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Shopping Motivation and the Influence of Perceived Product Quality and Relative Price in E-commerce

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Understanding a consumer's motivation to shop online with a vendor can help an e-business better understand the attitude of customers and what they look out for in their shopping decision-making process. Equally important in the shopping decision making process is the influence of the perceived quality of products and their price. Understanding how consumers are influenced by the perceived quality and price of products can help e-businesses to improve their customers' shopping experience. To contribute to ongoing research in this area, we investigate the influence of perceived product quality and price on the motivation of e-shoppers to shop online. In particular, we investigate which of perceived quality and price have a greater influence on the consumer's motivation to shop online. We also investigate the moderating effect of income and gender. Using a sample size of 241 e-commerce shoppers, we develop and test a global research model using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Our results suggest that balanced buyers (shoppers who are moderately motivated by convenience and variety seeking but do not plan ahead and are impulse buyers) are more influenced by the relative price of products compared to their quality. In addition, balanced buyers who earn over $30,000 are influenced by the quality of the product compared to those who earn less than $30,000. Furthermore, male shoppers who are motivated by the convenience of online shopping (convenience shoppers) are also influenced by the perceived quality of products compared to female shoppers who are not.
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Shopping Motivation and the Influence of Perceived Product
ality and Relative Price in E-commerce
Ifeoma Adaji
Department of Computer Science
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
ifeoma.adaji@usask.ca
Kiemute Oyibo
Department of Computer Science
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
kiemute.oyibo@usask.ca
Julita Vassileva
Department of Computer Science
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
jiv@cs.usask.ca
ABSTRACT
Understanding a consumer’s motivation to shop online with a
vendor can help an e-business to better understand the attitude
of customers and what they look out for in their shopping
decision-making process. Equally important in the shopping
decision making process is the influence of the perceived quality
of products and their price. Understanding how consumers are
influenced by the perceived quality and price of products can
help e-businesses to improve their customers’ shopping
experience. To contribute to ongoing research in this area, we
investigate the influence of perceived product quality and price
on the motivation of e-shoppers to shop online. In particular, we
investigate which of perceived quality and price have a greater
influence on the consumer’s motivation to shop online. We also
investigate the moderating effect of income and gender. Using a
sample size of 241 e-commerce shoppers, we develop and test a
global research model using Partial Least Squares-Structural
Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Our results suggest that balanced
buyers (shoppers who are moderately motivated by convenience
and variety seeking but do not plan ahead and are impulse
buyers) are more influenced by the relative price of products
compared to their quality. In addition, balanced buyers who earn
over $30,000 are influenced by the quality of the product
compared to those who earn less than $30,000. Furthermore,
male shoppers who are motivated by the convenience of online
shopping (convenience shoppers) are also influenced by the
perceived quality of products compared to the female shoppers
who are not.
CCS CONCEPTS
CCS Applied computing Electronic commerce Online
shopping
KEYWORDS
Shopping motivation, Relative price, ality, E-commerce
ACM Reference format:
Ifeoma Adaji, Kiemute Oyibo and Julita Vassileva. 2019. Shopping
Motivation and the Inuence of Perceived Product ality and Relative
Price in E-commerce. In 27th Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation
and Personalization Adjunct (UMAP’19 Adjunct), June 9–12, 2019, Larnaca,
Cyprus. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 8 pages.
hps://doi.org/10.1145/ 3314183.3323852
1 Introduction
Customers are motivated to shop with a retailer for many
reasons. While some shop because of the convenience provided
by the retailer, others shop for the variety of products available
by the retailer [21]. Understanding the motivation of clients to
shop with a retailer is important in developing and tailoring
strategies that can inuence the client’s future purchasing
decision [15]. Identifying the shopping motivation of clients also
helps e-businesses to better understand the attitude of customers
and what they look out for in their shopping decision-making
process. This information can help businesses create a
personalized experience for their clients [15]. Because a more
personalized shopping experience has been shown to influence
the purchase decision of customers in e-commerce [1], [3, 5], [6],
[2], [22], it is important to understand the shopping motivation
of customers. To shed more light on customers’ shopping
motivation, Rohm and Swaminathan [21] developed a typology
of e-shoppers based on their (shoppers’) motivation. e authors
classied shoppers into four types based on their shopping
motivation: convenience shoppers, variety seekers, balanced buyers
and store-oriented shoppers. e convenience shoppers are
motivated to shop online with a retailer based on the overall
online shopping convenience. ey are less motivated by
immediate possession of their goods or social interaction. e
variety seekers on the other hand are motivated to shop with an
online retailer by the availability of a variety of product types
and brands. While the balanced buyers are motivated to shop
online with a retailer for convenience, they are also motivated to
make impulse purchases. e store-oriented buyer is more
motivated by physical store orientation. is category of
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https://doi.org/10.1145/3314183.3323852
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shoppers is motivated by immediate possession of their products
and the desire for social interaction.
