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International Journal of Advanced Microbiology and Health Research
ISSN: 2457-077X. Volume 3, Issue 1 (January-March 2019), PP. 11-15
Available online at www.ijamhr.com
Chronic Overworking: Cause Extremely Negative Impact on
Health and Quality of Life
Bhairav Prasad1* and Charu Thakur2
1&2College of Health Science, Vidya Jyoti Institution, Derabssi, SAS Nagar -140508, Punjab, India
Work is an activity that organises and provides
meaning to the use of time in a society that has
programmed its rhythms as a function. It is
important in structuring daily life and in enabling a
sense of continuity, provides capital, satisfaction
that flourishing human life and his family. What’s
more, it is an antidote against boredom and
emptiness. There is no doubt that technology has
simplified the way we carry out our day-to-day
routines. The latest technology and advancement in
the work place do the thing easier and find the
solution of any problems and also inspire us to
work more. But some time the work become hell
for us. While being constantly plugged in work feel
safe, connected at office or home. It also means we
never really clock out. It is one thing to pull a long
day every once in a while to finish a project or deal
with a crisis, but it's another face to routinely stay
over time at the work place or work for extra time.
That is chronic overwork and it can have extremely
negative impacts on our health, happiness, and
overall quality of life. But now days over time has
been a routine part for many people. It is one of
those things everyone knows is bad for us, but no
one really listens. The extensive working in the
office or at home is bad for our health and also our
performance at work. The employees who expand
long time in work may experience more serious
complication including mental, physical and social
issue. Significant effects of chronic working
include stress, lack of free time, poor work-life
balance, relation hit and serious health risks [1, 2].
Employee performance levels could also be
lowered. Chronic working tendency or spending
long time at work place may lead exhaustion,
depression, low energy, and lack of attention,
irritation and anxiety .
As a result, of these factors the employee’s mental,
physical and social life affected significantly.
Received 21st February, 2019
Revised 28th February, 2019
Accepted 4th March, 2018
Published online 26th March, 2019
Work is an action that organizes and provides meaning to the use of time in a society that
has programmed its rhythms as a function. It is important in structuring daily life and in
enabling a sense of continuity, provides capital, satisfaction that flourishing human life and
his family. What’s more, it is an antidote against boredom and emptiness. But it also
means we never really clock out while working and become too much workaholic. The
persistent overwork has extremely negative impacts on our health, happiness, and overall
quality of life. Nowadays working overtime has become the norm for most people. It is one
of those things everyone knows is bad for us, but no one really listens. Imbalance between
work and health or overwork not only bad for employees but also for employers. The long
working in the office or at home is bad for our health and our performance at work. A
person who expands more time in work may experience numerous health problems
including mental, physical and social problems. The Significant effects include stress, lack
of free time, poor work-life balance, relation hit and serious health risks lead to tiredness,
fatigue, obesity, lack of attentiveness, insomnia, depression, diabetes, high BP, Cerebro-
cardiovascular problem, etc.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
The direct link between over working and health
safety is still remaining unestablished. But some
studies have reported that due to over exertion at
work place the employees are tend to have addict of
some bad habit such as smoking, tobacco usage,
alcohol and use some psychotropic drugs that could
lead to health and psychological complications[4,
It has been observed that working time 9-12 hours;
working timing exceeding 12 hours shown
significantly decreased cognitive testing
performance, work efficiency and increase work
place damage. A survey was conducted between
1987 and 2000 found that in a group of 10,793
male and female and 61% was associated with
excess of injury due overwork than compared to
jobs without overtime. The rate of injury was
directly proportional to the length of work time and
numbers of hours per week .
It has been also known that in every hour we need a
short brake to relax our mind. The long working
hour, the style of working and the type of work
adversely affect the central nervous system. A
study was conducted in July 2016 on the effects of
work and mental health. The result found that 38%
overwork, 46% never had time to relax and 60% of
them having unhealthy work-life balance may
suffered with various mental disorders .
Another study in 2004 shown that the workers in
Australia, trend that satisfaction levels decreased as
the number of hours worked increased. They also
suggested that the effect could be reversed by
decreasing the extensive working .
The Mental Component Summary (MCS) of (SF-
36) measure, they noted a 48% increased
probability regarding mental health decline in those
workers working 49–59 hours per week, compared
with those below normal working time (that is, 35–
40 hours per week).
The possibility amplified by 53% in those working
greater than 60 hours a week. It has also been
observed that and it is differing by gender. Among
those work for 49-59 hours per week, the SF-36
score was lower among women than men. .
