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Abstract

This study evaluates local-scale drivers of shark harvests in India, one of the world’s largest shark fishing nations. Focusing on key harbours in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra, which together contribute 54% of India’s shark harvest, this study uses a semi-structured survey to examine the practices of shark fishers and traders, their knowledge of shark trade and policy, and perceptions of shark declines. Findings indicate that a domestic market for shark meat is presently the main local driver for harvests rather than the global trade in shark fins. Sharks are mostly non-target catch, landed whole, contributing to the protein needs of coastal communities. Consumer demand is the greatest for small-bodied and juvenile sharks. Perceived steep declines in shark numbers and sizes have had economic impacts on fishers and traders. The unregulated domestic market for shark meat is a key challenge requiring nuanced local approaches that diverge from global shark conservation priorities.

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... Chondrichthyan research and conservation also appears to be receiving increasing interest and investment in recent years (BOBP, 2015). However, existing research may not be translating to action, as there has been little improvement in fisheries management on the ground and limited formulation of policies (Karnad et al., 2014(Karnad et al., , 2019. India currently has few policies and regulations for the conservation of chondrichthyans and management of their fisheries, particularly in comparison to other Asian countries (Karnad, 2018). ...
... There is also a need for deeper understanding of the human dimensions of chondrichthyan fisheries, as they form complex social ecological systems with important contributions to livelihoods and food security (Karnad et al., 2019). Chondrichthyan research needs to be inter-and multidisciplinary to address all elements of this system and guide holistic management. ...
... Against our expectations, we found alarmingly few publications on socio-economic themes in India, with no increase over time. With a large population of fisher folk (4.9 million; Department of Fisheries, 2020) and evidence of substantial local chondrichthyan consumption in the country (Karnad et al., 2019), understanding the socio-economic drivers of chondrichthyan fishing is a priority for India. ...
Article
With global biodiversity currently facing unprecedented losses, it is critical that resources are allocated and used effectively to mitigate these threats, especially in resource-limited tropical countries of the global south. Chondrichthyans (sharks, rays and chimaeras) are particularly threatened by overexploitation, with India being amongst the top fishing nations for these species and a priority region for their conservation. We conducted a scoping review of chondrichthyan literature in India to assess the relevance of this research to the conservation of these threatened species. Between March and April 2021, we searched for peer reviewed and grey literature across national and international databases and found 482 chondrichthyan publications. While the number of publications exponentially increased with time, the literature is dominated by short-term fisheries studies, biological records and observations, with less than 10% of studies addressing socio-economic and management themes. Research was biased towards specific states, particularly Tamil Nadu and Kerala, and towards charismatic species like the whale shark, leading to under-representation of potentially important regions and taxa. Overall, our study found low relevance and applicability of India's research literature to chondrichthyan conservation. There is a need for more directed and applied research explicitly aimed at informing conservation. We highlight specific data gaps, such as the need for improved understanding of the socio-economic aspects of chondrichthyan fisheries, species risk assessments at the regional level, data on critical habitats, and the evaluation of existing policies. Addressing these gaps can help ensure that effort is allocated to the regions, species and topics that need it the most, for improved conservation outcomes.
... A recent estimate places the actual number of catches as double that of the recorded value (Barker and Schluessel, 2005). Further, a majority of shark fishing nations do not report species composition of their catch to the World Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (Lack and Sant, 2011;Karnad et al., 2020), restricting assessments of stocks or fishing pressure on specific species and populations. The highly migratory nature of many chondrichthyan species places them in international territories, making country specific protections, when existent, only partially effective (Stevens, 2000). ...
... The significantly high levels of threat and data deficiency in Chondrichthyes in India are a consequence of almost non-existent management measures for the species, and poor enforcement of existing measures at the state and national levels (Karnad et al., 2020). Chondrichthyan stock assessments remain absent, and as a result, catch limits on chondrichthyan landings are only imposed for species protected under Schedule I of the Wild Life (Protection) Act (1972) which includes the Whale shark Rhincodon typus, Pondicherry shark Carcharhinus hemiodon, and Giant guitarfish Rhynchobatus djiddensis (FAO, 2007;Karnad et al., 2020). ...
... The significantly high levels of threat and data deficiency in Chondrichthyes in India are a consequence of almost non-existent management measures for the species, and poor enforcement of existing measures at the state and national levels (Karnad et al., 2020). Chondrichthyan stock assessments remain absent, and as a result, catch limits on chondrichthyan landings are only imposed for species protected under Schedule I of the Wild Life (Protection) Act (1972) which includes the Whale shark Rhincodon typus, Pondicherry shark Carcharhinus hemiodon, and Giant guitarfish Rhynchobatus djiddensis (FAO, 2007;Karnad et al., 2020). Species-specific protections have repeatedly proven inadequate with the exception of whale sharks (Jabado et al., 2018;Karnad et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Chondrichthyes, an ancient and diverse class of vertebrates, are crucial to the health of marine ecosystems. Excessive demand for chondrichthyan products has increased fishing pressure, threatening ∼30% of species with extinction in recent decades. India is the second-largest shark landing nation globally and the province of Gujarat, is the largest contributor to its shark exports. Despite their significant contribution to global fish supplies, chondrichthyan fisheries in Gujarat remain understudied and many species, data deficient, posing challenges to the conservation of remaining populations in the region. Here, we report results from taxonomic assessment of elasmobranchs at four key landing sites in Gujarat. We identified thirty-one species of sharks and rays with a significant bias toward capture of females and juveniles by fisheries. Our data indicate the presence of nursery areas for species such as Sphyrna lewini and Rhynchobatus laevis in the neritic areas off Gujarat. Further, we discovered extensions of the current distribution range for three species -Torpedo sinuspersici, Carcharhinus sorrah, and Rhinobatos punctifer. Taxonomic identities for a subset of species were confirmed using genomic analyses conducted with portable DNA sequencing tools. We present assessments for six data deficient species in the region – Rhinobatos annandalei, Rhinoptera jayakari, Maculabatis bineeshi, Pateobatis bleekeri, T. sinuspersici, and Carcharhinus amboinensis. Our investigation underscores species with urgent conservation needs and reduces data deficiencies. These data will inform and pivot future scientific and conservation efforts to protect remaining populations of some of the most vulnerable Chondrichthyes in the Arabian Seas Region.
