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Abstract

The objective of this study is to explore the antecedents of the formation of entrepreneurial intention from a linear, causal and asymmetrical perspective. We have combined the Ajzen model applied to entrepreneurship, including two personality variables (self-confidence and creativity). This study involves a structural equation model based on partial least squares (PLS) and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). All of the hypotheses were supported except for the influence of the variables subjective norms and self-confidence on EI. The PLS model explains 68.7% of the variance of EI. According to the QCA results, four models explain 88.1% of the existence of EI. The two models with the greatest degree of coverage are: Self-Confidence × Attitude Towards Entrepreneurial Behavior × Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavior Control × Creativity × Subjective Norms.

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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the complex relationships between gender and entrepreneurial intentions. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses a two study design where the second study is a constructive replication of the first study. The first study uses a cross-sectional design, while the second uses a design where data collection of variables were temporally separated. The analysis is conducted using Hayes (2014) process macro using 1,000 bootstrapped draws to understand the interaction between gender and creativity and the potential mediation involving life roles and goals. Findings – The empirical results are threefold. First, the results show that creativity has a direct and positive effect on entrepreneurial intentions. Second, gender did not have a direct effect on entrepreneurial intentions, and finally, gender showed an interaction with creativity such that in both the samples, creativity had a stronger relationship with intentions among women. Practical implications – The results point to the inclusion of creativity exercises in the entrepreneurship curriculum as well as to create and tailor programs to enhance women’s entrepreneurial intentions. Originality/value – Using a two study constructive replication approach, this study demonstrates the complex effect of gender on entrepreneurial intentions. Traditionally, women are argued to have lower entrepreneurial intentions, but this study finds that creative women were more likely to have entrepreneurial intentions in the sample. The results also show that the women’s family salience (life roles and goals) did not mediate the relationship between gender and entrepreneurial intentions.
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The phenomenon of women engaging in entrepreneurship is expanding and becoming acknowledged as a valuable resource that must be institutionally and socially supported. Through entrepreneurship education, female students, as potential entrepreneurs, can develop and strengthen those skills and behaviours identified as characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. This paper explores four attributes associated with entrepreneurship (creativity, problem management, risk management, and self-confidence) of 1838 undergraduate students from 11 universities in Latin America (Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Uruguay) and one in Spain, used as a control group. By comparing the results for the male and female student population, self-confidence appears as an attribute that is present at the same level in both groups; statistically significant differences were reported for the other three attributes (creativity, problem management, and risk management). Entrepreneurship programmes can utilise such information to strengthen in female students those attributes for successful engagement in entrepreneurial activity.
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This research attempts to address Facebook use intention for food safety issues in the social media context. This new open-access information environment, which coexists with traditional media and other new media channels, poses new questions about the effectiveness of Facebook use in the social media era. The study aims to examine the risk communication strategic impact by Facebook in the context of food safety issues. Specifically, this study adopts a web survey, multiple regression analysis and FsQCA analysis to address the research hypotheses from 652 consumers. Research results find that risk perception, emotion, social trust and support are the key determinants of Facebook use intention for the potential power of Facebook as an efficient tool of risk communication. The author also discusses theoretical and managerial implications of research findings.
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The purpose of this study is to elucidate the stress-strain relationship by examining compound causes of frustration in the workplace. Drawing on configuration theory, this article describes stress patterns, that is, configurations of role stressors and social stressors, underlying frustration and its negation, that is, mellowness. In addition, this article describes potential sources of such frustration-stimulating stress patterns by examining constellations of employee and task characteristics. Based on a sample of 118 salespeople, the authors analyze the data using fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA)—an analytic method pertinent to describing configurational patterns of causal factors. The findings from this study indicate the coexistence of alternative patterns of stressors for frustration. In addition, the findings show that configurational patterns for frustrated salespeople are quite different from those characterizing mellow salespeople. In summary, knowledge of these constellations of stressors helps sales managers detect conditions which frustrate, and develop strategies to diminish these conditions in order to improve sales force performance.
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This study examines factors that explain the creation of university spin-offs. The study focuses on mechanisms that technology transfer offices (TTOs) and universities employ to foster spin-offs. These mechanisms include technology transfer activities that support spin-offs, normative frameworks, support infrastructures (i.e., business incubators and science parks), and TTO staff's specialist technical skills. The analysis also differentiates between public and private universities. Spin-offs belong to one or more of the following groups: spin-offs with support from the university's TTO, spin-offs operating under a license agreement, and spin-offs in which the TTO or university holds equity. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) of 2011 data from 63 Spanish universities (46 public and 17 private) identifies recipes of antecedent conditions that effectively foster spin-offs. Results show that no unique combination of antecedent conditions yields more university spin-offs than any other does. This finding indicates that several strategies can successfully lead to academic entrepreneurship.
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Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) are the main institutions responsible for the establishment of university–industry partnerships. R&D contracts exemplify the indirect mechanisms through which enterprises and universities collaborate on a win–win basis. This study addresses organizational and institutional aspects that act as drivers for the establishment of successful university–industry partnerships. First, a series of regression models explain the determinants of R&D contracts. These models include two main dimensions: the university and the technology transfer office. Second, further analysis empirically explores whether universities in regions with a favorable environment enjoy greater active involvement in this particular knowledge transfer mechanism. The empirical study analyzes 2010 data for Spanish public universities. Results indicate that successful R&D contracts depend on university and TTO characteristics, and the university's location. The paper also presents a set of managerial implications for improving the establishment of university–industry partnerships.
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Although meta-analyses show that the Big Five personality traits predict business intention, creation, and success (Brandstätter, 2011), they also indicate that narrow personality traits, such as innovativeness, predict these outcomes better than broad traits, such as Conscientiousness and Extraversion (Rauch & Frese, 2007). The current study extends previous research to examine the relationship between the Big Five and a wider range of entrepreneurial outcomes (e.g. founding charitable organisations, organising events, and changing organisational practices). Additionally, it establishes the incremental validity of a narrow measure of entrepreneurial personality over the Big Five (META, Ahmetoglu, Leutner, & Chamorro-Premuic, 2011). Both the Big Five and META significantly predict various forms of entrepreneurial success, though META does so more consistently. This suggests that narrow personality traits have incremental validity in predicting entrepreneurial success vis-à-vis the Big Five. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
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Previous research suggests that diverse factors predict gender differences in entrepreneurial intent. Our paper integrates and expands on previous findings using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), including the deeper-level measurement model, allowing for a better understanding of the origin of differences. The results of a survey with business students indicate that the effect of gender on entrepreneurial intentions is mediated via personal attitudes and perceived behavioral control but not social norms. More precisely, vis- -vis their male counterparts, women are more driven toward entrepreneurship by motives to 'get organized' (balance) that are less dominant in predicting personal attitude. Moreover, female students are somewhat less driven toward entrepreneurship by beliefs of internal control that are more dominant in predicting perceived control. Finally, while female students are also more motivated to comply with normative role models, this did not influence their entrepreneurial intentions over and above perceived behavioral control and personal attitude. We discuss both practical and theoretical implications of our findings.