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Die US-Expansion des deutschen Discounters Aldi - Eine Fallstudie zur Internationalisierung im Einzelhandel

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Abstract

Die Internationalisierung im Einzelhandel ist eine vergleichsweise junge Entwicklung, die in den vergangenen beiden Dekaden stark vorangeschritten ist. Dabei haben viele Unternehmen die Erfahrung machen müssen, die Grundlage ihres im Heimatland erlangten Wettbewerbsvorteils zwar in einige Märkte erfolgreich transferieren zu können, in andere Märkte jedoch nicht. Worin liegen die Ursachen hierfür? Trotz einer zunehmenden Zahl von Studien zur Internationalisierung im Einzelhandel gibt es immer noch ein mangelndes Verständnis dafür, unter welchen Bedingungen Unternehmen im Ausland erfolgreich sind, respektive wann sie scheitern. Einen theoretischen Rahmen zur Analyse der relevanten Erfolgsdeterminanten liefert die Institutionentheorie, die das Verhältnis zwischen Unternehmen und Gesellschaft betrachtet und gerade auch für interkulturelle Fragestellungen einen interessanten Untersuchungsansatz darstellt. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit die US-amerikanische Expansion des Discounters Aldi analysiert. Aldi bietet sich für eine solche Fallstudie an, da der Discounter sein an den deutschen Markt angepasstes Erfolgskonzept Ende der 1970er Jahre weitestgehend unverändert in die USA transferiert hat - in eine institutionelle Umwelt, die sich deutlich von der deutschen unterscheidet. Wie erfolgreich kann Aldi in dieser Umwelt agieren?
... Beim Einzelhandelsangebot insgesamt ist dagegen der Abstand mit 2,7 zu 2,4 deutlicher. Hier geben die Innenstadtbesucher wesentlich seltenerer die Noten 1 und 2 (7 % + 37 % zu 16 Bei den 17 Fragen zu Qualitätsmerkmalen der Innenstadt fallen die Durchschnittsnoten der Centerbesucher nur bei den beiden Spitzennoten Sauberkeit und Sicherheit geringfügig schlechter aus (jeweils 1,9 zu 2,0) sowie bei Dienstleistungen und ÖV-Erreichbarkeit gleich (2,2 und 2,3). Die übrigen Merkmale benoten sie meist mehrere Zehntelstufen besser. ...
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Grundlegend für geographische Forschungsarbeiten auf Basis qualitativer Methoden ist ein Verständnis von Raum als hybrider Gegenstand, der aus unterschiedlichen Elementen wie Akteuren, sozialen Alltagspraktiken und Relationen besteht. Raum in diesem Sinne ist mehr als eine physikalisch messbare Ausdehnung und unterliegt einem permanenten Wandel. In der raumbezogenen qualitativen Sozialforschung soll das wechselseitige Verhältnis von Raum und Mensch/Gesellschaft besser verstanden werden.
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Lebensmitteleinzelhändler sind die mit Abstand größten und zahlreichsten Unternehmen der Top 250 Einzelhändler weltweit. Spitzenreiter Walmart aus den USA führt mit fast 486 Mrd. US$ (2016) die Liste der Top 10 an, gefolgt von Costco, einem weiteren amerikanischen Lebensmitteleinzelhändler (119 Mrd. US$) (Kap. 19). Unter den Top 10 finden sich mit Schwarz (Platz 4) und Aldi (Platz 8) zwei deutsche sowie mit Carrefour (Platz 9) ein französischer Vertreter des Lebensmitteleinzelhandels (Deloitte 2018, S. 16).
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Zusammenfassung Angesichts der zunehmenden Digitalisierung und eines sich ändernden Konsumentenverhaltens definiert sich auch der Einzelhandel neu. Dieser handelsexogene und -endogene Wandel zeigt sich auch in der (Fort-)Entwicklung und Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Methoden der geographischen Handelsforschung. Das Ziel des Beitrags ist es, die vielfältigen methodischen Ansätze und Methoden der Informationserhebung sowie der Datenverarbeitung mittels einer Literatursichtung aktueller deutscher und englischsprachiger Artikel zu untersuchen. Auf der Grundlage dieser Literaturanalyse sollen verschiedene Potenziale und Defizite identifiziert werden.
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The international expansion of the German discounters Aldi and Lidl in recent years has been a large success in grocery retailing. In China, the world's largest grocery retail market, however, grocery discounters have not (yet) established a physical store presence. In 2017 Aldi Süd and Lidl for the first time entered a new market without the help of a physical store, implementing an online shop in China. As to the format's future, significant disagreement amongst retail experts exists. This paper, which is based on qualitative interviews with high-ranking senior executives of international retailers, argues for three major reasons as to why the discount format has not hitherto gained a foothold in the Chinese market. Firstly, due to the characteristics and challenges of China's market, such as high fragmentation as well as the need for strong localisation, a high standardisation of the format is not possible. Secondly, the extremely low-margin operation of discounters faces a price level in China that is already very low, limiting one of the discounter's major competitive advantages. Thirdly, the discount format is facing a lack of consumer acceptance, toughening the establishment of private brands, which represents one of the major characteristics of the discount format.
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The geographies of retailing and consumption have become one of the key topics of the twenty-first century, both in terms of research and and undergraduate teaching. The undergraduate literature has been slow to keep up with this rapidly developing field and students have to look to a wide range of sources - often relatively obscure - to obtain a clear overview of current research into retailing. This major new text provides students with such an overview in a single, accessible volume. It brings together the authors' own writing and a wide range of short "readings" drawn from other sources, which have been integrated into the flow of the text.
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Looks at the development of Carrefour-Primodès and Wal-Mart, the world current leaders in terms of turnover and employment. Presents seven issues of particular interest to leading managers and researchers and examines how these are dealt with by the two leaders. Concludes that Wal-Mart and Carrefour present two different models which stand in opposition on many points, and questions whether a convergence of the two will not result in a perfect model.
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Klassische und neue Theorien der Wirtschaftsgeographie laden zur kritischen Würdigung ihrer empirischen Anwendbarkeit ein! Die 4. Auflage der Wirtschaftsgeographie wurde von den Autoren vollständig überarbeitet. Traditionelle Konzepte wurden zum besseren Verständnis gestrafft, neuere Ansätze aktualisiert und erweitert. Illustrative Fallbeispiele und über 100 Grafiken unterstützen das vorlesungsbegleitende Selbststudium. Die insgesamt 15 Kapitel sind sechs Buchteilen zugeordnet: Einführung, Ansätze und Grenzen der Raumwirtschaftslehre, Interaktion und Institution, Organisation, Evolution, Innovation. Das moderne Layout erleichtert das Lernen, Fallbeispiele in separaten Infoboxen visualisieren den Transfer in die Praxis. Ein Bachelor- und Master-Studienbuch für Studierende der Geographie, der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften sowie alle, die sich für das Verhältnis von Raum und Wirtschaft interessieren.
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When I hear businessmen speak eloquently about the “social responsibilities of business in a free-enterprise system”, I am reminded of the wonderful line about the Frenchman who discovered at the age of 70 that he had been speaking prose all his life. The businessmen believe that they are defending free enterprise when they declaim that business is not concerned “merely” with profit but also with promoting desirable “social” ends; that business has a “social conscience” and takes seriously its responsibilities for providing employment, eliminating discrimination, avoiding pollution and whatever else may be the catchwords of the contemporary crop of reformers. In fact they are — or would be if they or anyone else took them seriously -preaching pure and unadulterated socialism. Businessmen who talk this way are unwitting puppets of the intellectual forces that have been undermining the basis of a free society these past decades.
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