... Though many elasmobranchs landed in India today are caught as bycatch (Kizhakudan et al., 2015), they are seldom discarded as their meat forms a cheap and widely consumed protein source (Dulvy et al., 2017;Jabado et al., 2018). Therefore, domestic elasmobranch meat consumption may be a major driver of their fishing pressure in India (Karnad et al., 2019). Although we use the term bycatch here, we emphasize that these species are retained, and have some commercial and socioeconomic importance. ...
... It has a higher risk of capture in fishing gear due to the unique shape of its head and the aggregating behavior of juveniles in nearshore waters (Gallagher et al., 2014). S. lewini is listed as Critically Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; Rigby et al., 2019a), and previous studies have noted an apparent decline of this species in Malvan (Karnad et al., 2019). Giant guitarfish (Glaucostegidae) have relatively high population productivities with moderate recovery potential if fishing mortality is kept low (D'Alberto et al., 2019). ...
... It is clear that area-based strategies in their present format have little scope for success, and need to be approached differently. Our findings suggest that if flexible and case-specific closures or gear regulations were designed with the local community as partners and co-managers, they may be effective (see also Karnad et al., 2019;Rigby et al., 2019b). ...
Article
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Bycatch poses a significant threat to marine megafauna, such as elasmobranchs. India has one of the highest elasmobranch landings globally, through both targeted catch and bycatch. As elasmobranchs contribute to food and livelihood security, there is a need for holistic approaches to bycatch mitigation. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach to critically assess a range of hypothetical measures for reducing elasmobranch capture in a trawler fishery on India's west coast, using a risk-based mitigation hierarchy framework. Data were collected through landing surveys, interviews and a literature review, to assess the following potential management options for their technical effectiveness and socioeconomic feasibility: (1) spatio-temporal closures; (2) net restrictions; (3) bycatch reduction devices (BRDs); and (4) live onboard release. Our study provides the first evidence-based and nuanced understanding of elasmobranch bycatch management for this fishery, and suggestions for future conservation and research efforts. Onboard release may be viable for species like guitarfish, with moderate chances of survival, and was the favored option among interview respondents due to minimal impact on earnings. While closures, net restrictions and BRDs may reduce elasmobranch capture, implementation will be challenging under present circumstances due to the potentially high impact on fisher income. Interventions for live release can therefore be used as a step toward ameliorating bycatch, while initiating longer-term engagement with the fishing community. Participatory monitoring can help address critical knowledge gaps in elasmobranch ecology. Spatio-temporal closures and gear restriction measures may then be developed through a bottom-up approach in the long term. Overall, the framework facilitated a holistic assessment of bycatch management to guide decision-making. Scaling-up and integrating such case studies across different species, fisheries and sites would support the formulation of a meaningful management plan for elasmobranch fisheries in India.
... In the past few decades, India has consistently been one of the top three shark and ray harvesters in the world, contributing an average of 67,391 metric tonnes of sharks, rays, and chimaeras annually between 2007 and 2017 [5,6]. Here, sharks and rays are primarily caught as bycatch [7][8][9][10][11] in a large fishing fleet of 269,047 registered commercial and artisanal fishing vessels [12] targeting a range of commercially important pelagic and demersal species. However, a few targeted shark fisheries that formed in the 1980s remain active, including in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands [13,14]. ...
... At many sites sampled around the world, smaller-sized species are predominantly landed, as many of the larger-bodied shark species have been overfished [47][48][49][50]. Similarly, on peninsular India, shark stocks have declined over the past decade with smaller, faster-growing shark species displacing larger, slower-growing species [5,11,[51][52][53][54]. A decrease in the diversity of species landed has also been documented in areas with high fishing pressure. ...
Article
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Detailed information on shark and ray fisheries in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India are limited, including information on the diversity and biological characteristics of these species. We carried out fish landing surveys in South Andamans from January 2017 to May 2018, a comprehensive and cost-effective way to fill this data gap. We sampled 5,742 individuals representing 57 shark and ray species landed from six types of fishing gears. Of the 36 species of sharks and 21 species of rays landed, six species of sharks (Loxodon macrorhinus, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, Sphyrna lewini, C. albimarginatus, C. brevipinna, and Paragaleus randalli) comprised 83.35% of shark landings, while three species of rays (Pateobatis jenkinsii, Himantura leoparda and H. tutul) comprised 48.82% of ray landings, suggesting a species dominance in the catch or fishing region. We provide insights into the biology of species with extensions in maximum size for seven shark species. Additionally, we document an increase in the known ray diversity for the islands and for India with three previously unreported ray species. We found that amongst sharks, mature individuals of small-bodied species (63.48% males of total landings of species less than 1.5 m total length when mature) and immature individuals of larger species (84.79% males of total landings of species larger than 1.5 m total length when mature) were mostly landed; whereas for rays, mature individuals were predominantly landed (80.71% males of total landings) likely reflecting differences in habitat preferences along life-history stages across species and fishing gear. The largest size range in sharks was recorded in landings from pelagic longlines and gillnets. Further, the study emphasizes the overlap between critical habitats and fishing grounds, where immature sharks and gravid females were landed in large quantities which might be unsustainable in the long-term. Landings were female-biased in C. amblyrhynchos, S. lewini and P. jenkinsii, and male-biased in L. macrorhinus and H. leoparda, indicating either spatio-temporal or gear-specific sexual segregation in these species. Understanding seasonal and biological variability in the shark and ray landings over a longer study period across different fisheries will inform future conservation and fishery management measures for these species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
... The study site was Malvan (16.3492° N, 73.5594° E), which is the third largest fishing port in Maharashtra, on the west coast of India (Karnad et al., 2020). Malvan hosts around 80-100 trawlers, 4-5 purse seines, at least 500 gill netters and several artisanal boats (shore seines, hook and lines and others; Gupta et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Fishing gears have varying degrees of impact on the survival and mortality of targeted and non-targeted species, with extremely damaging consequences in some cases. This study carried out in Malvan, Maharashtra, attempted to understand the post-capture survival (PCS) rate of two species of bamboo sharks, classified in the 'Near Threatened' category by the IUCN. Primary data on physical/ response conditions of individuals were collected after capture. Individuals were identified to the species level and their biological parameters, including size, sex and maturity, in different fishing gears were recorded from landing centres. Chiloscyllium arabicum (Arabian bamboo shark) showed the highest PCS rate in gill nets (Kruskal Wallis Test Statistic, KW H = 8.23, p <0.05) whereas Chiloscyllium griseum (grey bamboo shark) had a higher PCS rate in trawl nets (KW H = 6.68, p <0.05). A comparison of the two species showed higher PCS for C. arabicum (overall KW H = 6.05, p <0.05). Sex, maturity and size were found to have no impact on survival rates (p >0.1). Thus, PCS was influenced by both species and fishing gear. This understanding can aid in devising conservation strategies for endangered elasmobranchs.
