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Abstract

How do journalists around the world view their roles and responsibilities in society? Based on a landmark study that has collected data from more than 27,500 journalists in 67 countries, Worlds of Journalism offers a groundbreaking analysis of the different ways journalists perceive their duties, their relationship to society and government, and the nature and meaning of their work. Challenging assumptions of a universal definition or concept of journalism, the book maps a world populated by a rich diversity of journalistic cultures. Organized around a series of key questions on topics such as editorial autonomy, journalistic ethics, trust in social institutions, and changes in the profession, it details how the practice of journalism differs across the world in a range of political, social, and economic contexts. The book covers how journalism as an institution is created and re-created by journalists and how they experience their profession in very different ways, even as they retain a commitment to some basic, widely shared professional norms and practices. It concludes with a global classification of journalistic cultures that reflects the breadth of worldviews and orientations found in disparate countries and regions. Worlds of Journalism offers an ambitious, comparative global understanding of the state of journalism in a time when it is confronting a series of economic and political threats.
How do journalists around the world view their roles and respon-
sibilities in society? Based on a landmark study that has collected
data from more than 27,500 journalists in 67 countries, Worlds of
Journalism offers a groundbreaking analysis of the different ways
journalists perceive their duties, their relationship to society and
government, and the nature and meaning of their work.
Challenging assumptions of a universal definition or concept of
journalism, the book maps a world populated by a rich diver-
sity of journalistic cultures. Organized around a series of key
questions on topics such as editorial autonomy, journalistic eth-
ics, trust in social institutions, and changes in the profession, it
details how the practice of journalism differs across the world
in a range of political, social, and economic contexts. The book
covers how journalism as an institution is created and re-created
by journalists and how they experience their profession in very
different ways, even as they retain a commitment to some basic,
widely shared professional norms and practices. It concludes with
a global classification of journalistic cultures that reflects the
breadth of worldviews and orientations found in disparate coun-
tries and regions. Worlds of Journalism offers an ambitious, com-
parative global understanding of the state of journalism in a time
when it is confronting a series of economic and political threats.
$35.00 / £27.00 paper · 978-0-231-18643-8
$105.00 / £81.00 cloth · 978-0-231-18642-1
$34.99 / £27.00 ebook · 978-0-231-54663-8
JUNE 2019 448 pages
Worlds of Journalism
Journalistic Cultures Around the Globe
Thomas Hanitzsch, Folker Hanusch,
Jyotika Ramaprasad,
and Arnold S. de Beer, editors
THOMAS HANITZSCH is chair and professor of communication in
the Department of Communication and Media at LMU Munich. His
publications include The Handbook of Journalism Studies (second
edition, 2019). FOLKER HANUSCH is professor of journalism in the
Department of Communication at the University of Vienna, where
he heads the Journalism Studies Center, and adjunct professor
at Queensland University of Technology. He is editor in chief of
Journalism Studies. JYOTIKA RAMAPRASAD is professor in the
School of Communication at the University of Miami. Her books
include Contemporary BRICS Journalism: Non-Western Media in
Transition (2017). ARNOLD S. DE BEER is professor of journal-
ism at Stellenbosch University. His publications include Global
Journalism: Topical Issues and Media Systems (2009).
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“This will be a touchstone work for decades to come. It is not an
overstatement to say that this book is entirely unique; it’s spe-
cial because of the detailed discussion of national and regional
contexts. Worlds of Journalism contributes to the truly global
and international perspective of journalism, avoiding normativ-
ity and emphasizing diversity using a unique and comprehensive
dataset.”
—Henrik Örnebring, author of Newsworkers: A Comparative
European Perspective
“This book provides a kaleidoscopic overview of journalism
around the world. Its organization and execution provides a
model for comparative research, and its findings raise important
questions that are sure to orient future scholarship. Already well-
regarded by colleagues, this publication solidifies the Worlds of
Journalism project as a leading effort to make sense of the com-
plex realities that journalists around the world confront today.”
