechin 0, 0, 0 and
29.56; caffeic acid 0, 0, 3.86 and 4.60; chlorogenic acid 1.77, 1.96, 1.33 and 171.10; orientin 2.34, 5.22, 7.70
and 471.42; isoorientin 8.92, 23.78, 25.38 and 1319.96; vitexin 1.18, 1.74, 3.52 aand 88.26; ellagic acid 16.44,
27.70, 49.48 and 1718.56; hyperoside 0, 0, 0 and 25.06; isovitexin 2.84, 4.10, 7.38 and 130.62; rutin 0, 0, 0
and 1.14; luteolin 1.84, 13.30, 44.38 and 98.36; apigenin 2.60, 6.18, 3.40 and 3.06(40).
Total polysaccharides contents of the aqueous methanol (80%) extract of the aerial parts of Lythrum
salicaria were 21 ± 0.2 μg glucose equivalent /mg extract(59).
Chemical analysis of the flowering parts of Lythrum salicaria revealed the presence of carbohydrates
(30%), phenolics (1g contained 1.2 mM of gallic acid equivalent) and proteins (0.8%). The result of
compositional analyses of carbohydrate part revealed the predominance of uronic acids (approximately 66%),
galactose (approximately 12%), rhamnose (approximately 10%) and arabinose (approximately 9%). Residues
indicating the presence of pectic type of polymers, i.e. galacturonan and/or rhamnogalacturonan associated with
arabinogalactan in Lythrum salicaria glycoconjugate (60).
The total phenol, total flavonoid, and total tannin amounts in hydromethanolic extracts of Lythrum
salicaria were 331 ± 3.7 μg gallic acid/mg extract, 5.8 ± 0.4 μg quercetin/mg extract, and 430 ± 2.33 μg tannic
acid/mg extract, respectively(61).
The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of Lythrum salicaria extracts were investigated using
different extracting methods. Total phenolic contents of Lythrum salicaria leaf and flower extracts were
Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Lythrum Salicaria- A Review
53
between 325.3 - 355.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) /g of extract, while, the total flavonoid contents of
extracts were between 39.59 - 66.34 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) /g of extract(50).
The polyphenol and tannin contents showed difference among the studied plant organs and
populations. They were higher in the flowering top than in the other organs. The total polyphenol values ranged
from 1.2 to 27.3% (8.3-27.3% in the flowering top, 5.3-23.3% in the leaves, and 1.2-9.9% in the stems). Total
tannin values varied between 1.0 and 21.9% (6.6-21.9% in the flowering top, 4.0-20.9% in the leaves, and 1.0-
8.4% in the stems)(50).
Pharmacological effects:
Antioxidant effect:
The antioxidant activities of Lythrum salicaria extracts (using different extracting methods) were
investigated by DPPH, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. Extracts showed a
concentration-dependent antiradical activity by inhibiting DPPH radical. IC50 for DPPH radical scavenging
activity was between 45.7 792.4 μg/ml. The reducing powers of extracts also increased with the increase of
their concentrations. Flower showed significantly more potent reducing power than leaf extracts (p < 0.01). The
extracts showed weak nitric oxide scavenging activity (between 0.69 and 1.79 mg/ ml). All extracts showed
good scavenging activity. IC50 for H2O2 scavenging was 86.2 -200.6 μg/ ml(50).
The antioxidant activity of Lythrum salicaria aerial parts was evaluated by the DPPH method. The
methanol extract of Lythrum salicaria aerial parts possessed antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.84 ± 0.10,
while aqueous extract of the aerial parts showed IC50 value of 22.54 ± 0.65μg /ml(62).
The antioxidant activity of aqueous methanol (80%) extract of the aerial parts of Lythrum salicaria
was also studied using DPPH test. Total flavonoids, and phenols were 5.8 ± 0.4 μg QE/mg extract and 331 ±
3.7 μg GAE/mg extract, respectively. IC50 values for DPPH inhibition of the plant extract was 13.5 μg/ml(59).