... Fins can make up a large proportion of the income of fishers involved in sustainable shark fisheries, and blanket bans on selling shark fins, that do not distinguish if the source was from a legal or shark finning fishery, can negatively impact these fishers' livelihoods (Shiffman and Hueter, 2017;Simpfendorfer and Dulvy, 2017). Additionally, finning bans do not guarantee decreased shark mortality (Clarke et al., 2013), particularly where subsistence is the primary driver of shark mortality, as is common in low income communities Glaus et al., 2018;Karnad et al., 2019), and could simply raise the market value in the black market fin trade. Lack of reporting further undermines conservation efforts that rely on accurate estimates of mortality (Edwards, 2006). ...
Article
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Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing activities threaten marine biodiversity, livelihoods, food security, and human rights across the globe. Often occurring in waters that are difficult to control, and across multi-sector, transboundary, value chains that are hard to regulate, such a complex and heterogeneous problem requires multiple strategies beyond sovereign nations’ legislation alone. Here we explore the mechanisms through which eco-certification, by fostering private-public and cross-jurisdiction cooperation, can incentivize fishers to adopt best practices in harvesting and ecosystem impacts mitigation, increase the transparency of fishery operations and accountability to suppliers. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) sets globally recognized standards for fisheries sustainability and supply chain assurance, based on the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Building on the MSC experience of over 400 certified fisheries representing 18% of global wild marine catch, we analyze examples and available information on the changes achieved by the seafood industry through engagement with the program, with particular focus on the elimination or reduction of illegal, unreported or unregulated fishing practices. We propose here that different, interlinked mechanisms come into play: the Standards provide best practice guidelines for improved catch documentation, monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS), and strengthening regulations. These lead to change either through (1) direct improvements required for fisheries to achieve the certificate (e.g., in Fishery Improvement Projects) or, (2) once certified, to maintain the certificate, or (3) as an emergent effect of the engagement process itself, requiring stakeholder cooperation and transparent information-sharing leading to a greater culture of compliance, and (4), as an effect of strengthening chain of custody documentation and standardizing it across jurisdictions. We also discuss limitations, such as the capacity for fisheries in low-income regions to embark on the management and social reform required, and evolving challenges in seafood sustainability, such as ethical concerns for forced and child labor and shark finning. While not the single silver bullet against such a complex problem, we argue that certification is an important tool in addressing IUU fishing.
... Gravid females and neonates are regularly harvested in India, indicating an overlap between pupping, nursery and fishing grounds (Kizhakudan et al., 2015). Signs of growth overfishing have also been reported in Indian waters (Karnad et al., 2019). Juvenile survival is particularly critical in maintaining elasmobranch populations; however, there has been little research on nursery grounds and other critical habitats in Indian waters. ...
Technical Report
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Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) are particularly vulnerable to exploitation due to their slow growth and low fecundity and are one of the most threatened marine faunal groups across the globe. India is amongst the top 3 elasmobranch fishing nations in the world. However, steady declines in elasmobranch landings despite increasing fishing efforts indicate a severe crisis in the country. Lack of scientific information on their ecology has been a major hindrance to the formulation of meaningful conservation strategies. Previous studies on elasmobranch fisheries in the Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra found a number of endangered and threatened species regularly captured in this region. Occurrence of neonates and gravid females of some of these species indicates that they are likely to be breeding in this region. Protection of juveniles and the habitats they use can be crucial for their conservation and sustainable harvest. Understanding the breeding and pupping of elasmobranchs, particularly their use of nursery habitats, can therefore guide improved regional fisheries management. This pilot study aimed to characterize the breeding biology of threatened elasmobranch species in Sindhudurg, in terms of occurrence, biological characteristics and catch locations of their juveniles. These findings will help identify potential nursery areas for these species, to guide future research and conservation efforts.
... Accordingly, high value of threshers was identified as an incentive, however, in contrast to traditional conservation discourse, results suggested that meat, not fins, are the primary economic incentive for illegal landings [53]. These findings add to the growing body of research identifying meat as an important driver for shark fisheries in some countries [54] and highlights the importance of understanding unique social context of policies. Results advocate for the inclusion of a wider number of factors (beyond simply economic considerations) in building understanding of compliance [55]. ...
Article
Species-specific bans are increasingly being implemented to stem loss of vulnerable marine species, but there is a paucity of evaluative research into resulting socioeconomic and ecological consequences. In 2012, a blanket ban on landing Alopiidae (thresher) sharks was introduced in Sri Lanka. We used fisher perceptions, shown to influence support and compliance with conservation policies, to examine human responses. Data, gathered over a ten-month period in 2019 from focus groups and informal engagement during site visits, suggest support for the ban was lowest amongst fishers who perceived negative social consequences to be higher. Perceptions were also undermined by feelings of poor engagement from institutions and a lack of ecological necessity. The ban appears effective in halting targeted fisheries; however, persistent bycatch was reported by fishers. Further, bycatch appears to be widely unrecorded partly owing to mistrust and confusion amongst fishers. Occasional illegal landings were reported, seemingly motivated by interlinked factors such as good economic returns for thresher meat and high vessel running costs. The potential severity and inequity in social consequences stemming from blanket bans was highlighted, particularly when bycatch and targeted fisheries co-exist. Case study lessons are translated into a checklist containing key questions, designed to aid policy-makers to assess data provision and needs prior to introducing bans. Increasing data provision could enhance the capability of policies to predict and adapt to human behavioural responses, a key requirement considering continuing global declines in sharks despite increasing conservation effort.
