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Neem the Wonder Herb: A Short Review

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Neem the Wonder Herb: A Short Review
Rudra Prasad Giri
1
, Dr. Ajit. K. Gangawane
2
, Dr. Sucheta Ghorai Giri
3
1
Clinical Research Manager,
2
Deputy registrar Academic,
3
Assistant Professor
1
Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Vadodara, Gujarat, India
2
Parul University, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
3
Parul Institute of Applied Sciences, Parul University, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
How to cite this paper: Rudra Prasad
Giri | Dr. Ajit. K. Gangawane | Dr.
Sucheta Ghorai Giri "Neem the Wonder
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ABSTRACT
Neem (Azadirachta indica) has much importance. Usefulness of neem has
already mentioned in several literature. Ayurveda has mentioned its use in many
disease conditions. Now public awareness for herbal products are increasing
highly so it has been found demand of neem products are increasing day by day.
Neem is a plant who’s every parts holds multiple usage. Researcher has reported
many medicinal benefits of neem. Neem is known for its anti diabetic, anti-
inflammatory, anti cancer effect. Neem is used in many hindu rituals. This review
work represents several usage of neem which will provide a great knowledge to
people and let them know about the wonder of neem.
KEYWORDS: Neem, Ayurveda, Herbal Medicin, anti-inflammatory, anti cancer
A.
INTRODUCTION:
The neem tree (Azadirachta indica) has been perceived as
having incredible health promoting properties for centuries.
Truth be told, there is proof that up to 4,500 years prior,
neem was at that point being utilized to support healing. Its
utilization began in ancient India and neighboring nations,
where it has for quite some time been worshipped as a
standout amongst the most versatile plants known. Indeed,
even today, the neem tree is regarded as the "Village
Dispensary"— all aspects of it known to have special helpful
therapeutic value. The neem tree has a place with the family
meliaceae—the mahogany family—and is a fast-growing,
evergreen tree surely understood for its drought
resistance. The neem tree develops into a substantial shade
tree with a thick, round canopy and can live for 150-200
years. And keeping in mind that neem is infamous for its
solid unsavory smell, its blossoms have a delectable nectar
like aroma that can be smelled for miles. As a fast developing
tree that needs little water, neem is likewise an entirely
inexhaustible resource.
In Ayurveda, neem is normally used to adjust pitta and
kapha. Its cold, light, and dry characteristics will in general
aggravate vata. Neem is in this manner regularly prescribed
in mix with different herbs that assistance stifle its vata-
inciting nature.
B.
Benefits of Neem
:
Antioxidant Activity: Free radical or receptive oxygen
species are one of the fundamental offenders in the genesis
of different illnesses. Notwithstanding, neutralization of free
radical activity is one of the imperative strides in the
maladies counteractive action. Antioxidants
stabilize/deactivate free radicals, regularly before they
assault focuses in biological cells [1] and furthermore
assume job in the activation of anti oxidative protein that
assumes job in the control of harm brought about by free
radicals/receptive oxygen species. Therapeutic plants have
been accounted for to have antioxidant activity [2]. Plants
natural products, seeds, oil, leaves, bark, and roots
demonstrate an essential job in illnesses aversion because of
the rich source of antioxidant. Leaf and bark concentrates of
A. indica have been considered for their antioxidant activity
and aftereffects of the examination plainly shown that leaf
and bark extracts/fractions of neem developed in the lower
regions have significant antioxidant properties [3]. Another
critical examination was performed dependent on leaves,
fruits, flowers, and stem bark extracts from the Siamese
neem tree to evaluate the antioxidant activity and results
recommend that extricates from leaf, blossom, and stem
bark have strong antioxidant potential [4].
Anti cancerous Activity: Malignant growth is multi-factorial
malady and significant medical issue around the world. The
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modification of molecular/genetic pathways assumes job in
the improvement and movement of malignant growth. The
treatment module dependent on allopathic is compelling on
one side yet in addition indicates adverse effect on the
typical cell. Prior investigations detailed that plants and their
constituents show inhibitory consequences for the
development of malignant cells via modulation of cell
expansion, apoptosis, tumour suppressor gene and different
other molecular pathways [5]. Neem contains flavanoids and
differentother ingredients that play an essential job in
restraint of malignant growth advancement. Extensive
number of epidemiological examinations suggests that high
flavonoid admission might be related with a diminished
danger of malignancy [6].
Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Neem: Plants or their isolated
derivatives are in the practice to treat/act as anti-
inflammatory agents. An examination result has affirmed
that concentrate of A. indica leaves at a dose of 200mg/kg, p.
o., demonstrated hugeanti-inflammatory activity in cotton
pellet granuloma test in rodents [7]. Other examination
results uncovered that neem leaf extricates demonstrated
significant anti-inflammatory impact yet it is less effective
than that of dexamethasone [8] and examine results propose
that nimbidin stifles the elements of macrophages and
neutrophils pertinent to inflammation [9]. Prior finding
demonstrated immune modulator and anti-inflammatory
impact of bark and leave concentrates and antipyretic and
anti-inflammatory exercises of oil seeds [10, 11].