The antioxidant effect of ethanolic extract of Lythrum salicaria was studied using superoxide anion
radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Lythrum salicaria ethanol extract showed concentration-
dependent superoxide anion radical scavenging activity and inhibitory effect on lipidperoxidation. At
concentration of 0.5, 1, 25, 5 and 10 mg/ml, the ethanolic extract of Lythrum salicaria showed inhibitory
effects on superoxide anion formation of 95 ±1, 88 ±1, 78 ±3, 51±4 and 29±5% of control. While, at
concentration of 25, 5 and 10 mg/ml, it showed inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation of 4388, 68 and 48 %
of the control respectively(63).
Different solvents extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, 50% aqueous methanol and
aqueous extract) of the aerial parts of Lythrum salicaria were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH
assay, iron(III) reductive activity and MDA value (TBA method). All the extracts were capable of scavenging
DPPH radicals at pH 7.4 in a dose-dependent fashion except for the petroleum ether extract, which was not
effective. From the estimated IC50 values, that aqueous methanolic extract was the most potent scavenger
followed by methanolic extract > ethyl acetate extract. In Iron (II) thiocyanate method, the ethyl acetate extract
was the more effective extract. The activity was decreased in the following order: ethylacetate > aqueous
methanol > water > methanol extract at 0.25% concentration and ethylacetate > water > methanol > aqueous
methanol extract at 1% concentration. In MDA value (TBA method), Two concentrations of the water extract
and 0.25% concentration of ethyl acetate extract were the most potent extracts. The activity was decreased in the
following order: aqueous methanolic extracts > ethyl acetate (1% concentration of the extract) > methanolic
extracts(64).
Antimicrobial effects:
Lythrum salicaria hydromethanolic extract moderately suppressed Staphylococcus aureus and Candida
albicans growth(26). The antibacterial effect of liquid extract of Lythrum salicaria prepared in methyl alcohol
was investigated against 30 A. baumannii and 27 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from hospitalized
patients as a nosocomial pathogen. Lythrum salicaria extract showed good antibacterial activity against these
pathogens. The inhibition zone diameter against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 16.09 mm (minimum 12 mm,
maximum 20 mm) and against A. baumannii was 18.3 mm (minimum 10 mm, maximum 25 mm)(65).
The antibacterial effects of Lythrum salicaria extracts were investigated against Candida albicans,
Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, multi drug resistant (MDR)
Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant (MRSA)- Staphylococcus aureus and
Staphylococcus epidermidis. All of the selected strains were sensitive to 50% ethanol in water extract. MICs of
50% ethanol in water extract of Lythrum salicaria were 5, 5 , 2.5, 2.5, 2.5, 2.5, 1.25, and 1.25 mg/ml against
Candida albicans, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MRD
Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, MR- Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. S. aureus,
MRSA, S. epidermidis, and M. luteus were sensitive to the 50% ethanol in water and distilled water extracts.
The greatest inhibition zones were produced by the flowering branches then the leaves and finally the stems.
Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Lythrum Salicaria- A Review
54
The hexane and chloroform extracts of Lythrum salicaria failed to show any activity against the investigated
microbial strains(40).
Lythrum salicaria extracts possessed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus
mirabilis and Microccocus luteus, it was also showed activity against the phyto-pathogenic fungus
Cladosporium cucumerinum. The antifungal activity was attributed to triterpenoids, oleanolic and ursolic
acid(47). The anti-Helicobacter activity of the Lythrum salicaria extract was assessed against clinically isolated
strain using disc diffusion method. Clinically isolated Helicobacter pylori strain was inhibited at concentration
of 500 mg/ml (zone of inhibition: 17 ± 0.08 mm) (59).
The activity of calluses extracts, wild plant, gallic acid, and 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-β-D-
glucopyranoside (TMEG) as the main phenolic compounds identified in Lythrum salicaria calli were studied
against Candida albicans using cup plate diffusion method. Anti-candida activity of callus extract was similar to
the wild plant extract. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of gallic acid and TMEG were 0.312 and 2.5
mg/ml, respectively(66).
