Article

The efficacy of asafoetida (Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum resin) versus chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on dental plaque and gingivitis: A randomized double-blind controlled trial

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Introduction Microbial plaque is known to be the most important causative agent of periodontal disease. Since plaque control by mechanical methods is not enough to keep the gingival health in many people, attention has been brought to medicinal treatments, including mouthwashes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of asafoetida versus chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) mouthwash. Methods This study was a double-blind randomized active-controlled clinical trial. One hundred and twenty six patients were randomly assigned into two groups of asafoetida and CHG mouthwashes. They were advised to use 15 ml of their prescribed mouthwash twice daily for a period of 7 days. Before enrollment and then at the end of the 7th day of intervention, the plaque index (PI) and modified gingival index (MGI) were measured. Moreover, safety measures were monitored during this period. Results After the intervention period, improvement of MGI mean difference was observed in both of the asafoetida and CHG groups (0.9 ± 0.7 vs. 0.4 ± 0.5, respectively). Also, there was an improvement regarding PI mean difference in both of the asafoetida and CHG groups (1.8 ± 0.6 vs. 0.9 ± 0.6, respectively). However, mean differences of MGI and PI in the asafoetida group showed a significant reduction, compared to the CHG group (P < 0.0001). It should be noted that no serious side effects were observed. Conclusion Considering the results, it seems that asafoetida mouthwash can be recommended as an efficient herbal mouthwash for improving the indices of gingival health. However, future studies on larger cohorts with longer intervention periods are necessitated.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... However, this substance cannot be used for long periods of time due to its adverse effects, such as unpleasant or unusual taste in the mouth, tooth or tongue staining, and calculus formation. (7,8) A few chemical agents used in toothpastes and mouth rinses have been shown to decrease dental plaque accumulation. Owing to enhanced awareness regarding indigenous medical practices in various parts of the world, application of "herbal" medicine has gained interest and paved the way for complementary and alternative therapies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Article History Background and Aim: The most common etiology of gingivitis is accumulation of bacterial plaque. Complete removal of microbial plaque by mechanical procedures is not possible in some cases; for example, aged and disabled patients might not be capable of removing the bacterial plaques properly. Also, chemical mouthwashes have some adverse effects. Therefore, finding a new treatment approach would be helpful. The global focus on the use of herbal medicine for treatment of different health conditions is on the rise. The present study aimed at searching and collecting scientific evidence regarding medicinal herbs to treat gingivitis and periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In this review, an electronic search of the literature was conducted through PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Wiley online library databases. Studies were considered for inclusion if they evaluated medicinal herbs affecting gingival and periodontal inflammation or periodontal pathogens. Totally, 197 full-text articles were evaluated and finally, based on the inclusion criteria, 22 articles were selected. Results: There are various medical herbs with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, which can significantly decrease gingival and periodontal inflammation , bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD) and the count of major periodontal pathogens, and promote clinical attachment gain. Conclusion: The introduced herbal products could be an efficient and safe alternative to chemical products.
... Several studies have evaluated CAM use among patients with specifc chronic diseases, including diabetes, cancer, IBS, gingivitis, and cardiovascular diseases, with evidence suggesting high CAM use among patients with chronic illnesses [36][37][38]. A holistic concept based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM) describes a type of headache with a GI origin (gastric-headache) [28,[39][40][41][42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A holistic concept based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM) describes a headache with a gastrointestinal (GI) origin (gastric-headache). Although the neurological manifestations of this headache are similar to those of other headaches, its etiology is different. Considering its simultaneous effects on the brain and GI system, a formulation was designed based on this concept. This study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of the designed formulation on migraine headache (MH) associated with functional dyspepsia (FD). A total of 75 diagnosed cases of MH patients with concurrent FD were randomly divided equally into 3 groups: (i) the polyherbal formulation, sodium valproate (VPA), and amitriptyline group, (ii) VPA, amitriptyline, and polyherbal formulation placebo group, and (iii) the polyherbal formulation and VPA placebo group. The primary outcomes, including frequency, duration, and severity of MH attacks, were measured at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12. However, secondary outcomes, including the Headache Impact Test 6 (HIT-6) Questionnaire and Parkman’s score, were evaluated at baseline and end of treatment. The frequency, duration, and severity of migraine ( P < 0.001 for all cases), HIT-6 ( P < 0.001 for all cases), and FD ( P < 0.001 for all cases) scores at the end of treatment showed a significant decrease in the 3 groups compared to the baseline. However, the differences in those variables between the 3 groups were not significant at the end of the study. The polyherbal formulation alone may improve the symptoms of migraine patients and other groups. This effect could be due to improving digestion and FD in migraine patients.
... By regulating the functions of the human body, TCM can unblock blood vessels and nourish blood and qi (breath power), which are beneficial in improving the immunity of the body [28]. In addition, the clinical efficacy of TCM in treating chronic diseases is remarkable and cost-effective [29]. For instance, in diabetes mellitus, TCM can effectively alleviate the disease by adjusting the patient's diet [30], facilitate the rehabilitation of hemiplegia, arthritis, and lumbar disc herniation, and improve the quality of life of patients using acupuncture [31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate the effect of warm needle acupuncture plus Xitong Waixi lotion on the levels of IL-1, TNF-α, and MMP-3 in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Eighty patients with knee osteoarthritis admitted to our hospital from October 2019 to June 2021 were recruited and assigned via the random number table method at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive either Xitong Waixi lotion (conventional group) or warm needle acupuncture plus Xitong Waixi lotion (combined group). Outcome measures included clinical efficacy, inflammatory cytokine level, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) score, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score, and adverse reactions. Results: Warm needle acupuncture plus Xitong Waixi lotion was associated with a significantly higher clinical efficacy versus Xitong Waixi lotion alone (P=0.006). Patients in the combined group had significantly lower levels of interleukin (IL)-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) than those in the conventional group (P=0.020). Warm needle acupuncture plus Xitong Waixi lotion resulted in significantly lower WOMAC scores and VAS scores and higher HSS scores for the patients versus Xitong Waixi lotion (P=0.012). The two groups had a similar incidence of adverse events (P=0.068). Conclusion: Warm needle acupuncture plus Xitong Waixi lotion effectively alleviates the inflammatory response and knee pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis, with significant clinical effects and a high safety profile.
... As a result, doctors are actively exploring safer alternatives to these medicines that are still effective [1]. Herbal medicines and their application in the treatment of different illnesses have gotten a lot of interest in recent years [11]. Because of the significance of COPD and the need for low-complication therapies, medicinal plants have gotten a lot of attention. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In traditional Persian medicine, Drimia maritima, with the popular name Squill, has been used to alleviate phlegm dyspnea. Squill has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anticholinergic properties. The goal of this research was to see how effective and safe Squill-Oxymel was in treating COPD patients. Method: Forty-two COPD patients were examined for eight weeks in two groups. Patients underwent a 6-minute walk test to assess the treatment's effectiveness at the beginning and conclusion of the intervention. We utilized St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) to evaluate the subjective symptoms of patients in order to measure their quality of life. Results: Patients who received Squill-Oxymel showed a statistically significant increase in 6MWT distance (P=0.011). The mean O2 saturation at the end of the 6MWT before the intervention was significantly greater in the placebo group. (P=0.008). In terms of questionnaire variables, there was a significant difference between placebo and Squill-Oxymel groups in the mean presymptom score (P=0.009) and the mean post-symptom score (P=0.004). Conclusions: The findings of this research provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness and safety of Squill-Oxymel as an add-on therapy in individuals with mild COPD.
... Escitalopram was previously the mainstay for the treatment of depression, which is beneficial to improve the symptoms of depression. And alternative medicine (CAM) is often used in order to alleviate these problems [5][6][7][8][9]. The compound lactic acid bacteria capsule is a drug for the treatment of intestinal flora disorders. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The objective is to explore the clinical effect of compound lactic acid bacteria capsules on the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with depression and diabetes. Methods: From January 2020 to January 2021, 60 SIBO patients with depression and diabetes in our hospital were selected and randomized into observation group (compound lactic acid bacteria capsules combined with escitalopram) and control group (Escitalopram) according to the odd and even numbers, 30 cases in each group. The two groups were compared in terms of SAS, SDS, levels of inflammatory factors, immune function, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), treatment effect, and the incidence of adverse reactions. Results: Both self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) scores in both groups showed a decline after treatment (P < 0.05), and the reduction was more significant in the observation group (t = 10.047, 17.862, all P ≤ 0.001). Both IL-2 and TNF-α in both groups showed a decline after treatment (P < 0.05), and the reduction was more greater in the observation group in relative to the control group (P < 0.05). CD3+ and CD+4 in both groups showed an increase after treatment (P < 0.05), and the increase was more greater in the observation group as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). After treatment, the FPG levels of patients in both groups showed a decline (P < 0.05), and the reduction of FPG levels was more significant in the observation group than that in the control group (t = 3.948, P ≤ 0.001). The control group experienced a remarkably higher incidence of adverse reactions. Conclusion: The compound lactic acid bacteria capsule is a boon for SIBO patients with depression and diabetes. It can mitigate depression symptoms, improve immune function, reduce the level of inflammatory factors, and lower the FPG levels, along with fewer adverse reactions and robust effects.