Chapter
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The sustainability of global fisheries has emerged as a major concern for the future of marine biodiversity. In the spheres of seafood production and consumption, strict regulation of fisheries and more recently, ethical certifications of seafood products, are favoured as a means to ensure thriving fish stocks and healthy oceans. However, research has shown that such restrictions and market-driven certifications have had mixed results, with socio-ecological impacts detrimental to the long-term sustainability of tropical fisheries in the Global South. We approach this issue of fisheries sustainability in the Global South from the perspective of common pool resources by considering the practices of seafood producers, retailers and consumers, and their inter-connectedness with marine fishing commons. We build on critical literature on commoning using data on consumption preferences of 531 seafood consumers and seafood availability in 400 seafood restaurants across 4 metros in India, and examine the extent to which seafood consumption patterns and availability can facilitate or unsettle marine fishing commons. We identify patterns of selective seafood consumption and dependence on niche markets that are translated across seafood supply chains and disrupt initiatives by fishers to sustainably manage local fisheries. We then discuss efforts to increase consumer awareness and recommend building community-supported fisheries through initiatives like InSeason Fish. In conclusion, we argue that discourse in fisheries sustainability should be theoretically recast through a ‘seafood commons’ that integrates practices of diverse resource users.
Preprint
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The scientific literature on the diversity and biological characteristics of sharks and rays from the Andaman and Nicobar Archipelago fishing grounds is scarce and compromised by species misidentifications. We carried out systematic fish landing surveys in South Andamans from January 2017 to May 2018, a comprehensive and cost-effective way to fill this data gap. We sampled 5,742 individuals representing 57 shark and ray species. Of the 36 species of sharks and 21 species of rays landed, six species of sharks - Loxodon macrorhinus, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, Sphyrna lewini, Carcharhinus albimarginatus, Carcharhinus brevipinna and Paragaelus randalli dominated landings and comprised 83.35 % of shark landings, while three species of rays were most abundant - Pateobatis jenkinsii, Himantura leoparda and H. tutul , and comprised 48.82 % of ray landings. We report size extensions for seven shark species as well as three previously unreported ray species, increasing the known diversity for the islands and for India. For sharks, mature individuals of small-bodied species (63.48 % males of total landings of species less than 1.5 m total length) and immature individuals of larger species (84.79 % males of total landings of species larger than 1.5 m total length) were mostly landed; whereas for rays, mature individuals were predominantly landed (80.71 % males of total landings) likely reflecting differences in fishing patterns as well as habitat preferences and life history stages across species. Further, juvenile sharks and gravid females were landed in large quantities which might be unsustainable in the long-term. Landings were female-biased in C. amblyrhynchos, S. lewini and P. jenkinsii , and male-biased in L. macrorhinus and H. leoparda , indicating either spatio-temporal or gear specific sexual segregation in these species. Understanding these nuances - the composition and biology of sharks and rays landed in different fisheries seasonally will inform future conservation and fishery management measures for these species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
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The rapid expansion of human activities threatens ocean-wide biodiversity. Numerous marine animal populations have declined, yet it remains unclear whether these trends are symptomatic of a chronic accumulation of global marine extinction risk. We present the first systematic analysis of threat for a globally distributed lineage of 1,041 chondrichthyan fishes-sharks, rays, and chimaeras. We estimate that one-quarter are threatened according to IUCN Red List criteria due to overfishing (targeted and incidental). Large-bodied, shallow-water species are at greatest risk and five out of the seven most threatened families are rays. Overall chondrichthyan extinction risk is substantially higher than for most other vertebrates, and only one-third of species are considered safe. Population depletion has occurred throughout the world's ice-free waters, but is particularly prevalent in the Indo-Pacific Biodiversity Triangle and Mediterranean Sea. Improved management of fisheries and trade is urgently needed to avoid extinctions and promote population recovery.
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The life history and exploitation parameters of Rhizoprionodon oligolinx Springer, 1964 were assessed using commercial landing data of 2012-2015 from Mumbai waters of India to understand the population dynamics and stock status of the species. The average annual landing of the species was estimated to be 383 t, which formed about 9.1% of the total shark landings of Maharashtra. L∞, K and t0 estimated were 97.1 cm, 0.47 yr-1 and -0.79 yr respectively. Total mortality (Z), fishing mortality (F) and natural mortality (M) rates were estimated as 2.16 yr-1, 1.48 yr-1 and 0.69 yr-1 respectively. The length at capture (L50), length at female maturity (Lm50) and male maturity (Lm50) were estimated as 49.7, 62.3 and 59.5 cm respectively, which indicated that most of the sharks entered peak phase of exploitation before attaining sexual maturity. Length-weight relationship indicated allometric growth (b>3) for the species. The species was found to be a continuous breeder and showed peak recruitment during April. The current exploitation rate (Ecur) was found to be 0.68, which is lower than Emax estimated for the species using Beverton and Holt yield per recruit analysis. Thompson and Bell prediction model showed that at current exploitation level, the biomass (B) has reduced to 32% of virgin biomass (B0) where as, the spawning stock biomass (SSB) has reduced to 16% of the virgin spawning stock biomass (SSB0). Hence the exploitation level for the species should be reduced by 40% that will ensure the availability of SSB at a relatively safer 30% level to rebuild the stock for long term sustainability of the resource.
Book
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This report provides an overview of the con- servation status of chondrichthyans (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) in the Arabian Seas Region (ASR) and describes the results of a regional Red List workshop held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, in February 2017. It identies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level, so that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status. A regional overview of chondrichthyan fisheries, management and conservation is also presented. Although 184 species of sharks, rays, and chimaeras occur in the ASR, only the confirmed 153 species were considered in this project.The geographic scope encompasses the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Sea of Oman and the Gulf.This includes the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 20 countries bordering three Large Marine Ecosystems (i.e., the Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Somali Current). This region comprises some of the largest and most important chondrichthyan fishing nations in the world, including India and Pakistan. All assessments followed the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria Version 3.1 and the Guidelines for Application of the IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels Version 4.0. During the workshop, a network of leading international and regional experts on chondrichthyans and fisheries compiled data and knowledge to prepare 30 global (endemic species) and 123 regional species assessments. All assessments were agreed on by consensus at the workshop and any changes to statuses during the review process were agreed on through email correspondence with lead assessors and contributors prior to their submission to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and inclusion in this report.