Anticancer effects:
The cytotoxic activities of fourteen compounds [5-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one, umbelliferone-6-
carboxylic acid, 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-(2"-acetyl)-glucopyranoside, 3,3',4'-tri-O-
methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, daucosterol, phytol, dodecanoic acid, oleanolic acid, 3,3',4'-tri-
O-methylellagic acid, corosolic acid, beta-sitosterol, peucedanin, buntansin and erythrodiol] isolated from
Lythrum salicaria were examined against three cancerous cell lines, colon carcinoma (HT-29), leukemia (K-
562), and breast ductal carcinoma (T47D), in addition to Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH-3T3) cells.
Daucosterol, corosolic acid, β-sitosterol and erythrodiol were the most active against the HT-29 cell line with
IC50 values of 192.7, 36.8, 38.2, and 12.8 microg/ml, respectively. Erythrodiol, β-sitosterol, daucosterol, and
corosolic acid were 6.4, 2.8, 2.6, and 1.4 times, respectively, more selective than methotrexate. Daucosterol was
the most active against the K-562 cell line (IC50 = 50.2 microg/ml), with a selectivity exceeding that of
methotrexate 13.3 times(49).
The extracts and fractions of the aerial parts of Lythrum salicaria were investigated for cytotoxic
activity against T47D cancer cell lines. Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Lythrum salicaria exhibited
cytotoxicity against T47D cancer cell line with IC50 values of 63.1 and 108.2 μg/ml, respectively(66).
Intestinal effects:
The effects of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and 50% ethanol in water extracts of Lythrum
salicaria were investigated on isolated Guinea pig ileum. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and 50%
ethanol in water extracts (10 μl/5 ml organ bath) produced contractile effects. The largest contractions were
elicited by the 50% ethanol in water extract. The effect was concentration-dependent(40) .
The n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and 50% ethanol in water extracts of the air-dried flowering
parts of Lythrum salicaria were tested for in vitro spasmodic properties in Guinea pig ileum. The results
showed that Lythrum salicaria extracts possessed moderate muscarinic receptor agonistic effect in Guinea pig
ileum. The most prominent response was triggered by the 50% ethanol in water extract in a concentration-
dependent manner. Atropine, indomethacin and PPADS plus suramin significantly reduced the contractile
response caused by this extract. The authors recommended that diluted extracts of Lythrum salicaria orally
could be used as a mild stimulant of gastrointestinal motility(67).
Salicairine at 0.01 ml/ml, like loperamide at 0.2 mg/ml, significantly increased net fluid absorption in
rat colon, either in basal conditions (30 and 64% respectively) or after a prostaglandin E1- induced increase in
net fluid secretion (41 and 35%, respectively). Salicairine was able to reduce contractions of isolated rat
duodenum induced by barium chloride and acetylcholine, although not completely (about 60%) as seen with
loperamide. Salicairine at 0.01 ml/ml, like loperamide at 0.2 mg/ml, significantly increased net fluid absorption
in rat colon, either in basal conditions (30 and 64% respectively) or after a prostaglandin E1- induced increase in
net fluid secretion (41 and 35%, respectively). The antidiarrheal activity of salicairine could either attributed to
an increase in colon net fluid absorption or to a decrease in net fluid secretion(67).
Hypoglycemic effect:
The hypoglycemic effect of Lythrum salicaria extracts was studied in fasting normoglycemic rabbits
and glucose- induced hyperglycemic. The greatest hypoglycemic activity was possessed by stem extracts,
followed by the flower and leaf, while the root was inactive. Four hours after oral administration, the maximum
hypoglycemia was evident in the normoglycemic rabbits. An increased insulin was occurred with the drops in
blood glucose, suggesting that the plant may stimulated releasing of insulin(68).
Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Lythrum Salicaria- A Review
55
The hypoglycemic effects of several extracts of Lythrum salicaria were studied in normoglycemic and
hyperglycemic rabbits. The results confirmed the hypoglycemic activity of the plant extracts(69).
The hypoglycemic effect of several extracts from stem and flower of Lythrum salicaria were evaluated
in rats. Ether extracts from stem or flowers at a dose equivalent to 10 g/kg of crude plant material possessed
significant hypoglycemic effects with increasing insulin level, after 4 h of oral administration(70).