While a customer’s motivation for shopping with an online
retailer is important, research has shown that the relative price of
products and their perceived quality are equally important in the
client’s nal purchase decision [4], [16] . e relative price of a
product to a customer is what the customer gives up or sacrices
in order to purchase a product [25]. Research has shown that the
price a client pays for a product signicantly inuences their
satisfaction [14]. In addition, price has been shown to inuence
the perceived value and satisfaction derived from a product [16],
[17]. Because of the importance of price to customer satisfaction,
it is therefore important to understand how price plays a role in
the motivation of consumers to shop online with a retailer.
Research has shown that in addition to the relative price of a
product, its perceived quality is also an important factor in
customer satisfaction in e-commerce [19], [25]. Perceived
product quality is particularly important in e-commerce where a
consumer does not see the product before making a purchase;
perceived product quality inuences the trust a consumer has for
an online vendor [8]. e perceived quality of a product also
inuences a client’s loyalty towards a retailer [11]. Because of
the inuence of perceived product quality to customer
satisfaction, it is therefore important to understand how
perceived quality plays a role in the motivation of clients to shop
with a retailer.
Despite the importance of relative price and perceived quality
on the decision-making process of consumers, there is currently
need for more research on the inuence of these on consumer’s
motivation to shop online. For example, are consumers
(classied according to the typology of Swaminathan [21])
motivated to shop online because of the perceived quality of the
products or the relative price?
In this paper, we contribute to ongoing research in the area
of understanding customers’ motivation to shop with an online
vendor and the inuence of price and perceived product quality.
In particular, we propose to answer the following research
questions:
1. How do relative price and perceived product quality
inuence a shopper’s motivation to shop with an online
retailer?
2. Does the income of consumers have any moderating eect
on the inuence of price and perceived product quality on
their motivation to shop with a vendor?
3. Does the gender of consumers have any moderating eect
on the inuence of price and perceived product quality on
their motivation to shop with a vendor?
To answer these questions, using a sample size of 241 e-
commerce shoppers, we developed and tested a global research
model using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling
(PLS-SEM). Our results suggest that balanced buyers (shoppers
who are moderately motivated by convenience and variety
seeking but do not plan ahead and are impulse buyers) are more
influenced by the relative price of products compared to the
perceived quality of the products. In addition, balanced buyers
who earn over $30,000 are influenced by the perceived quality of
the product compared to those who earn less than $30,000.
Furthermore, male shoppers who are motivated by the
convenience of online shopping (convenience shoppers) are also
influenced by the perceived quality of products compared to the
female shoppers who are not.
is paper contributes signicantly in three ways to the eld
of e-commerce and user modelling. First, we show that the
motivation for shopping online with a vendor diers among
consumers. Second, we show that in addition to being motivated
dierently, consumers are also inuenced dierently by the price
of a product and its perceived quality. Finally, we show that
people of dierent incomes and gender are inuenced dierently
by the price and perceived quality of products online.
2 Related Work
2.1 Typology of Shoppers Based on eir
Shopping Motivation
Classifying shoppers according to their shopping motivation and
behavior has been suggested as a way to help businesses
effectively tailor products and services to the various segments
of customers [21]. It also helps businesses to better understand
the attitude of their customers and what they look out for in
their shopping decision-making process [15]. There are several
typologies for the classification of shoppers. Rohm and
Swaminathan [21] identified shopper types based on the
motivations of shoppers. Using a 31-item survey, the authors
conducted an online and offline survey of over 500 respondents.