... Nowadays, there is a widespread tendency to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. It has been shown that the use of integrated methods of CAM and Western medicine can lead to better treatment results [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. Persian medicine (PM), as one of the CAM methods, provides different strategies for the prevention and treatment of diseases. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a common chronic kidney disorder during childhood. The most important characteristic of this disease is proteinuria. The Persian medicine (PM) has important dietary recommendations for strengthening the kidney function and treatment of this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a diet including PM recommendations and general principles of Western medicine. Materials and methods: Twenty children with nephrotic syndrome were randomly divided into intervention and control groups and monitored for one month. The control group received a diet based on the general principles of Western medicine. In the intervention group, in addition to the Western medicine diet, dietary recommendations of PM were also prescribed including the pomegranate (Cydonia oblonga mill.), quince (Cydonia oblonga mill.), and whole grains (wheat and barley). A 24-hour dietary questionnaire was applied and anthropometric and biochemical indices including spot urine protein (proteinuria), albumin (Alb), urea, creatinine (Cr), total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) were measured before and after the study. Results: The amount of protein intake reduced significantly in the diet of both groups but the differences between the two groups were not significant. Proteinuria reduced significantly in both the Western and PM groups; however, proteinuria was significantly lower in the Persian medicine group compared to the control group. TC and Cr levels reduced significantly in the intervention group, although the changes were not significant compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that adding dietary recommendations of the Persian medicine to the general rules of the Western medicine diet reduced proteinuria and improved the combat against nephrotic syndrome.
... Additionally, it is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of knee/patellar taping on the quadriceps with and without EMG/NMES activity. Furthermore, the role of complementary alternative medicines in acute and chronic diseases (such as inflammatory, degenerative, hypertensive, and diabetic conditions, etc.) is very important and has been proven to be effective in pain relief, improving muscle functions/performances (i.e., strength and endurance), wellbeing, and gaining popularity in recent years [32][33][34][35][36]. However, its usage in physiotherapy settings has been rare and limited due to a lack of exploration in this direction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of knee taping in addition to a supervised exercise protocol on the pain intensity and functional status of individuals with patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PF OA). Methods: The study was based on a randomized, controlled pretest-posttest experimental group design. Following an initial screening, forty people with PF OA (mean age 55, range 40-60) were randomly assigned to one of two groups, Group A or Group B (n = 20 each). Group A underwent knee taping and participated in a supervised exercise program, whereas Group B only participated in a supervised exercise program. For four weeks, both groups received their prescribed treatment five consecutive days each week. At baseline (day 1 preintervention) and 4 weeks postintervention, the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were obtained. To compare the effect of stipulated interventions within and between groups, paired and unpaired t tests were performed, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. Results: When comparing the outcome scores at 4 weeks postintervention with baseline scores, the within-group analysis revealed significant mean differences for the outcomes within groups A (VAS: MD = -3.08-0.76; T = 9.70; p < 0.05 and WOMAC: MD = -7.05-0.81; T = 11.11; p < 0.05) and B (WOMAC: MD = -1.6-0.17; T = 2.35; p < 0.05), but a nonsignificant mean difference for the outcomes of VAS within group B (∆MD = 0.08 ± 0.03; T = -0.56; p > 0.05). Similarly, when the score of VAS (MD = -2.73-1.29; T = -9.17; p < 0.05) and WOMAC (MD = -5.95-1.63; T = -5.86; p < 0.05) were compared at 4 weeks postintervention, there was a significant mean difference between groups A and B. Conclusions: In people with patellofemoral osteoarthritis, combining knee taping with a supervised exercise protocol was more effective than the supervised exercise protocol alone in relieving pain and enhancing functional status.
... Patients with a variety of chronic conditions are using CAM to help cope with their disease [16][17][18]. e CAM products (Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum resin) have been actively used in the field of dentistry to treat and prevent oral diseases related to oral mucosa and dental caries [19,20]. One such plant is Nigella sativa commonly known as black seed, black cumin, black caraway, kalojeera, kalonji, or kalonji [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. Alveolar Osteitis (AO) is the most common complication faced by exodontia patients and is usually seen 24-74 hours after tooth extraction, heralded by severe throbbing pain. Nigella sativa is commonly known as a black seed known to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial properties along with other-reparative properties that enhance bone formation. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of alvogyl and a mixture of Nigella Sativa powder and oil in the treatment of dry sockets. Material and Methods. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of Alvogyl and a Mixture of Nigella Sativa’s powder and oil in the treatment of dry sockets. Sixty patients above the age of 18 and below 70 years, from both genders, who underwent extraction of teeth and are clinically diagnosed with a dry socket at the clinic of College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia were included in this study. Pain scores were assessed after placement of dressing at the following intervals: 5 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 2nd Day, 4th Day, and 7th Day. Patients were randomly allocated to three groups namely Group 1 (Alvogyl), Group 2 (Mixture of Nigella Sativa’s powder and oil), Group 3 (Control). Pain relief and healing of the socket were compared between the three groups. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis through Spearman’s correlation test, independent t-test, ANOVA, and post-hoc test. Results. A mixture of Nigella Sativa powder and oil showed a statistically significant difference in relieving pain compared to the Alvogyl group. A mixture of Nigella Sativa’s powder and oil required fewer dressings when compared to the Alvogyl group. Conclusion. A mixture of Nigella Sativa powder and oil is the more efficacious dressing material for the management of dry sockets compared to Alvogyl. It provides immediate complete pain relief and fewer numbers of repeated visits.
... However, this substance cannot be used for long periods of time due to its adverse effects, such as unpleasant or unusual taste in the mouth, tooth or tongue staining, and calculus formation. (7,8) A few chemical agents used in toothpastes and mouth rinses have been shown to decrease dental plaque accumulation. Owing to enhanced awareness regarding indigenous medical practices in various parts of the world, application of "herbal" medicine has gained interest and paved the way for complementary and alternative therapies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aim: The most common etiology of gingivitis is accumulation of bacterial plaque. The complete removal of microbial plaques by mechanical procedures is not possible in some situations, for example the aged and disabled patients, might not be capable of removing the bacterial plaques properly. And also chemical mouthwashes have some adverse effects. Therefore, finding a new treatment approach would be helpful. Global focus on the use of herbal medicine in the treatment of different health conditions has been rising. Present study aimed at searching and gathering scientific evidence of medicinal herbs to treat gingivitis and periodontitis. Materials and Methods: This article is a review of an electronic search of the literature which was conducted mostly through PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Wiley online library databases. Studies were considered for inclusion if they evaluated medicinal herbs affecting gingival and periodontal inflammation or periodontal pathogens.197 full text article were evaluated and finally, based on the inclusion criteria 22 articles were selected. Results: There are various medical herbs with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, which can significantly reduce gingival and periodontal inflammation, bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD) and levels of major periodontal pathogens and promote clinical attachment level (CAL) gain. Conclusion: Introduced herbal products could be an efficient and safe alternative to chemical products.
... A number of clinical trials have been conducted to study the effect of spices belonging to the Apiaceae family in several diseases such as diabetes [113,114], obesity [115][116][117], hyperlipidemia [118,119], metabolic syndrome [120,121], functional dyspepsia [122], neuropathic pain [123], arthritis [124], skin diseases [125], gynecological problems [126][127][128][129][130], and dental diseases [131]. All these studies ruled out any safety concerns with these spices. ...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases worldwide. In an effort to search for new strategies for treating AD, natural products have become candidates of choice. Plants are a rich source of bioactive and effective compounds used in treating numerous diseases. Various plant extracts are known to display neuroprotective activities by targeting different pathophysiological pathways in association with the diseases, such as inhibiting enzymes responsible for degrading neurotransmitters, reducing oxidative stress, neuroprotection, inhibiting amyloid plaque formation, and replenishing mitochondrial function. This review presented a comprehensive evaluation of the available scientific literature (in vivo, in vitro, and in silico) on the neuroprotective mechanisms displayed by the extracts/bioactive compounds from spices belonging to the Apiaceae family in ameliorating AD.
... e past decennia have witnessed a marked transitional change in conceptualizations concerning oral disease preventive and/or control strategies eclipsing traditional overtures and centering upon natural products as the "need of the hour" [59][60][61]. With robust molecular advancements apropos oral disease and/or caries research in addition to a festoon of natural products International Journal of Dentistry analyzed to date, compelling evidence-based updates are not so far off [62,63]. In view of the present study's empirical findings and past theoretical postulations, it has now become remotely clear that an ecological preventive strategy in conjunction with day-to-day fluoride therapy may prove to be efficacious in battling the age-old pandemic which has gripped the world over since time immemorial. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to compare the antibacterial effectiveness of chlorhexidine and PPE oral rinse on S. mutans, Lactobacilli, and Veillonella, in clinical salivary samples of patients with advanced stages of dental caries at baseline and two and four weeks with PCR technique. This triple-blind randomized clinical trial involved 60 high caries risk adult patients, 19–59 years of age, randomly allocated into two groups of 30 subjects each. The intervention group received pomegranate peel extract mouthwash, whereas the control group received chlorhexidine mouthwash. Unstimulated pooled saliva was collected from the floor of the mouth before and after the intervention. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to analyze the bacterial copies of each salivary sample at baseline and two and four weeks. The significance level was fixed at 5% (α = 0.05). Overall comparison of antimicrobial effectiveness across both groups revealed insignificant outcomes. The control group evinced a significant reduction in S. mutans between a specific time, i.e., baseline and 4 weeks (p=0.043). PPE oral rinse as a natural product or ecological alternative was effective in disrupting activity across all microorganisms tested in this triple-blind RCT; however, the nutraceutical, when compared to chlorhexidine, was not as effective against S. mutans.