—Matthew Powers, University of Washington
“One of the key elements of this anthology is an effort to make
journalism studies truly global and comparative. . . . I recommend
this book for its scope and theoretical execution. It is a must-read
for all journalism scholars.”
—Shakuntala Rao, author of Indian Journalism in a New Era
Worlds of Journalism is ample proof of the diversity of journalis-
tic cultures around the globe and an excellent example of a truly
collaborative study. It provides fascinating insights into the atti-
tudes and values of media personnel beyond the western world.
The book is a must-read in journalism research.
—Barbara Pfetsch, editor of Political Communication Cultures in
Western Europe: Attitudes of Political Actors and Journalists in
Nine Countries
... Dans tous les cas, il semble plus probable que le métajournalisme s'exerce là où le journalisme a une vision très autonome et affichée de son importance démocratique en société, ce qui justifierait de consacrer de l'espace médiatique à ses actualités, comparativement à des régions du monde où le rôle de la presse est plus effacé ou contraint, vu comme devant maintenir l'harmonie collective (ex. : Asie) (Hanitzsch et al., 2019). 489 . ...
... Le schéma théorique suggéré, quant à lui, est imprégné de la culture journalistique dans laquelle s'inscrit le corpus. Il est possiblement inadapté à d'autres cultures journalistiques(Hanitzsch et al., 2019), où le rôle de la presse diffère des idéaux démocratiques qu'on lui assigne en Occident; où l'idée d'une autorité journalistique affranchie du pouvoir politique ne fait pas consensus(Zelizer, 2017); où le métajournalisme n'est pas une pratique courante 488 , etc.Enfin, l'on ne saurait généraliser les conclusions des groupes de discussion comme on le ferait d'un sondage basé sur un échantillon représentatif et aléatoire.8.4 Comment interpréter nos conclusions?L'on ne saurait juger les conclusions d'une étude qualitative à l'aune de critères de fiabilité ou de validité externe 489 , sauf à commettre une grave erreur d'appréciation sur les bases épistémologiques et les finalités singulières de ce type d'enquête. Rappelons d'ailleurs, ici, l'épistémologie interprétativiste et le caractère exploratoire de la présente thèse.488. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Le métajournalisme — le journalisme sur le journalisme — est reconnu dans la littérature comme servant davantage les intérêts stratégiques du champ journalistique (consolidation de l’autorité journalistique, du statu quo) que l’intérêt public (autocritique, transparence, imputabilité). Au Québec, le lock-out au Journal de Montréal, la surveillance policière de journalistes, et les demandes de la presse écrite pour des aides gouvernementales ont contraint les journalistes à parler d’eux-mêmes dans les médias. Le tout interroge l’articulation du métajournalisme québécois, sa réception, et les écarts entre discours et réception. La thèse approfondit ces questions, guidée par la théorie des discours métajournalistiques de Matt Carlson et le concept de communautés interprétatives, caractéristique des études de réception médiatique. Ce cadre théorique appuie une analyse de discours de : 1) 771 articles métajournalistiques de médias québécois, couvrant les cas susmentionnés ; et 2) 11 groupes de discussion (n = 39 participants), auprès de trois communautés interprétatives (journalistes, personnel politique, usagers de médias québécois). L’analyse conclut à l’orientation stratégique du métajournalisme étudié. Le constat des groupes de discussion est celui d’une adhésion à l’intérêt public du métajournalisme, accompagnée de scepticisme sur certaines revendications, certains arguments et son écho dans la population. De plus, il en ressort l’évocation d’idéaux du métajournalisme : la représentation (des perspectives de divers auditoires sur les enjeux du journalisme), l’autocritique, la transparence, la diversité (des perspectives de divers acteurs de la société sur les enjeux du journalisme) et l’imputabilité. Tout au long sont discutées les différences et similitudes entre communautés interprétatives. Cette thèse jette un regard inédit sur le métajournalisme contemporain québécois et sa réception. Elle propose un schéma original de ses fonctions d’autorité, en plus d’alimenter une réflexion normative sur les pratiques métajournalistiques les plus aptes à répondre à l’intérêt public.