Experimentation was made to assess the pain relieving
action of neem seed oil on albino rats and after effects of the
examination demonstrated that neem seed oil indicated huge
pain relieving impact in the portion of 1 and 2 mL/kg and oil
has dose-dependent pain relieving action [12]. Another
examination was made to explore the anti-inflammatory
impact of neem seed oil (NSO) on albino rats utilizing
carrageen an-incited rear paw edema and results uncovered
that NSO indicated expanded hindrance of paw edema with
the dynamic increment in dose from 0.25mL to 2 mL/kg
body weight. At the portion of 2 mL/kg body weight, NSO
demonstrated most extreme (53.14%) hindrance of edema
at fourth hour of carrageen an injection [13].
Hepatoprotective Effect: Therapeutic plants and their
ingredients play a significant activity as hepatoprotective
with no antagonistic ensnarement’s. An examination was
performed to inquire about the hepatoprotective
employment of azadirachtin-An in carbon tetrachloride
(CCl4) impelled hepatotoxicity in rodents and histology and
ultrastructure results certified that pretreatment with
azadirachtin-A dose dependently diminished hepatocellular
corruption [14]. Other than after-effects of the examination
exhibit that pretreatment with azadirachtin-An at the higher
dose levels bearably restores the rat liver to normal [14].
Wound Healing Effect: Different plants/their constituents
accept a basic occupation in the damage recovering effect. An
examination was made to evaluate the damage patching
activity of the concentrates of leaves of A. indica and T.
cordifoliausing extraction and cut injury models in Sprague
Dawley rodents and results revealed that concentrate of the
two plants basically propelled the damage mending activity
in both extraction and entry point damage models [16]. In
addition, in section point wound, rigidity of the recuperating
tissue of the two plants treated group was seen to be
significantly higher when appeared differently in relation to
the control groups [15]. Distinctive results showed that leave
concentrates of Azadirachta indica advance damage
retouching activity through expanded provocative reaction
neovascularization [17]. An examination was grasped to
evaluate the 70% alcoholic neem root bark remove (NRE) in
diabetes and results showed that neem root bark extricate
gave measurably noteworthy results in 800mg/kg portion
[18]. Another examination was performed to take a look at
the pharmacological hypoglycemic action of Azadirachta
indica in diabetic rodents and results exhibited that in a
glucose versatility test with neem extricate 250mg/kg
indicated glucose levels were fundamentally less when
contrasted and the control group and Azadirachta indica
basically decline glucose levels at fifteenth day in diabetic
rodents [19].
Antibacterial Activity: An examination was performed to
survey antimicrobial sufficiency of home grown choices as
endodontic irrigants and differentiated and the standard
irrigant sodium hypochlorite and result confirmed that leaf
concentrates and grape seed extricates demonstrated zones
of restriction prescribing that they had antimicrobial
properties [20]. Moreover, leaf extract showed
fundamentally more remarkable zones of inhibition than 3%
sodium hypochlorite [20]. The antibacterial development of
guava and neem isolates against 21 strains of food borne
pathogens was evaluated and delayed consequence of the
examination recommended that guava and neem extracts
have compounds containing antibacterial properties that can
possibly be significant to control food borne pathogens and
deterioration life forms [21].
Antiviral Activity: Results exhibited that neem bark (NBE)
remove basically blocked HSV-1 entry into cells at
obsessions stretching out from 50 to 100 ߤg/mL [22].
Furthermore, blocking development of NBE was seen when
the concentrate was preincubated with the disease anyway
not with the objective cells proposing a quick enemy of HSV-
1 property of the neem bark [23]. Leaves concentrate of
neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) (NCL-11) has shown
virucidal development against coxsackievirus contamination
B-4 as proposed by methods for disease inactivation and
yield decline look at other than interfering at an early event
of its replication cycle [24].
Antifungal Activity: Investigation was made to assess the
adequacy of different concentrates of neem leaf on seed
borne parasites Aspergillus and Rhizopus and results
affirmed that development of both the contagious species
was fundamentally repressed and controlled with both
alcoholic and water extract. Moreover, alcoholic concentrate
of neem leaf was best.
Dentistry: An investigation was made to survey the
adequacy of neem dependent on mouth flush with respect to
its anti gingivitis impact and concentrate affirmed that A.
indica mouth flush is similarly viable in diminishing
periodontal records as chlorhexidine [25]. Another
investigation was completed to assess the antimicrobial
properties of natural concentrates of neem against three
bacterial strains causing dental caries and results
demonstrated that oil ether and chloroform remove
indicated solid antimicrobial action against S. mutans.
Chloroform remove demonstrated solid action against
Streptococcus salivarius and third strain Fusobacterium
nucleatum was highly sensitive to both ethanol and water
extricate [26]. Prior finding affirmed that dried chewing
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sticks of neem indicated most extreme antibacterial action
against S. mutans when contrasted with S. salivarius, S. mitis,
and S. sanguis [27].
Early research recommends that applying a gel containing
neem leaf concentrate to the teeth and gums twice day by day
for about a month and a half may lessen the measure of plaque
on the teeth. It likewise may diminish the quantity of
microorganisms in the mouth that can cause plaque. It's
indistinct if utilizing a mouth wash containing neem diminishes
plaque. Some exploration demonstrates that utilizing a neem
mouth flush is helpful, however other research demonstrates
no ben.
Antinephrotoxicity Effect: A trial was made to explore the
impacts of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica
(MLEN) on cisplatin-(CP-) actuated nephrotoxicity and
oxidative stress in rodents and results affirmed that extricate
adequately saves the kidney from CP-interceded oxidative
damage [22]. Moreover, PCR results for caspase-3 and
caspase-9 and Bax qualities indicated down regulation in
MLEN treated groups [28].
