Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the quality of service (QoS) provisioning and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: 1) the operational medium access control (O-MAC) ... [Show full abstract] hybrid protocol and 2) the pheromone termite (PT) model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: 1) determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and 2) pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency.
To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model, we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10) that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff, hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover, the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally, the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes.