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A Blockchain-Based Architecture for Integrated Smart Parking Systems

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A Blockchain-Based Architecture for Integrated Smart Parking Systems

Abstract and Figures

In this paper, we introduce an integrated smart parking system. The proposed integrated smart parking system brings multiple parking service providers together under a unified platform aiming to provide one-stop parking information services to the commuters in a smart city. However, the adaptation of such a system is prone to tempering while a massive amount of data is shared among different parties which raise concerns related to trust and performance. To address this challenge, we propose a blockchain-based architecture specific to the integrated smart parking systems. Finally, we present a set of design principles which shows the applicability of our proposed blockchain-based integrated parking system.
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Abstract—In this paper, we introduce an integrated smart
parking system. The proposed integrated smart parking system
brings multiple parking service providers together under a
unified platform aiming to provide one-stop parking informa-
tion services to the commuters in a smart city. However, the
adaptation of such a system is prone to tempering while a
massive amount of data is shared among different parties which
raise concerns related to trust and performance. To address this
challenge, we propose a blockchain-based architecture specific to
the integrated smart parking systems. Finally, we present a set of
design principles which shows the applicability of our proposed
blockchain-based integrated parking system.
Index Terms—Blockchain, smart parking, smart city, trusted
system.
I. INT ROD UC TI ON
In recent years, city planners and practitioners have ex-
perienced enormous challenges in managing urban parking
facilities to reduce the congestion and wasted land use while
drivers cruise for finding a desired, nearby and reasonable
parking location [1]. It also raises the fuel consumption which
is harmful to the atmosphere due to high levels of carbon
emissions. A lot of effort has been given to build efficient
parking solutions. Despite, the urban travelers often find it
difficult and challenging to secure a parking spot of their
preferences. For instance, a person who is searching for a
parking location from a specific parking service provider may
fail to find one which triggers recurrent searching for another
place. This is not only time consuming but also frustrating for
the drivers. In addition, the user needs to be present physically
to look for the vacant parking spaces. Sometimes they need to
pay high parking rates while there are parking spots available
in a little further distance. In order to address these problems,
urban citizens would like to search for an application where
they can find all parking information under a common platform
in an integrated manner.
The proliferation of pervasive devices in smart cities has
enabled the development of many smart mobility applications
[2]–[4]. Smart parking is one of the innovations that provides
easy to use parking services to the urban commuters by
leveraging pervasive sensors and flexible payment systems.
However, the current smart parking solutions are not too
smart to meet the information needs of the city travelers.
For instance, there is no such system which can provide
personalized information related to parking facilities (e.g.
parking availability, price, distance).
This complex problem can be addressed by integrating all
the parking facilities under a single platform. However, infras-
tructure integration is regarded as one of the main challenges
to provide efficient urban services for various reasons [5].
Most of the parking providers use their own business strategies
in a city, and they dont want to share their own commercial
policies with others. We identify two challenges of integrating
the smart parking systems. Firstly, the lack of necessary
mutual trust among parking service providers. Parking service
providers have to upload their parking space information
and offers into the integrated system. As a result, a parking
service provider reveals its sensitive business information to
the integrated system. In general, the integrated system is
managed by a central authority. The central authority can be
biased to a particular parking service provider. Therefore, the
integrated system cannot be trusted [6], [7]. Moreover, an
intruder can invade the system and temper parking-related data
to hamper the smooth operation of the system. Secondly, the
integrated system is susceptible to a single point of failure.
The cloud computing technology can be utilized to build
a fault-tolerant system. However, the issues related to trust
still exist. The parking data stored in the cloud can cause
privacy breach of sensitive information [8], [9]. For instance,
the disclosure of parking offers to rival parties can disrupt the
entire business model. In order to overcome the aforemen-
tioned challenges, a novel system is required that offers trust
and data integrity for the integrated smart parking systems.