Neuroprotective Effects: An examination was performed to
explore the neuroprotective impacts of Azadirachta indica
leaves against cisplatin-(CP-) prompted neurotoxicity and
results demonstrated that morphological discoveries of
neem when CP infusion inferred an all around saved brain
tissue. No changes, in biochemical parameters, were seen
with neem treated groups [29].
Potential Contraceptive Properties of Neem: Utilization of
Neem as either a pre or post coital contraceptive, taking note
of that it averted expansion of sperm cells in fixations as low
as 0.05 to 1%. Filtered concentrates of Neem contained
immune modulators that animate the cells and macrophages
that end pregnancies. Fertility was recovered after a couple
of cycles with no evident effect to future pregnancies.
Immuno stimulatory Compound: Immuno invigorating
properties of neem is most critical advantage. It helps both
the lymphocytic and cell-intervened frameworks, including
"Killer T" cells which can obliterate organisms, infections
and malignancy cells by infusing poisonous synthetic
compounds into the intruders.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Neem demonstrates
extraordinary potential to control explicitly transmitted
maladies. Neem gave 75% security from the HIV infection.
Stress: Low doses of Neem leaf extricates have sedative
impacts. The impact vanishes at high doses, roughly 400 or
800 milligrams for each kilograms of body weight. It
additionally lessens tension and stress.
Ulcers: Utilizing Neem bark diminishes 77% gastric
corrosive emission just as gastric discharge volume 63% and
pepsin movement 50%, because of its anti-inflammatory
ingredients, gastric harm is decreased.
Arthritis: Neem has a long history of relieving inflamed
joints. Neem helps in diminishing aggravation as well as
smother the agony. It is likewise valuable in Rheumatism.
Heart Disease: Significant reasons for a heart attack
incorporate blood clumps, elevated cholesterol, arrhythmic
heart activity and hypertension. Its leaf removes have
diminished coagulating, brought down circulatory strain and
awful cholesterol, impeded fast or strangely high heartbeat
and repressed sporadic heart rhythms.
Skin and Blood: Neem is well known and celebrated for
rejuvenating skin and a reasonable appearance. Due to a
limited extent to its severe taste, it has an unfathomably
cooling impact on the body, diminishing overabundance heat
that can show as skin imperfections.
Immune System: Its detoxifying impacts on the body make
it an incredible invulnerable supporter, particularly for the
purifying of ama from the body.
GI Tract: A healthy stomach related condition is essential for
wellbeing. Neem decreases undesirable warmth and toxins
in the GI tract.
Metabolism: Neem'skapha-lessening properties empower
legitimate fat and water processing and end, keeping water
maintenance from accumulating in the body.
Lungs: Neem underpins clear breathing and a sound
respiratory framework.
Skin Moisture and Softness: Neem's skin benefits work
both inside and externally. As an outer application, Neem oil
or cleanser mitigates and grease up the skin.
Hair: For those with overabundance pitta and warmth
caught in the scalp and hair follicles, neem is tremendous for
cooling the scalp and supporting the development of shiny,
smooth hair.
Insect repellent: Early research demonstrates that applying
concentrate of neem root or leaf to the skin repulses blak flies.
Likewise, applying neem oil cream to the skin appears to
secure against certain kinds of mosquitos.
Psoriasis: Early research proposes that taking neem extricate
by mouth for 12 weeks, alongside day by day sun presentation
and the utilization of a coal tar and salicylic acid cream, may
make the side effects of psoriasis less serious.
Malaria: Jungle fever (Malaria)is very basic in India and all
through the tropics. Neem leaf extricates forestalls typical
advancement of the jungle fever (Malaria) infection. Despite
the fact that Neem might be successful against skin
inflammation and other relentless conditions. Psoriasis is
effectively treated with Neem oil.
Vitiligo: Vitiligo is accepted to be an immune system issue
that makes patches of skin lose its shading. The dosage is of
four grams of Neem leaves three times a day, ideally taken
before each meal. Neem oil applied to the affected areas
could aid in the reversal of discoloration.
Viral Diseases: In India, Neem is likewise used to treat viral
infections, for example, smallpox, chicken-pox. Neem has
antibacterial qualities also.
AIDS: The absolute best news is that Neem may help in the
scan for anticipation or a remedy for AIDS. AIDS may
perhaps be treated by ingesting Neem leaf separates or the
entire leaf or by drinking a Neem tea.
Neem in Ayurveda: Neem is very unpleasant in taste, which
gives it a ground-breaking cooling vitality (virya). This
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cooling principle, joined with its ability to help healthy
blood, balances pitta—especially when there is heat in rakta
dhatu (the blood). Excess pitta can show in various ways;
one unmistakable area is the skin. Neem glues and oils have
customarily been connected to the skin as a methods for
mitigating and greasing up it, quieting aggravated and
warmed sensations, keeping up agreeable body temperature,
and supporting healthy skin and nails. Neem's light and dry
characteristics enable it to counter kapha also. Neem
supports healthy assimilation and arouses meda dhatu agni
(the metabolic/stomach related rule inside fat tissue),
empowering appropriate digestion, and supporting glucose
levels that are now in the typical range. Usually taken inside
to encourage a condition of parity in the liver, pancreas, and
stomach related tract. Neem's bitterness likewise improves
taste, which is at the foundation of sound digestion. Neem
has a comparable adjusting impact on pitta and kapha in
prana vaha srotas (the respiratory sections). On a more
extensive scale, neem bolsters normal purifying of the
directs in the body just as the revival of solid tissues.