Based on the analysis of the result from the survey and
subsequent cluster analysis, the authors identified four online
shopper types: convenience shoppers, variety seekers, balanced
buyers and store-oriented shoppers.
Clients who belong to the convenience shoppers category are
motivated by online shopping convenience. Clients in this
category do not typically seek immediate possession of their
products and they shop online for specific products and services.
The variety seeker, on the other hand, represents the group of
online shoppers who are more interested in seeking a variety of
products across various retailers and brands. The balanced buyer
is motivated by the need to seek information online just like the
variety seeker. However, the balanced buyers plan their shopping
ahead unlike the variety seekers. The store-oriented shopper wants
immediate possession of goods purchased and is more inclined to
social interaction. Shoppers in this category prefer the feel of a
physical store to an online marketplace.
Kau et al. [15] classify shoppers according to their shopping
motivation and their information seeking patterns. The authors
came up with six categories of shoppers: on-off shoppers,
comparison shoppers, traditional shoppers, dual shoppers, e-
laggards and information surfers. The on-off shoppers are
customers who go online only to seek product and store
information but prefer to shop in store. They seek for ads and
deals online but rarely shop online. Customers in this category
are typically single, between the ages of 15 to 24 and are
experienced web surfers. The comparison shoppers take time to
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compare promotions, prices, brands and product features before
making a purchase decision. Consumers in this category are
between 25 to 29 years old. The traditional shoppers are those
who do not shop online but rather shop at traditional physical
stores. They do not go online to compare prices neither do they
look for promotions or product information online. Shoppers in
this category are typically between 40 and 49 years old. Dual
shoppers rely a lot on the internet to compare brands and
product features and are male shoppers between 15 and 24 years
of age. They, however, are not prone to looking for deals. The e-
laggards are users who have no interest in e-commerce and
prefer offline shopping. They don’t like change and have little
browsing experience. They are more likely to be female and at
least 35 years old. The information surfer is always on the
lookout for promotions and offers by online merchants. They are
typically browsing experts who do a lot of online shopping and
are likely to be married.
Several methods have been suggested for identifying the
shopping motivation of online customers irrespective of the
typology used. These methods include mining the information
seeking pattern, purchase pattern and demographic data of the
consumer as proposed by Kau et al. [15] Another method is
exploring the page-to-page click stream data and navigational
patterns of shoppers as suggested by Moe’s [18].
In this paper, we chose the typology of Rohm and
Swaminathan [21] to classify shoppers according to their online
shopping motivation because the identified categories of
shoppers are general and are similar to other typologies such as
Kau et al. [15] and Moe’s [18]. I also chose this typology because
it has been used by other researchers such as Zhou et al. [29]
who used this typology to develop their research model.
2.2 Perceived Product ality and Relative
Price
Relative price and perceived product quality have also been
shown to be great indicators of one’s purchase intention in e-
commerce. Valvi et al. [24] explored the factors that influence e-
commerce shopping intention and concluded that price
significantly influences online shopping intention in consumers.
Similarly, Tsiotsou [23] investigated the role of perceived
product quality on purchase intention and concluded that
perceived product quality has a significant influence on purchase
intention.
Relative price and perceived product quality have also been
shown to influence customer satisfaction [14] and the value
derived from a product [19], [25]. In a large scale study of 602
online customers, Park and Kim [19] concluded that product
quality was a signicant determinant of consumer satisfaction.
Similarly, Vasic et al. in their study of customer satisfaction in
online shopping concluded that quality and price are among the
determinants of customer satisfaction online [25].
Because relative price and perceived product quality
significantly influence shopping intention [23]-[24], and they are
significant factors in customer satisfaction [19], [25], we adopted
them in this study.
3 Research Design and Methodology
In order to answer the research questions described in section 1,
we developed a hypothetical path model described in figure 1
using six constructs and four hypotheses. We used previously
validated scales for all constructs. These are described in the
following section.
Figure 1: Research model. All paths assumed positive.