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Studies on reproduction in sharks are important for their management, since the attainment of sexual maturity has a substantial impact on their distribution, behaviour and biology. However, reproductive biology of large oceanic sharks is poorly studied in the Indian seas. In this study, the size structure, sex and maturity of pelagic thresher ( Alopias pelagicus ), bigeye thresher ( A. superciliosus ), oceanic whitetip shark ( Carcharhinus longimanus ), tiger shark ( Galeocerdo cuvier ), shortfin mako ( Isurus oxyrinchus ), longfin mako ( I. paucus ) and blue shark ( Prionace glauca ) in the eastern Arabian Sea are described based on 1449 specimens collected from gillnet-cum-longline landings at the Cochin fisheries harbour during 2013–2014. Sex ratios of sampled specimens were biased to males in pelagic thresher, bigeye thresher, tiger shark and blue shark, while females dominated in the specimens of oceanic whitetip shark. Females matured at greater lengths than males in all species except oceanic whitetip shark. Lengths at maturity for males were in the range of 189.05–286.56 cm, whereas those of females were in the range of 187.74–310.69 cm. Litter sizes of both the thresher shark species were always two, while in oceanic whitetip shark, litter size was 3–9 and 22–51 in tiger shark. Seasonal reproduction was noticed in oceanic whitetip shark and tiger shark. Pregnant females were not found in the blue shark, shortfin and longfin makos sampled during the study period. Reproductive aspects of pelagic thresher, bigeye thresher, oceanic whitetip shark, tiger shark, shortfin mako, longfin mako and blue sharks in the eastern Arabian Sea are generally consistent with earlier reports from other regions of the world's oceans. These preliminary findings should be useful to identify suitable management measures for the above shark species.
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The depletion/collapse and recovery of tropical marine fish stocks have been studied by deriving the time-series of stock status of commercially fished marine species in Karnataka. Majority of stocks (22 out of 47) showed wide fluctuations in catch whereas 15 stocks were dwindling. This analysis of catch trends (as a simple proxy for biomass estimates) shows that, in spite of consistently increasing efforts and absence of many regulatory measures, most species (66%) had fast recovery capacity within 1-5 years whereas 9% were slow to recover. The depleted and declining stocks need to be carefully monitored and conservation and rebuilding plans need to be made.
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Sawfishes which are important elasmobranches occurring in Pakistan has been reviewed. Three species belonging to two genera are reported to occur in Pakistan. Of these, there are recent records of occurrence of pointed or knifetooth sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidatus) and common sawfish (Pristis pristis) from Pakistan, however, there is no report of largecomb sawfish (Pristis zijsron) in past many years. Of these, pointed or knifetooth sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidatus) is considered to be locally extinct whereas there are a few record of recent occurrence of common sawfish (Pristis pristis) and largecomb sawfish (P. zijsron) from Pakistan. A key for identification to known species of sawfish occurring in Pakistan is also given
Book
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This document entitled “Guidance on National Plan of Action for Sharks in India” is intended as a guidance to the NPOA-Sharks, and seeks to (1) present an overview of the current status of India’s shark fishery, (2) assess the current management measures and their effectiveness, (3) identify the knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in NPOA-Sharks and (4) suggest a theme-based action plan for NPOA-Sharks.
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Global chondrichthyan (shark, ray, skate and chimaera) landings, reported to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), peaked in 2003 and in the decade since have declined by almost 20%. In the FAO's 2012 ‘State of the World's Fisheries and Aquaculture’ report, the authors ‘hoped’ the reductions in landings were partially due to management implementation rather than population decline. Here, we tested their hypothesis. Post-peak chondrichthyan landings trajectories from 126 countries were modelled against seven indirect and direct fishing pressure measures and eleven measures of fisheries management performance, while accounting for ecosystem attributes. We found the recent improvement in international or national fisheries management was not yet strong enough to account for the recent decline in chondrichthyan landings. Instead, the landings declines were more closely related to fishing pressure and ecosystem attribute measures. Countries with the greatest declines had high human coastal population sizes or high shark and ray meat exports such as Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand. While important progress had been made, country-level fisheries management measures did not yet have the strength or coverage to halt overfishing and avert population declines of chondrichthyans. Increased implementation of legally binding operational fisheries management and species-specific reporting is urgently required to avoid declines and ensure fisheries sustainability and food security.
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Indian marine fisheries have expanded four-fold in the last 50 years in the form of open-access commons. Although studies predict that fish stocks are on the decline there is little evidence that these declines are being countered by changes in either fishing regulations or fishing practices. Fishermen rarely comply with regulations, instead operationalizing and directing the fishery on their own. In these circumstances understanding how fishermen perceive and use resources has significant management and policy implications. Our study examined fishermen's perceptions about the state of fish stocks and documents current fishing practice and management strategies in India. We surveyed 342 fishermen in two states, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. We found that 86% of fishermen perceived a decline in catch and 69% perceived a decline in bycatch. Fishermen adapt to these declines by increasing fishing area and time spent, changing their gear, and overlapping in fishing zones. The convoluted interactions between ineffective community and state regulations guiding their actions has prevented fishermen from developing successful models of sustainable fisheries management. We identified non-compliance with regulations and government incentives as an important livelihood opportunity. Non-compliance drives change in fishing practice by giving fishermen the flexibility to respond to perceived fish catch dynamics by modifying their practices. We recommend strengthening local fishing communities by enabling them to enforce fishing regulations locally and by scaling back of existing government incentives, to protect the sustainability of these fisheries.
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Conservation, management and sustainable utilisation of biological resources depend on the accurate identification of exploited taxa, which emphasises the need for systematic taxonomic research. Chondrichthyans (sharks, rays, skates and chimaeras) are considered to be one of the most vulnerable exploited marine resources, however, the basic taxonomic study of these groups in Indian waters needs improvement to achieve better management for their sustainable exploitation. We discuss issues concerning chondrichthyan taxonomic research in India and provide an extended, updated checklist of 155 chondrichthyans listed/reported from Indian waters, together with comments on their occurrence.