Because neem is vata irritating without anyone else, it is
joined with different herbs relying upon the ideal impact.
Association with Hindu festivals in India: Neem leaf or
bark is viewed as a compelling pitta pacifier as a result of its
unpleasant taste. Consequently, it is customarily suggested
amid late-spring in Ayurveda (that is, the month of Chaitra
according to the Hindu Calendar which for the most part falls
in the period of March – April).
In the Indian conditions of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and
Telangana, Neem blossoms are prominent for their
utilization in 'Ugadi Pachhadi' (soup-like pickle), which is
made on Ugadi day. In Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and
Telangana, a little measure of Neem and Jaggery (Bevu-Bella)
is expended on Ugadi day, the Telugu and Kannada new year,
demonstrating that one should take both harsh and sweet
things throughout everyday life, joy and sorrow.
Amid Gudi Padva, which is the New Year in the province of
Maharashtra, the old routine with regards to drinking a little
amount of neem juice or paste on that, prior day beginning
celebrations, is found. As in numerous Hindu celebrations
and their relationship with some sustenance to maintain a
strategic distance from adverse reactions of the period or
change of seasons, neem juice is related with Gudi Padva to
remind individuals to utilize it amid that specific month or
season to appease summer pitta.
In Tamil Nadu amid the late spring a very long time of April
to June, the Mariamman temple celebration is a thousand-
year-old convention. The Neem leaves and blossoms are the
most vital piece of the Mariamman celebration. The statue of
the goddess Mariamman will be garlanded with Neem leaves
and blooms. Amid most events of festivities and weddings
the general population of Tamil Nadu embellish their
surroundings with the Neem leaves and blooms as a type of
adornment and furthermore to avoid evil spirits and
diseases.
In the eastern coastal territory of Odisha the renowned
Jagannath temple divinities are comprised of Neem heart
wood alongside some other basic oils and powders.
C. Different Parts of Neem in use:
Flowers: Most pieces of the neem tree are dreadfully
unpleasant, except for its blossoms. White and sensitive,
neem blooms with their grayish buds are too lovely to even
consider being eaten and inconceivably restorative. The
blooms have a sweet, practically supernatural jasmine like
aroma during the evening and bloom once toward the
evening and afterward again at night. Amid the rainstorm,
you'll see a group of them dissipated appropriate under the
tree. Otherwise called Vepampoo in Tamil, these neem
blossoms can be utilized new, dried or in a powdered form.
They're utilized usually in the South to cook various dishes:
bloom rice, pachadi, rasam, lentils and that's just the
beginning. They're frequently dry simmered and sprinkled
over the dish to embellish also. Neem blooms can be utilized
to treat anorexia, nausea, belching and intestinal worms.
Leaves: Neem leaves have superb restorative properties.
Notwithstanding it's convenience in Pest the executives and
Disease control they can likewise be sustained to animals
when blended with other grain. Neem leaves are utilized in
certain pieces of Indian as manure in rice fields, particularly
in the south Indian states. In certain nations, Neem leaves
are utilized as mulch in tobacco and tomato fields. They can
be all around viably used to execute weeds by spreading
them over plant roots to hold dampness. Neem leaves can
likewise be utilized to protect stored woolen and silk
garments from creepy crawlies.
Neem Cake: Neem cake is versatile and has numerous usage.
It very well may be utilized as animals feed, compost and
regular pesticide. It gives natural nitrogen as well as hinders
the nitrification procedure, when blended with urea, before
applying in the fields. Such utilization of the neem covered
urea in 90:10 extent can spare upto 30% of the all out
synthetic nitrogen prerequisite of the harvests which
generally would go waste. This outcomes in cost decreases of
horticultural production. Neem cake is generally utilized in
India as compost for sugarcane, vegetable and other money
crops.
Fruits: Neem fruits are unpleasant, laxative,
antihemorrhodial and anthelmintic (vermifuge) in nature.
Twigs & Bark: If you were born in India, you would have
seen individuals bite away at a neem twig. For a long time
now, a neem twig is the thing that individuals utilized as a
make-do toothbrush. It kills germs, keeps up the soluble
dimensions in your salivation, keeps microscopic organisms
under control, treats swollen gums and furthermore gives
you more white teeth. The twig additionally shreds into
strings, practically like fibers that likewise wreck and
forestall plaque.
Neem Oil: Neem oil that is separated from neem seeds is
wealthy in therapeutic properties which are what makes it
an incredible compound in beautifying agents and other
excellent items: cleansers, hair oil, hand wash, cleanser and
so on. It can treat a large no of skin sicknesses and is known
to be an incredible mosquito repellent. Neem can be blended
with coconut oil and apply it over your body too. It is trusted
that in India, little kids are encouraged neem oil as a sort of
fix all. Other than being such an incredible Ayurvedic healer,
neem oil can be utilized to ensure different plants. It can
likewise be utilized in creams, cleansers and other
restorative items.
D. The Future scope:
Medicines: Herbal remedies are utilized for treatment of
various kinds of maladies in all pieces of world. Neem tree is
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an essential piece of these herbal drugs and is referenced in
numerous old writings managing meds. Customary Indian
medicinal specialists place it at the zenith of their
pharmacopeia. Because of uncommon properties of Neem,
its bark, leaves, blossoms, seed and natural product mash
were and are currently used to treat a wide scope of
sicknesses and grumblings running from disease, diabetes,
ulcers to skin issue and stoppage and so forth. Researchers
from the created world are working widely in investigating
Neem tree and its properties to define new anti-infection
agents.
