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A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of biocyclic humus soil, a newly found apparently carbon stabilized form of organic matter with significantly different characteristics from common composts or other forms of organic matter (humus), on yield and quality of processing tomato. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with three replications and three fertilization treatments (untreated, inorganic fertilizer and biocyclic humus soil). The highest fruit yield (116.8 t/ha) was obtained by using biocyclic humus soil. There were no treatment effects on fruit firmness (4.34-4.60 kg/cm 2), total soluble solids (4.29-4.76 °Brix) and total acidity (0.25-0.31 g citric acid/100 g fruit) content of fruits. In conclusion, the tomato plants grown in biocyclic humus soil had 45% more yield than in conventional plots, and this big difference is probably related to the fact that the humus soil as a substrate provides an optimum environment for plant growth.
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Effect of Biocyclic Humus Soil on Yield and Quality
Parameters of Processing Tomato (Lycopersicon
esculentum Mill.)
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


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
Abstract
  
  


  
 



Keywords 
solids
Introduction
Lycopersicon esculentum
    
  


      

      


      



       
  
       
      

       

    
       
      
et al.et al.
    
     
48
Bulletin UASVM Horticulture 76(1) / 2019
et al.
 

        
        


        
      
 
et al.




     

 
         

       
      
       
       
      
    

      
        
     
       
      
    
        
        
   
       
     
  in


        
       
        
      

Materials and methods
      

      
         
       
 
         
    
       
  
      
 



     
        
  th      
    
      
     
   
     
Figure 1.
49
Bulletin UASVM Horticulture 76(1) / 2019
Lycopersicon esculentum 

       
           
      



  
         
       
       
       
   
      
 
       
       
      
    

  

       
       
       
      

 




  
     
 
selected plants per plot.



          
       
  


  

       
solution.


     
    

     
     
     


Results and discussions
       
 in

     
       
         
      
       
       
       
       

       


         
  



et al
et al
      et al.
       
Table 1.
 mass 

 . .
 . .
 . .
 .
 .
50
Bulletin UASVM Horticulture 76(1) / 2019
et al.
     
      
     
     
       
et al  
    
  et al     

et al et
al
et al


      
et al
       
 



et al
   et al.
      
       
 
     

    

       



       
et al.
      

  
        

et al
       
     

     
 

        
       
Table 2.

 
󰒇



 cm
 . a . a . a
 . a . a . a
umus s . a . a . a
F ns ns ns


Figure 2.

51
Bulletin UASVM Horticulture 76(1) / 2019
Lycopersicon esculentum 
      

   



  
 


Conclusions

 

       

  
         
      
       

      
      
        
     
     
        
      
 
 

        


Picture 3 (left) & 4 (right).
Picture 1 (left) & 2 (right). 
Table 3.
 
  
 .ns
 .ns .ns
 .ns .ns ns

52
Bulletin UASVM Horticulture 76(1) / 2019


Acknowledgments     

       
      
humus soil used in this trial.
References
           


 
       
 

          

     

          
      
    

      Was sind die
 


   



 
    

 



     

   
 

      
 

        

          
       
     
    

          
      


  

 
     

 
        



        
        
       

       

      

         
       
     
     

        
     


    
       
       
     
      