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The impact of fishing on chondrichthyan stocks around the world is currently the focus of considerable international concern. Most chondrichthyan populations are of low productivity relative to teleost fishes, a consequence of their different life-history strategies. This is reflected in the poor record of sustainability of target shark fisheries. Most sharks and some batoids are predators at, or near, the top of marine food webs. The effects of fishing are examined at the single-species level and through trophic interactions. We summarize the status of chondrichthyan fisheries from around the world. Some 50% of the estimated global catch of chondrichthyans is taken as by-catch, does not appear in official fishery statistics, and is almost totally unmanaged. When taken as by-catch, they are often subjected to high fishing mortality directed at teleost target species. Consequently, some skates, sawfish, and deep-water dogfish have been virtually extirpated From large regions. Some chondrichthyans are more resilient to fishing and we examine predictions on the vulnerability of different species based on their life-history and population parameters. At the species level, fishing may alter size structure and population parameters in response to changes in species abundance. We review the evidence for such density-dependent change. Fishing can affect trophic interactions and we examine cases of apparent species replacement and shifts in community composition. Sharks and rays learn to associate trawlers with food and feeding on discards may increase their populations. Using ECOSIM, we make some predictions about the long-term response of ecosystems to fishing on sharks. Three different environments are analysed: a tropical shelf ecosystem in Venezuela, a Hawaiian coral reef ecosystem, and a North Pacific oceanic ecosystem. (C) 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.
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The Sultanate of Oman has a long established traditional shark fishery, which has experienced increased demand in recent years due to the shark fin trade. Despite the long history of the fishery in Oman and neighbouring countries, few studies have been undertaken to determine the biological characteristics of the fishery or its ability to withstand this increased exploitation. The present study was undertaken as a first step to remedying this situation. A total of 47 species was confirmed from Oman's coastal waters, of which 44 occurred in commercial landings. However, landings were dominated by eight species—Rhizoprionodon acutus, Iago omanensis, Carcharhinus sorrah, Loxodon macrorhinus, C. macloti, C. limbatus, Sphyrna lewini and C. falciformis. The species composition of landings varied along the coast and also with season. Brillouin Index values indicated that species diversity was greatest in the Muscat area, followed closely by Musandam. The Al-Wusta region displayed the lowest diversity. The occurrence of two uncommon shark species, Chaenogaleus macrostoma and Echinorhinus brucus, was of interest, as was the recording of a juvenile Carcharhinus galapagensis, extending its northern range in the Indian Ocean considerably.
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Despite growing concerns about overexploitation of sharks, lack of accurate, species-specific harvest data often hampers quantitative stock assessment. In such cases, trade studies can provide insights into exploitation unavailable from traditional monitoring. We applied Bayesian statistical methods to trade data in combination with genetic identification to estimate by species, the annual number of globally traded shark fins, the most commercially valuable product from a group of species often unrecorded in harvest statistics. Our results provide the first fishery-independent estimate of the scale of shark catches worldwide and indicate that shark biomass in the fin trade is three to four times higher than shark catch figures reported in the only global data base. Comparison of our estimates to approximated stock assessment reference points for one of the most commonly traded species, blue shark, suggests that current trade volumes in numbers of sharks are close to or possibly exceeding the maximum sustainable yield levels.
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The first record of the Ganges shark Glyphis gangeticus from anywhere in its range in over a decade is reported from the Arabian Sea. One female specimen was recorded at Sassoon Docks in Mumbai, India in February 2016, measuring 266 cm total length. In light of the Critically Endangered status of this species and its rarity, urgent management actions are needed to determine population size and trends in abundance in combination with fisher education and awareness campaigns.
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When customary legal systems exist alongside state regulations, individuals can choose between these different frameworks to support their claims to resources. Research suggests that such framework switching to maximize self-interest weakens and challenges resource management. Multiple legal systems are at work in India's fisheries and this study examines how they work to govern conflict over purse-seine fishing in the Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra State. Through participant observations, interviews and state fishing law reviews, this study finds evidence of strong customary legal systems, operating through local cultural practices, to protect common property rights, equitable access, ethical and ecological concerns. In contrast, state legislation appears weak because it addresses issues of local concern, such as equitable access, at a slow pace and over such a large scale as to be absent. Consequently, multiple legal systems in these fisheries do not create a management challenge that follows a predictable path towards resource degradation. Instead informal, customary rules applied alongside formal state legislation interact in complex ways that create opportunities for effective co-management.
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Sharks, rays, and chimaeras (Class Chondrichthyes; herein ‘sharks’) are the earliest extant jawed vertebrates and exhibit some of the greatest functional diversity of all vertebrates. Ecologically, they influence energy transfer vertically through trophic levels and sometimes trophic cascades via direct consumption and predation risk. Through movements and migrations, they connect horizontally and temporally across habitats and ecosystems, integrating energy flows at large spatial scales and across time. This connectivity flows from ontogenetic growth in size and spatial movements, which in turn underpins their relatively low reproductive rates compared with other exploited ocean fishes. Sharks are also ecologically and demographically diverse and are taken in a wide variety of fisheries for multiple products (e.g. meat, fins, teeth, and gills). Consequently, a range of fisheries management measures are generally preferable to ‘silver bullet’ and ‘one size fits all’ conservation actions. Some species with extremely low annual reproductive output can easily become endangered and hence require strict protections to minimize mortality. Other, more prolific species can withstand fishing over the long term if catches are subject to effective catch limits throughout the species’ range. We identify, based on the IUCN Red List status, 64 endangered species in particular need of new or stricter protections and 514 species in need of improvements to fisheries management. We designate priority countries for such actions, recognizing the widely differing fishing pressures and conservation capacity. We hope that this analysis assists efforts to ensure this group of ecologically important and evolutionarily distinct animals can support both ocean ecosystems and human activities in the future.
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For several decades, fishing sharks for their fins has provided important livelihoods for eastern Indonesian coastal communities that fish the Halmahera, Arafura and Timor Seas. Fishery and interview data collected in 2012-13 from three case studies on the islands of Seram, Aru and Rote were used to examine changes in shark fishers’ livelihoods over the preceding 20 years. While recent declines in catches and shark fin prices have had a substantial impact on fishers’ livelihoods, the fishery's low visibility in some areas of its geographic range and its political complexity in general have meant that government and international development agencies have largely been unaware of this impact. Many respondents remembered the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997-98 and the turn of the millennium as a time when sharks were still abundant and shark fin prices high, but were concerned about the on-going fall of shark fin prices since March 2012. High-value species, particularly guitarfish, hammerhead and sandbar sharks were most affected, losing up to 40% of their pre-2012 value. These changes, combined with the loss of fishing grounds, few attractive options for alternative income and restrictive debt relationships with shark fin bosses, have led some fishers to resort to high-risk activities such as blast fishing, illegal transboundary fishing, and people smuggling. This paper examines the multi-layered causes and consequences of fishers’ decision-making in response to adverse changes in their fishery, and explores options and obstacles to pursuing livelihoods that carry lower environmental, financial and personal risks.