Ether extracts of Lythrum salicaria stems and flowers exhibited significant hypoglycemic activity in
rats with glucose- and epinephrine-induced hyperglycemia. The extracts were also active in alloxan- and
streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats and alloxan- induced diabetic mice. Stem and flower extracts reduced the
elevated gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase activity. Stem extract reduced the elevated lactic dehydrogenase
activity and flower extract accentuated the elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase induced by
streptozotocin(71).
The hypoglycemic effect of aqueous- methanol (80%) extract of the aerial parts of Lythrum salicaria
was studied in streptozocin- induced diabetes in rats. The extract (at dose of 15 g/kg) reduced the blood
glucose level by 12.6% and 7.3% during the second and third hours of administration, respectively(59).
Anitinflammatory and analgesic acivity:
Different solvents extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, 50% aqueous methanol and
aqueous extract) of the aerial parts of Lythrum salicaria were tested for anti-inflammatory activity using
carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice. Methanol extract showed an inhibitory activity (p < 0.05)
at 200 mg/kg dose after 270 and 360 min (28.9 and 35.5%, respectively). Other extracts from Lythrum salicaria
were inactive(64).
Different solvents extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, 50% aqueous methanol and
aqueous extract) of the aerial parts of Lythrum salicaria were tested for anti-nociceptive activity using p-
benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test in mice. Methanol extract was found to have inhibitory
activity (p < 0.05) at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose (26.9 and 30.1%, respectively). None of the extracts caused any
gastric damage(64).
Antitussive activity:
A polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugate isolated from flowering parts of Lythrum salicaria was
tested for antitussive activity (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) using citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs. It
reduced the number of cough efforts even 5 h after administration. However, the antitussive effects were lower
in comparison with that of codeine. The evaluation of the effect of different doses on airways smooth muscle
reactivity revealed more significant effect of Lythrum conjugate in comparison with that of salbutamol.
Measurements of specific airway resistance revealed the dose-dependent bronchodilatory activity and
participation of bronchodilation in antitussive effect of Lythrum conjugate(722).
Dermatological effects:
The wound healing effects of hydromethanolic extracts of Lythrum salicaria and Hypericum scabrum
topical ointments were studied in second-degree burn wounds in rats. Wound contraction percentage with
Lythrum salicaria and Hypericum scabrum was 89.5 ± 3.7 and 77.6 ± 4.1, respectively. A well-organized
epidermal layer and normal appearance in dermis layer were more observable in the Lythrum salicaria group.
Moreover, Lythrum salicaria ointment individually displayed better influence on tissue oxidative stress
parameters than Hypericum scabrum and the negative control (p < 0.05)(61).
The effects of extract of aerial parts of Lythrum salicaria and its constituents, on keratinocytes,
reconstructed epidermis, and skins were evaluated by topical treatment. The extract and one of its major
compounds were able to act as pro-differentiating and protecting agents towards skin cells by stimulating the
expressions of markers taking part in the structure of epidermis and dermis. The extract also showed beneficial
effects on the global morphology of the skin(73).
Haemostatic effect:
The water-soluble glycoconjugate isolated from the flowering parts extract of Lythrum salicaria
showed pro-coagulant activity in vitro, It completely inhibited plasma clot formation, however, the application
of glycoconjugate in vivo showed controversial effect on animal blood system in comparison with in vitro pro-
coagulant activity(60).
Inhibitory effect on Acyl-CoA: cholesterolacyltransferase:
The triterpenes (betulinic acid and 3 beta-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-28-oic acid methyl ester) isolated from
Lythrum salicaria showed inhibitory activities on both acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT1) and
Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (hACAT2), (ACAT catalyzes the acylation of cholesterol to cholesteryl
Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Lythrum Salicaria- A Review
56
ester and exists in two isoforms, ACAT1 and ACAT2, ACAT1 is in charge of foam cell formation in
macrophages, whereas ACAT2 controls the cholesterol absorption in intestinal mucosal cells). These results
suggested that Lythrum salicaria, which containeds triterpenes, might be effective in the prevention and
treatment of hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerosis due to its inhibitory effect on Hacat(55).
Enhancement of osteoblastic proliferation:
The effect of betulinic acid isolated from Lythrum salicaria, on the proliferation of osteoblastic
MC3T3-E1 cells was examined by checking the cell viability. Betulinic acid showed a tendency of increasing
the growth of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells(58).