... However, the gel formulation seems to be effective to control gingivitis. Other studies conducted with mouthwashes containing Ferula assa-foetida oleoresin (0.5%) (Hashemi et al., 2019) or Ocimum gratissimum oil (10%) (Pimenta et al., 2016) presented similar effect when comparing to CHX. Parodolium®, a commercial mouthwash containing an association of three different essential oils (Cymbopogon flexuosus, Thymus zygis and Rosmarinus officinalis) was evaluated, resulting in a stronger reduction on bacterial levels of subgingival biofilm after a 3 month-follow up (Azad et al., 2016). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance The presence of biofilm in oral cavity is associated with dental plaque and related diseases, including gingivitis, periodontitis and inflammatory responses. Some medicinal plants traditionally used for biofilm-associated pathologies such as Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Punica granatum L. and Lippia sidoides Cham. are currently incorporated into dosage forms as antiplaque agents. Aims of the study To present the current application of medicinal plant extracts associated in drug dosages to control microbial biofilms, with emphasis on those present in the oral cavity, especially to treat dental plaque. Materials and methods A PRISMA-compliant systematic search was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases. After the abstract and full-text analysis, the Cochrane Collaboration's tools for clinical studies was applied to assess the methodological quality of randomized clinical trials. Results Of 964 potentially eligible studies, 47 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Camellia sinensis was the most commonly used species (8 studies), with positive results in reducing both the PI and GI in the form of mouthwash, toothpaste and gel. The Melaleuca alternifolia oil (5 studies) demonstrated low reduction in PI but important effects on GI scores. Azadirachta indica (4 studies) extracts presented efficacy similar to CHX to improve the periodontal parameters, including PI and GI. Ricinus communis oil (3 studies), despite reducing microbiological counts and GI, did not prove to be better than the hypochlorite solution, used as an alternative treatment for dentures. The main bioactive compounds described for the plant species are polyphenols, essential oils and alkaloids, most of them with identified antibiofilm activities. Conclusions These active species could lead to future development of safer and newer treatments for oral biofilm-associated infections. However, more studies are needed to further understand the clinical relevance of their application.
... For example, the metoprolol, a beta-blocker, may cause depression and anxiety during the CHF treatment [5]. With the development of science and technology, more and more anti-CHF ingredients have also been discovered [6][7][8]. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies have become increasingly popular and are used regularly by patients with chronic disorders [9]. Currently, the combination of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine has been widely used for the CHF treatment [10][11][12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Qili Qiangxin capsule (QQC) is a formulation of traditional Chinese medicine commonly used for the treatment of heart failure in China. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the clinical efficacy of QQC combined with western medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis abided by the PRISMA guidelines. Literature search was conducted in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, Chinese Scientific Journals Database, PubMed, and Web of Science from inception to August 2020. A total of 52 eligible studies were obtained, and 42 of these studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that, compared with western medicine alone, the combination of Qili Qingxin capsule and Western medicine treatment has better efficacy (metoprolol: RR: 1.24, 95%CI 1.14-1.34; carvedilol: RR: 1.24, 95%CI 1.14-1.34; trimetazidine: RR: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.12-1.27; sacubitril valsartan sodium: RR: 1.23, 95%CI: 1.11-1.36; sodium nitroprusside: RR: 1.33, 95%CI: 1.23-1.45; and bisoprolol: RR: 1.31, 95%CI: 1.15-1.49) and increased the level of LVEF, LVEDD, and 6MWT of patients with CHF and reduced the adverse effects and the level of HR, LVESD, BNP, and Hs-cTnT as well. However, there is high heterogeneity in the meta-analysis of LVEDV, BNP, NT-proBNP, Hs-cTnT, 6MWT, and adverse effects, and the methodological quality of the included studies was poor. Therefore, further studies with good methodological quality and large sample size are required to validate our findings. In our study, evidence suggests that Qili Qiangxin capsule combined with Western medicine may improve therapeutic effect and the quality of life of patients with CHF.
... A canine mouthwash was developed as a microemulsion formulation using chlorhexidine (CLX), thymus essential oil (TEO), and oregano essential oil (OEO) as active pharmaceutical ingredients. CLX is one of the most used chemical agents recommended for periodontal disease prevention, and it has been used as an antiseptic in mouthwashes, toothpaste, and oral hygiene products (9,10,11). This agent reduces biofilm formation by altering bacteria's adhesion to teeth and gingival tissues and disrupts the bacterial cell membrane increasing cell permeability (4). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Periodontal disease is the infection and inflammation of the gums, bones, and tissues involved in teeth support, and it is one of the most common diseases affecting pet dogs. Essential oils have shown antimicrobial activity against bacteria causing periodontal disease; therefore, they are considered potential therapeutic agents. Objectives: The main objective was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a 0.2% chlorhexidine canine mouthwash with essential oils. Methods: Three microemulsion formulations were obtained by constructing a pseudo-ternary phase diagram using the phase titration method. Different surfactant agents were evaluated, and hydrogenated castor oil was selected as the emulsifier agent. The antimicrobial activity of oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare), thyme essential oil (Thymus vulgaris), and the three formulations were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Escherichia coli. Results: Pure thyme and oregano essential oils showed higher antimicrobial activity than a 0,2% chlorhexidine solution. The formulations with essential oils plus chlorhexidine and chlorhexidine alone showed antimicrobial activity. The formulation containing only essential oils did not show antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: A canine mouthwash was formulated with chlorhexidine and thyme, and oregano essential oil. Based on the evaluation of antimicrobial activity, two of the proposed formulations could be a therapeutic option to reduce the risk and prevent periodontal disease in canines.
... A (5 μg/ml) following which plumbagin was added at the indicated times, and the cells were cultured for 24 h at 37°C (P < 0.01) [27]. Asafoetida as a component in SHT has ever been reported that it showed good efficacy on reducing inflammation from dental plaque and gingivitis compared with chlorhexidine gluconate [28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sahastara (SHT) remedy is a Thai traditional medicine described in the Thai National List of Essential Medicine (NLEM) for the relief of muscle pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of SHT remedy extract capsule for treating primary OA. A phase 2, double-blind, randomized, and controlled trial study was used to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of SHT in comparison with diclofenac for the treatment of knee OA. The outcome of reduce pain was measured from VAS, 100 meter time walk, and the WOMAC score of day 14 and day 28 which should reduce significantly when compared with day 0 and should be equal with or better than diclofenac. Blood pressure and blood chemistry values at day 14 and day 28 did not change when compared with day 0. The results found that SHT remedy ethanolic extract capsule can reduce all OA knee scores at day 14 and day 28 significantly when compared with day 0 and also no significant difference with diclofenac ( P > 0.05 ). The SHT also showed safety values on blood pressure and blood chemistry. The SHT was observed that it had no serious side effect. The results of this study are the first report of using the SHT ethanolic extract capsule in the treatment of primary osteoarthritis of the knee. It can be recommended as an anti-inflammatory herbal drug for reducing pain in knee osteoarthritis patients.
... Furthermore, patients with chronic diseases, like DM, are at a higher possibility for complementary and alternative medicine use [10][11][12][13][14]. It seems that medicinal plants are the most referred ones amongst other complementary and alternative medicine options [15,16]. ...
Article
Introduction: Pomegranate is known as a functional food which has multiple health-promoting activities. It has been assessed for patients with metabolic syndrome. Specifically, an antidiabetic activity of its juice and plausible mechanisms for its action have been shown in multitudinous studies. The aim of this study was assessing the effects of complementary treatment with pomegranate seed powder (PSP) oral supplementation on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Sixty patients were treated for 8 weeks by 5 g PSP or placebo, twice daily. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) were recorded as the outcome measures at the beginning and after the intervention. The findings were analyzed using the independent t test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: After 8 weeks, the mean differences of FBG, HbA1c, cholesterol, and TG were significantly decreased in the PSP group when compared with the placebo group (p value <0.05). In addition, post-intervention values of FBG and HbA1c were significantly lower in patients treated with PSP compared to the placebo group (p values = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). However, the latter comparison regarding cholesterol and TG showed no significant differences (p values = 0.51 and 0.26, respectively). Conclusion: It seems that complementary treatment with PSP may have beneficial effects on FBG and HbA1c of patients with T2DM. However, its effect on TG and cholesterol was equivocal.
... e result of the research was that modified gingival index (MGI) and the plaque index (PI) were improved in both groups of intervention. However, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine mean differences of MGI and PI in F. assa-foetida group were lower than the CHG group [106]. e effects of 50% water-ethanol roots extracts of F. assa-foetida prepared as masculine tablet (310 mg) on young men for 3 months were studied. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of plants or their isolated bioactive components for the prevention and treatment of various disorders has been developed. Here, we aim to identify effective medicinal plants for relief of cough and respiratory symptoms in children. The data of this review article were obtained from published articles in scientific databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus, until December 2019. The keywords, including "Zataria multiflora Boiss."OR "Portulaca oleracea L."OR "Ferula assa-foetida L."OR "Nigella sativa L."AND "respiratory symptoms"OR "airway inflammation"OR "smooth muscle relaxant effects,"were searched individually or combined. The mentioned medicinal plants decreased total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, and eosinophils counts of blood and lung lavage in animal model-induced respiratory disorders. These plants also have protective effects on serum immunoglobulin, antibody titer, eosinophil count, and proinflammatory cytokines. Evidence from the studies indicated that the abovementioned medicinal plants have smooth muscle relaxant properties (bronchodilator effects) via stimulation of β-adrenoceptor or inhibition of muscarinic receptors (in vitro) and also improved the pulmonary function test in clinical settings. These medicinal plants are safe and easy to use. Based on the anti-inflammatory, anti-antispasmodic, and immunomodulatory effects, the clinical benefit may be assumed, therefore considering a place for these medicinal plants in relieve of chronic cough and symptoms of children's allergy, asthma, and common cold.