Beautifying agents: Different pieces of Neem tree are being
utilized widely in assembling of cleansers, skin
creams/salves, shampoos, toothpastes, magnificence helps
and toiletries. The Neem twigs are all the more generally
being utilized as germicide tooth brushes. As a rule Neem
oil/extricate is being utilized for making these beauty care
products like cleansers and tooth pastes and so on.
Agricultural: It is in horticulture where the majority of the
researchers centered their exploration for investigating the
advantages of Neem for crop production. In view of those
discoveries, Neem oil, Neem cake, leaves and different pieces
of Neem tree are being utilized broadly in the farming area in
various places of world. Its primary uses in the farming
segment incorporate being a bug spray in nourishment
stockpiling, as soil change, manure proficiency enhancer, and
powerful foliar pesticide.
Food Storage: In every aspect of tropics, a great part of the
gathered nourishment is lost amid capacity on account of
worms, insects and different invasions. Individuals don't like
to utilize synthetics bug sprays on put away grains when all
is said in done and all the more explicitly for sustenance put
away for their very own utilization. For quite a long time,
Neem oil has given ranchers a powerful cure against such
bugs. An exceptionally light covering of Neem oil ensures put
away harvests for as long as 20 months from a wide range of
invasions with no decay or loss of agreeability. Neem new
leaves are additionally utilized on little scale for capacity of
nourishment grain at home successfully, yet this is being
done on a small scale.
Soil Amendment: Neem cake (after the oil is separated from
the seed parts, the left over material is called cake) has been
utilized for a long time all through Indian sub mainland as a
successful soil formation. Ranchers of this area have learned
through experience that utilizing Neem cake in soil produces
bigger and more beneficial plants that have few or no
bug/sickness issue. A few examinations were additionally
led by various researchers to discover why plants developed
better in soil blended with Neem cake. Their outcomes
uncovered that Neem cake is more extravagant in plant
accessible supplements than fertilizers; it slaughtered
harming nematodes, advanced vast populace of night
crawlers, helped keep nitrogen in the dirt accessible for
plants and give critical assurance from bugs. Ranchers of
that district have a reasonable thought that by slaughtering
nematodes in soil, a noteworthy plant bug is disposed of
from soil. Nematodes are exceptionally destructive for
plants. Nematodes suck juice from foundations of plants to
the point where they are unfit to supply adequate
supplements to the plant. At that point the plants look
unfortunate, neglect to develop and may in the end bite the
dust in spite of adequate sustenance, water and care.
Utilization of Neem cake in soil additionally enables keep to
soil free by advancing night crawler exercises in soil, which
helps in ingestion of supplements and water by plants all the
more effectively and proficiently. Neem cake enables plants
to build up a solid resistance framework against these
nuisance assaults by at first shielding plants from creepy
crawly/bother. Besides, Neem mixes consumed through soil
upgrade these regular protection frameworks with
demonstrated nutritive, antifungal and creepy crawly
repellent properties of Neem.
Poverty: The present detonating development in human
populace is genuinely exhausting the world's regular stores
and monetary assets. Except if the flee human populace
development rate is backed off, there would be little trust in
raising everybody out of neediness in the creating scene.
Other than instructive requirements, the non-accessibility of
modest techniques for contraception, which don't cause
injury or tasteful, social, and religious sensitivities of
individuals, limit the accomplishment of birth guideline
programs. In any case, ongoing discoveries show that some
Neem subsidiaries may fill in as reasonable and generally
accessible contraceptives. An ongoing controlled
investigation in the Indian armed force demonstrated the
viability of Neem as a prophylactic. As indicated by an
ongoing report by the Washington based International Food
Policy Research Institute, by 2020, the world will be a
considerably more unjustifiable spot than it is at present,
with sustenance surpluses in the industrialized world and
with constant precariousness and nourishment deficiencies
in the south, especially in African nations.
E. Conclusion
Popularity of natural products or their derivatives role in
diseases cure and prevention is increasing worldwide due to
less side effect properties. Neem and its fixings have
therapeutics suggestion and have been customarily utilized
worldwide particularly in Indian Subcontinent since old
time. Clinical based examinations affirmed that neem
assumes essential job in aversion of different maladies. The
job of dynamic fixings as chemo preventive impact has been
seen in different tumor by means of balance of various cell
flagging pathways. The nitty gritty examination ought to be
made dependent on creature to know the accurate
mechanism of action in the diseases management.
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... 2,21 Neem (Azadirachta indica) is an excellent herbal skincare ingredient as it has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as the ability to support the immune system. 17,22 It can fight with bacteria to prevent the recurrence of acne lesions and makes the skin healthy. 22,23 Another well-known natural ingredient used as a herbal remedy for skin is turmeric (Curcuma longa). ...
... 17,22 It can fight with bacteria to prevent the recurrence of acne lesions and makes the skin healthy. 22,23 Another well-known natural ingredient used as a herbal remedy for skin is turmeric (Curcuma longa). ...