Our research proposes a novel blockchain-based architecture
for the smart parking system that offers trust and data integrity
among parking service providers. The blockchain is widely
acknowledged as a disruptive innovation that has the potential
of redefining finance, economics and even the macroscopic
societal systems [10], [11]. In fact, blockchain is an emerging
decentralized architecture and distributed computing paradigm
originally designed for cryptocurrencies [12]. The primary
advantage of the blockchain technology is that it can be
summarized as a decentralized and trusted model [13]. The
technology relies on the peer-to-peer [14] networking con-
cepts. In addition to the blockchain-based architecture of the
smart parking system, we present a set of design principles
which shows the applicability of our proposed blockchain-
A Blockchain-based Architecture for Integrated
Smart Parking Systems
Sabbir Ahmed, Soaibuzzaman, Mohammad Saidur Rahman, Mohammad Saiedur Rahaman,
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science & IT, American International University-Bangladesh
Computer Science & IT, School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia
sabbir.ahmed@aiub.edu, soaib.safi@gmail.com
{mohammadsaidur.rahman, saiedur.rahaman}@rmit.edu.au
1
based integrated parking system. To the best of our knowledge,
this paper is the first approach of integrated smart parking
system that leverages the blockchain technology.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In section II,
we discuss and summarize the limitations of the existing smart
parking solutions. We present an overview of our proposed
blockchain-based integrated smart parking system in section
III. A layered architecture for the system is discussed in
section IV. In section V, we discuss the detailed work-flow
of the proposed system. Section VI lists and discusses the
key design principles of our devised architecture. The paper
concludes in Section VII with a direction to the future works.
II. RE LATE D WOR K
Several parking solutions are available in the market. How-
ever, most of them are not effective enough to provide per-
sonalized smart parking services. The use of IoT devices to
control and monitor the overall parking system is expanding
rapidly. Abhirup Khanna and Rishi Anand proposed an ar-
chitecture in [15] which leverages IoT devices and TCP/IP
protocol for exchanging parking data. Besides, they hosted
the application in a centralized server which is always prone
to a single point of failure. Another smart parking system
has been proposed in [16] which utilizes RFID enabled IoT
devices. This paper also implemented a light-weight cryp-
tography algorithm to reduce computational cost and energy
consumption during the handling and manipulation of user-
sensitive information. However, this model was not built to
establish and manage interconnection between two parking
centers. Rachapol Lookmuang et al. proposed another smart
parking model in [17] which aims to reduce trafficking in the
parking area. The researchers used IoT devices along with
computer vision techniques to find the parked vehicles using
a mobile application.
There are many applications exist that help users searching
and finding the nearest parking location from the drivers’
point of drivers view. By using cloud computing and real-time
information, Ajay Zajam and Surekha Dholay have conducted
research to find out an efficient and nearby parking location
[18]. Based on real-time traffic data, the researchers devised
an algorithm which would identify the best route between the
user and the nearby parking location. An IoT based parking
reservation system called ‘BlueParking was implemented in
[1]. By using the proposed algorithm, users can find out
suitable routing path for their destinations. By analyzing the
congestion of location nodes, their traffic estimator service can
automatically represent the status of different roads. Chia-Ying
Lin et al. presented another model from the city planners point
of view instead of drivers point of view in [19]. The idea is to
manage the parking locations around the city to improve the
utilization of the overall parking spaces.
Recent research has highlighted that several types of attacks
can happen to compromise the data generated from IoT
devices [20]. Ioannis Chatzigiannakis et al. have proposed a
model for parking system using IoT data and elliptic curve
based security platform [21]. The authors used the Elliptic
Curve Cryptography (ECC) algorithm for securing the data.
They also built a generic architecture which can run on the
different operating systems. However, the integration of data
from different parking service providers in a common platform
was not addressed by the researchers.