CONV= Convenience shoppers, BALB = Balanced buyers,
VARS = Variety seekers, STOS = Store oriented shoppers,
QUAL = Quality of product, RELP = Relative price
3.1 Description of Constructs and Development
of Hypotheses
According to Rohm and Swaminathan [21], shoppers that are
motivated by the convenience of online shopping are classified
as convenience shoppers. This category of people desire to save
time and effort while shopping. They are also known to have a
higher purchase frequency online. Because of the frequency of
purchase of convenience shoppers, we hypothesize that
consumers motivated by online convenience will likely be
familiar with the cost of products since they shop online
frequently. We also hypothesize that these consumers will not be
influenced by the price of products but will rather be influenced
by the perceived product quality. We believe that these
customers will unlikely continue shopping online frequently if
the product quality has been an issue in the past. We thus
propose the following hypotheses:
H1a: Convenience shoppers are significantly influenced by
perceived product quality
H1b: Convenience shoppers are not influenced by the relative
price of products
According to Rohm and Swaminathan [21], balanced buyers
are motivated by convenience and variety seeking. However,
they do not plan their shopping task ahead and are spontaneous
buyers. They are also active online shoppers. Because shoppers
in this category are motivated by convenience, they shop online
frequently, and seek variety when shopping, we hypothesize that
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they invest time into the purchasing experience, especially while
seeking variety. This could mean that they pay attention to the
cost of products while searching through various brands and,
thus making them more influenced by the cost of the goods. We
thus we propose the following hypotheses:
H2a: Balanced buyers are not significantly influenced by
perceived product quality
H2b: Balanced buyers are significantly influenced by the
relative price of products
Rohm and Swaminathan [21] define variety seekers as
consumers who are motivated to seek for a variety of products
types and brands while shopping. We hypothesize that these
shoppers who search a variety of brands care about the quality
of products they purchase which could be the reason they are
searching for multiple brands. They also have the opportunity to
search for a variety of prices while searching for these products,
thus can be influenced by the cost of the product also. We thus
we propose the following hypotheses:
H3a: Variety seekers are significantly influenced by perceived
product quality
H3b: Variety seekers are also significantly influenced by the
relative price of products
Store-oriented shoppers are more motivated by the need to
possess the products they purchase right away. They also
motivated by the social interaction that takes place in physical
stores [21]. The do not shop online frequently. We hypothesize
that when shoppers in this category shop online, they are not
influenced by the quality of products since they cannot possess
products immediately. We further hypothesize that because
these shoppers prefer a physical store to a virtual one, they
might not be influenced to spend money online, thus, are
influenced by the cost of products. We therefore propose the
following hypotheses:
H4a: Store-oriented shoppers are not significantly influenced
by perceived product quality
H4b: Store-oriented shoppers are not significantly influenced
by the relative price of products
3.2 Measurement Model
We adopted previously validated scales in measuring the six
constructs shown in figure 1. Shopping motivation was
measured using the scale of Rohm and Swaminathan [21]. The
scale includes four constructs (convenience shoppers, variety
seekers, balanced buyers and store-oriented shoppers) with five
items per construct. Convenience shopping motivation was
measured with questions such as “Ordering goods on the internet
is convenient”, “I save a lot of time by shopping on the internet
and “Shopping on the internet is often frustrating”. Perceived
product quality and relative price were measured using four and
five items respectively using the scale of Zeithaml et al. [28].
Quality was measured using questions such as “I always buy the
best” while questions measuring price include “I compare prices
of at least a few brands before I choose one”. Due to space
constraints, we did not include the questionnaire in this paper.
3.3 Participants
We recruited 241 participants for this study through Amazon’s
Mechanical Turk, online social media and news boards. This
study was approved by the ethics board of the University of
Saskatchewan. Our participants include 66% females and 34%
males. Table 1 summarizes some of the demographics of our
participants.
Table 1. Demographics of participants
Value Frequency
(%)
Age Less than 30 years
Over 30 years
63
37
Gender Female
Male
66
34
Income Less than 30k USD
Over 30k USD
64
36
4 Data Analyses
Our data was analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural
Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) with the SmartPLS tool. The
following section shows the validation of the global
measurement and structural models used and the results of our
analysis.