... Un estudio de caso sobre el diario El País mostró que entre 2012 y 2016 las mujeres firmaron solo el 15,26% de las piezas de opinión, situándose incluso por debajo de aquellas firmadas con el nombre genérico del diario (Suárez Romero y Ortega Pérez, 2019). Precisamente, la exclusión de mujeres en estas secciones dio lugar en 2018 al foro de periodistas 'Las mujeres que opinan son peligrosas', con el objetivo de llamar la atención sobre una realidad que persiste, a pesar de los avances recientes hacia el equilibrio numérico en las redacciones periodísticas (Hanitzsch, Hanusch, Ramaprasad y De Beer, 2019), la feminización de los estudios en Comunicación, donde desde hace años la presencia de mujeres es mayoritaria (Rivero Santamarina, Meso Ayerdi y Peña Fernández, 2015) y la mayor atención hacia el feminismo en los medios a raíz de fenómenos mediáticos como el #metoo. ...
Article
Full-text available
Las evidencias científicas han corroborado una subrepresentación de las mujeres en el periodismo de opinión, en línea con el patrón de exclusión de la voz de las mujeres en el espacio público. Este trabajo explora dicho fenómeno desde el periodismo local: cuantifica la producción de piezas de opinión durante dos semanas en 53 medios locales de la comunidad autónoma de Castilla-La Mancha, analiza las piezas (n=662) y observa los factores que indicen en el desequilibrio mediante seis entrevistas con mujeres opinadoras. Los datos se interpretan a partir de la reflexión sobre cómo las lógicas periodísticas legitiman como voces autorizadas aquellas que se presentan con confianza, carisma y seguridad, reforzando las condiciones estructurales de privilegio de los varones. La solución no reside en favorecer la incorporación de mujeres excepcionales como oradoras, sino en repensar qué adoptan los medios como discurso legítimo, y los modos en que promover la justicia comunicativa.
... International comparative research of media systems and journalistic roles provides subtle, if any, evidence of distinct linguistic professional cultures (Hanitzsch et al., 2019;Mellado et al., 2017;Mellado, 2020). Bonin et al. (2017) found modest differences between francophone journalists in Canada, Belgium, and Switzerland and their majority-group counterparts, in terms of their perceived professional roles: ...
Article
Exploring the differences between normative visions and actual practices (Mellado, 2020), through a content analysis of more than 3,700 news stories contextualized with surveys, and further unpacked by interviews with journalists, this article provides a comprehensive overview of journalistic role performance in Canada. Findings show few, yet distinct, differences between French and English media, and that Canadian journalists are often present in their stories; use high levels of infotainment; and demonstrate strong performance of both the civic and service roles compared to other countries, but perform far less of the watchdog role than journalists surveyed perceived.
... Sur le plan linguistique, les recherches comparatives internationales sur les systèmes médiatiques et les rôles journalistiques fournissent peu de preuves de l'existence de cultures professionnelles distinctes (Hanitzsch et al., 2019 ;Mellado et al., 2017 ;Mellado, 2020 Cam, 2009). Les Canadiens francophones font également davantage confiance aux médias d'information que les anglophones (Brin & Charlton, 2022). ...
Article
En explorant les différences entre visions normatives et pratiques réelles (Mellado, 2020), grâce à une analyse de contenu de plus de 3700 articles d’actualité, contextualisée par une enquête auprès de journalistes canadiens et approfondie par des entretiens, cet article fournit un aperçu complet de la performance du rôle journalistique au Canada. Les résultats montrent des différences assez subtiles entre médias francophones et anglophones, une forte présence des journalistes canadiens dans leurs reportages, un niveau élevé du rôle d’infodivertissement. La production journalistique canadienne se démarque de celle des autres pays étudiés par l’importance des rôles civiques et de service; la place du rôle de chien de garde est toutefois moins grande dans les contenus que dans ce que rapportent les journalistes interrogés quant à leur conception personnelle du métier et leur perception de sa mise en oeuvre au sein de leur organisation.