Because of the unavailability of the frameworks which can
integrate data with public auditability without a trusted third
Party, Bin Liu et al. proposed a blockchain based framework
[22] which can ensure transparency and data integrity. This
framework resolves the problem of dynamic data integrity
verification in a fully decentralized environment and makes it
more reliable. However, the parking centers are not integrated
under a unified model to provide personalized parking infor-
mation services to the users. A Bayesian inference model for
preserving data integrity and data manipulation is proposed
in [23]. Chin-Ling Chen and Wei-Cheng Chiu have tried to
integrate different parking system in one platform [24]. The
researchers integrate different parking centers in a centralized
system where third-party management manages the data which
may cause loss of transparency for different transactions.
Our analysis of existing research works found that the
main aim of current research on smart parking is mainly
focused on providing the users a parking location from a single
parking service provider. Several research projects highlight
the security issues and they apply some approaches to mitigate
different types of attacks that can happen in a centralized
structure. There are several studies that introduced the concept
of decentralized parking system to resolve the data integrity
issues. In comparison with the recent works, we propose
an integrated smart parking system where the main aim is
to connect all the parking service provides under a unified
platform. While most of the existing solutions deal with
the smart parking problem in a centralized manner which
involves a trusted third party and cant provide enough lucidity,
our proposed system produces transparency and it is mostly
inviolable because of the decentralized infrastructure.
III. OVERVIEW OF THE PRO PO SE D SYS TE M
In this section, we present an overview of the proposed
blockchain-based integrated car parking system. There are
three participants in our proposed system: parking service
provider,blockchain network, and user. The parking service
provider offers parking-as-a-service, updates parking space,
and offer (i.e. cost) information in the integrated system. The
blockchain network contains a public ledger and updates the
public ledger with the valid transactions only. A consensus
mechanism is used to verify the transactions. The parking user
is the participant who requests for a car park. The integrated
smart parking system provides separate application interfaces
for each of the participants for communicating with it. Figure
1 illustrates our proposed blockchain-based integrated smart
parking system.
Assume that there are several smart car parking available
in the city under multiple car parking service providers.
For simplicity, assume that each smart car park is under a
single service provider. Every parking area is connected to a
2
Fig. 1. Overview of Integrated Smart Parking System
blockchain-based integrated smart parking system. Generally,
every parking area has a local copy of ledger (i.e local block).
There can be two types of transactions in the system. First,
the data generated by the parking sensor. Assume that each
parking area in a smart car park is equipped with an IoT device
(e.g. parking sensor) that can generate car parking availabil-
ity as transaction. Each car parking service provider has a
smart contract to generate the transaction. If a parking area
is changed from ”vacant” to ”occupied”, the corresponding
IoT device generates a transaction. Similarly, the IoT device
generates a transaction when the parking area is changed from
”occupied” to ”vacant”. The transaction is first sent to the local
block. The local block sends the transaction in the blockchain
network for verification. Second, data related to parking prices.
Assume that parking service providers set a price of parking
based on the time. They create smart contracts for parking
prices. The smart contract for the parking price is transferred to
the blockchain network. Whenever a parking price is changed
dynamically based on the time, a transaction is generated. The
transaction is sent to the blockchain network for verification.
Next, the transaction is verified by the blockchain network
using a consensus mechanism. If the transaction is valid, then
it is stored in the public ledger. Consequently, all of the local
blocks are updated.
IV. LAYERED ARCHITECTURE OF THE PR OP OSED SYSTEM
In this section, we present a layered architecture of our
proposed integrated smart parking solution based on the
blockchain technology. The proposed layered architecture
characterizes and standardizes the typical architecture of the
blockchain based integrated smart parking systems. Addi-
tionally, the architecture presents major components of the
system. Our architecture consists of four layers: application
layer,network layer,transaction layer, and physical layer. An
illustration of the layered architecture is provided in Figure 2.
A. Application Layer
The application layer is the top layer of the architecture
stack which enables a participant’s interactions with the sys-
tem. Using a mobile phone application (i.e. Android or iOS)
or web application, users can search their preferred parking
locations and can make the reservation. Similarly, parking
service providers can send their parking-related information
(e.g. availability of parking spaces and offers) to the inte-
grated system. From the application layer, a user connects to
the blockchain network and can place their requests to the
integrated parking system using an application. The integrated
system is responsible for suggesting a suitable parking location
depending on the user’s choice and availability. Since users
interact with the integrated system directly, this layer delivers
the final service to the end users.