... Many of them were used to treat animal or human diseases because they have cancer chemo-preventive activity (Saleem et al. 2001;Mallikarjuna et al. 2003;Panwar et al. 2015), as well as anti-inflammatory, antiulcerative, antibacterial, anticoagulant, anticonvulsant, and antispasmodic properties (Song et al. 2005;Mahmoud et al. 2011;Nazari and Iranshahi 2011;Wang et al. 2018a). The beneficial functions of this genus were well accepted, and studies have been involved in the following: the treatment of human cancer (Zhang et al. 2015), periodontal disease (Hashemi et al. 2019), and gut disorders (Mala et al. 2018); their influence on digestive enzyme activities and gut microbiota (Amalraj and Gopi 2017;Safari et al. 2019;Chandran et al. 2017); and as food additives because of their distinct odor (Amalraj and Gopi 2017). However, to the best of our knowledge, the previous studies of this genus were mostly limited to mammals and reports of this genus in other fields such as aquaculture are rare. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was to investigate effects of asafoetida (Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen) powder on feeding attraction activity (FAA), growth performance, healthiness, and digestive enzyme activity of juvenile Lateolabrax japonicus. Six concentration levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g/kg diets) were formulated for luring and feeding experiment. Results showed that asafoetida could stimulate the appetite of L. japonicus at the dietary levels from 10 to 25 g/kg; reduce the feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake (FI) at 10–20 g/kg; increase the weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) at 5–10 g/kg; increase the hepatosomatic index (HSI), body crude lipid content, serum total protein (TP) content, and lysozyme activity at 10–15 g/kg; decrease the moisture at 10–15 g/kg; and increase the serum total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity at 5–15 g/kg, when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Digestive enzyme activities including amylase (AMS) and trypsin in the intestine were significantly affected by the asafoetida powder (p < 0.05). Regression analyses between the FAA, FCR, WG, SGR, HSI, LZM, T-SOD, AMS, trypsin, and the dietary asafoetida powder levels showed that the optimal additional amount was 16.95, 13.65, 8.36, 8.15, 15.45, 9.94, 8.75, 11.77, and 7.07 g/kg, respectively, indicating that the optimal amount of asafoetida powder was located in 7.07–16.95 g/kg diet. However, combined with the significant difference analyses obtained from the current study, we would suggest the additive suitable dosage was 10 g/kg.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder with high rate of prevalence, persistence, and leads to negative consequences. The mainstays of insomnia treatment have limitations due to either the side effects of hypnotics or limited accessibility to cognitive behavioral therapy. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Zaoren Anshen capsule alone or as an adjunct treatment with different doses of the nonbenzodiazepine medication zolpidem tartrate in treating insomnia. Method: This randomized, double-blind, multicentre placebo control trial was conducted in 131 patients with chronic insomnia. The patients were randomly assigned to one of the following four regimen groups: Group ZA + Z5 : Zaoren Anshen capsule and 5 mg zolpidem tartrate (n = 32); Group Z5: 5 mg zolpidem tartrate and placebo capsule (n = 35); Group Z10 : 10 mg zolpidem tartrate and placebo capsule (n = 32); Group ZA : Zaoren Anshen capsule and placebo pill (n = 32). The drugs were administered for 4 weeks. All patients were evaluated by the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) at 0, 2, 4, 5, and 6 weeks, and adverse events were recorded. Result: There are significant differences in the comparison between the four groups at each treatment stage (P < 0.05). Repeated measurement analysis of variance (ANOVA) of ISI scores in each treatment stage of the four groups exhibits significant differences in time effect, intergroup effect, and interaction effect (P < 0.05). After four weeks of drug administration, the treatment efficacy is similar in Groups ZA + Z5 and Z10 (93%) and in Groups Z5 and ZA (62% and 65%, respectively). Groups ZA + Z5 and Z10 present significantly lower ISI scores compared with Groups Z5 and ZA (P < 0.05), which indicates better treatment response of Groups ZA + Z5 and Z10. No significant difference was observed in the incidence of adverse events between the groups. Conclusion: Zaoren Anshen capsule can effectively treat insomnia disorder either alone or in combination with zolpidem tartrate. A preferred combination of TCM Zaoren Anshen capsule with zolpidem can provide a magnified therapeutic efficacy with fewer side effects than zolpidem-only management, clinical trial registration number: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-IPR-1600969.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to verify the clinical applicability by applying a mouthwash containing Sambucus williamsii var. coreana extract for preventing periodontal disease. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 64 patients, excluding those with insufficient data, who visited M dental clinic located in Busan, Korea. Thirty-two people were assigned respectively to the saline solution gargle group and the Sambucus williamsii var. coreana extract gargle group to conduct the O'Leary index, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and subgingival plaques. For the homogeneity of the two groups, scaling was carried out one week before the experiment, and the participants were taught for oral care to conduct during the study period. SPSS 24.0 for Windows (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) was used to compare the saline solution gargle group and the Sambucus williamsii var. coreana extract gargle group as well as to analyze Baseline (before gargle application), Treatment (immediately after gargle application), and After 5 Days (5 days after gargle application). There was a significant difference in the O'Leary index, PI, GI and subgingival plaques after Treatment and After 5 days (p < 0.05). Also, the periodontal-related indexes improved as the application time increased in the Sambucus williamsii var. coreana extract gargle group. The antibacterial effect was also shown for gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria in subgingival plaques as the application time increased. The use of the mouthwash containing Sambucus williamsii var. coreana extract was found to be effective for oral periodontal-related indicators and bacteria causing periodontal disease. Therefore, using a mouthwash containing Sambucus williamsii var. coreana extract, a natural drug, will possibly maintain healthy periodontal health by inhibiting and preventing the progression of periodontal disease.
Article
Full-text available
Background The inclusion of herbal antibacterial agents in the composition of toothpastes is becoming increasingly popular, due to lower side effects. The present study intended to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of a herbal toothpaste containing Bamboo salt on cariogenic oral bacteria. Methods The present double-blinded parallel randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 dental students (age range: 18–30). Following the baseline saliva sampling, the participants were randomly assigned into the case and control groups, to use the Bamboo salt herbal toothpaste and conventional non-herbal toothpaste, respectively. They were instructed to brush their teeth twice a day using the Bass technique. Saliva sampling was repeated after four weeks. The salivary counts of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus at baseline and 4-week follow-up were determined and presented as the logarithm of colony-forming units per milliliter (log CFU/mL). Results A significant decrease in salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus was observed using both toothpastes (* P < 0.001). The difference between the antibacterial efficacy of two toothpaste types on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus was not statistically significant ( P = 0.530, and P = 0.137, respectively). Conclusion Due to the comparable efficacy of the investigated herbal toothpaste with conventional toothpaste, it potentially qualifies as a complementary agent for self-care oral hygiene procedures. Trial registration : This trial was registered in the “Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials” (IRCT20210414050964N1) on 21/06/2021.
Article
Sleep disorders are one of the most prevalent psychiatric diseases. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder amongst the general population. It is also one of the most frequent complaints in primary healthcare centers. Lavender is called “the broom of the brain” in different oriental traditional medicines. It is one of the most used plants for patients with sleep disorders. This study reviews what is currently known about the use of lavender for sleep disorders in patients with different diseases, from cancers and end‐stage renal disease to neurological‐psychiatric diseases (e.g., depression, dementia, and autism), respiratory, cardiac, and metabolic diseases. Additionally, its most used administration route is the inhalation of its essential oil (i.e., aromatherapy) alone or in combination by massage. Some limitations of the reviewed literature were discussed briefly. Overall, this critical review provides promising evidence of the lavender efficacy for sleep disorders in a wide variety of populations and diseases. However, further clinical studies with robust design and longer durations of intervention are necessary for more evidence‐based judgment on its effect on sleep problems and to investigate its mechanism of action.
Article
Background Herbs used in dentistry contain antimicrobial, antiseptic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antiviral properties that help in reducing irritation, infections, and pain in the oral cavity. The resistance to antibiotics and overcoming their untoward side effects promoted the usage of herbals in dentistry. In addition, due to the affordability issues of allopathic medicines in rural areas, the dependency of poor people on herbal medicines has gained significant popularity in the Indian subcontinent. Objective Oral disorders would be a significant health setback for humankind due to their severity if they remained untreated. This review promotes the efforts made to overcome the side effects of allopathic medicines and provide cost-effective herbal treatment for oral care. Oral disorders cause various infections like tooth decay, dental caries, gingivitis, fungal, viral, bacterial infections, plaque formation, pemphigus vulgaris, pyorrhoea, mouth ulcers, and oral cancer fatal. The use of herbal extracts of Tulsi, neem, and turmeric as a natural healer and safest antimicrobial provides better dental care treatment. In addition, aromatic agents like tulsi, neem, mint, clove, ginger, and turmeric as dental products have increase palatability for patients who have lost their taste buds with growing age and diseases. Method The literature search was conducted in academics, Google scholar, PubMed, WHO, and Sci.org using keywords dentistry, antimicrobials, herbs for dental management, experimental findings, bacterial strains, oral health, and hygiene. Results The beneficial results from using various antimicrobials containing herbs are gaining popularity throughout the world. Subsequently, it further suggested that antimicrobials and, herbal extracts maintains oral hygiene, reduces bacterial lichens, biofilm adhesion and helps in the management of oral infections, improves health. Conclusion Screening of newer antimicrobial formulations like dentifrices, gargles, throat paints, mouthwashes, and mouth sprays containing cost-effective herbals for promoting healthcare and plays a pivotal role in developing herbal industries for dental care.
