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Abstract

Second issue of Mediterranean SST report (Spring 2019) from Mediterranean Center for Environmental Studies (CEAM) Meteorology and Pollutant Dynamics department to periodically review and update sea surface temperature climatology and trend in the Mediterranean basin.
Mediterranean SST report
Spring 2019
Issue #2
06-2019
Mediterranean SST report is an inia-
ve of the Mediterranean Center for
Environmental Studies (CEAM) Meteor-
ology and Pollutant Dynamics group to
periodically update sea surface temper-
ature climatology and trend in the Med-
iterranean basin as indicators of global
change. This newsleer will be issued
on a seasonal basis to disseminate the
state of the art about Mediterranean
SST and as informaon for stakeholders
and media interested in climate change.
This newsleer is parally funded
by research project VERSUS
(CGL2015-67466-R), from the
Spanish R&D&I naonal plan.
SST daily updated informaon
can be found at our webportal
SST-CEAMed at:
hp://www.ceam.es/SST.
Me d iterran e an SST report wi ll be issued in a season a l basis (4 mes a year) . I f you a re i n terest e d in rec e i ving
up c o ming issue s please c ontac t F rancis c o Pastor at p a co@cea m.e s . Pl e a se, feel free to distrib u t e to any o ne
wh o might b e intere s ted.
All graphics and analysis are based on daily SST data from GHRSST Level 4 AVHRR_OI Global Blended Sea Surface
Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2) from NOAA Naonal Centers for Environmental Informaon available at PO-
DAAC site (hps://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/dataset/AVHRR_OI-NCEI-L4-GLOB-v2.0).
Trend summary (1982-2019)
Global trend 1.1˚ C
Global daily trend 7.7·10-5˚ C/day
March 0.3 ˚ C
Monthly anomalies April 0.2 ˚ C
May 0.1 ˚ C
SUMMARY
Global mean Mediterranean SST on March was clearly above average through the whole month.
Most of April SST sll was high with respect to climac values but on the rst days of May went
clearly down. May SST values were below the climac mean, yielding a negave monthly anom-
aly value for SST (not signicant anomaly for deseasonalized SST).
For the whole data series (January 1982–May 2019), a consistent warming trend is found. From
the me series of daily averaged Mediterranean deseasonalized sea surface temperature a glob-
al increase of almost 1.1˚ C was calculated.
Mediterranean SST report - Spring 2019
Da t a source : GHR S S T L e vel 4 AVH RR_ OI Glo bal Ble nded Sea Surfa c e Tempera t u re Analy s is (GDS ver sio n 2) fro m N C EI
av a i lable a t PODAA C s i t e h ps://p o d aac.j pl.n as a.gov/ d ataset/ AVHR R _ OI -NCEI-L4-GLO B -v 2.0
SST long term trend is evaluated from January
1982 up to the most recent data available, May
2019. A linear regression is calculated for the
deseasonalized SST series (trend component).
The esmated global trend is about 1.1˚ C for the
study period, shown ingure 1.
Figure 2 shows yearly SST series, computed from
daily data. Black line shows the 1982-2019 annu-
al mean for Mediterranean SST, the red line cor-
responds to year 2018 and green line to 2019.
March and April 2019 show SST values higher
than climac mean. SST in May 2019 presents
values below the climac mean for the whole
month, having the coldest SST anomaly value in
the recent decade.
Figure 1. Time evoluon for deseasonalized mean Mediterranean SST
Figure 2. Yearly me series for mean Mediterranean SST
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Global trends and anomalies for deseasonalized SST
Global SST anomalies
A consistent warming trend can be seen for SST daily anomaly for the whole 1982-2019 period in g-
ure 3. Most of the posive SST anomalies (relave to 1982-2011) occur aer 2000 with a peak on
2016. In the case of SST monthly anomalies, long
term posive trend is also found from 1982 to
2019. As for daily values, most of the posive
anomalies have been recorded aer 2000 for
both global and deseasonalized SST. May 2019
shows the coldest anomaly in the last ten years.
Mediterranean SST report - Spring 2019
Da t a source : GHR S S T L e vel 4 AVH RR_ OI Glo bal Ble nded Sea Surfa c e Tempera t u re Analy s is (GDS ver sio n 2) fro m N C EI
av a i lable a t PODAA C s i t e h ps://p o d aac.j pl.n as a.gov/ d ataset/ AVHR R _ OI -NCEI-L4-GLO B -v 2.0
Figure 3. Mean SST daily anomaly
Figure 4. Mean SST monthly anomaly
SST monthly analysis March 2019
March SST sll shows a winter spaal regime with a north to south increasing gradient, with the cold-
est values located to the north of the Adriac sea, but less intense than in actual winter months. SST
spaal structure shows a smoother eld across the Mediterranean basin than in the previous months.
On a monthly basis, a light warm SST anomaly was recorded in most of the Mediterranean basin. A
noceable posive anomaly area appeared between the Balearic Islands and the Spanish coasts, as
shown in gure 5. There were also posive anomalies on the French coast and the Adriac sea. As per
global SST anomaly values, March 2019 holds the fourth posion in the historical series (1982 -2019)
while the SST trend component stands for the thirteenth value (see boom table).