B. Network Layer
The network layer ensures communication among different
parking centers, integrated system, and users. The data from
the users and parking centers will be transmitted to the
integrated system through this layer. This layer will contain
different types of communication technologies including LAN
and WAN which will be used by the users, parking service
providers, and IoT devices related to the parking system
(e.g. parking sensors and security cameras). The network
layer brings distributed public ledger and content services
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seamlessly to the stakeholders doorstep as part of the standard
offering. It contains various wireless communication technolo-
gies (e.g., Lora, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc.) along with currently
available GSM technologies such as 4G and 5G. This layer
ensures the scalability as well. Giving an example, this allows
adding and removing stakeholders dynamically to and from
the integrated system. The network layer ensures the physical
layer security of the system as well.
Fig. 2. Layer Architecture for Integrated Smart Parking Solution
C. Transaction Layer
Transaction Layer is responsible for transaction among the
nodes in the network. This will also provide all the consensus
mechanism of the entire blockchain network. The users and
different parking centers will exchange data in a secure way
using smart contract and consensus mechanism. Parking center
will also update the public ledger through this layer. This
layer communicates with the core blockchain network through
the interface of the integrated system. Additionally, this layer
validates new transactions. Moreover, the transaction layer
preserves the transaction transparency and secure the data
transmission without the use of a trusted third party. In terms
of P2P based distributed architecture, we can remove central
points of failures and bottlenecks of the system. Furthermore,
blockchain will treat users data exchanges as transactions and
validated by smart contracts. In this way, users information
would remain immutable and distributed over time through
blockchains cryptographic mechanism.
D. Physical Layer
The physical layer is the combination of different types
of IoT devices. All of these devices are integrated into one
common network through a p2p network protocol. Different
types of sensors and actuators are the main element of this
layer. Moreover, there will be some embedded technologies,
such as raspberry pi and Arduino, along with some WSN
devices. IoT device’s data will be transmitted to the parking
center server with the use of the transaction layer. Then the p2p
network will be connected with the parking center servers and
will update the public ledger. Additionally, this layer enables
sensor and actuators data traceability and accountability over
the p2p network. Since reliability is the key aspect of our
proposed system, by taking advantage of the blockchain,
secure-immutable storage, data can be safely and securely
transmitted from the IoT devices. Using the IoT device sen-
sors, a particular parking space availability will be recognized
from the physical layer. With the use of cryptography, the user
will be verified and vacant parking information will be updated
in the public ledger. The cryptography verification method in
the transaction layer will be processed by the smart contract.
To reserve a parking space, the user can make a request from
the application layer and the request will be processed through
the network layer. To handle the user request, parking provider
will use the network layer to make an interaction with the
transaction layer. Finally, using consensus mechanism protocol
from the transaction layer, individual parking provider will
update the distributed ledger.
V. PRO PO SE D SYS TE M WOR K-FL OW
In this section, we illustrate how our proposed model would
work towards an integrated smart parking system.
The users of our system will be able to interact with the
integrated parking system using an application which could
be a smartphone application or a website. The users will
search for their desired parking spaces using the application.
Since all the parking service providers in the city will be
interconnected using blockchain and p2p technology, the ap-
plication will automatically suggest the nearest parking center
for user selection. Then the user will make a request to the
parking center server from his/her search. The parking center
would respond with an acknowledgment and will build a
connection. Algorithm 1 describes a detailed work-flow of the
search and request processing mechanism of proposed system
architecture. We can see from Algorithm 1 that a reservation
request to a particular parking service provider initiates a local
search for parking availability. If there is an available parking
space, a booking is conducted and the public ledger is updated.