Article
Teeth whitening is one of the ways to increase beauty, which makes a person's face look more beautiful, and as a result, increases a person's self-confidence. Yellow teeth cause discomfort to many people; Therefore, many people go to the dentist to whiten their teeth. In our clinical trial study, 126 patients referred to the dental school of Yazd University of Medical Sciences were divided into two groups of 63 people and then one of them. Assafoetida and chlorhexidine mouthwashes were randomly selected according to the envelope method and administered for one week. After supra gingival scaling followed by brushing, patients were asked not to use any other method to control plaque for a week, and only twice a day, a tablespoon (approximately 15 ml) was prescribed each time. Rinse completely in the mouth for half a minute and do not eat anything until an hour later and do not rinse your mouth with water. This report presents some of the 63 patients referred to the School of Dentistry of Yazd University of Medical Sciences, taking into account the conditions of inclusion in the study. According to the table below, 48 of them stated that their tooth color It has turned dramatically white.
Article
Full-text available
Background and purpose: Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant and its depletion is a risk factor for periodontal diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 2% atorvastatin dentifrice and ascorbic acid on improving clinical periodontal parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods: This clinical trial included 72 patients with moderate and severe chronic periodontitis attending periodontology department in Yazd Dental School, Iran. They were randomly divided into four groups (n=18 per group). Group 1 was the control group that used 0.2% fluoride dentifrice after Scaling and Root Planing (SRP). Group 2 used 0.2% flouride dentifrice + adjunctive use of atorvastatin 2% following SRP. Group 3 used 0.2% fluoride dentifrice and 250mg chewable ascorbic acid tablet after SRP. Group 4 used 0.2% fluoride dentifrice + adjunctive use of atorvastatin 2% and 250mg chewable ascorbic acid after SRP. Periodontal parameters including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and modified gingival index (MGI) were measured at baseline and one month after treatment. Data were analyzed in SPSS V17 applying Chi square, ANOVA, and Tukey test. Results: After one month, significant decreases were seen in CAL (P= 0.0001) and MGI (P= 0.029). In groups 2 and 4, the decrease in CAL was significantly higher than the control group (P= 0.0001) and in comparison between case groups there were significant differences between groups 3 and 4 (P= 0.0001). In group 3,significant decrease was seen in MGI compared to the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combination treatment with SRP, 2% atorvastatin dentifrice and ascorbic acid is more effective in improving periodontal parameters than SRP alone
Article
Full-text available
Functional bloating is one of the gastrointestinal diseases that impacts the quality of life and social activities of the patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of lifestyle modification based on Persian Medicine (PM) on functional bloating improvement. Fifty patients with functional bloating and ROME III confirmation criteria were enrolled in the study groups of control and intervention. The intervention group received lifestyle modification education based on PM perspectives, and the control group did not receive any training. The score of implementing PM recommendations by patients was evaluated by the questionnaire of “compliance with the PM principles effective on functional bloating” once every two weeks during the two months of the study. The severity of clinical Complications Associated with Functional Bloating (CAFB) was also evaluated before and after the study by visual analog scale. Primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed by t-test and ANCOVA in SPSS version 19. The qualitative data analysis was performed via Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The severity of clinical CAFB was significantly higher in women at baseline (P = 0.027). Lifestyle modification of patients led to a gradual increase in compliance with the PM principles. By the end of the study, the mean score of compliance with the PM principles in the intervention group was significantly higher compared to the pre-intervention score (P<0.0001) and also compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). Besides, the educational intervention resulted in a significant decrease (51.8%) in the mean severity of all clinical CAFB in the intervention group before and after training (P < 0.0001) and between the control group and the intervention group (P < 0.0001). Therefore, Lifestyle modification based on PM probably can be effective in improving the clinical complications of functional bloating.
Article
Background and aim This randomized study aimed to evaluate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) intake on clinical and neurophysiological parameters in patients with mild-to-moderate diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Patients and methods The present study included 194 patients with DPN. Patients were randomized into two treatment arms: GTE (n=96) and placebo (n=98) arms who received allocated treatment for 16 weeks. Symptoms of DPN were assessed using Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS). Sensorineural pain was assessed using visual analog scale (VAS). Neural dysfunction was evaluated using the vibration perception thresholds (VPT). Assessments were made at baseline and after 4, 8, and 16 weeks of starting treatment. Results At baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment, VAS, TCSS and VPT were comparable in the studied groups. However, after 8 weeks of treatment, patients in GTE group expressed lower VAS scores, significantly lower TCSS scores and significantly lower VPT. As treatment continued, the differences between groups regarding the outcome parameters became more evident at 16 weeks. Conclusions GTE intake may have a beneficial value in treatment of DPN.
Article
Full-text available
Asafoetida(Ferulaasafoetida) also known as heeng, Devil’s drug, ferula, food of Gods, incense of Devil, stinking gum is an important spice crop belonging to family Apiaceae. It is native to Iran and Afghanistan. Its dried latex (gum oleoresin) is generally used for flavouring curries, sauces, and pickles. Therapeutically, it stimulates the in-testinal and respiratory tracts as well as the nervous system. It is beneficial in asthma,whooping cough, andchronic bronchitis. Its essential oil is also used in medicines, food and cosmetic industries. Besides, it is also used as an alternative for pesticides in organic farming. The major constituents of asafoetida are the resin (40–64%), gum (25%) andessential oil(10–17%). The butyl propenyldisulphideis responsible for the aroma of asa-foetida. The asaresinotannol is the major constituent present in the resin. It can be grown on unproductive cold deserts of dry temperate areas of Himalayas. It is mainly propagated by seeds. The seeds are sown either in win-ters or spring. It becomes ready for harvesting after 5 years of planting and yields around 900g per plant. The oleo gum resin and essential oil derived from this plant are sold at premium prices in the international market. The small and marginal farmers of Kinnaur, Lahaul-Spiti and Chamba can benefit from this new emerging crop.
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils (EOs) were obtained by hydrodistillation of various parts of Ferula ovina (Boiss.) Boiss., Ferula iliensis Krasn. ex. Korovin, and Ferula akitschkensis B. Fedtsch. ex Koso-Pol., collected in the flowering/budding and fruiting stages. Eight samples of EOs isolated from F. ovina and four samples from F. akitsckensis were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major constituents of F. ovina EOs were α-pinene (6.9–47.8%), β-pinene (1.5–7.1%), sabinene (0.1–20.5%), β-phellandrene (0–6.5%), trans-verbenol (0.9–7.4%), eremophilene (3.1–12%), and 6Z-2,5,5,10-tetramethyl-undeca-2,6,9-trien-8-one (0–13.7%). The major constituents of F. akitsckensis EOs were α-pinene (0–46.2%), β-pinene (0–47.9%), sabinene (0–28.3%), eremophilene (0–10.6), β-caryophyllene (0–7.5%), himachalen-7-ol (0–28.2%), and an himachalol derivative (0–8.3%). Samples of EOs from F. ovina, F. iliensis, and F. akitsckensis were evaluated for antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pulse-field gel electrophoresis type USA300 (LAC). EOs from F. ovina exhibited the highest antibacterial activity compared to samples from other Ferula spp., with the most potent EOs being isolated from roots at the flowering and fruiting stages and stems at the fruiting stage (IC50 values of 19.1, 20.9, and 22.9 µg/mL, respectively). Although EOs demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition of MRSA growth, analysis of the major constituents (α-pinene, β-pinene, and sabinene) showed that they had low activity, suggesting that other components were likely responsible for the observed bioactivity of the unfractionated EOs. Indeed, correlation of the GC-MS data with antibacterial activity suggested that the putative components responsible for antibacterial activity were, either individually or in combination, eremophilene and trans-verbenol. Overall, these results suggest that the EOs from F. ovina could have potential for use as alternative remedies for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by MRSA.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is the most effective antiseptic mouthwash to date. Essential oil such as thymol, have inhibitory and biocidal effects a range of bacteria. Objective: To determine the effect of mouthwash containing CHX and thymol on plaque induced gingivitis. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial study was performed on 60 patients with plaque induced gingivitis who were randomly divided into two groups: Group I (CHX/thymol mouthwash-Vi-one) and Group II (CHX mouthwash-Behsa). Patients in each group underwent scaling and root planning and polishing, then were educated about BASS-Method brushing, and were recommended Oral-B toothbrushes and Pooneh toothpaste. The two groups were asked to rinse their mouths for 60 seconds twice a day, once in the morning and once at night, after brushing their teeth. Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding index and stain index were evaluated at baseline and 14 days later in Ramfjord teeth. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 21. Independent- samples t-test and paired-samples t-test were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that plaque index and gingival index significantly reduced in two groups (p
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Mouth rinses have been popularly used as a supplementary oral hygiene aid. A lot of commercially available mouth rinses possess few adverse effects, which has necessitated the search for alternative and herbal mouth rinses. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of rinsing with green coffee bean extract in comparison with chlorhexidine mouthwash and sterile water on salivary Streptococcus mutans count. Materials and methods: A randomized parallel controlled clinical trial was planned and 45 subjects aged between 18-22 years were selected. The subjects were divided into three groups (n=15 in each group): Group A: Study group: 2% Green coffee bean extract, Group B: Positive control: 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX), Group C: Negative control: Sterile water. Group A subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml of 2% Green coffee bean extract for one minute. Group B subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml 0.2% CHX mouthwash for one minute. Group C subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml of Sterile water for one minute twice daily for two weeks. Baseline samples (Pre rinse) were collected on day 1 and post rinsing saliva samples were collected after 14 days. The samples were cultured using Mitis Salivarius Agar enriched with Bacitracin and colonies were counted using a hand held digital colony counter. The statistical analysis was done using paired t-test, One-way variance ANOVA and Post-Hoc tests. Results: The Green coffee bean extract group showed a statistical significant reduction in Streptococcus mutans colony count before and after intervention which was comparable with CHX group. Conclusion: Green coffee bean extract as a mouthwash can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to CHX mouthwash.
