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Int. J. Export Marketing, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2019
1 Editorial
Dafnis N. Coudounaris and Stanley Joseph Paliwoda
3 Are there export spillovers in manufacturing industry? Evidence from
Lamia Ben Hamida and Patrick Ischer
20 A pilot study on measuring organisational culture in Vietnamese
corporations in light of task and relationship orientations
Quan Hoang Nguyen Tran
35 Analysing the direct and indirect effects of entrepreneurial competencies on
international market diversification and profitability: a study of small
exporting firms in Ghana
Prince Kwarteng Oppong, Utz Dornberger and Md. Noor Un Nabi
59 Internationalisation strategies of African MNEs: a case analysis of Angolan
and Mozambican enterprises
Marcus Goncalves and Erika Cornelius Smith
Int. J. Export Marketing, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2019 1
Copyright © 2019 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Dafnis N. Coudounaris*
School of Economics and Business Administration,
University of Tartu,
J. Liivi 4-104, 50409 Tartu, Estonia
*Corresponding author
Stanley Joseph Paliwoda
Department of Marketing,
Strathclyde Business School,
University of Strathclyde,
199 Cathedral Street, G4-0QU Glasgow, UK
Biographical notes: Dafnis N. Coudounaris is an Associate Professor
of Innovation Management at the School of Economics and Business
Administration at University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia. He received his BSc
in Economics from the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens,
Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing from Bristol Polytechnic, MSc in
International Business from UMIST and PhD in Industrial Marketing
from Luleå University of Technology. He has published several papers in
international journals such as MIR, JI Management, IBR, P&M and JBR. He
serves as a member of the editorial review boards of Journal of Business
Research and Journal of Innovation and Knowledge. He recently became a
Fellow of the European Mediterranean Academy of Business (EMAB).
Stanley Joseph Paliwoda is an Emeritus Professor of Marketing at the
Department of Marketing, Strathclyde Business School, University of
Strathclyde, Glasgow. He is a former Senior Examiner of the Institute of Export
in the UK and has written various textbooks and particularly a seminal one
entitled International Marketing with co-author Professor Michael Thomas. He
has published 65 articles in books and international journals. He is the Deputy
Editor of the Journal of Customer Behaviour and a Fellow of both the
Chartered Institute of Marketing and Chartered Management Institute. He is an
international trustee of the IP Management Poland and has served as a member
of several editorial boards.
Welcome to the first issue of the third volume. This issue includes four papers in
the field of export marketing and international business. The four papers are
summarised in the following paragraphs. The first paper, which was awarded the best
review study at the Inaugural Nordic International Business and Export Marketing
Conference 2018, examines whether export activities of both Swiss and foreign MNCs
located in Switzerland may benefit the Swiss economy when the export specific
knowledge that is gained in foreign markets may spillover to domestic firms, raising
their export propensity. The second paper investigates the main characteristics of
2 D.N. Coudounaris and S.J. Paliwoda
organisational culture in Vietnamese corporations. The third paper analyses the direct
and indirect effects of entrepreneurial competencies on the international performance
of small exporting firms. Considering the high importance of entrepreneurial
competencies, it particularly looks at their direct and indirect impacts on international
market diversification and profitability. Finally, the fourth paper examines the
internationalisation strategies of Lusophone Africa multinational enterprises (LAMNEs)
from Angola and Mozambique.
The first paper by Hamida and Ischer reveals that export spillovers do not occur
automatically. They depend upon the mechanism through which they take place, the
absorptive capacity of domestic firms, the export destination, and the geographical
The authors found the probability that domestic firms’ exports are positively
and significantly associated with the presence of MNC exporters in their sector.
Demonstration-imitation is the main mechanism for these benefits. These benefits are
larger when specific by destination and when domestic firms are in close proximity to
foreign and Swiss MNCs. In addition, domestic firms with high technological capacities
benefit more from export spillovers.
Tran in the second paper reveals that among 276 Vietnamese working adults in
two regions in Vietnam, task orientation is the common organisational culture in current
Vietnamese companies, and negative attitudes are surprisingly found. Implications are
explained for other Vietnamese superiors and subordinates so that they might cooperate
effectively in the future
Oppong, Dornberger and Un Nabi in the third study, using a survey of 134 small
exporting firms from different sectors in Ghana, revealed that five identified
entrepreneurial competencies have direct positive effects on international market
diversification, which also leads to a superior rate of profitability. Furthermore, the study
highlighted the mediation effect of international market diversification, which caused
indirect effects of entrepreneurial competencies on profitability.
Finally, in the fourth study, Goncalves and Smith revealed that despite several
disadvantages faced by entrepreneurs in frontier economies, particularly in Angola
and Mozambique, LAMNEs relied on external resources to launch themselves into
international markets, utilising web-enabled digital and virtual resources, such as the
internet, social media and online professional communities of practice. In addition, most
did not enter foreign markets alone and chose to rely on modes of entry that included
joint ventures and partnerships, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), e-commerce and
We would like to thank and express our appreciation to the following nine academics,
who spent their valuable time in the development of this issue: Ashraf Abumousa,
Bilge Aykol, Paul Christodoulides, Giorgia Masilli, Ari Kokko, Iryna Litovchenko,
Deusdedit Rwehumbiza, Salman Saleem and Judith Zolkiewski.
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