The overworking style leads to many mental issue
including lower working satisfaction, blue mind
(mind fullness), stress, depression, mood swing,
irritability and anxiety .
Suicidal ideation is another concern for overtime
work. A research was conducted in South Korea
recruited 67,471 workers, and the results shown
30% higher suicidal ideation among workers
having working hours more than 60 hours. The
ratio of increasing tendency 31% and 33% in male
and female workers respectively. There was also
increased suicidal ideation noted among workers
working for 51–60 hours per week in both males
and females .
Continuous and prolonged working, lack of breaks
during the day, and consecutive days of working
without a day off lead to decreased efficiency and
productivity in workers. The abnormal work and
sleep schedules were leading serious health issue.
A study was conducted by The University of Texas
Health Science Center at Houston shown the link
between overtime and the increased risk of
cardiovascular disorder (CVD) .
In addition to these other health risks is the
correlation between working long hours and the
likelihood of individuals smoking, drinking, having
a high body mass index (BMI), and being less
physically active .
The long-term effects of alcohol consumption
include increased on-the-job injuries and loss of
productivity, family problems, risk of high blood
pressure, stroke, other cardiovascular diseases, and
The effects of smoking, in addition to similarities
of the effects of alcohol, include increased risk of
heart attacks, weight gain, obesity, emphysema, and
a large amount of cancers .
A research was conducted in Osaka, Japan, and on
effect of long working hours and hypertension and
surveyed 941 male Japanese workers are found
with elevated level of blood pressure .
Another coherent study shown that 55 or more
hours per week to look for an association of
developing Type II Diabetes compared to a referent
group of workers only working 35–40 hours per
week. They have been found that there was
significant evidence for link between long working
hours and developing Type II Diabetes, even after
adjusting physical activity, smoking and alcohol
Another data of 85,494 workers from several
European countries screened and found that the
effect of long working hours with developing
partial fibrillation .
There was also evidence of the overburden has
been known as a cause of sudden death from
cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases
(CCVD) as well as a cause of permanent disability
or sickness caused by CCVD [ 16,17].
Therefore, CCVD is now documented as an
occupational disease. A study was conducted by
Buell and Breslow in 1960, reported that extended
working hours increased the risk of death from
coronary health diseases among males in the United
Long working hours may pull the employees to
some bad habit such as smoking, high coffee
intake; alcohol, unhealthy diet, and lack of physical
activity. Change of this life style triggers the risk
factors for CCVD, such as high blood pressure,
stroke and rise in cholesterol and triglycerides level
in body and some other type of cancer too [19, 20].
FAMILY AND SOCIAL EFFECTS
Balance between work and life is an integral aspect
of employees life. Naturally, the more hours
someone works, the less time they will have to
spend with their family or other leisure activities. In
2007, a study was conducted at Penn State
Abington analyzed the tradeoff between working
overtime and home and family life activities. A
major finding was that workers struggled to take
time off for personal or family needs. However, the
additional income from working long hours could
limit the actual impact of this loss of time [21, 22].
More specifically, the impact of having a child
exponentially increased the impact of working
overtime. Especially at a young age, it is very
important in child development for the parents to be
involved to provide care and positive experiences.
Due to this reason, work-life conflicts arise much
more frequently for parents, as stress levels and
family conflicts are heightened. These effects are
even worse for single parents [23, 24].
Over working or night shifts working adversely
affect women of middle age particularly child
bearing age. The extended work/night shift work
cause conflicts in the family and stress probably
cause the disruption of the menstrual cycle. The
stress and depression may link with the increased
risk of spontaneous abortion, miscarriage, low birth
weight and prematurity .
Chronic and long working or abnormal day night
schedule in the work exposes employees to severe
health issues. The key consequences of chronic
working may disrupt the biological rhythm of the
body and can have significant effects on work
efficiency, sleep patterns, mental health,
psychological or behavioral changes, stress,
depression, Type II Diabetes, reproductive
outcome, obesity, hypertension and developing
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How to cite this article:
Prasad B and Thakur C. Chronic Overworking: Cause Extremely Negative Impact on Health and
Quality of Life. Int. J. Adv. Microbiol.Health.Res., 2019; 3(1):11-15.
Source of Financial Support: Nil, Conflict of interest: Nil.
Corresponding Author: Bhairav Prasad
Assistant Professor, College of Health Science, Vidya Jyoti
Institution, Derabassi, SAS Nagar -140508, Punjab, India.
Fig.1: Effects of overwork