4.1 Evaluation of Global Measurement Model
In order to complete the examination of the structural model, it
is important to determine the reliability and validity of the
constructs used and the relationships between indicators and
constructs [27]. As suggested by Wong [27], we checked for
indicator reliability, internal consistency reliability, convergent
validity and discriminant validity.
Indicator reliability was carried out to determine how much
variation in an item was explained by the construct. All
indicators in our model met the threshold of 0.7 as suggested by
[12].
Composite reliability has been suggested as a replacement for
Cronbach’s alpha in measuring internal consistency reliability
because Cronbach’s alpha is sensitive to the number of items in
the scale [12]. We therefore used composite reliability in this
study. Composite reliability validity was established since the
composite reliability values for all constructs were higher than
the acceptable threshold of 0.60 to 0.70 in exploratory research
[12]. Table 2 shows the composite reliability for the six
constructs.
Convergent validity is a measure of the degree by which two
measures of a construct are related and can be computed using
the Average Variance Extracted (AVE) [12]. As shown in table 2,
convergent validity is confirmed since all AVE values are greater
than 0.5, the minimum acceptable threshold [12].
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Discriminant validity is a measure of how unique a construct
is and how much it differs from other constructs in a structural
model [12]. It is calculated by computing the square root of AVE
for each construct. Discriminant validity is well established as
the square root of AVE for each construct is greater than its
correlation with any other construct.
Table 2. Composite reliability and AVE of the constructs in
our model
Constructs Composite
Reliability
Average Variance
Extracted (AVE)
Balanced buyer 0.862 0.675
Convenience shopper 0.872 0.695
Relative price 0.898 0.745
Perceived product quality 0.878 0.705
Store oriented shopper 0.820 0.695
Variety shopper 0.720 0.590
4.2 Structural Model
Having established the reliability and validity of the constructs,
we examined the structural model, in particular, the coefficients
of determination (R2 values) as well as the level and significance
of the path coefficients. Figure 2 shows the path coefficients
between the constructs, which explain the effect of the
exogenous variables on the endogenous variables. In addition,
the number of asterisks represents the significance of each direct
effect. The number of asterisks ranges from 1 to 4 which
corresponds with the p-value of <0.05, <0.01, <0.001 and <0.0001
respectively.
Figure 2. Structural model showing the coefficients of
determination, path coefficients and significance of path
effect. CONV= Convenience shoppers, BALB = Balanced
buyers, VARS = Variety seekers, STOS = Store oriented
shoppers, QUAL = Quality of product, RELP = Relative
price. n.s = not significant
Our results in figure 2 suggest that relative price and the
perceived product quality influence shoppers’ motivation to
shop with an online retailer. In particular, consumers who are
balanced buyers (those motivated by convenience and variety
seeking and are spontaneous in shopping) are influenced by the
relative price of the products they purchase compared to the
perceived quality. Similarly, variety seekers (those motivated to
shop online because of easy access to many products and brands)
are also influenced by product cost and not by perceived quality.
Store oriented shoppers (those motivated by the touch and feel of
products and social interaction while shopping) and convenience
buyers (those who shop online because of convenience) are not
influenced by either perceived product quality or price.
Our results also suggest that the shopping motivations of
consumers (convenience shoppers, variety seekers, balanced buyers
and store-oriented shoppers) explain about 28% of the variance in
the influence of relative price in online shopping.
4.3 Validation of Hypotheses
Based on the results described above, all but three hypotheses
were validated: H1b, H2b, H3b, H4a and H4b were all validated.
H1a, H2a and H3a were not validated because of the
insignificance of the paths that define these hypotheses. For
example, H1a was not validated because the significance
between convenience shoppers and perceived product quality is
insignificant.
5 Discussion
In this paper, we investigated how perceived quality and product
price influence e-customers’ shopper types. We identified and
classified shoppers according to their shopping motivation using
the typology of Rohm and Swaminathan [21]. e authors
classify shoppers into four types based on their shopping
motivation: convenience shoppers, variety seekers, balanced buyers
and store-oriented shopper. Based on the responses of an online
survey of e-commerce shoppers, we developed and tested a
structural equation model using Partial Least Squares, Structural
Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM).