In case of unavailability of a local parking spot, a search is
conducted through the public ledger to find the alternatives. If
no alternatives are available in the public ledger, the user is
informed through an unavailability notification.
According to the design principle of our system, the parking
centers will act as a data owner. While constructing a hand-
shaking connection, blockchain should be started on each
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Algorithm 1 Search and Request Processing
INPUT: Search for parking space, Select the desired parking
center from the suggested list
OUTPUT: Reserve a parking space requested by the user,
Update the public ledger
1: foreach reservation request do
2: Look for available space in own server
3: if space available in own server then
4: Reserve for user
5: Update public ledger
6: else
7: Search in the public ledger Alternate parking
8: provider
9: if Space available in public ledger then
10: Reserve request with the hash
11: else
12: No parking Space available
13: end if
14: end if
15: end for
participating user and parking center. After constructing two-
way handshaking, a smart contract will be created by the user
with a digital signature. As the parking center will interact
with each other through the smart contract, all the transactions
on the whole chain can be transparently audited. Once the
blockchain service starts, then blockchain data on a node will
be synchronized.
As per the validation of data, it is going to be encrypted
by the hashing algorithm and this is almost impossible for an
unauthorized attacker or hacker to attack the network. Since
the parking center has a copy of the public ledger using
which it will easily decrypt the parking provider request as
the public key stored in the ledger. If the decrypted hash is
matched with the protected hash then the provider will count
as a valid user of the network. The updated vacant spaces
(vi) will be synced with the public ledger by a valid service
provider (Pi). Otherwise, the transaction will be interrupted.
Finally, using all the parking centers available spaces the
public ledger will be updated. The set of all available spaces
(V={v1, v2, ...vn}) will be incremented(viincreases) or
decremented(videcreases), while a vehicle will release or
reserve the parking spaces from the parking center.
Since all the parking centers in the city will be using the
Peer to Peer network and all the p2p function verification
method are known by each parking center, each parking center
will have a copy of the updated public ledger. A parking
center will search for available space for parking from the
ledger, then it will notify the user. After that notification, the
user will reply to the parking center with an acknowledgment.
Using that acknowledgment, the parking provider will make a
transaction in the public ledger as per its own policy. While
finishing the transaction, it will be added to the public ledger
will be updated according to the Algorithm 2.
Algorithm 2 Parking Provider Operations in Public Ledger
INPUT: v:- Number of Vacant or Occupied spaces of a
parking provider.
OUTPUT: V:- a set {v1, v2, ...vn}of all available spaces
in a smart city.
1: foreach Parking Provider Pido
2: viV acant Spaces
3: if vehicle in then
4: viincrement
5: else if vehicle out then
6: videcrement
7: end if
8: if Authenticate with Smart Contract then
9: if Piin P2PNetwork then
10: V ← V viUpdate Public Ledger
11: Data Transaction
12: end if
13: end if
14: end for
If no free space found in the selected parking center, then the
parking center will search on the public ledger for an available
space of nearby parking center. If the free space found in the
public ledger, then the parking center will notify the nearby
parking center. With the confirmation of user, the parking
center will request to that parking center for reservation. After
that, the alternate parking center will response and make a
transaction in the ledger using own business policy. Hence,
the user will get the facility of an integrated parking system.
Therefore, different parking centers can be integrated without
publishing their own business policies and no need to trust a
third party.
VI. DE SI GN PR IN CI PL ES
This section discusses the required design principles for our
proposed system.
Decentralized process: The primary objective of utilizing
blockchain is to implement a decentralized framework
which can overcome the faults created by the centralized
system. Furthermore, decentralized record or database
and smart contracts guarantee the secured data trans-
mission or exchange. The system assures the security
with the use of smart contract and public ledger, which
make it quite impossible to access personal or other
business policies and confidential information. However,
blockchain integration and decentralization process will
be able to make the communication process trustworthy
and smart enough with the collaboration of different
parking center.