Technical Report
Full-text available
In this report, we assess the state of the matter of governance and the role of media in the case of Italian democracy based on deliberative communication. We explain how legal and ethical regulation, journalistic production, media usage patterns, and media literacy influence and determine the development of democracy. Finally, employing the field theory of Bourdieu, we describe the Italian media ecosystem in terms of risks and opportunities for deliberative communication, and, more broadly, deliberative democracy.
Chapter
This chapter explores the function that science journalism plays in societies in a region characterised by illiberal systems. In so doing, it asks how is science news covered in places in which journalists are restricted politically, face important cultural limitations or where the political economy of the news media is insufficiently developed so as to sustain science as a permanent and specialised news beat? What other limitations and challenges do journalists face under these circumstances? By exploring these questions, this chapter looks at the case of science journalism in MENA and assesses through a combination of research strategies the current state of science journalism in that region, while inquiring about its function in society. The chapter examines the role and performance of science reporting in the context of societies that have limited freedom of expression and that are politically and culturally defined in many instances by colonialism and religion. It argues that there is an important caveat in this analysis of the Middle East and North Africa, which is the need to provide a comparative approach that is both intra-regional and transnational.
Chapter
This chapter provides a general assessment of how science reporting is defined as a professional practice by the imperatives established by the prevalent news cultures. In so doing, the chapter offers an exhaustive and comprehensive analysis of how journalists producing science news in MENA interact and engage with science topics in the face of contextual factors that play a role in shaping journalism itself and the relationship that reports have with both news events and their audiences. These contextual factors—or background issues—in our view influence the capabilities of journalists when producing and presenting science news stories to the public. The concept of ‘news culture’ places the media within a historical framework of a particular society. In this sense, there is an ample body of literature around the structural issues and background that define the way and ability of journalists to gather, disseminate and produce news as well as about the expectations of news audiences. This literature refers to a ‘sociology of journalism’ that contextualises news reporting practices in societies, which in turn upholds values and procedures that are used to inquiry into society’s issues. This creates a news culture in which those who report are expected to produce news in a certain way and those who consume news expect this to be presented and provided within news that meets certain standards.
Article
Using Natural Language Processing tools, the current study explores the evolution of objectivity practice in terms of attitude injection. Adopting the indicator of moral loading under the Moral Foundation Theory framework, it examined the moral judgments embedded in 20,679 culture war news articles published in five major U.S. newspapers from 1980 to 2021. Our findings revealed a distinct mixed journalistic liberal pattern and an apparent paradox in objectivity practice: the less moral judgments, the more liberal tendencies, which could be caused by journalists’ watchdog role and the increase of liberal components in U.S. democracy. We then argue that the performance of traditional objectivity has remained robust, especially when accounting for the degree to which moral judgments can be attributed to source quotations. The study contributes to the literature by bridging moral psychology and the enactment of journalistic norms, applying MFT to evaluate degrees of objectivity in news.
Article
How food is produced and consumed matters for both our health and our societies’ ecological footprint. Yet, food practices are a topic at the margins of news coverage and journalism studies. We narrow this research gap by exploring the framing of food in the news. Combining automated and manual content analysis, we study 10,022 articles published in elite newspapers from Germany, the United States (U.S.) and India (2016–2018). Food-related terms are frequently mentioned, but rarely become the main topic of an article. We identified 23 topics associated with five broader frames. The frames Pleasure and Art of Eating and Drinking and Body and Health are most prominent, while other aspects as articulated in the frames Sustainable Living, and Rituals and Traditions as well as Convenience and Price are neglected. U.S. newspapers tend to focus on recipes and restaurant reviews. Indian newspapers highlight health issues and weight loss. In Germany, there was less coverage focusing on food, but with a more even attention to different frames. Food reporting remains to be apolitical, a diversity of food choices is covered – with subtle disregard for questions of sustainability.
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