Article
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Background Acne vulgaris is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition of pilosebaceous units. The standard treatment involves topical and oral antibiotics, retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, and other synthetic compounds, mostly associated with adverse effects. Hence, herbal skincare products are considered nowadays. Aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Purifying Neem Face Wash (PNFW), an herbal skincare product in the prevention and/or reduction of mild-to-moderate acne. Methods An open-label, single-center, single-arm, four-week clinical study was conducted with subjects having either mild-to-moderate acne or oily skin and non-existent acne. The performance of PNFW in the reduction and/or prevention of acne was detected by counting cutaneous inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions in each of the four visits. Sebum level and skin hydration of both cheeks were measured via sebumeter and corneometer, respectively. Self-assessment questionnaires were used to assess the subjects’ responses toward PNFW. Results Out of 120 study subjects, 79% and 72% showed either reduction or no new appearance of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions, respectively, from baseline to Visits 3 and 4. Skin sebum level and skin hydration showed a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001) and increase (p < 0.001), respectively, in Visits 3 and 4. Self-assessment surveys showed the satisfaction of the subjects about the product in terms of condition improvement, ease in use, and fragrance. Conclusion The present study indicated the beneficial effect of the herbal ingredients (neem and turmeric) of Himalaya's PNFW in the prevention and reduction of mild-to-moderate acne with no side effects.
... Neem seeds oil has produced significant efficacy against ringworm, psoriasis, acne, eczema and warts [29] . It has an unfathomably cooling effect on the body, diminishing overabundance heat that can overcome the skin diseases [40] . Regular use of neem leaves and neem preparations assist in enhancing blood circulation as well as preventing hormonal imbalance which are a major cause behind some skin and hair disorders . ...
Article
Full-text available
Drugs of traditional system of medicine including Unani and Ayurveda are recommended and used in various diseases since long. These drugs are mainly derived from herbs and plants. Neem is a pre-eminent and a sacred gift of nature. This tree is still regarded as "Wonder tree", "Nature's drug store", "Divine tree", "Heal all", "Materia medica", "Panacea of all diseases" and "Village dispensary" also considered as "An ancient cure for modern world". In Unani System of Medicine (USM) it is widely used as anti-infective agent in various skin diseases (Amrāḍ-i Jild) such as leprosy, syphilis, tinea, itching and in ulcers. It is very effective in painful menses and dysmenorrhea, chronic joint pain, constipation, intestinal warm (Kirm-i Shikam) and also prefer in the killing of head lices, diabetes and rheumatic arthritis. This study is based on a comprehensive analysis of related articles published in journals using the phrases "Neem or Azadirachta indica ", "Neem research paper", "Neem and Unani Medicine" and "Neem used in traditional medicine" in electronic searches of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar advanced search and AYUSH Research Portal. The evidence based scientific and clinical studies reported in the present review confirming the therapeutic efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem). Biological active phytoconstituents of Neem also indicate that it may serve as very effective natural medicine in different disease. In this aspect, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed in respect to explore the recommendations of USM as well as other traditional system of medicines in term of the extensive therapeutic values of Azadirachta indica.
... Neem seeds oil has produced significant efficacy against ringworm, psoriasis, acne, eczema and warts [29] . It has an unfathomably cooling effect on the body, diminishing overabundance heat that can overcome the skin diseases [40] . Regular use of neem leaves and neem preparations assist in enhancing blood circulation as well as preventing hormonal imbalance which are a major cause behind some skin and hair disorders . ...
Article
Drugs of traditional system of medicine including Unani and Ayurveda are recommended and used in various diseases since long. These drugs are mainly derived from herbs and plants. Neem is a pre-eminent and a sacred gift of nature. This tree is still regarded as "Wonder tree", "Nature's drug store", "Divine tree", "Heal all", "Materia medica", "Panacea of all diseases" and "Village dispensary" also considered as "An ancient cure for modern world". In Unani System of Medicine (USM) it is widely used as anti-infective agent in various skin diseases (Amrāḍ-i Jild) such as leprosy, syphilis, tinea, itching and in ulcers. It is very effective in painful menses and dysmenorrhea, chronic joint pain, constipation, intestinal warm (Kirm-i Shikam) and also prefer in the killing of head lices, diabetes and rheumatic arthritis. This study is based on a comprehensive analysis of related articles published in journals using the phrases "Neem or Azadirachta indica ", "Neem research paper", "Neem and Unani Medicine" and "Neem used in traditional medicine" in electronic searches of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar advanced search and AYUSH Research Portal. The evidence based scientific and clinical studies reported in the present review confirming the therapeutic efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem). Biological active phytoconstituents of Neem also indicate that it may serve as very effective natural medicine in different disease. In this aspect, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed in respect to explore the recommendations of USM as well as other traditional system of medicines in term of the extensive therapeutic values of Azadirachta indica.
... Neem seeds oil has produced significant efficacy against ringworm, psoriasis, acne, eczema and warts [29] . It has an unfathomably cooling effect on the body, diminishing overabundance heat that can overcome the skin diseases [40] . Regular use of neem leaves and neem preparations assist in enhancing blood circulation as well as preventing hormonal imbalance which are a major cause behind some skin and hair disorders . ...