Article
Full-text available
Aims: This study aims to compare the efficacy of a mango (Mangifera indica) leaf mouthwash with chlorhexidine on plaque status, gingival status, and salivary Streptococcus mutans count. Materials and methods: A sample of twenty children, aged 8-14 years, Mangalore Residential School, Karnataka, India, was allocated into two groups. Group A (10) and Group B (10) were given test mouthwash "mango leaf mouthwash" and chlorhexidine, respectively. The clinical trial was carried out for ½ h after rinsing and after 5 days, during which children were asked to rinse once daily, with 10 ml of the given mouthwash ½ h after tooth brushing. Results: There was a significant reduction in microbial count, improved plaque control and gingival health in mango leaf and chlorhexidine mouthwash groups with higher reduction in microbial count, and better plaque control and gingival health seen in chlorhexidine group. Conclusion: Herbal alternatives proved to be an effective and safe alternative to conventional modes of treatment.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Intubated patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are not able to take care of their mouth health, so they are at risk of bacterial colonization and dental plaques formation that can lead to systemic diseases such as pneumonia and gingivitis. Aims: In randomized, double-blind clinical study, the efficacy of natural herbal mouthwash containing Salvadora persica ethanol extract and Aloe vera gel was compared with chlorhexidine on gingival index (GI) of intubated patients in ICU. Materials and methods: Seventy-six intubated patients (18-64 years old with mean age 40.35 ± 13.2) in ICU were admitted to this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: (1) Herbal mouthwash and (2) chlorhexidine solution. Before the intervention, the GIs was measured by modified GI device into two groups. The mouth was rinsed by mouthwashes every 2-3 h for 4 days. 2 h after the last intervention, GIs were determined. Results: Along with mechanical methods, herbal mouthwash in reducing GI was statistically significant than that of chlorhexidine (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study introduce a new botanical extract mouthwash with dominant healing effects on GI (1.5 ± 0.6) higher than that of synthetic mouthwash, chlorhexidine (2.31 ± 0.73).
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To comparatively assess the antiplaque efficacy of Aloe vera mouthwash and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on de novo plaque formation. Materials and methods: This was a randomized, single blind, parallel, controlled clinical study with 90 healthy participants, with mean age of 27.19 ± 12.08 years. After thorough oral prophylaxis, participants were instructed to discontinue mechanical plaque control. Participants were divided randomly into three groups; pure Aloe vera mouthwash was dispensed to the test group; control group received 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash; in Placebo group, flavored distilled water was used as oral rinse twice daily. Effect on 4-day de novo plaque formation was assessed by comparing pre-rinsing Quigley Hein Modified Plaque Scores were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: Post-rinsing control group showed the least plaque score which was comparable to the test group. Both the control group and test group showed significant difference with the placebo group. Conclusions: Herbal mouthwash containing Aloe vera mouthwash has comparable antiplaque efficacy as the gold standard 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate with fewer side effects and can be considered as an alternative.
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of Punica granatum var pleniflora mouthwash in treatment of diabetic gingivitis. In a double-blind randomized clinical trial 80 patients with diabetes mellitus and gingivitis were assigned to Golnaar and chlorhexidine 0.2% groups. After using mouthwashes for 2 weeks; participants underwent tooth scaling and the last visit was 2 weeks after scaling. The primary outcome measures were plaque, modified gingival and gingival bleeding indices, and pocket depth. Both interventions had significant improvement on all of the gingival and plaque indices (P < .001 for all indices). There were no significant differences between Golnaar and chlorhexidine in primary outcome measures except for modified gingival index for which Golnaar mouthwash had a superiority after 2 weeks when comparing with chlorhexidine (P = .039). Meanwhile, Golnaar mouthwash had no staining effect. Golnaar mouthwash is safe and effective in treatment of gingivitis in diabetic patients although further studies are recommended.
Article
Full-text available
Background & Aim: Accumulation of bacteria in the pharynx is one of the risk factors of pneumonia due to ventilation. One of the methods of prevention from accumulation of bacteria in the pharynx is the use of oral solutions. Chlorhexidine is considered as the gold standard, but it has various side effects. Present study was aimed to determine and compare anti-bacterial effects of the chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%, herbal mouthwash of matrica (chamomile extracts) 10%, Persica(TM) 10% and normal Saline in intensive bare Unit patients. Methods: In this double blind randomized clinical trial, 80 patients who were admitted in ICU divided into four groups of 20 patients each one. Researchers applied Persica(TM) to group one, chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash 0.2% to group two and third group received matrica, finally in the control group, normal saline were used. In order to culturing of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, salivary samples were obtained without any stimulation after six minimums oral rinsing. The data were processed in SPSS17 software and analyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Findings.. Decreased rate of bacterial colonies after intervention in the whole four groups was significant (p < 0.001). The mouthwash of chlorhexidine (p < 0.001), Peraica(TM) (p = 0.008) and matrica (p = 0.011) had a significant antibacterial effect on S: aureus and S. pneumoniae (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Herbal oral mouthwash of Persica(TM) and matrica has the effect on S. pneumoniae and S. aureus of oropharynx area in mechanical ventilation patients. However, there is a need for further research to be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine for prevention of VAP in ICU patients.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mouthwashes are an adjunct to, not a substitute for, regular brushing and flossing. Chlorohexidine is cationic bis-biguanide broad spectrum antiseptic with both anti-plaque and antibacterial properties. It has side-effects like brownish discoloration of teeth and dorsum of the tongue, taste perturbation, oral mucosal ulceration, etc. To compare the antiplaque efficacy of herbal and chlorohexidine gluconate mouthwash. Materials and methods: A double-blinded parallel, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, MNR Dental College. Totally 100 preclinical dental students were randomized into three groups (0.2% chlorohexidine, Saline and herbal mouthwash). All the groups were made to refrain from their regular mechanical oral hygiene measures and were asked to rinse with given respective mouthwashes for 4 days. The gingival and plaque scores are evaluated on 1(st) day, and 5(th) day, and differences were compared statistically. Results: There was no significant difference in the gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) scores of the pre-rinsing scores of three groups and mean age of subjects in the three age groups, suggesting selected population for the three groups was homogenous. Mean GI and PI scores at the post rinsing stage were least for the Group A, followed by B and C. The difference of post rinsing PI and GI scores between Group A and Group B were statistically non-significant, which means anti-gingivitis and plaque inhibiting properties are similar for both. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study chlorhexidine gluconate and herbal mouthwash (Hiora) showed similar anti plaque activity with latter showing no side effects.
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Subgingival applications of various chemotherapeutic agents have been used as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal treatment and preventive periodontal therapy. Their use in regular clinical practice, however, is less, perhaps due to concerns about clinical success or probably due to a lack of knowledge of their effectiveness or cost. The aim of this systematic review is to obtain overall quantitative estimate of effectiveness of subgingival irrigation (SI) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods: A literature search of electronic database was performed for articles published through December 31, 2014, followed by manual search of dental journals. Randomized controlled trails (RCTs) assessing the effect of SI as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis evaluated by changes in the clinical and microbiological outcomes were included. Results: This literature search yielded only two randomized, placebo-controlled studies that evaluated the efficacy of SI as an adjunct to SRP in patients with chronic periodontitis. The studies were methodologically not perfect (in terms of mediocre quality) with a risk of bias to come to any final conclusions to be reached. These studies didn't clearly mention about randomization, allocation concealment, blinding, dosage and formulation of irrigants, severity of periodontal disease, patient-centered outcomes and results data. Conclusion: Due to insufficient evidence supporting the efficacy of SI as an adjunct to SRP in treating chronic periodontitis, more rigorous scientific research is required to assess the efficacy of SI as an adjunct to SRP in the treatment of periodontal diseases.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this triple blind randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the efficacy of a mouth rinse containing amine fluoride (AmF) and chlorhexidine in controlling the supragingival plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation during a 4-week period in patients with chronic gingivitis. A total of 30 patients were participated in this study. Fifteen patients were prescribed an AmF-containing mouth rinse and 15 were prescribed a chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding index, tooth stain, and tongue stain (TS) were recorded at baseline, 15 days and 1-month. Patients' perception of odor, taste and any discomfort were recorded. The comparisons between the groups were done using Mann-Whitney U-test. The comparison within the group at different time visits were done using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Both the mouth rinses resulted in a significant decrease in plaque index, gingival index, bleeding index. However, AmF mouth rinse resulted in a statistically significant decrease in bleeding index and gingival index compared to chlorhexidine group. There was no significant difference in tooth stain and TS in both the groups. The 4 weeks use of AmF containing mouth rinse is effective in reducing the gingival inflammation and plaque.