         
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et al.
... Academic and practitioner literature has favorably associated veganic approaches with various agronomic factors, including: yield, quality, nutrient cycling, soil nitrogen level, soil carbon storage, soil biology, soil organic matter, and energy inputs (Pimentel et al. 2005;Cormack 2006;Hepperly et al. 2006;Eisenbach et al. 2018;Matsuura et al. 2018;Eisenbach et al. 2019;Roussis et al. 2019;Rosato et al. 2020;Utter and Seymour forthcoming) 3 ; sustainable agriculture or food systems (Hall and Tolhurst 2007;Visak 2007;Burnett 2014;Bonsall 2015;Hagemann and Potthast 2015;Hirth 2020;Kassam and Kassam 2021;Nobari 2021); food safety (O'Brien 1964;Seymour 2018a;Alsanius et al. 2019;Utter and Seymour forthcoming); diminished environmental impacts (Markussen et al. 2014;Seymour 2018a); marketing potential (Jürkenbeck et al. 2019;Jürkenbeck and Spiller 2020); and "animal-friendly" (Visak 2007) and "post-lethal" (Mann 2020) agriculture. Despite the diversity of veganic 2 "Stockfree" was selected as a "more neutral technical term," not necessarily associated with veganism (Schmutz and Foresi 2017, p. 477). ...
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Veganic agriculture, often described as farming that is free of synthetic and animal-based inputs, represents an alternative to chemical-based industrial agriculture and the prevailing alternative, organic agriculture, respectively. Despite the promise of veganic methods in diverse realms such as food safety, environmental sustainability, and animal liberation, it has a small literature base. This article draws primarily on interviews conducted in 2018 with 25 veganic farmers from 19 farms in the United States to establish some baseline empirical research on this farming community. Its qualitative perspectives illuminate farmer perceptions of and experiences with veganic growing, including definitions, knowledge acquisition, values, and challenges. Results highlight a lack of agreement about the meaning of veganic agriculture in terms of allowable inputs and scope. Participants have drawn on a wide array of veganic and non-veganic resources to ascend their veganic production learning curves, also relying on experimentation and trial-and-error. Their farming is motivated by a diversity of real and perceived benefits, most notably consistency with veganism, food safety advantages, and plant and soil health benefits. Veganic product sourcing and the dearth of veganic agriculture-specific resources present considerable challenges to farmers. The article briefly discusses possibilities for developing veganic agriculture in the United States, such as through a US-based certification system and farmers’ associations, based on considerations of the trajectory of the US organic farming movement and veganic developments in Europe. Finally, the article suggests the importance of expanded research into soil health and fertility in plant-based systems to support practicing and potential veganic farmers.
... These results are in line with Barrett et al. (2007) who reported that there was a higher TSS content in processing tomatoes grown organically in comparison to those chemically fertilized. In addition, humic substances, contained in biocyclic humus soil, stimulated photosynthesis, with the result that there were more assimilates for the tomato fruits which increased TSS content (Eisenbach et al., 2019). ...
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Organic farming encourages the use of organic waste materials as substitutes for chemical fertilizers. Tomato pomace presents an alternative to inorganic fertilizer. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of tomato pomace composts and nitrogen fertilization on agronomic and quality parameters of the processing tomato. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications and five fertilization treatments (untreated, nitrogen fertilizer, tomato pomace with biocyclic humus soil, tomato pomace with manure and tomato pomace with plant residues). The results showed that the highest average fruit weight and fruit yield (163.4 t/ha) were found in plots subjected to nitrogen fertilization, while the highest total soluble solids content (4.29 °Brix), and L* and a* colour parameters, important quality parameters to processing tomato industry, were obtained through the application of tomato pomace mixed with biocyclic humus soil making organic tomatoes suitable for processing tomato industry.
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Meat and, less so, dairy are contested for their significant ethical and social‐ecological impacts. Abjuring animal products, veganism is conventionally treated as a dietary ideology related to consumer identities. Drawing upon practice and materialist turns, this article explores variations in the performance of veganism and how its boundaries are drawn. Yet, rather than an eating practice, I suggest to look at veganism more broadly and conceptualised as a food practice which also involves provisioning. By example of stockfree organic agriculture (SOA), a production‐based, processual understanding is outlined by which plant foods are “vegan” if animal by‐products are not used as fertilisers in crop cultivation. Thereof, a conceptual case is made to shift the focus away from veganism as a consumer identity and towards performative vegan food practices (VFP) as a global responsibility to reduce the ‘long shadow’ of livestock and maintain Earth as a relatively safe operating space.
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