Article
Drugs of traditional system of medicine including Unani and Ayurveda are recommended and used in various diseases since long. These drugs are mainly derived from herbs and plants. Neem is a pre-eminent and a sacred gift of nature. This tree is still regarded as "Wonder tree", "Nature's drug store", "Divine tree", "Heal all", "Materia medica", "Panacea of all diseases" and "Village dispensary" also considered as "An ancient cure for modern world". In Unani System of Medicine (USM) it is widely used as anti-infective agent in various skin diseases (Amrāḍ-i Jild) such as leprosy, syphilis, tinea, itching and in ulcers. It is very effective in painful menses and dysmenorrhea, chronic joint pain, constipation, intestinal warm (Kirm-i Shikam) and also prefer in the killing of head lices, diabetes and rheumatic arthritis. This study is based on a comprehensive analysis of related articles published in journals using the phrases "Neem or Azadirachta indica ", "Neem research paper", "Neem and Unani Medicine" and "Neem used in traditional medicine" in electronic searches of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar advanced search and AYUSH Research Portal. The evidence based scientific and clinical studies reported in the present review confirming the therapeutic efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem). Biological active phytoconstituents of Neem also indicate that it may serve as very effective natural medicine in different disease. In this aspect, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed in respect to explore the recommendations of USM as well as other traditional system of medicines in term of the extensive therapeutic values of Azadirachta indica.
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Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, or Margosa, originated in India. It is one of the species in the Azadirachta genus. It is native to South Asia's Indian subcontinent and dry areas such as India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan and the Maldives. The plant has long been used in Ayurvedic and folk medicine and it is now commonly used in cosmetics and organic agriculture. Several pharmacological activities were identified from the crude extract of Azadirachta indica, which have attracted a lot of research interest from scientists. This narrative review explores the vast potential of neem in eliciting antibacterial and antifungal effects. Furthermore, we highlight the various effects of different types of solvent and several parts of the neem plant on growth inhibition of bacteria and fungi by performing the inhibition zone technique using the disc diffusion method, one of the commonly used methods to measure bacterial, fungal growth.
Chapter
Mucormycosis is difficult to diagnose and is a rare disease with high mortality and morbidity cases. Zygomycetes can be broadly divided into two orders Entomophthorales and Mucorales which can produce different infections. Genera from the order Mucorales like Mucor, Rhizopus, Apophysomyces, Absidia, Rhizomucor, Cunninghamella, and Saksenaea which are responsible for angioinvasive infection called Mucormycosis. Mucormycosis presents with pulmonary, rhino-orbito-cerebral, cutaneous, disseminated, and gastrointestinal involvement. A person susceptible for the development of mucormycosis includes protein-calories malnutrition; diabetic ketoacidosis; neutropenia and iron overload, with or without the accompanying use of deferoxamine. Its rise has been observed globally with the highest rate in the Asian continent. This is the need of the hour to focus on novel drugs to reduce the burden of this epidemic disease. The cost for treatment is very high and the duration of treatment is long. Ayurveda in this aspect has got cost-effective, potent, and broad-spectrum of anti-fungal agents. In this article, the authors highlighted the characteristics, taxonomy, symptoms, diagnosis technologies, pathogenesis, allopathic remedies, personal hygiene, and different preventive measurements along with ongoing Ayurvedic medication used in the treatment of Mucormycosis.
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Neem, Azdirachta indica is the foremost multifaceted, adaptable tree and has enormous potential. Complete neem tree is valuable whether its leaves, bark, root, seeds, flower or fruit is taken into consideration. Its derivatives are known to have antipyorrhoeic, antidermatic, antifungal, antifeedent, insecticidal, nematicidal, antiscabic, diuretic, larvicidal, antiallergenic, spermicidal and other biologically active properties. It is among profoundly exploited plant of Indian inception. This review provides a general outlook chiefly on the natural action and its preventive-promotive therapeutic applications and potentials in most valuable parts of life which makes it a tropical trove in real sense.
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Azadirachta indica has been used medicinally throughout history by many different cultures. Many compounds have been found in the exudates of the, Azadirachta indica plant that have been used medically by humans. We have examined the pharmacological hypoglycemic action of Azadirachta indica in diabetic rats. After treatment for 24 hrs, Azadirachta indica 250mg/kg (single dose study) reduced glucose (18%), cholesterol (15%), triglycerides (32%), urea (13%), creatinine (23%), and lipids (15%). Multiple dose study for 15days also reduced creatinine, urea, lipids, triglycerides and glucose. In a glucose tolerance test in diabetic rats with neem extract 250 mg/kg demonstrated glucose levels were significantly less compared to the control group. , Azadirachta indica significantly reduce glucose levels at 15th day in diabetic rats. Azadirachta indica serves as an important alternative source in the management of diabetes mellitus involved in reducing increased blood glucose during diabetes which should be examined further by oral hypoglycemic therapy.
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The present study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of neem extract against three bacterial strains causing dental caries using disc diffusion method. The pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarious and Fusobacterium nucleatum were isolated from dental caries. The organic extracts of neem were prepared using different solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and distilled water and were screened for its antimicrobial activity. Among the four extracts of neem, petroleum ether and chloroform extract showed strong antimicrobial activity against S. mutans with inhibition zone of 18 mm at 500 µg concentrations. Chloroform extract of neem showed strong activity against Streptococcus salivarius with inhibition zone of 18 mm. The third strain Fusobacterium nucleatum was highly sensitive to both ethanol and water extract of neems with inhibition zone of 16 mm. The results demonstrate that the chloroform extracts of neem has a strong antimicrobial activity and suggest that it can be useful in the treatment of dental caries.