Our results indicate that balanced buyers are significantly
influenced by the relative price of products. This was expected
because balanced buyers are moderately motivated to shop
online because of the convenience of online shopping and the
variety of products available for them to choose from [21].
Although balanced buyers do not plan ahead and are
spontaneous in nature, they also search a variety of products and
brands when shopping before making their purchase [21]. While
shopping, they are able to seek for alternatives such as cheaper
products and beer brands. Because they are also not motivated
to possess their goods immediately, they are likely to wait for
the best price and quality [21]. us, it is conceivable that
balanced buyers will be inuenced by both perceived product
quality and relative price as indicated by our results.
Variety seekers differ from balanced buyers in some regards.
While the latter group is spontaneous in nature, the former will
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typically plan the shopping task ahead [21]. Both groups are
influenced by the convenience of online shopping and the
opportunity to search for a variety of products. However, variety
seekers are more inclined to search for a variety of brands and
products compared to the balanced buyer [21]. Research has
linked variety shopping to the presence of an ideal level of
simulation; the higher the level of stimulation, the more
exploratory the consumer is in seeking for variety in activities
such as shopping [20]. Because variety seekers are not
spontaneous and plan their shopping ahead, it is likely that they
will also plan how much they will spend ahead, thus, they are
influenced by the relative price of the products.
Store-oriented shoppers are motivated by the immediate
possession of their goods and the opportunity for social
interaction [21]. Because these are not always possible online, it
was expected that store-oriented shoppers will not be inuenced
by either perceived quality of the product or the cost of the
product. Shoppers in this category will ideally prefer shopping in
a store and not online.
Convenience shoppers are motivated by the convenience of
placing their orders from anywhere at any time [21]. is mode
of shopping saves the consumer time and eort [10]. Our results
indicate that shoppers in this category are neither inuenced by
perceived quality nor price. is could be because these shoppers
know what they want and for what price; they only shop online
because it is a beer and more convenient alternative to
shopping in store. us, for them, online shopping is neither
about savings nor quality, neither is it about being able to search
for a variety of products nor social interaction, but about
convenience.
To determine if there are any changes in the results
presented above based on the income earned by the consumer,
we carried out multigroup analysis between low income earners
and high income earners. Multigroup analysis tests to see if
there are significant statistical differences between group models
for example between groups of low income earners and high
income earners [12].
5.1 Moderating Role of Income
Because income influences the purchasing decision of people
[26], we further investigated if income has a moderating
influence on the results we described above. To achieve this, we
carried out multigroup analysis between low income earners and
high income earners. We define low income earners as those
who earn less than or equal to USD $30,000 per annum and high
income earners as those who earn over $30,000 per annum. The
results of our multigroup analysis is shown in figure 3. Our
results suggest that income has a moderating effect on the
influence of price and perceived product quality.
Figure 3. Result of multigroup analysis between low and
high income earners. Blue rectangle indicates significant
difference between both groups. CONV= Convenience
shoppers, BALB = Balanced buyers, VARS = Variety
seekers, STOS = Store oriented shoppers, QUAL = ality
of product, RELP = Relative price. n.s = not signicant
The significant difference between low and high income
earners is in the influence of perceived product quality on the
balanced buyers. This suggests that for online shoppers who are
impulse buyers and are motivated to shop online by the
convenience and variety of products available (balanced buyers),
the more they earn, the more they are influenced by the quality
of products. Thus, balanced buyers who earn more than $30,000
are influenced by the perceived product quality compared to the
balanced buyers who earn less than $30,000. Therefore, income
influences the purchasing decision of consumers. This is in line
with other researchers who suggest that income influences the
quality expectation of individuals [26].
Similarly, we investigated the difference in our results
between females and males. We chose to explore differences in
gender because research has shown that females and males are
influenced differently and in order to create a more personalized
experience for shoppers, gender could be used to tailor strategies
to individuals or groups of similar individuals [4, 7].
5.2 Moderating Role of Gender
To determine if gender has a moderating influence on the results
we described above, we carried out multigroup analysis between
females and males. Our result suggests that gender has a
moderating effect on the influence of price and perceived
product quality.