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There is increasing concern for the conservation of sharks among scientists, environmental conservation advocates, and the interested public, but misunderstanding among policy non-specialists about which conservation and management policies are available, and which might work best for certain situations, persists. Here we present a review of fisheries management and conservation literature relating to sharks. Policies are broadly divided into target-based policies that aim for sustainable fisheries exploitation (e.g. fisheries quotas) and limit-based policies that aim to prevent all fisheries exploitation of entire taxa (e.g. marine reserves). A list of the pros and cons of each policy is included, as is a decision tree to aid in selection of the most appropriate policy. Our goal is that this paper will allow policy non-specialists, including scientists without policy training, environmental activists, and concerned citizens, to make informed decisions when advocating for shark conservation.
Article
Marine fisheries production, which was only 0.5 million tonnes (mt) in 1950, increased through the time scale and peaked to 2.7 mt in 1997. Since by 1997 the production (2.2 mt) from inshore waters (< 50 m depth) reached the catchable potential (2.2 mt), scope for further increase in production from inshore waters is limited. The active fishers' population and the number and efficiency of fishing vessels have substantially increased. The improvements made so far on the craft and gear technologies with an objective to increase fish production are becoming counterproductive. Inappropriate exploitation patterns such as concentration of 80% of the total fishing effort in the inshore waters and over-dependence on trawlers are showing signs of detrimental effects on the fisheries. The catch rate of fishing vessels in several fishing centres is on the decline; the catch rate of the trawlers based at Chennai, for instance, has declined from 110.8 kg/h (1991) to 29.7 kg/h (1997). The fishing mortality coefficient (F) is higher than the natural mortality coefficient (M) for most of the exploited stocks, and the overall M : F proportion is 1 : 1.9. Fast-growing and high-fecund fishery groups such as prawns, cephalopods and many teleosts have been able to withstand exploitation thus far, but the slow-growing and/or low-fecund groups such as lobsters, sharks and catfishes are showing signs of vulnerability. As the Fishers will not limit the fishing operations until zero profitability threshhold is reached, there is a need to regulate the fishing activities and manage the fisheries. There are several biological, economic, social and political factors for the non-existence of effective management policies and for the inadequate implementation of the existing policies. The concept of responsible fishing needs to be practised by introducing limited entry; temporal as well as spatial restrictions to sustain the coastal fisheries. Other options are to increase production by encouraging farsea fishing and utilizing remote sensing for locating potential fishing zones; increase coastal productivity by installing artificial fish habitats and searanching; and to adopt coastal land-based mariculture and seafarming.
Chapter
Boopendranath M.R. (2012) Technologies for Responsible Fishing, In: Advances in Harvest and Post-harvest Technology of Fish (Nambudiri D.D. and Peter K.V., Eds.), Chapter 2, pp. 21-47, New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi (ISBN-13 : 9789381450093)
Article
Anecdotal evidence suggests that sharks are being targeted in the United Arab Emirates artisanal fishery. However, little information is available on this fishery and baseline information is essential for understanding its impact on shark populations in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, and for managing sharks in this region.The aim of this study was to investigate the artisanal shark fishery and gain an insight into the social, motivational and economic drivers behind it. Fishery characteristics were examined and the effect of fishing on local shark stocks assessed by interviewing Emirati fishermen across the country (n = 126).Sharks were found to be increasingly targeted owing to their high value in the global fin trade industry. The majority of fishermen (80%) confirmed that changes in species composition, abundance and sizes of sharks have been continuing for more than two decades, mainly because of overfishing, raising concerns about the sustainability of this fishery.Results suggest that sharks are likely to be overexploited and that management measures will need to take into account the precautionary principle. There is an urgent need to formulate long-term and effective conservation and management plans to prevent further declines in a number of species.Additional efforts should be directed to quantify the ecological implications of the observed changes and determine if these are aggravated by the life-history traits of the fished species. Such implications should be considered when assessing the sustainability of local fisheries.The data gathered can now serve as a reference to managers, fisheries scientists and other stakeholders to prioritize future research as well as lay foundations for the development and implementation of national management plans for the protection and conservation of sharks. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
While instances of resource over-appropriation are in evidence in different settings globally, the error of a narrow tragedy of the commons analysis is to assume an original natural state of open access to resources. In all social forms, humans have created institutions to restrict individual access to resources so that they may be preserved for collective benefit. Tragedies of the commons occur when such collective institutions are undermined and individuals lose the sense that their long-term interests in resource preservation are being assured. The case of Gujarat's fishery presents one such instance where development overlooked local institutions that may have been able to restrict resource over-exploitation by fishers.
Article
Sawfishes (Pristidae) are large shark-like batoids (rays) that are among the most threatened of all marine fishes. While there is a broad consensus of severe sawfish declines globally, detailed status assessments for most of their vast circumtropical distribution do not exist. This paper reviews sawfishes of waters adjacent to the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the Gulf.†Until around the 1960s, sawfishes were abundant and widespread in the region, but since around the 1980s, they have been rarely recorded. Sawfishes can now be considered extinct as a functional component of coastal ecosystems, and may be close to being regionally extinct. This assessment is based on the overwhelming weight of evidence from diverse sources such as archaeological data, historical accounts, grey literature, personal communications and extensive fish surveys.Based on 176 individual records, Pristis zijsron was the most frequently recorded species, occurring in all regional seas. Anoxypristis cuspidata records were limited to the coasts of Iran, Pakistan, and Masirah Island (Oman). The first substantiated Pristis pristis records from the Arabian Peninsula are provided, and two records not identifiable to species do not exclude the possibility that Pristis clavata occurs in the region.Humans have used sawfishes as a food, oil, trade, and cultural resource for several thousands of years. Fins have been highly valued since at least the mid-19th century.Based on recent and historical records, known biology, and marine conservation programmes for other species or habitats, priority areas for sawfish research and recovery programmes are the central southern Gulf; significant mangrove areas in Iran and the UAE; the Musandam Peninsula; and Masirah Island (Oman).Historical regional declines coincide with the widespread availability of nylon gillnets, to which sawfishes are disproportionately vulnerable. Any attempt at sawfish recovery must enforce strict controls on gillnetting, which could have significant benefits for other marine species of commercial and conservation interest. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The growth of the international market for shark fins has coincided with an expansion of shark fishing in India, raising concerns that some shark stocks are over- exploited. India exports almost all shark fins it produces in what is largely an informal and unregulated sector, and most observers believe that official export data greatly understate actual shark fin exports. Two estimates of Indian shark fin exports, one based on projected shark fin production from the Food and Agriculture Organisation (fao) recorded landings data and the other based on recorded Hong Kong imports from India, show that actual exports are likely many times greater than officially recorded amounts. A comparative analysis of Hong Kong and fao data indicates that fao landings data may be much lower than actual shark landings. Recent events -- the short-lived 2001 blanket ban on shark fishing and trade by the Government of India in particular -- are analysed in terms of their effect on shark fin trade and production. The implications of a trade-based estimate of total shark landings on current shark fishing practices in India are examined, and suggestions are given regarding effective and equitable methods to protect shark stocks and fishers livelihoods.