Privacy and security: Owing to the integration process,
the parking business holders will face the problem of
exposing the business strategy related information which
will create data integrity and privacy issue. The parking
providers will not have any complexity to maintain their
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business with our proposed system. Additionally, only
the authorized parking provider can change his own data
in the ledger with the use of a private key and the
data will remain immutable over time in the blockchain.
However, parking provider only can access the vacant
space information of other parking providers from the
ledger, so, there will be no chance of data leakage while
a parking center will suggest another parking center.
Process Management: To implement the integrated park-
ing system, a decentralization process is required. The
decentralization process can confirm an efficient, respon-
sive and reliable system. The proposed system imposed
a layered architecture, which maintains the interaction
process that transmitting data to the distributed ledger
using the request of a user or parking provider. Finally,
heavy usage of cryptography and hashing mechanism
in the blockchain network ensures the proposed smart
parking system a trustless system. The trustless system
indicates that the participants can execute a transaction
without the need of a trusted third party.
VII. CON CL US IO N AN D FUT UR E WORK
This study developed a model to provide smart parking
solution based on infrastructure integration mechanism using
blockchain technology. We devised a layered architecture
which facilitates data integrity and trust among different
stakeholders in an integrated smart parking scenario. Through
this model urban drivers can find a reasonable parking place of
their preference. Also, the parking service providers can share
their sensitive data without a trusted third party. This model
is especially focused on security and privacy enhancement.
Blockchain technology has already made a significant impact
in the field of decentralization with cryptography. With the
help of blockchain mechanism, our model acquires the trust of
the parking centers and users while all the stakeholders interact
with smart applications. Since the smart contract features
ensure data privacy and security, the users will trust the system.
Our proposed model avoids transmitting personal or busi-
ness strategy related information through a trusted third party.
Therefore, it will be suitable for a situation where non-trusted
networks are appended in the integrated infrastructure. We
describe our system with a layered architecture and a workflow
which make it visually more factual. Overall, the presented
work-flow ensures the secured network for an integrated smart
city parking system. In the future, the system proposed in this
paper requires a rigorous implementation with real-world data
datasets to check it’s scalability.
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... In [32], the authors proposed a smart parking service. The proposed parking system provides an application for the parking service providers together to provide a one-stop parking smart city service. ...
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The increased density of the urban population and frequent transportation movement has to lead to parking issues in these areas. Many efforts have been made to efficiently utilize the existing parking facilities. Most of these solutions target the large-scale private and public parking facilities; however, the individual parking facilities are not much explored and exploited for reducing the parking issues. In the last few years, the Online-to-Offline (O2O) model has witnessed huge attention from the research community due to its versatile applications in many domains. The main objective of the O2O model is to create service awareness online, allowing potential users to review different offers and then visit local physical places for purchasing. The security of the users' data has always been considered a crucial factor in any public sharing platform. The blockchain model has been regarded as a solid security platform for many public sharing platforms. This work designed a blockchain framework with a novel data verification and role-based Access control method for securing the parking service data. Several experiments are performed using the sawtooth blockchain tool to investigate the performance of the proposed blockchain framework against the baseline approach concerning latency, meantime testing (MTT), throughput, transaction sending rate (TPS), and average response time (ART). The obtained results confirm that the proposed approach is scalable and feasible for smart parking and other IoT-based applications.
... Similar to other sectors, IoT-and cloud-based solutions have also been largely deployed for transportation systems, including SP systems, which has thereby enabled smart connectivity and the management of numerous resources, data storage, and computation [1,9,13]. For a massive centric IoT-cloud platform, fog computing is an effective solution to address the limitations of computational latency and throughput, and blockchain is a proven solution to combat the notable security challenges, such as, but not limited to, authentication and data integrity [8,24]. In this study, we examined, in depth, the main limitations (i.e., computational latency, efficiency, privacy, and security) of the existing IoTcloud-based developments for SP systems [11][12][13][14][15][16][17], and then proposed an SAVP system that deploys fog nodes as an extension to the centric cloud-computing platform that functions with blockchain capabilities to circulate and manage a massive amount of vehicular parking data in an IoT network to achieve better overall system latency, throughput, privacy, and security. ...