Article
Full-text available
Various antibacterial and antiplaque agents are used in chemical plaque control but none are without their shortcomings. Chlorhexidine considered a gold standard, also has an array of side effects. To overcome these, numerous herbal extracts have been tried and tested and one among them is holy basil. The present study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of holy basil in vitro against some periodontopathogens and its antiplaque effect in vivo. Thirty periodontally healthy volunteers were randomly divided into three groups and refrained from all mechanical oral hygiene measures for 4 days and used one of the randomly assigned mouthwash (1- chlorhexidine; 2- holy basil; and 3- sterile water [placebo]) twice daily. The Plaque Index (PI) was assessed at days 0 and 5. Aqueous extract of holy basil was tested against Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F.nucleatum). Holy basil extract showed inhibition of both the tested periodontopathogens (P.intermedia and F.nucleatum) at various concentrations. In all groups, the PI increased from baseline to day 5. There was a statistically significant difference (p < .05) between the chlorhexidine and placebo rinse and the holy basil and placebo rinse, but no statistically significant difference was found between the chlorhexidine and holy basil rinse with respect to PI. These results indicate that the holy basil mouthwash has an antiplaque effect and is efficacious against P. intermedia and F. nucleatum strains in vitro. Hence holy basil mouthwash may have potential as an antiplaque mouthwash with prophylactic benefits. Key words:Antibacterial agent, basil, Fusobacterium nucleatum, mouthwashes, Prevotella intermedia.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash has earned eponym of gold standard to treat and/or prevent periodontal disease. However, it has been reported to have local side-effects on long-term use. To explore a herbal alternative, the present study was carried out with an aim to compare the anti-plaque efficacy of a herbal mouthwash with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash and normal saline. Materials and Methods: It was an examiner-blinded, parallel designed clinical trial, in which 90 pre-clinical dental students with gingival index (GI) ≤1 were enrolled. To begin with, GI and plaque index (PI) were recorded. Then, baseline plaque scores were brought to zero by professionally cleaning the teeth with scaling and polishing. After that, randomized 3 groups were made (of 30 subjects each - after excluding the drop-outs) who were refrained from regular mechanical oral hygiene measures. Subjects were asked to swish with respective mouthwash (0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, herbal mouthwash, or normal saline) as per therapeutic dose for 4 days. Then, GI and PI scores were re-evaluated on 5th day by the same investigator, and the differences were compared statistically by ANOVA and Student's ‘t’-test. Results and Observations: Least post-rinsing GI and PI scores were demonstrated with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, followed by herbal mouthwash and highest scores with normal saline. The difference of post-rinsing PI scores between the chlorhexidine and herbal mouthwash groups was statistically non-significant, whereas this difference was significant between chlorhexidine and saline groups, and the difference between herbal and saline groups was non-significant. It was concluded that 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash remains the best anti-plaque agent. However, when socio-economic factor and/or side-effects of chlorhexidine need consideration, presently tested herbal mouthwash may be considered as a good alternative.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To determine the in vitro inhibitory activity of green tea extract on some clinically isolated cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria. Materials and methods: Twenty strains of each of Streptococcusmutans, Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonasgingivalis, and Prevotellaintermedia were isolated from carious teeth and periodontal pockets of patients with dental caries and periodontal diseases. Green tea extract was prepared by aqueous extraction method and diluted from 50 to 1.56 mg/ml. Standard techniques of agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays were applied for qualitative and quantitative determinations of antibacterial activity of green tea extract on each isolates. Results: All clinical isolates of S. mutans (100%) were sensitive to green tea extract at concentrations 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/ml producing inhibition zones ranging from 10 to 38 mm. All periodontopathic isolates (A. actinomycetemcomitans, n = 20, P. intermedia, n = 20, and P. gingivalis, n = 20) (100%) tested were sensitive to 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/ml of this extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration of green tea extract for S. mutans was 3.28 ± 0.7 mg/ml and for A. actinomycetemcomitans 6.25, for P. gingivalis and P. intermedia 12.5 mg/ml. Conclusions: Our findings showed that green tea extract exhibited strong antibacterial activity on S. mutans,A. actinomycetemcomitans,P. gingivalis and P. intermedia and therefore may be used in mouthwashes or dentifrices for prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases.
Article
Full-text available
Carum copticum and Ferula assafoetida have several medicinal properties including antispasmodic, carminative, sedative, analgesic, and antiseptic. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) scavenging activities of Carum and Ferula oils along with their antibacterial and antifungal activities were examined. Thymol (40.25%), γ-terpinene (38.7%) and p-cymene (15.8%) were detected as the main components of Carum oil while, β-pinene (47.1%), α-pinene (21.36%), and 1, 2-dithiolane (18.6%) were the main components of Ferula oil. Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for total radical scavenging were between 40 and 60 and 130 and 160 μg/mL of Carum and Ferula oil, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans were 78 ± 8, 65 ± 7, 14 ± 3, 5 ± 2, 5.6 ± 1.3, and 8.8 ± 2.2 μg/mL of Carum oil, respectively. MIC for S. typhi, E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, A. niger, and C. albicans were >200, >200, 125 ± 17, 80 ± 12, 85 ± 5, and 90 ± 11 μg/mL of Ferula oil, respectively. Accordingly, Carum and Ferula oils could be used as safe and effective natural antioxidants to improve the oxidative stability of fatty foods during storage and to preserve foods against food burn pathogens. Practical Application: This study clearly demonstrates the potential of Carum and Ferula oil especially Carum oil as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. The chemical composition of essential oils was identified. Thus, identification of such compounds also helps to discover of new antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal agents for potential applications in food safety and food preservation.
Article
Full-text available
Ferula asafoetida is herbaceous plant of the umbelliferae family. It is oleo gum resin obtained from the rhizome and root of plant. This spice is used as a digestive aid, in food as a condiment and in pickles. It is used in modern herbalism in the treatment of hysteria, some nervous conditions, bronchitis, asthma and whooping cough. It was at one time employed in the treatment of infantile pneumonia and flatulent colic. The gum resin is antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, laxative, and sedative. The volatile oil in the gum is eliminated through the lungs, making this an excellent treatment for asthma. The odor of asafoetida is imparted to the breath, secretions, flatus, and gastric eructations. Its properties are antispasmodic, expectorant, stimulant, emmenagogue and vermifuge. Asafoetida has also been used as a sedative. It also thins the blood and lowers blood pressure. It is widely used in India in food and as a medicine in Indian systems of medicine like ayurveda. Asafoetida has been held in great esteem among indigenous medicines, particularly in Unani system from the earliest times.
Article
Objectives: To assess gingivitis and gingival bleeding following the consumption of Aged Garlic Extract versus placebo for a period of four months. Methods: A randomized, controlled, examiner-blind, two-treatment parallel group study was conducted. Participants were stratified and randomly assigned equally to a regimen group using Aged Garlic Extract (AGE) or a control group, based on gender, age, baseline number of bleeding sites, and gingival health status. Assessment was performed at baseline and at one, two, three, and four months. Clinical assessment was conducted by three experienced calibrated examiners. Results: One hundred and fifty-one participants followed the inclusion criteria; 50.3% males, with an average age of 32.7 ± 8.2 years. Only 134 subjects completed the four-month study (11.3% attrition rate). A statistically significant decrease of the Modified Gingival Index and Gingival Bleeding Index scores was shown for the AGE compared to the placebo group, both between and within groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This research demonstrated that daily consumption of AGE benefits oral health by reducing gingival inflammation and gingival bleeding, as compared to a placebo control.
Book
From basic science and fundamental procedures to the latest advanced techniques in reconstructive, esthetic, and implant therapy, Newman and Carranza's Clinical Periodontology, 13th Edition is the resource you can count on to help master the most current information and techniques in periodontology. Full color photos, illustrations, radiographs and videos show you how to perform periodontal procedures, while renowned experts from across the globe explain the evidence supporting each treatment and lend their knowledge on how to best manage the outcomes. Access to the Expert Consult website provides fully-searchable online chapters and unique case-based clinical scenarios that mimic the new format of credentialing exams. The Expert Consult platform also includes a wealth of resources to enhance understanding, such as: a periodontal pathology atlas, virtual microscope, animations, case reports, videos, audio slides, review questions, reference lists, and much more. It's the perfect resource for dental students, periodontal residents, and clinicians alike!
Article
Background: Lipid-lowering effect of Rhus coriaria L. (Rhus) has been investigated in multiple animal studies with promising results. Nonetheless, its clinical efficacy has not been adequately examined. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid-lowering effects of Rhus among patients with hyperlipidemia. Design, setting, participants and interventions: The study was designed as a two-arm, double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, using a parallel design. Eighty patients with primary hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to receive Rhus capsules or placebo for 6 weeks. Main outcome measures: The serum lipid levels, apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1) and apolipoprotein-B (Apo-B) were measured. Results: Mean serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and Apo-A1 levels were significantly increased in the Rhus group, compared with the placebo group, after 6 weeks of intervention (P = 0.001). The analysis of covariance test including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and smoking as co-variables revealed that the increase in HDL-C and Apo-A1 levels remained significant, and increases in HDL-C were dependent on the increase in Apo-A1 levels. No significant difference was observed between Rhus and placebo groups in terms of mean reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, more significant improvement was observed among obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). Conclusion: The study showed significant increases in HDL-C and Apo-A1 levels in response to Rhus supplementation in patients with hyperlipidemia. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02295293.
Article
Background: Pomegranate, Grape seed and Guava extracts have much been reviewed in Ayurveda and has been proven to have antibacterial action Aim: The objective of the study is to investigate and compare the mouthwash prepared from pomegranate, grape seed and guava extracts on salivary streptococci levels at the end of 48 hr and 7 days, of twice a day usage. Study design: 40 school going children aged 8-10 yrs, randomly allocated into 4 groups (n=10 for experimental group) were asked to rinse with a) Mouthwash prepared from Pomegranate extract, 15 ml twice a day b) Mouthwash prepared from Grape seed extract, 15 ml twice a day, c) Mouthwash prepared from guava extract, 15 ml twice a day, d) Control-Distil water, twice a day. The oral streptococci colony forming units/ml (CFU/ml) was assessed by inoculating the salivary samples on blood agar media at the end of 48 hrs, and 7 days. Results and conclusion: the aqueous extracts of the chosen herbal plants showed an acceptable antibacterial efficacy against oral streptococci.