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Figure 4. Result of multigroup analysis between females
and males. Blue rectangle indicates significant difference
between both groups. CONV= Convenience shoppers,
BALB = Balanced buyers, VARS = Variety seekers, STOS =
Store oriented shoppers, QUAL = ality of product, RELP
= Relative price. n.s = not signicant
Our result in figure 4 suggests two significant differences
between females and males. The first significant difference is
that the male shoppers who are influenced by the convenience of
online shopping are significantly influenced by the perceived
product quality compared to female shoppers who are not. This
result is in line with existing research that suggests that males
value the utility of online shopping more than females [13]. In
addition, male shoppers are significantly influenced by perceived
product quality [9].
The second significant difference between females and males
is in the influence of relative price on balanced buyers; males are
more significantly influenced compared to females. This suggests
that compared to females, males are more conscious of how
much they spend when searching for through variety of
products and brands online, even when shopping on impulse
(balanced buyers are variety seeks who make impulse purchases
online as they do not plan their shopping activities [21]).
5.3 Implication of Results
The results presented here have implications on e-commerce
developers and stakeholders.
1) The main implication of our results is that the shopping
motivation of e-shoppers can be used to create a more
personalized shopping experience for the consumer.
Stakeholders can take advantage of these results to create a more
tailored shopping experience for their clients. For example, when
presenting product information to a shopper who is a balanced
buyer, the emphasis of the message should be the price of the
product. Our result shows that balanced buyers are more
influenced by the relative price of a product compared to its
quality. Thus, emphasizing the price to these shoppers
(especially if a merchant’s price is cheaper than others) could
influence them to buy the product.
2) Income influences the purchase decision of balanced
buyers. When the income of a shopper is known and he/she has
been identified as a balanced buyer, their desire for better quality
should be considered. Our results suggest that shoppers in this
category are influenced by the quality of the products being
purchased. In such cases, the persuasive messages should
emphasize quality and not low cost.
3) If the shopper is a male balanced buyer, he is more likely
influenced by the price of the product compared to a female
shopper. Thus, persuasive messages presented to such a shopper
should emphasize the price of the product. On the other hand, if
the shopper is also a male but is motivated to shop online
because of the convenience of doing so, such shopper will likely
be influenced by the quality of the product and not the price.
There are a few limitations to our study. First, the answers to
the survey questions are self-reported by the participants and
not based on observation. This is however common practice in
the research community [5]. Second, we did not recruit an equal
number of participants for both income categories; less than
$30,000 and greater than $30,000. Similarly, we did not recruit an
equal number of male and female participants. We are still in the
process of data gathering; we intend to repeat this study on a
larger scale when we have close to equal number of participants
in both groups (income and gender). Finally, the total number of
participants, 241, represents only a small fraction of e-commerce
users in any platform or market place; we believe that by
recruiting more diverse participants, we will have a better
representation of e-commerce shoppers.
In the future, we plan to repeat this study with more income
groups such as consumers earning between $50,000 to $70,000.
We also plan to explore the role of other demographic data on
the outcome of our model such as household size, and level of
education.
6 Conclusion
People are motivated to shop online for various reasons.
Research has shown that understanding why people shop online
can help companies effectively tailor products and services to the
various segments of customers. In tailoring products and
services to clients, relative price and perceived product quality
have been shown to be important to clients in the purchase
decision making process. We contribute to ongoing research in
the area of online shopping motivation by investigating the
influence of relative price and perceived product quality on the
motivation of consumers to shop with online vendors. We also
investigate the moderating effect of income and gender. Using a
sample size of 241 e-commerce shoppers, we develop and test a
global research model using Partial Least Squares-Structural
Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Our results suggest that balanced
buyers (shoppers who are moderately motivated by convenience
and variety seeking but do not plan ahead and are impulse
buyers) are more influenced by the relative price of products
compared to the perceived quality of the products. In addition,
balanced buyers who earn over $30,000 are influenced by the
perceived quality of products compared to those who earn less
Adaptive and Personalized Persuasive Technology (ADAPPT 2019) Workshop
UMAP’19 Adjunct, June 9–12, 2019, Larnaca, Cyprus
151
than $30,000. Furthermore, male shoppers who are motivated by
the convenience of online shopping are also influenced by the
quality of products compared to the female shoppers who are
not.
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