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With the advent of modern technologies, including the IoT and blockchain, smart-parking (SP) systems are becoming smarter and smarter. Similar to other automated systems, and particularly those that require automation or minimal interaction with humans, the SP system is heuristic in delivering performances, such as throughput in terms of latency, efficiency, privacy, and security, and it is considered a long-term cost-effective solution. This study looks ahead to future trends and developments in SP systems and presents an inclusive, long-term, effective, and well-performing smart autonomous vehicle parking (SAVP) system that explores and employs the emerging fog-computing and blockchain technologies as robust solutions to strengthen the existing collaborative IoT–cloud platform to build and manage SP systems for autonomous vehicles (AVs). In other words, the proposed SAVP system offers a smart-parking solution, both indoors and outdoors, and mainly for AVs looking for vacant parking, wherein the fog nodes act as a middleware layer that provides various parking operations closer to IoT-enabled edge devices. To address the challenges of privacy and security, a lightweight integrated blockchain and cryptography (LIBC) module is deployed, which is functional at each fog node, to authorize and grant access to the AVs in every phase of parking (e.g., from the parking entrance to the parking slot to the parking exit). A proof-of-concept implementation was conducted, wherein the overall computed results, such as the average response time, efficiency, privacy, and security, were examined as highly efficient to enable a proven SAVP system. This study also examined an innovative pace, with careful considerations to combatting the existing SP-system challenges and, therefore, to building and managing future scalable SP systems.
... A rider is a person who requests parking the vehicle. This system provides multiple interfaces for carrying out communications [40]. ...
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Global urbanization has vastly enhanced the quality of people’s lives in various domains. Nevertheless, the global rise in urban dwellers is often accompanied by additional difficulties and challenges such as traffic jams, air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste production. The term ‘Smart City’ is introduced to address these challenges by pushing residents to concentrate on the innovative solutions for economic growth of their cities as well as enhancing people’s standard of living. The distributed ledger technology, also known as Blockchain, is best known for its instrumental role in forming the cryptocurrency space (e.g. Bitcoin and Ethereum). Due to features that include decentralization, transparency, democracy, security, and immutability; the deployment of Blockchain technologies in smart cities drastically improves data integrity, openness in city maintenance, and fosters the execution of reliable, transparent, safe, and democratized services and applications. In this survey, we perform an exhaustive study of research works that include the use of Blockchain technologies for smart city services and applications. First, we will examine the brief history of smart cities and Blockchain. We will then delve into the various ways that Blockchain technologies can be integrated into various smart city domains that include smart governance, smart transportation, smart grids, smart management, trade & finance, smart healthcare, smart home, e-commerce, and others that have a scope of development. Finally, this paper will provide areas of interest where Blockchain can be analyzed further to promote the development of smart cities application and services using Blockchain.
... A consortium blockchain is used by the drivers to store rating transactions that anonymously rate the parking service and contribute to the reputation of the parking service provider. Ahmed et al. [12] describe the details of Parking-as-a-Service, which provides distinct application interfaces for each type of participants, such as parking owner, driver, and blockchain node. Multiple service providers can utilize Parking-as-a-Service to offer their parking services to drivers. ...
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Cybersecurity is an inherent characteristic that should be addressed before the large deployment of smart city applications. Recently, Blockchain appears as a promising technology to provide several cybersecurity aspects of smart city applications. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the existing blockchain-based solutions for the cybersecurity of the main smart city applications, namely smart healthcare, smart transportation, smart agriculture, supply chain management, smart grid, and smart homes. We describe the existing solutions and we discuss their merits and limits. Moreover, we define the security requirements of each smart city application and we give a mapping of the studied solutions to these defined requirements. Additionally, future directions are given. We believe that the present survey is a good starting point for every researcher in the fields of cybersecurity, blockchain, and smart cities.
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