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We investigated the effects of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica (MLEN, 500 mg/kg bwt) on cisplatin- (CP-) induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. CP (5 mg/kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally and MLEN was given by gastric gavage for 5 days before or after CP injection. After 5 days of CP injection, CP-induced injury of the renal tissue was evidenced (i) as histopathological damage of the renal tissue, (ii) as increases in serum uric acid, urea, and creatinine, (iii) as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), (iv) as decreases in the level of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, and (v) as increase in the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and apoptosis in kidney tissues. However, the oral administration of MLEN to CP-intoxicated rats for 5 days brought back MDA, NO production, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to near normalcy. Moreover, the histological observations evidenced that neem extract effectively rescues the kidney from CP-mediated oxidative damage. Furthermore, PCR results for caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax genes showed downregulation in MLEN treated groups. Therefore, Azadirachta indica can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin.
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The cancer is probably the most dreaded disease in both men and women and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The current chemotherapy/radiotherapy regime used to treat cancer shows adverse side effect and may alter gene functions. Natural products are generally safe, effective, and less expensive substitutes of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Based on previous studies of their potential therapeutic uses, Nigella sativa and its constituents may be proved as good therapeutic options in the prevention of cancer. Black seeds are used as staple food in the Middle Eastern Countries for thousands of years and also in the treatment of diseases. Earlier studies have shown that N. sativa and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) have important roles in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the role of N. sativa and its constituents TQ in the prevention of cancer through the activation or inactivation of molecular cell signaling pathways.
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Neem (Azadirachta indica), an indigenous plant is reported to have antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and several other medicinal properties. The present work is undertaken to study the analgesic activity of neem seed oil on albino rats. Neem seed oil was obtained in pure form from Indian Herbs Research Supply Company Limited, Saharanpur, UP. The analgesic activity was tested by the tail flick method using the analgesiometer (Techno.). Neem seed oil in the doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 ml/kg body weight was given intraperitoneally to different group of rats. Tail flick latency was measured in seconds before and after the drug injection. Results were compared with morphine and statistically analysed. Neem seed oil showed significant analgesic effect in the dose of 1 and 2 ml/kg. Neem seed oil has dose-dependent analgesic activity.
Article
Background: Most of the parts of neem tree were studied in details by many researchers but neem root bark was not screened for antidiabetic effect. To evaluate antidiabetic effect of neem root bark this study was conducted. Aims & Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the 70% alcoholic neem root bark extract (NRE) in diabetes. Materials and Methods: Basal blood sugar levels were estimated in overnight fasted wistar albino rats of either sex. To evaluate antihyperglycemic action of Neem root bark extract (NRE) OGTT was done by giving glucose orally 60 minutes after giving standard drug (Glibenclamide),Test drug (NRE) in the dose of 200,400 and 800 mg/kg and blood sugar levels were estimated every half hourly up to 4 hours. To evaluate hypoglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats similar doses once daily for 15 days. Blood sugar levels were estimated by using glucometer. Results: For glucose tolerance test Glibenclamide significant (p< 0.01) reduction in blood sugar levels. The NRE showed statistically significant results in only 800 mg/kg dose. In comparison to glibenclamide it did not show. In alloxan induced diabetes Glibenclamide showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in blood sugar levels. The NRE showed statistically significant results in only 800 mg/kg dose. Conclusion: Neem root has antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic activity. It is not as significant as glibenclmide.
Article
The floral richness of the North East region cannot be neglected in context to its medicinal importance and it is expected that screening and scientific evaluation of plant extracts for their pharmacological activity may provide new drug molecule that can combat various side effects of the commercially available drugs. Azadirachta indica A. Juss; locally known as Neem, is reported to have significant anti-bacterial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, which are complementary to wound healing process. In India, various extracts of the plant Tinospora cordifolia (Sagunilota, Guduchi) are used for the treatment of diabetes, hepatitis as well as various types of skin diseases. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of the methanol extracts of leaves of these two plants using excision and incision wound models in Sprague Dawley rats. The healing effect produced by each of the plant extracts, was assessed by rate of wound contraction, skin breaking strength and histopathology of healing tissue. The methanol extract of leaves of A. indica and T. cordifolia significantly promoted the wound healing activity in both excision and incision wound models. In incision wound, tensile strength of the healing tissue of A. indica and T. cordifolia treated groups were found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to the control group. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examination. The study thus revealed promising wound healing activity of methanolic extract of A. indica and T. cordifolia and provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these plants in the management of wounds.
Article
Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Azadirachta indica leaves against cisplatin (CP)-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (control); a single intraperitoneal 5 mg/kg CP (CP group); neem leaves (orally 500 mg/kg) for 5 and 10 days, N5 and N10 groups, respectively; neem leaves (500 mg/kg) for 5 days after CP injection, collagenous protein nitrogen (CPN) group; neem leaves (500 mg/kg) for 5 days before CP injection, noncollagenous protein group and neem leaves in a dose of 500 mg/kg for 5 days before and after CP injection, noncollagenous protein nitrogen group. Rats were sacrificed 5 days after CP injection to determine neural lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and glutathione (GSH) levels. The neuronal antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in brain homogenates. Results: CP injection increased LPO, NO levels and decreased GSH level, whereas neem reversed these effects. Morphological brain damage and apoptosis induction were apparent in the CP group. In the CPN group, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by CP was improved, whereas morphological findings of neem before and after CP injection implied a well preserved brain tissue. No changes, in biochemical parameters were observed with neem treated groups. Conclusion: This study suggests that methanolic extract of neem leaves may be of therapeutic benefit when used with CP.