March SST 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2009
SST anomaly 0.2 0.3 0.2 -0.1 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.6 -0.2
SST trend anomaly 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.3
Minimum values in blue/maximum values in red
Figure 5. Mean monthly SST (le) and mean monthly SST anomaly (right) on March 2019
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SST monthly analysis April 2019
April monthly mean SST does not show a well dened spaal structure. The monthly SST average for
April does not show a well-dened spaal structure. The SST eld is fairly uniform throughout the ba-
sin without large dierences in temperature. No signicant SST anomaly areas can be located in Fig-
ure 6. A global posive anomaly of 0.C was recorded in April. The Western basin showed a light pos-
ive anomaly while negave values were recorded across the southern and eastern coasts of the East-
ern Mediterranean. April 2019 SST monthly anomaly is in the 14th posion of the me series (1982 -
2018) while deseasonalized SST occupies the eighteenth posion.
Mediterranean SST report - Spring 2019
Da t a source : GHR S S T L e vel 4 AVH RR_ OI Glo bal Ble nded Sea Surfa c e Tempera t u re Analy s is (GDS ver sio n 2) fro m N C EI
av a i lable a t PODAA C s i t e h ps://p o d aac.j pl.n as a.gov/ d ataset/ AVHR R _ OI -NCEI-L4-GLO B -v 2.0
April SST 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2009
SST anomaly 0.5 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.4 1.3 0.9 0.7 0.3 -0.1
SST trend anomaly 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.2 0.3
Figure 6. Mean monthly SST (le) and mean monthly SST anomaly (right) on April 2019
Minimum values in blue/maximum values in red
SST monthly analysis May 2019
First signs of a dierent spaal structure, relave to winter me, are observed in the sea temperature
eld. An area of relavely high SST values can be seen from Turkey to Egypt and, at a less extent,
along the African coasts. Regarding the SST anomaly eld, a notable cold anomaly was found in the
Adriac sea, especially to the north, while weaker but sll negave anomalies were observed from
Greece to Spain, with the excepon of the African coasts. SST monthly anomaly for May 2019 holds
the 9th coldest value of the me series (1982-2019); in the case of deseasonalized SST May value is in
the 19th posion.
May SST 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2009
SST anomaly 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.9 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.2 -0.3 0.5
SST trend anomaly 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.1 0.3
Figure 7. Mean monthly SST (le) and mean monthly SST anomaly (right) on May 2019
Minimum values in blue/maximum values in red
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Mediterranean SST community
University of Basilicata
Applied Spectroscopy group
The team on Applied Spectroscopy (AS) group has extensive experse in infrared instrumentaon for
remote sensing & earth observaon. AS-UNIBAS is a leading group in forward/inverse radiave trans-
fer models and instrumentaon & science using Fourier transforms interferometers for the sounding
of earth's atmosphere and surface from space. In parcular the AS -UNIBAS team blends experse in
IR and Far IR spectroscopy and atmospheric radiave transfer in presence of gaseous compo-
nents
Properes of atmospheric parculate components (clouds, aerosols) and RT with mulple
scaering
Scienc support to instrument development, radiometers, spectrometers and FTS spectrome-
ters
Use of operaonal and future remote sounding instrumentaon in Meteorology and Climatology
Among these acvies, AS-UNIBAS, within the framework of various projects supported by EUMETSAT
and CINFAI-RITMARE/CNR developed a Kalman lter methodology to retrieve simultaneously skin tem-
perature and emissivity from SEVIRI radiances, one of the few very physical based approaches for the
esmaon of surface parameters from infrared instruments on board geostaonary plaorms capable
to resolve the diurnal cycle. A prototype processor is developed to provide these products in real
me, such as the motoring of Mediterranean Sea. The processor works at the full spaal ( 3 km) and
temporal resoluon (15) of the instrument on board the European geostaonary plaorm METEOSAT.
An extensive list of AS group publicaons can be found at hp://www2.unibas.it/gmasiello/assite/as/
publicaons.html
2013-2017 SEVIRI Retrieved monthly mean Sea Skin Temperature.
These data are freely available at web site hp://www2.unibas.it/gmasiello/assite/as/products.html .
Mediterranean SST report - Spring 2019
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Mediterranean SST report - Spring 2019
Mediterr anean S ST report is an iniave of the Mediterranean Center for Environmental
Studies (CEAM) Meteorology and Pollutant Dynamics department as part of the research
project VERSUS CGL2015-67466-R (MICINN/FEDER), funded by the Spanish R&D&I naon-
al plan of Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovaon and Universies and European Regional
Development Fund.
More informaon about Mediterranean sea surface temperature (daily updates) at our
SST CEAMed web portal www.ceam.es/SST
Ci taon: Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperature report (Spring 2019). Meteorology and
Pollutant Dynamics Area. Fundación CEAM. 2019.
Data source: Naonal Centers for Environmental Informaon. 2016. GHRSST Level 4
AVHRR_OI Global Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2) from NCEI.
Ver. 2.0. PO.DAAC, CA, USA. Dataset accessed 2019 -03-31 at hp://dx.doi.org/10.5067/
GHAAO-4BC02.
All the maps and graphs in this document have been created by the CEAM Meteorology
and Pollutant Dynamics department from the NCEI data and graphs. This report is li-
censed under an Aribuon-NonCommercial-NoDerivaves 4.0 Internaonal (CC BY-NC-
ND 4.0) Creave Commons license (hps://creavecommons.org/licenses/by -nc-nd/4.0/
legalcode).
Contact informaon
Web portal www.ceam.es/SST
Twier @CEAM_Meteo
Mail paco@ceam.es
The CEAM Foundaon is supported by General itat Valenc ian a
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