Article
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of topical chamomile oil in patients with mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Method: Eighty six patients with electrodiagnostic criteria of mild and moderate CTS were enrolled in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and received wrist splint plus topical chamomile oil or placebo for 4 weeks. They were evaluated at the baseline and end of the study regarding functional and symptomatic scores, dynamometry, and electrodiagnostic indexes. Results: Dynamometry, functionality, and symptom severity scores of the patients were significantly improved in the chamomile oil group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.040, P = 0.0001, P = 0.017, respectively). Additionally, compound latency of the median nerve in the chamomile oil group significantly decreased (P = 0.035) compared to the placebo group. Other electerodiagnostic measurements did not change significantly. Conclusion: Complementary treatment with topical chamomile oil may have some benefits for patients with mild and moderate CTS, both subjectively and objectively. Keywords: Carpal tunnel syndrome, Matricaria chamomilla, Chamomile oil, Traditional Persian Medicine, Herbal medicine
Article
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease, for which, scaling and root planning(SRP) is the common approach for non-surgical control of inflammation. Using lasers is anotherapproach in the first phase of periodontal treatment for control of inflammation. Diode laserhas some beneficial effects such as acceleration of wound healing, promotion of angiogenesisand augmentation of growth factor release. Thus the aim of this study is the evaluation of diodelaser (980 nm) effect on gingival inflammation when it is used between the first and secondphase of periodontal treatment, in comparison with common treatment (SRP) modality alone. In this study, 21 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were selectedand divided in to control group (SRP) and test group (SRP + laser). Two months after the lastscaling and laser radiation, indexes including gingival level (GL), bleeding on probing (BOP)and modified gingival index (MGI) were recorded and compared with baseline. Two months after the beginning of the study, all indices improved in both groups. Theindices were not different between two groups except for BOP which was lower in laser group. Based on overall improvement in parameters such as superiority of laser applicationin some indices, lack of thermal damage and gingival recession with the specific settings usedin this study, the application of laser as an adjunctive treatment together with common methodsis preferable.
Article
Purpose: The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Terminalia chebula on plaque and gingival inflammation and compare it with the gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX 0.2%) and distilled water as control (placebo). Materials and methods: A double-blind randomised control trial was conducted among undergraduate students who volunteered. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: 1) Terminalia chebula mouthwash (n = 30); 2) chlorhexidine (active control) (n = 30); 3) distilled water (placebo) (n = 30). Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out to compare the effect of both mouthwashes. ANOVA and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using SPSS version 17 with p ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that Terminalia chebula mouthrinse is as effective as chlorhexidine in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to the placebo. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that Terminalia chebula may prove to be an effective mouthwash. Terminalia chebula extract mouthrinse can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinse as it has similar properties without the side-effects of the latter.
Article
The antimicrobial activities of 44 methanolic extracts from different parts of Iranian indigenous plant species used in traditional medicines of Iran were tested against a panel of 35 pathogenic and multi-resistant bacteria and 1 yeast. The antimicrobial efficacy was determined using Müller-Hinton agar in Petri dishes seeded by a multiple inoculator and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) method. The 21 most active extracts (MIC < 0.3 mg.ml(-1) for one or several micro-organisms) were submitted to a more refined measurement. The best antibacterial activity was obtained by 10 plants. Micro-dilution assays allowed to determinate the MIC and MBC of the 21 most active extracts. The lowest achieved MIC value was 78 μg.ml(-1) , with 4 extracts. This work confirms the antimicrobial activity of assayed plants and suggests further examination to identify the chemical structure of their antimicrobial compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
A double blind, randomized, controlled study with three parallel treatment groups was done to evaluate the efficacy of a Terminalia chebula 10% mouth rinse compared with chlorhexidine 0.12% mouth rinse, applied two times daily for 2 weeks, in the treatment of dental plaque and gingivitis. Seventy-eight patients were included in the study. The efficacy variables were periodontal indices on days 0, 7 and 14 after commencement of therapy. Twenty six patients received chlorhexidine mouth rinse, twenty six Terminalia chebula mouth rinse and twenty six received saline solution. The clinical parameters were significantly reduced by both chlorhexidine and Terminalia chebula mouth rinse although no significant difference was seen between the two groups (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that Terminalia chebula mouth rinse is effective in reducing microbial plaque, gingival inflammation and neutralizing salivary pH. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The anti-fungal properties of a series of chemical and herbal compounds at different levels was tested on potato dextrose agar. Among the chemical compounds, propionic acid at 0.1–0.5%, ammonia at 0.5%, copper sulphate at 0.08–0.5% and benzoic acid at 0.1–0.5% completely inhibited Aspergillus parasiticus growth. Urea, citric acid and sodium propionate had moderate anti-fungal properties (36–64% reduction). Among the herbal compounds, clove oil at 0.5% completely inhibited fungal growth. Compounds which inhibited fungal growth by at least 20% were selected to test their efficacy to inhibit fungal growth and aflatoxin production in feeds. All the selected chemical and herbal compounds reduced (P
Article
The old traditional phytomedicine asafoetida, an oleo-gum-resin obtained from the roots of different Ferula assa-foetida, is used in different countries for various purposes. Asafoetida is not only used as a culinary spice but also traditionally used to treat various diseases, including asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, intestinal parasites, etc. This oleo-gum-resin has been known to possess antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and antiviral activities. A wide range of chemical compounds including sugars, sesquiterpene coumarins and polysulfides have been isolated from this plant. Recent studies have shown new promising antiviral sesquiterpene coumarins from this old phytomedicine. The present review summarizes the information concerning the traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of asafoetida.
Article
Extracts from different species of the genus Ferula (Apiaceae) have had various biomedical applications for many centuries. Many biological features of this genus such as cytotoxicity, antibacterial, antiviral, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory and antiinflammatory activity have been attributed to sesquiterpene coumarins; structures containing a common coumarin group and a sesquiterpene moiety. This both highlights the importance of sesquiterpene coumarins as biologically active natural products and necessitates further studies on these compounds. Taking into account the versatile biological properties of compounds isolated from Ferula and the unprecedented interest in the application of natural products as a new generation of therapeutics, the present review will discuss reports on biological activities of sesquiterpene coumarins of the genus Ferula, from 1990 onwards. Copyright
Article
https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/141409/1/jper0602.pdf
Article
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was shown in vitro to reduce chlorhexidine induced, dietary staining without affecting the uptake of the antiseptic to the test substrate. The aim of these studies in vivo was to determine whether PVP affected plaque and dietary staining by a low concentration chlorhexidine rinse. The plaque and stain studies used a double blind, randomised 6, treatment crossover design involving healthy subjects with a high standard of oral hygiene and gingival health. The rinse formulations under test were: (A) aqueous alcohol (placebo control), (B) 0.03% chlorhexidine, (C) 0.06% chlorhexidine, (D) 0.06% chlorhexidine+1.2% PVP, (E) 0.06% chlorhexidine+5% PVP, (F) 0.06% chlorhexidine+10% PVP. In the plaque study, on day 1 of each period, subjects were rendered plaque free and then rinsed with 15 ml of the test rinse for 60 s. No further tooth cleaning was performed and subjects returned 24 h later for plaque scoring by area. In the stain study, on day 1 of each period, the tongue and teeth of each subject were rendered stain free. Subjects then rinsed under supervision for 60 s with 15 ml of the allocated rinse 8 x a day between 09:00 h and 17:00 h for 3 days. Immediately after each rinse with the test formulation, subjects rinsed for 120 s with 15 ml of warm black tea. Subjects were requested to also drink at least 5 cups of tea or coffee per day. On day 4, stain was scored by area and intensity from designated teeth and dorsum of the tongue. Washout periods were at least 7 days in both studies. Plaque areas were greatest with placebo and least with 0.06% chlorhexidine. Plaque scores increased with increasing concentrations of PVP in the 0.06% chlorhexidine rinse and were significantly higher than 0.06% chlorhexidine without PVP rinse. Tooth stain areas were comparable for placebo, 0.03% and 0.06% chlorhexidine rinses, but significantly reduced with the PVP/chlorhexidine rinses compared to the 0.06% chlorhexidine rinse. Tooth stain intensity was significantly increased with 0.06% chlorhexidine rinses compared to placebo and chlorhexidine/PVP rinses. Tongue stain area and intensity were significantly reduced with 5% and 10% PVP/chlorhexidine rinses compared to 0.06% chlorhexidine rinse. PVP, at the concentrations tested, reduced the stain propensity of a 0.06% chlorhexidine rinse but at the expense of some loss of plaque inhibition.
Article
Inhibitors of the human rhinovirus (HRV) coat protein are promising candidates to treat and prevent a number of upper respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to find antiviral compounds from nature, focusing on the HRV coat protein. Through computational structure-based screening of an in-house 3D database containing 9676 individual plant metabolites from ancient herbal medicines, combined with knowledge from traditional use, we selected sesquiterpene coumarins from the gum resin asafetida as promising natural products. Chromatographic separation steps resulted in the isolation of microlobidene (1), farnesiferol C (2), farnesiferol B (3), and kellerin (4). Determination of the inhibition of the HRV-induced cytopathic effect for serotypes 1A, 2, 14, and 16 revealed a dose-dependent and selective antirhinoviral activity against serotype 2 for asafetida (IC50 = 11.0 microg/mL) and its virtually predicted constituents 2 (IC50 = 2.5 microM) and 3 (IC50 = 2.6 microM). Modeling studies helped to rationalize the retrieved results.
Volatile oils and resins, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy
  • W Evans
  • G Trease
W. Evans, G. Trease, Volatile oils and resins, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, (2002), p. 286.
Makhzan-al-advia (Persian)
  • A S Mh
A.S. MH, Makhzan-al-advia (Persian), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 2009.
Clinical Comparison of Persica and Chlorhexidine Mouthwash on Dental Plaque and Gingivitis, dentistry thesis Yazd Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences
  • A Taghavi
  • Z Ebrahim Nezhad
A. Taghavi, Z. Ebrahim nezhad, Clinical Comparison of Persica and Chlorhexidine Mouthwash on Dental Plaque and Gingivitis, dentistry thesis Yazd Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, 2002.