Toxicity and side effects:
Many authors mentioned that there were no significant adverse effects following the using of Lythrum salicaria
internally and externally(51, 64, 74).
The acute toxicity study of hydroalcoholic extracts from Lythrum salicaria flowering tops in animal model,
showed that the LD50 of iv administration varied between 0.1674 and 0.3289 g/kg bw. In oral administration of
similar doses, mild symptoms were recorded: mild abdominal contractions, difficulties in respiration and mild
hypothermia, which were not resulting in animal death(52).
Dose:
Preparations prescribed in the gastrointestinal tract ailments: powdered herb (3-5 g/day), tincture (20 drops on
sugar, 4-5 timesaday); syrup for children (1 g of extract/ 30 g of syrup) (74).
II. CONCLUSION
This review discusses the chemical constituent, pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Lythrum salicaria as
promising herbal drug because of its safety and effectiveness.
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IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8(5): 81-96.
[16]. Al-Snafi AE. Pharmacological and therapeutic importance of Hibiscus sabdariffa- A review.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2018; 10(3): 451-475.
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57
[17]. Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents, pharmacological effects and therapeutic importance of Hibiscus
rosa-sinensis- A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8 (7): 101-119.
[18]. Al-Snafi AE. Arabian medicinal plants with antiurolithiatic and diuretic effects - plant based review
(Part 1). IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8(6): 67-80.
[19]. Al-Snafi AE. Arabian medicinal plants affected female fertility- plant based review (part 1). IOSR
Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8(7): 46-62.
[20]. Al-Snafi AE. Arabian medicinal plants for the treatment of intestinal disorders- plant based review (part
1). IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8(6): 53-66.
[21]. Al-Snafi AE. Arabian medicinal plants possessed gastroprotective effects- plant based review (part 1).
IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8(7): 77-95.
[22]. Al-Snafi AE. Arabian medicinal plants with analgesic and antipyretic effects- plant based review (Part 1).
IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8(6): 81-102.
[23]. Al-Snafi AE. Arabian medicinal plants with antiinflammatory effects- plant based review (part 1). IOSR
Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8 (7): 55-100.
[24]. Al-Snafi AE and Thwaini MM. Nephro- protective effects of Arabian medicinal plants ( part 1).
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 2018; 9(5): 1504-1511.
[25]. Al-Snafi AE and Thwaini MM. Arabian medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity (part 1).
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 2018; 9(5): 1469-1497.
[26]. Al-Snafi AE. Traditional uses of Iraqi medicinal plants. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8 (8): 32-96.
[27]. Al-Snafi AE. Arabian medicinal plants with dermatological effects- plant based review (part 1) . IOSR
Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8(10): 44-73.
[28]. Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents, nutritional, pharmacological and therapeutic importance of Juglans
regia- A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8(11): 1-21.
[29]. Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants affected contractility of smooth muscles- A review . IOSR Journal of
Pharmacy 2018; 8(11): 22-35.
[30]. Al-Snafi AE, Majid WJ and Talab TA. Medicinal plants with antidiabetic effects - An overview (Part 1).
IOSR Journal of pharmacy 2019; 9(3): 9-46.
[31]. Al-Snafi AE. Fritillaria imperialis- A review. IOSR Journal of pharmacy 2019, 9(3): 47-51.
[32]. Al-Snafi AE, Talab TA and Majid WJ. Medicinal plants with central nervous activity - An overview
(Part 1). IOSR Journal of pharmacy 2019; 9(3): 52-102.
[33]. Al-Snafi AE. Constituents and pharmacology of Geum urbanum- A review. IOSR Journal of pharmacy
2019; 9(5): 28-33.
[34]. Al-Snafi AE. Medical importance of Glossostemon bruguieri A review. IOSR Journal of pharmacy
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[35]. Al-Snafi AE. The medical benefit of Gnaphalium luteoalbum-A review. IOSR Journal of pharmacy 2019;
9(5): 40-44.
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Ali Esmail Al-Snafi.“ Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Lythrum
Salicaria- A Review.”IOSR Journal of Pharmacy (IOSRPHR), vol. 9, no. 6, 2019, pp. 51-59.