Article
Sharks fisheries have declined globally due to over- and unregulated fishing. As with many collapsed and unmonitored coastal fisheries, information is difficult to obtain, yet it is important to understand the historical changes determining population trends and evaluate the current status of sharks in order to conserve these vulnerable species. Here, we document for the first time the history and general condition of the shark fisheries of Southern China, specifically Hong Kong, and Guangdong, Fujian and Hainan Provinces. This study shows, through the use of historical literature and anecdotal accounts, including fisher interviews, that all known shark fisheries in the region collapsed between the 1970s and the 1990s. Of the 109 species present historically in the South China Sea, only 18 species were recorded in current market surveys, of which all were landed as bycatch and 65% were below the size of sexual maturity. Markets are dominated by smaller species, including the spadenose shark (Scoliodon laticaudus) and the whitespotted bambooshark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum). Marketed large shark species are almost all below the size of sexual maturation, evidence of growth overfishing and a factor in recruitment overfishing. Some species, like the whale (Rhincodon typus) and basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus), are clearly vulnerable to local extinction without intervention. Given the inherent vulnerability of sharks and the overfished states of many sharks, there is clearly an urgent need to formulate impacting conservation and management plans for these rapidly declining species in a region that has the highest demand for shark products globally.
Article
Interactive governance theory proposes that fisheries can be compared according to their governability, or their overall capacity for governance. Central to governance capacity in fisheries is institutional adaptability, the ability of humans to modify their organizations and reflect on the rules and values that guide them in response to change. In this paper, I suggest a preliminary synthesis of interactive governance theory, resilience thinking and adaptive co-management in order to refine the understanding of institutional adaptation as a key component of fisheries governability. I use the case of patron–client relationships in the Junagadh fishery to show how governability analysis is a valuable perspective from which to understand institutional characteristics that have contradictory implications for adaptation in fisheries.
Article
Traditional shark fisheries in Africa are largely poorly documented. Fisheries management plans for fisheries targeting chondrichthyan species are typically based on studies with limited spatial resolution or detail, compromising their efficacy and potentially reducing the effectiveness of national and regional plans. Southwest Madagascar is an area poorly documented with regard to many of its marine resources. This study presents a detailed investigation of the directed shark fisheries of two villages south of Toliara – Soalara and Maromena – presenting a description of the fishery in these villages and catch data for periods of 13 and 10 months, respectively. Results from a total of 1164 catch records, including members of at least 13 species, with an estimated total wet weight of over 123 mt are reported, with hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.) representing 29% of sharks caught and 24% of the total wet weight. There is an active export market for the fins resulting from the fisheries, indicating a considerable social and economic importance in this impoverished region of Madagascar. The fisheries are showing signs of decline, possibly as a result of changing to less selective fishing gear, as a result of the intervention from outside agencies.
Trade in sharks and shark products in India. TRAFFIC-India publication
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Hanfee, F. 1997. Trade in sharks and shark products in India. TRAFFIC-India publication.
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Indian whale shark fishery. In The first international whale shark conference: Promoting international collaboration in whale shark conservation, science and management
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Hanfee, F. 2007. Indian whale shark fishery. In The first international whale shark conference: Promoting international collaboration in whale shark conservation, science and management, eds. Irvine, T.R. & J.K. Keesing. Perth: CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Australia.
A preliminary value chain analysis of shark fisheries in Madagascar. Indian Ocean Commission Programme for the Implementation of a Regional Fisheries Strategy for the Eastern and Southern Africa - Indian Ocean Region
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Cripps, G., A. Harris, F. Humber, S. Harding, and T. Thomas. 2015. A preliminary value chain analysis of shark fisheries in Madagascar. Indian Ocean Commission Programme for the Implementation of a Regional Fisheries Strategy for the Eastern and Southern Africa -Indian Ocean Region, Technical report. SF/ 2e15/34.
Characterizing the knowledge and attitudes towards sharks and the domestic use of shark meat and fins in Peru. Doctoral dissertation
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De la Puente Jeri, S. 2017. Characterizing the knowledge and attitudes towards sharks and the domestic use of shark meat and fins in Peru. Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia.
Decline in CPUE of oceanic sharks in the Indian EEZ: urgent need for precautionary approach
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John, M.E., and B.C. Varghese. 2009. Decline in CPUE of oceanic sharks in the Indian EEZ: urgent need for precautionary approach. In Proceedings of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission Working Party on Ecosystem and Bycatch IOTC-2009-WPEB05-17, Mombasa, Kenya.
The future of sharks: A. Review of action and inaction. Report by TRAFFIC International and the Pew Environment Group
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Lack, M., and G. Sant. 2011. The future of sharks: A. Review of action and inaction. Report by TRAFFIC International and the Pew Environment Group.
Atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India
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Raje, S.G., S. Sivakami, G. Mohanraj, P.P. Manojkumar, A. Raju, and K.K. Joshi. 2007. Atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India. CMFRI Special Publication 95: 1-253.
Shark utilization, marketing and trade. FAO fisheries technical paper, no. 389. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations
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Vannuccini, S. 1999. Shark utilization, marketing and trade. FAO fisheries technical paper, no. 389. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome.
An update on the mortality of the olive ridley sea turtles in Orissa
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Pandav, B., and B.C. Choudhury. 1999. An update on the mortality of the olive ridley sea turtles in Orissa, India. Marine Turtle Newsletter 83: 10-12.
RStudio: Integrated development for R
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