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The crisis representation between heterogeneous stakeholders in avalanche management : Exploratory study

Authors:

Abstract

The avalanche management can be characterized as the 'management of a dynamic risk'. By taking information and communicate with others, the stakeholders try to construct the actual representation of the situation and the possible evolutions. In the literature, we have different definition of "crisis" notion. The aim is to identify the different risk representation that the stakeholders involved in the avalanche issue have got of the crisis. We have conducted 14 interviews with actors which have a role in avalanche prevention and management in the Northern French Alps: associations, high mountain police, mountain experts, local authorities and mountain guides.
The crisis representation between heterogeneous
stakeholders in avalanche management
Aurélie PEILLON1
Sandrine CAROLY2,
Yann LAURILLAU3,
Didier RICHARD4
aurelie.peillon@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr
1LIP, University Grenoble Alps
2Univ. Grenoble Alps, CNRS, Science Po Grenoble, PACTE, 38000
Grenoble, France
3Univ. Grenoble Alps, CNRS, LIG, 38000 Grenoble, France
4IRSTEA, Grenoble
Context: The avalanche management can be characterized as the ‘management of a dynamic risk’.
By taking information and communicate with others, the stakeholders try to construct the actual
representation of the situation and the possible evolutions.
Figure 1 : Levels in the magnitude of the avalanche
Objective of the study
In the literature, we have different definition
of crisisnotion.
The aim is to identify the different risk
representation that the stakeholders
involved in the avalanche issue have got of
the crisis.
Methodology
We have conducted 14 interviews with actors
which have a role in avalanche prevention
and management in the Northern French
Alps: associations, high mountain police,
mountain experts, local authorities and
mountain guides.
The questions were about their activities
before, during and after avalanches.
Results Expected Applications
Several interviews show that there are a lot of dimension to increase the crisis: the event size (number of victims,
duration to find people, bad weather), the resources available (equipment and staff), the lack of communication
between different stakeholders and the lack of practitioners training.
But the stakeholders representation of the crisis in the avalanche context varies according to two elements: depending on
the level of responsibility (e.g. Mayor) of each stakeholder and their room for maneuver to develop their activity (e.g.
Rescuers) (Fig, 1).
The bigger the avalanche, the higher the level of response is. For Example, in 1999 in Chamonix, the Prefect took in charge
the relief operations.
So, understanding people’s representations helps to improve avalanche management and develop knowledge about
system of activity (Rogalski, 2004) and collective work (Caroly, 2010). Finally, we can propose a groupware to offer a
common operational picture for all stakeholders and improve communication between them.
Caroly, S. (2010). Activité collective et réélaboration des règles: des enjeux pour la santé au travail. Document d'habilitation à diriger des
recherches en ergonomie, Université de Bordeaux II. http://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00464801/fr/
Rogalski, J. (2004). 32. La gestion des crises. In P. Falzon, Ergonomie (1r éd., p. 531-544). https://doi.org/10.3917/puf.falzo.2004.01.0531
Fig.1 : Stakeholders crisis representation
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to analyze COVID‐19 crisis management from the perspective of organizational resilience. An empirical study was conducted from April to June 2020 in one French hospital in Paris. The study focused on the organizational changes implied by the ‘all COVID‐19 strategy’, the success factors facilitating the organizational resilience, and the difficulty factors. We show that organizational resilience in this case was based on a link between the anticipation and adaptation processes. This capacity for resilience can also be organized using an original structure that connects strategic decisions with the reality on the ground, takes account of the demands and constraints of operational actors, and offers them the necessary support. The description and analysis of real work carried out by operational actors illustrates the contribution made by expertize to organizational resilience, and the social dynamics of the adaptation process. Finally, the emotional aspects, rarely featured in the literature, are highlighted as an intrinsic element of a crisis. The results will provide evidence to help better understand crisis management and feedback to strengthen the management of future crises.
Poster
Full-text available
Avalanche management → 'management of a dynamic risk': an event with many uncertainties initially and evolving with time. Hypothesis: A common representation between the stakeholders helps to manage the avalanche. Methodology 22 interviews with actors who have a role in avalanche prevention and management in the Northern French Alps: Understanding people's representations helps to improve avalanche management (Fig. 2) and develop knowledge about system of activity (Rogalski, 2004) and collective work (Caroly, 2010).
Article
Full-text available
L'activité collective se définit comme une articulation entre le travail collectif et le collectif de travail. Le travail collectif correspond aux modes de coopération et de collaboration entre les membres d'une équipe. Il facilite dans certains cas la mise en œuvre de régulations individuelles et collectives pour gérer les perturbations issues de situations caractérisées par des conflits de but et donnent une ressource à chacun pour ne pas être seul face à la diversité des prescriptions, notamment par des processus de réélaboration des règles. Le collectif de travail correspond au fonctionnement des relations dans l'équipe, au genre professionnel et aux règles de métier. Il est issu d'un débat et il contribue à organiser celui-ci entre les professionnels sur le sens du travail, la reconnaissance des gestes de métier, les critères du travail bien fait. La combinaison du travail collectif et du collectif de travail dans l'activité collective favorise le développement des compétences et peut être une ressource pour la santé individuelle et le développement de la vitalité du collectif de travail.
32. La gestion des crises
  • J Rogalski
Rogalski, J. (2004). 32. La gestion des crises. In P. Falzon, Ergonomie (1r éd., p. 531-544). https://doi.org/10.3917/puf.falzo.2004.01.0531