... Lythrum salicaria L., known as purple loosestrife (răchitan in the Romanian language) in Romanian folk medicine, is used internally for gastrointestinal disorders due to its rich tannin composition, and externally for varicose veins, eczemas and bleeding gums [27]. Previous phytochemical studies have shown that polyphenols are the main compound of the aerial parts of the Lythrum salicaria L. species, which determine its pharmacological effects such as antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties [4,28]. Important bioactive compounds such as tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, alkaloids, steroids and triterpenes were revealed by numerous studies [28]. ...
... Other evaluations have showed that Lythrum salicaria L. extracts possess hypoglycaemic effects and can also reduce the plasma level of triglycerides [22,28]. Ethanolic extracts of the Lythrum salicaria L. species have shown antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and as well as on the Candida albicans fungus [4]. The use of cytotoxicity tests for plant extracts can be expensive, due to their complex composition, with effects that require repeated tests while being correlated with various types of solvents and testers. ...
... The aim of this study is to identify the phytochemical content of the Lythrum salicaria L. (Lythri herba) species, and to identify its cytotoxic potential. The plant has been studied internationally [4,6,7,18] and is highly valued for its application of new extractioninduced epidermal regeneration data [18], but at the national level there is very little data or the data is incomplete in terms of active pharmacological activities. The novelty and originality of the study is given by the fact that for the first time in Romania, an analysis of the correlation between the phytochemical composition and the biological activity of the extract is performed. ...
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Lythrum salicaria L. is a plant known in traditional European medicine for its healing effects for diseases such as dysentery and diarrhoea. The quantitative evaluation by spectrophotometric determinations of total polyphenols, tannins and anthocyanins content revealed values of 16.39% in polyphenols, 10.53% tannins and 0.3598% anthocyanosides, results comparable to the data in the literature. To determine the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract the DPPH radical method was performed on the Lythri herba vegetal product. The aqueous extract shows an increased antioxidant activity (DPPH) of 94.39% for the concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, IC50 being registered at 0.2166 mg/mL. These results correlated with the effects of the biological activity of the extract on the Artemia salina L. biotester. Although the extract is non-toxic, cytological effects appear after 48 h (the accumulation of cytoplasmic inclusions, an increase of intercellular space and cell detachments at the level of the basement membrane). © 2021, Romanian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.
... Luffa cylindrical possessed cytotoxic effect in brine shrimp lethality assay and exhibited anticancer effect against hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer cell lines, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocyte leukemia and colon cancer cells (HT-29 and HCT-15) (493)(494)(495)(496) . Lythrum salicaria showed cytotoxic activities against colon carcinoma (HT-29), leukemia (K-562), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D), and T47D cancer cell lines (497)(498) . Mangifera indica possessed anticancer activity against Molt-4 leukemia, A-549 lung, MDA-MB-231 breast, LnCap prostate, SW-480 colon cancer cells, and breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) (499)(500)(501) . ...
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... Externally, it was used in the treatment of varicose veins, bleeding of the gums, hemorrhoid, eczema and vaginitis. It was also used as a demulcent and astringent decoction for the treatment of colorectitis, summer complaints of children diarrhoea; locally for chronic ophthalmic and as a wash or poultice for leucorrhoea, gleet (gonorrheal discharge), and chronic gonorrhea [106][107][108][109][110]. ...
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As a result of accumulated experience from the past generations, today, all the world's cultures have an extensive knowledge of herbal medicine. In recent years, ethno medicinal studies has received much attention as this brings to light the numerous little known and unknown medicinal virtues especially of plant origin which needs evaluation on modern scientific lines such as phytochemical analysis, pharmacological screening and clinical trials. This review was designed to highlight the traditional uses of medicinal plants.
... Two steroidal alkaloid glycosides were isolated from the seeds of Lycium barbarum (209) . Lythrum salicaria Diffeerent parts of Lythrum salicaria contained: alkaloids (piperidine and quinolizidine derivatives: lythranine, lythranidine, lythra mine, lythrancineI-VII, lythrancepineI-III) (210)(211)(212) . ...
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